ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF INSURGENCY ON COMMUNITY LIFE IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

The North East (NE) Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria covers close to one-third (280,419km2) of Nigeria‘s land area (909,890km2). The zone comprises 6 states: Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe ( National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) 2011). The six states have not been entirely carved out based on geopolitical location, but rather states with similar cultures, ethnic groups, and common history were classified in the same zone (Eze, Okpala, Cyril, Ogbodo & Joseph, 2014). North-Eastern State is a former administrative division of Nigeria. It was created on 27 May 1967 from parts of the Northern Region, its capital was the city of Maiduguri. Additionally, the Zone shares international borders with three countries: Republic of Cameroon to the East, Republic of Chad to the North East and Niger Republic to the North. NBS (2010) Statistics show that, the North East of Nigeria has the worst socioeconomic conditions in the Country. Its average absolute poverty rate put at sixty-nine percent (69.0%) is above the national average of sixty point nine percent (60.9%). This characterizes the Zone as having the highest rate of poverty in Nigeria which was one among the many causes of insurgency coupled with the rate of unemployment in the country. (James, 2006) (See Figure 1).

Insurgency refers to a violent move by a person or a group of persons to resist or oppose the enforcement of law or running of government or revolt against constituted authorities of the state or of taking part in insurrection. The study looked at the insurgence of Boko Haram and insurgence as an act of terrorism. From the foregoing, is a crime against public order because it is a pattern of internal disturbance and tension that poses serious problems which threatens the nation, the advent of terrorism and insurgency is not just a transitional political and violent phenomena but one that threatens family cohesion
having uprooted and destabilized many families. Terrorism and insurgency have engendered a growing dimension in the political and religious disconnections among groups with adverse effects on a number of families globally. Njoku and Nwachuku (2015) noted that in the North East, Nigeria, especially in Bornu, Yobe and Adamawa states (declared states of emergency), there have been the adverse effects of terrorism and insurgency which have led to complete desertion of villages which are prone to attacks by terrorists and insurgents.

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ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF INSURGENCY ON COMMUNITY LIFE IN NIGERIA

A CROSS CULTURAL STUDY OF PARALANGUAGE IN WESTERN AND AFRICAN MOVIES: THE EXAMPLES OF THE PROPOSAL AND KNOCKING ON HEAVENS DOOR

A CROSS CULTURAL STUDY OF PARALANGUAGE IN WESTERN AND AFRICAN MOVIES: THE EXAMPLES OF THE PROPOSAL AND KNOCKING ON HEAVENS DOOR

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background to the Study

Paralanguage is an aspect of non-verbal communication that emphasises body language and voice nuances as a means of expressing thoughts and feelings. The use of paralanguage is rarely a conscious action; people express themselves in it each day more often than they care to remember. Body language often conveys meaning just as much as spoken words do. Good communicators also have the ability to gauge how their own paralanguage affects others. They also have the ability to alter it so as to gain the trust of others and project confidence (Paschalis 2013). Also, paralanguage varies depending on the context and there are significant differences across cultures in the way and extent to which people communicate through context. Context is important in communication, but it is relatively more important in some situations than others especially in relation to paralinguistic communication. Ignorance of context usually leads to misunderstanding and conflicts (Hall 2002).

There is something universal about the verbal expression of words across cultures but the gesture that follows an utterance might vary. For example, the meaning of the word ‗go‘ in the English language is somewhat the same across continent of the world be it Europe, Asia or Africa without diverse interpretation. This shows that there is no alteration in the interpretation of verbal words across cultures. However, utterances are often accompanied by certain gestures that are not fixed. These gestures vary from one individual to another and they hold several levels of meaning which is what this research examines.

The ultimate aim of movies is to convey certain messages by stimulating reality in a manner that appeals to the viewer‘s sense of reality. This is why their labels and posters are imbued with a great deal of suspense which highlights the viewer‘s curiosity. In essence, a movie should be able to clearly communicate messages across to its audience via verbal and non-verbal means.

Verderber et al. (2009), point out that the most important areas of non-verbal communication are three; namely: Body Language which is called the Kinesics Communication, characterized with using facial expressions, body movement and postures; Physical Environment which is also known as Proxemics Communication, aided with the usage of available space, distance or proximity to other people in the communication scenario and lastly Haptics which is a form of touch behaviour that come into play during interaction. These three areas of non-verbal communication cannot be overlooked especially in movies because they are vital in understanding the messages that movies intend to convey.

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A CROSS CULTURAL STUDY OF PARALANGUAGE IN WESTERN AND AFRICAN MOVIES: THE EXAMPLES OF THE PROPOSAL AND KNOCKING ON HEAVENS DOOR

ANALYSIS ON WALE OKEDIRAN’S STRANGE ENCOUNTER

DISCOURSE ANALYSIS ON WALE OKEDIRAN’S STRANGE ENCOUNTER

Abstract

DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

Literary writers convey their personal experiences in the society through literature, deploying the recourses of language, the scientific study of which is referred to as linguistics. In linguistics, language is studied at the phonological, syntactic and lexico-semantic levels. This study, which focuses mainly on discourse analysi on Wale Okediran’s Strange Encounters, a satirical novel, examines the significant syntactic features in the novel, and explicates how Wale Okediran, a Nigerian novelist, utilizes them to convey the themes of corruption and injustice in the Nigerian society. He also condemns such vices and their perpetuators in totality, suggesting ways of correcting them for the growth and development of the society.

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

Wale Okediran’s Strange Encounter is a Nigerian novel with the social problems of Nigeria as its major thematic preoccupation. Okediran exposes and denounces the societal ills and advances measures towards correcting them. The author also advocates positive changes for the reformation of the society, in order to promote sustainable development in all facets of life. Okediran x-rays the Nigerian society, exposes and denounces the alarming rate of corruption in the different fields of human endeavours.

That cases of corrupt practices abound in every facet of life in the country, especially among our leaders is a common knowledge. The Nigerian Observer of Tuesday August, 20, 2013 reports in the article ” Corruption: Nigeria in Global Perspective”, that ”It is an incontrovertible veracity that since the inception of the Nigeria’s fourth republic, the nation has come under scrutiny over corruption. That every facet of life in Nigeria is being ravaged by corruption is no longer a subject of debate” (16). The report also discloses that Nigeria’s performance is poor in the areas of equitable distribution of resources, acceptance of the rights of others and level of corruption (16). From all indications, corruption is the greatest problem of Nigeria, and also the major cause of underdevelopment. It is, therefore, a serious matter that demands serious and urgent attention the transformation and development of the nation, therefore, demand total eradication of correction. The novel, Strange Encounters is an engaging and provocative statement about a people in urgent need of moral rejuvenation” (blurb). Okediran exposes various instances of moral decadence in the health sector, judiciary and police force, and the adverse effects of such corrupt practices on the growth and development of the nation. He also advances the measures to be adopted to curb the menace, in order to promote sustainable development.

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DISCOURSE ANALYSIS ON WALE OKEDIRAN’S STRANGE ENCOUNTER

A CONTRASTIVE STUDY OF DERIVATION OF NOUNS FROM VERBS IN ENGLISH AND IBIBIO LANGUAGES  

A CONTRASTIVE STUDY OF DERIVATION OF NOUNS FROM VERBS IN ENGLISH AND IBIBIO LANGUAGES

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Languages have ways of forming new words. Word formation is a significant area of linguistic studies. Prasad identifies nine processes of word formation in English which include: compounding, duplication, derivation, back formation, conversion, clipping, acronym, blending and multiple formations (64). The concern of this work is on derivation of nouns from verbs which is within the tenets of derivational morphology.

Morphology refers to the study of the internal structure of words and of the systematic form-meaning correspondences between words (Booij 22). Derivation is a morphological process that results in the formation of new lexemes which is achieved through affixation, according to Lyons quoted in Bauer (27). Generally, derivation in linguistics is a process of forming a new word on the basis of an existing word. This could be from any word class to another. But we are interested in how nouns are derived from verbs. For instance, from ‘govern’ and ‘fail’, we derive ‘government’ and ‘failure’ respectively. It, therefore, stands in contrast to inflection which forms grammatical variants of the same word as with determine/determines/determining/ determined (Crystal 138).

The fact that there exist different languages in the world is a clear pointer and indication that the structures of languages differ throughout the levels of linguistic analysis. Besides, languages belong to families and are therefore grouped considering their typologies and genealogies. The Ibibio and English languages are two distinct languages belonging to the Niger-Congo language family (Udoh 34) and the Indo European language family (Encyclopedia Americana 731) respectively. Since this work is a contrastive study of derivation of nouns from verbs in English and Ibibio languages, it is pertinent to introduce Ibibio for clarity purposes, considering the fact that English is a world language.

The Ibibio is both an ethnic group and a language within Akwa Ibom State which occupies the South-South geo-political zone of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. This ethnic group constitutes the fourth largest ethnic group in Nigeria, after the three major ones with a population of about four million. They speak Ibibio as their mother tongue and inhabit the South Eastern part of the country (Essien ix). It is the largest ethnic group in AkwaIbom State with fifteen out of the thirty-one local government areas speaking this language. As such, Ibibio is regarded as the state language (Udoh 35).

Genetically, the Ibibio language belongs to the Benue – Congo sub-family which in turn can be traced to the Niger-Congo family, one of the largest language families in Africa, according to Greenberg’s classification. By this classification,

Ibibio shares a common ancestry with the lower cross group of languages as Udoh (34) asserts.

On the historical development, the Ibibio language is as old as the people, dating back to centuries ago but with a recent history as a written language, according to Essien (x), after much frustrated attempts to attain orthography. Several attempts at making Ibibio a written language met with setback. Thus, the language remained unwritten and unofficial for decades until 1983, when with the sponsorship of an Ibibio cultural organization, Akwa Esop Imaisong Ibibio, the language received express approval of its orthography by the Ministry of Education of the then Cross River State of which Akwa Ibom was a part.

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A CONTRASTIVE STUDY OF DERIVATION OF NOUNS FROM VERBS IN ENGLISH AND IBIBIO LANGUAGES

SEMANTIC STUDY OF SOME LEXICAL ITEMSIN NIGERIAN ENGLISH

SEMANTIC STUDY OF SOME LEXICAL ITEMSIN NIGERIAN ENGLISH

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The global spread of the English language led to the position that is now true: that there is no copyright in the use of English since the language no longer belongs numerically to speakers of English as a mother tongue. The effective ownership of any language in effect rests with the people who use it. However multilingual they are, the major advances in sociolinguistic research over the past half century indicate clearly that languages are shaped by their use. And for English, the users number up to seven hundred million, living in every continent of which less than half are native speakers. Statistically, native speakers are in a minority, and thus in practice for language change, for language maintenance, and for the ideologies and beliefs associated with the language in so far as non-native speakers use the language for a wide range of public and personal needs  (Brumfit 2001:116).

This extract highlights the historically unique position of English in the world, the fact that non-native users of English now outnumber native speakers and the argument that the power to adapt and change the language rests with the people who use it. It reminds us that English is used by both plurilingual and monolingual people alike. We should no longer think that English is still ‘based on a single metropolitan culture, nor is it any longer felt to carry with it implications of political dominion. Evidence of this worldwide phenomenon of language contact, variation and change can be seen through such designations as World Englishes, Modern Englishes, New Englishes, to mention just a few (Jenkins 2003:117).

The concept of New Englishes came into existence many decades ago but when Gerry Abott made reference to this concept in 1981, he thought of varieties of language that develop in countries where English is a second language. By implication, India, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda and Nigeria have developed varieties that are part of the New Englishes. The need for territorial expansion and the demands of international  politics, trade, science and technology have established English as a world language. Nigeria, like many other nations of the world is part of the global network of information and communication technology. What happens in other parts of the world is of great interest to Nigeria just as what happens in Nigeria is of great interest to the world. English remains the most popular language for this kind of intercommunication and interaction. For this reason, English is not just a second language in Nigeria but one that is crucial for the survival of Nigeria as a nation and also for the maintenance of the Nigerian balance in the world economic order, (Onuigbo and Eyisi 2008:72). No wonder much has been invested in the stabilization and standardization of English language education and usage in Nigeria. It is for this reason that Oluikpe (1997:18) and others are committed   to the existence of a Standard of English usage that is characteristically Nigerian.

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SEMANTIC STUDY OF SOME LEXICAL ITEMSIN NIGERIAN ENGLISH

APOLLONIAN/DIONYSIAN PREDICAMENT IN ALBERT CAMUS’ THE STRANGER

APOLLONIAN/DIONYSIAN PREDICAMENT IN ALBERT CAMUS’ THE STRANGER

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Each new narrative work arrives not unannounced, but comes laden with echoes from the literary tradition. For already occupying deserved spaces in the estate of world literature are narrative texts which, in broad terms, are either tragic or comic. Although fictional, the novel—a subtype of narrative—comprises a real world with its nexus of relationships: a language, characters and incidents. Not only does this inter connectivity lay bare the organic structure of the work (its textuality and originality), it prompts thought. To study a novel means to dissect, or rather, in Derridean terms, deconstruct the concatenation of incidents found within the narrative text, all in an effort to grasp the movement of thought. This is so because literature, as a symbolic form, to borrow Paul Ricoeur’s expression, “gives rise to thought” (Conflict of Interpretations 299). Hence a close reading results in what Martin Heidegger has called ‘unconcealment.’ The Heideggerian word is his translation of the Greek aletheia (Poetry, Language, Thought 36). The disclosure of beings, one in particular, constitutes the concern of this research. The being in question is that of a hero, Meursault, the tragic hero of Camus’s magnum opus. There exist, as always, questions concerning the identity of a tragic hero, inquiry into his being and individuality as he suffers constraint. The peculiarity of a tragic hero’s predicament gives rise to this study.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Literature is “an inexhaustible source of new critical discoveries” (Northrop Frye 17). As a kind of art, it never comes into being ex nihilo. Many a thing goes into it, namely human experiences, historical accounts, myths, bits from the literary tradition and so forth. Nonetheless, the closing reading of an individual work of art is not to be done in relation to any of the above, save for the world of literature. Furthermore the literary tradition echoes mythology unceasingly, and vice versa. Two Greek gods, Apollo and Dionysus, constitute the guiding principles of Friedrich Nietzsche’s concept of the underlying will to power. The latter is considered the first tragic hero.  Achilles of The Iliad, for instance, is a Dionysiac mask; in fact “all the famous figures of the

Greek stage, Prometheus, Oedipus, etc are merely masks of that original hero, Dionysos” (Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy 51). This deity embodies the “erring, striving, suffering individual” (Nietzsche 52). Thus an understanding of this Dionysiac condition provides new insights into the being, or nature, of the tragic hero of The Stranger. The above mentioned condition is made manifest—or possible even—by an opposing force: the Apolline.

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APOLLONIAN/DIONYSIAN PREDICAMENT IN ALBERT CAMUS’ THE STRANGER

 

THE THEME OF CLASS CONFLICT IN SUZZANE COLLINS’ THE HUNGER GAMES TRILOGY

THE THEME OF CLASS CONFLICT IN SUZZANE COLLINS’ THE HUNGER GAMES TRILOGY

 

ABSTRACT

This long essay assesses the theme of class conflict in Suzanne Collins’ the hunger games trilogy. It serves to highlight class conflict as the central idea Collins presents in her novels. It employs Karl Marx’s class conflict theory and Antonio Gramsci’s hegemony as tools aimed at identifying the underlying strife between the two classes in Panem. It also assesses the inequalities and labour exploitation that give rise to the struggle while also analysing the many tactics employed by either classes in their bid to subjugate the other.

 TABLE OF CONTENTS

DEDICATION.. i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. ii

DECLARATION.. iii

ABSTRACT. iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS. v

CHAPTER ONE.. 1

1.0      Introduction. 1

1.1      Thesis Statement 1

1.2      Definition of Key Terms. 2

CHAPTER TWO.. 3

2.0 Background…………………………………………………………………………………3

CHAPTER THREE.. 5

3.0 Literature Review.. 5

CHAPTER FOUR.. 6

4.0 Theoretical Frameworks. 6

CHAPTER FIVE    ……………………………………………………………………………….9

5.0 Critical Analysis of the Hunger Games, Catching Fire and Mockingjay. 9

CHAPTER SIX.. 22

6.0 Conclusion. 22

REFERENCES. 23

INTRODUCTION

Suzanne Collins’ the hunger games trilogy is easily counted as one of the most successful young adult series ever written. The three novel series brings to life many characters that are set in a dystopian society filled with many trials and tribulations. The novels present a well written and imaginatively crafted account of a teenage girl’s unwitting success in defeating the social injustices that are rampant in the world she lives in and the people responsible for them. One of the most interesting aspects about the trilogy comes in the form of the thematic connotations that are derived from a complete reading of the series. Collins, it would seem, intends to comment on many issues that range from the inequality between the rich and the poor, to the notion of suffering as entertainment, and other ideas like the importance of appearances. The world she creates gives a dramatic view of society and flawlessly comments on the many social, political and economic issues that are faced by communities today. The theme that is most prevalent in the trilogy is that of class conflict. In all three books, Collins keeps with the notion of the strife between the rich and the poor members of the society.

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THE THEME OF CLASS CONFLICT IN SUZZANE COLLINS’ THE HUNGER GAMES TRILOGY

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Prior to the introduction of western education in Nigeria, education was mostly informal closely linked to this oral and informal approach was a system of assessment which was based on careful observation. However, with the arrival of western education in Nigeria, two methods of assessments namely: internal and external assessments. The former was the type of examination or test conducted at the end of every schools term and sometime, every two weeks during the school year. It evaluate the pupils performance during the conducted, it is generally the result of the end of the sessions examination that is used for valuable judgment on the pupils performance. This is also known as the end of the terms examination, this form of assessment is still carried out today in our primary schools with modification it include “The continuous assessment system”. The later type of examination which operates in our school system is called the external examinations. It is conducted by external bodies order than those in the (teachers). It is external because no input was made by them in the learning process of the pupils directly in form of the teaching examples abound today that is junior NECO examination, the abolished common entrance examination and the junior secondary school examination conducted by the state ministry of education for the JS III Students. These forms of evaluations had its limitation which grossly affected the child’s learning and comprehension process. The system tool recognition of the cognitive domain of learning while neglecting the other two-affective and psychomotor domain. It also had no feed back mechanism that reported on the pupil’s area of weaknesses. More so, it gave scanty information inform of terminal reports sheets to parents which does not really portray the child’s overall performance and it usually lead to examination malpractice as strong emphasis are laid on the passing to promote. In view of the above unhealthy and incomplete methods of evaluation and its attendant disadvantages.

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THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

USE OF LANGUAGE IN THE EXPRESSION OF RACISM; A STUDY OF RICHARD WRIGHT’S BLACK BOY

USE OF LANGUAGE IN THE EXPRESSION OF RACISM; A STUDY OF RICHARD WRIGHT’S BLACK BOY

ABSTRACT

Obviously, it has been brought to mind that racism is one of the major issues in Black American literature and has triggered concerns over the years. This study will attempt to make readers realize these themes in Richard Wright’s Black Boy by analyzing the concept of racial segregation of Black in America. We will examine the historical perspective of Black writing narrative and the effects of racism, which include poverty, hunger assault etc. and the ways through which the blacks reacted to racism. We can claim that Black American literature was written to oppose racism and oppression in all ramifications and also to gain self pride and identity.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Racism changes its form, as well as strength, over time and from place to place. It manifests itself in different forms in Australia today. Indeed, it is this changing quality of racism which makes it difficult to identify and challenge, and which helps make racism so contentious an issue today. First, people are identified as members of a group because of their physical appearance, culture or ethnic origin, real or supposed. Secondly, they are judged according to the presumed characteristics of that group. Thus people are being labelled, and those labels are often on the basis of stereotypes of the group (Cardwell, 1991). Stereotypes are generalised images of people in a particular group or category, which are held whether or not most, or even some, people in that category fit the image. We are constantly categorising people and things, and making generalisations about them, for we have neither the time nor the information to make new judgments each time we meet an individual or enter into a new situation. However, stereotypes are relatively fixed generalisations, which are reinforced by selective perception and selective forgetting — we notice characteristics or behaviour which confirms our views; we overlook or rationalise away the many exceptions (Beaver & Harold, 1974). Hence stereotypes are exaggerated or distorted pictures of others. Even where they reflect elements of truth, these are usually misinterpreted, or combined with inaccurate and derogatory images. This is made especially easy because we hold stereotypes about many groups without having any personal experience of them (Brown, 1969).

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USE OF LANGUAGE IN THE EXPRESSION OF RACISM; A STUDY OF RICHARD WRIGHT’S BLACK BOY

THE TEACHING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE (ITS) IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOLS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN IGABI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE)

THE TEACHING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE (ITS) IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOLS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN IGABI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE)

ABSTRACT

The research topic on: “The Teaching of Primary science (PR. SC) (also know as Integrated Science (ITS) in the junior secondary Schools ITS)in the primary schools, Problems and Prospects: A Case Study of Some Selected Primary School in Igabi Local Government Area of Kaduna State”. The objective/purpose is to determine how the teaching of Integrated Science has feature in the school curriculum as the case may be. Some literature review was made in the area of teaching science on the topic. Questionnaires were distributed and collected from respondents, the data and information collected were analyzed. Findings from the research showed that:

  1. The teachers should identify the prescribed strategy of teaching integrated science; couple with the use of adequate teaching aids, inquiry experimentation, field trips and so on.
  2. The major problem inhibiting effective teaching of integrated science is inadequate trained teachers in the field. Therefore, there is need for urgent attention for training and retraining for teachers in Integrated Science i.e. through seminar and workshops and in-service training.
  3. The Integrated Science as a subject is included in the curriculum as a core subject in all the schools sampled (prospects)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title of Research                                                                      i

Approval Page                                                                          ii

Declaration                                                                              iii

Dedication                                                                               iv

Acknowledgement                                                                    v

Abstract                                                                                   vi

Table of Contents                                                             vii-viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   Introduction                                                                     1

1.2   Statement of the Problem                                                4

1.3   Significance of the Study                                                 6

1.4   Delimitation                                                                     7

1.5   Definition of Terms                                                          7

1.6   Hypothesis                                                                       8

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   Literature Review                                                             10

2.1   Definition of Science                                                                10

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Research Methodology                                                     20

3.1   The Design                                                                       20

3.2   The Sample                                                                      21

3.3   The Instrument                                                                        21

3.4   Data Collection                                                                        21

3.5   Analysis of Data                                                               22

3.6   Validity of Instrument                                                      22

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1   Data Analysis                                                                   23

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1   Summary

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Recommendations

References                                                                             

Questionnaire                                                                        

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The science curriculum at any time and place is determined by the existing theories and ideas about the nature of science. Because such theories and ideas have varied from place to place and from time to time, even for the same place; the science curriculum and its introduction have never remained static. Several programmes have been set up in various parts of the world to develop science curriculum and teaching, with an aim to suit the prevailing situation in such areas.

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THE TEACHING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE (ITS) IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOLS, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN IGABI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE)  

A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’S THE THING AROUND YOUR NECK

A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF CHIMAMANDA  NGOZI ADICHIE’S THE THING AROUND YOUR NECK

ABSTRACT

Stylistics is the study and interpretation of texts from a linguistic and literary perspectives. This work was done to examine the basic linguistic features that have been used by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie in The Thing Around Your Neck to pass some messages across to the readers and the society. A functional approach was adopted, an approach where particular note is taken of the stylistic function, effect and thematic significance of linguistic features in a literary text. The stylistics tools employed were morphology, graphology, phonology, syntax, lexico-semantics and point of view. After applying these tools the novel, it was discovered that language is an integral part of any work of art and that the success of a work depends on how the writer has been able to manipulate language. Adichie had effected changes through a systemic use of language which helped a better understanding of her work.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1       Introduction

1.2       Statement of the problem

1.3       Purpose of the study

1.4       Scope of the study

1.5       Justification

1.6       Methodology

1.7       The Author

1.8       Data Description

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Introduction

2.2       The concept of style

2.3       Historical Development of Stylistics

2.4       Criticism and the meeting point of linguistics and literary stylistics

2.5       Stylistics

2.6       Levels of stylistic study

2.6.1    Morphology

2.6.2    Graphology

2.6.3    Phonology

2.6.4    Syntax

2.6.5    Lexico-semantics

2.7       Point of view

2.8       Conclusion

CHAPTER THREE

STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE THING AROUND YOUR NECK

3.1       Introduction

3.2       Morphology

3.3       Graphology

3.4       Phonology

3.5       Syntax

3.6       Lexico-Semantics

3.7       Proverbs

3.8       Point of view

3.9       Findings

3.10     Conclusion

CHAPTER FOUR

Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

References

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1       INTRODUCTION

  Stylistics is the study and interpretation of texts from literary and linguistic perspectives. As a discipline it links literary criticism and linguistics. A stylistic analysis entails studying in details the features of written or spoken texts and stating what functions they perform in the context of the texts. The features chosen from any text are dealt with in three ways; identification, description and purpose. The method of analysis is purely scientific.

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A STYLISTIC ANALYSIS OF CHIMAMANDA  NGOZI ADICHIE’S THE THING AROUND YOUR NECK

THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA AS IN THE JOYS OF MOTHERHOOD BY BUCHI EMECHETA

THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA AS IN THE JOYS OF MOTHERHOOD BY BUCHI EMECHETA

ABSTRACT

This thesis is concerned with feminist aesthetics carving out the motherist theory in the title The role of women in the Socio–economic development of Nigeria using Buchi Emecheta as an example. It is a common knowledge that most Nigerian culture gives more cognition for the “men”in the society than the women.This study however aims at examining and analysing Emecheta’s text The Joys of Motherhood, written by Buchi Emecheta, as it enumerates in themes , characterisations and plot construction.This study shows the travails of a women being subjected by her tradition. It also how the culture of a society gives more room for the man than the woman.Nigerian women however in their society has proved to be more than bench warming spectators,even in the midst of  their male dominated professional congregations.This research is aimed at promoting further related feminist studies in Literature.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Content                                                                                                         vi

CHAPTER ONE – GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction.                                                                                                         1

1.1 The Economic Contribution of women in Nigeria.                                               3

1.2 The Social Contribution of women in Nigeria.                                                     4

1.3 Statement of the Research Problem.                                                                     7

1.4 Purpose of Research.                                                                                            8

1.5 Justification.                                                                                                          8

1.6 Scope of the work.                                                                                                9

1.7 Methodology.                                                                                                       10

1.8 Data Description.                                                                                                  10

1.9 Biography of Buchi Emecheta.                                                                             11

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 A Review of feminist theory.                                                                               15

CHAPTER THREE – DATA ANALYSIS

3.1 The Feminist Role in the plot construction                                                           29

3.2 The family setting of Emechetas The Joys of Motherhood                                  33

3.3 Theme and Feminist technique in Characterisation.                                             35

CHAPTER FOUR

Conclusion.                                                                                                                 47

Bibliography.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE              

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Traditionally the experience of marriage and motherhood dominates the life and identity of women in Africa.Women were left behind to mind the home and children.Traditionally it is believed that the life of a woman is distinct,pure and counted to be unstained.She could be classified as peaceful,without and within as an entity.She was economically dependent,as she only fulfills her role as a wife, a mother and a builder of home.  It is believed that an African woman should be involved in domestic duties like farming task and skilled craft production. The assumed psychological belief that women are second to men has made women to be deprived equal political post with men in the society.

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THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA AS IN THE JOYS OF MOTHERHOOD BY BUCHI EMECHETA

THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

The study examines the role of the teacher in classroom management. The population of the study consist of the entire teachers of Rimi College Kaduna. Out of 52 staff, 27 were selected as the sample size. Questionnaire constituted the instrument of data collection. The mean (x) was used to analyze the five liker questionnaires based on the research questions. The analysis indicated that the function of the teacher in classroom management if basically planning of lesson, inculcating discipline, delegating responsibility and ensuring decorum that will make such class conducive for teaching and learning. Classroom management is effective on students achievement because help to create a conducive environment that is conducive for learning and also facilitate lesson planning and class administration enhances teaching and learning. Classroom management influence the academic and moral development of student positively. But inspite of the positive effect and role of teachers in classroom management, it is constraint with challenges arising from lack of proper research in classroom management as well as lack of training of teachers on modern techniques of classroom management. As such, it is recommended that teachers should be trained and retrained through on-the-job training on classroom management techniques and approaches.

 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Declaration        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Approval Page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

Table of Contents       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        viii

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2    Statement of the Problem  –        –        –        –        –        –        2

1.3    Objective of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        3

1.4    Significance of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.5    Research Questions   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        5

1.6    Scope of the Study      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        5

1.7    Definition of Terms    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        6

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        8

2.1    The Role of Teacher in Classroom Management  –        –        8

2.2    Effects of Classroom Management       –        –        –        –        9

2.3    The Characteristics of Classroom Manager –        –        –        11

2.4    The Role of the Teacher in Classroom Management     –        12

2.5    The Impact of Teacher on Classroom Management      –        15

2.6    Challenges of Classroom Management        –        –        –        –        19

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        22

3.2    Research Design         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        22

3.3    Area of the Study       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        23

3.4    Population of the Study      –        –        –        –        –        –        23

3.4    Sample and Sampling Procedure         –        –        –        –        –        23

3.5    Research Instrumentation –        –        –        –        –        –        24

3.5.1 Validity     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        25

3.5.2 Reliability –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        25

3.6    Procedure for the Administration of the Instrument     –        26

3.7    Method of Data Presentation and Analysis –        –        –        26

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        28

4.2    Analysis of Respondents Demography         –        –        –        –        28

4.3    Data Analysis    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

4.4    Summary of Findings          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        38

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Summary  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        40

5.2    Conclusion         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        41

5.3    Recommendations      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        42

5.4    Suggestion for Further Studies   –        –        –        –        –        43

References         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        44

Appendix  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        47

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THE PROBLEM OF ORAL EXPRESSION IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE. SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE

THE PROBLEM OF ORAL EXPRESSION IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE. SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE

ABSTRACT

The study targets the problem of oral expression among students in some selected junior secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. some researcher questions were formulated to guide the direction of the study. A review of related literature was carried out to find out the views of other writers on the topic studied. Both teachers and students in the selected schools were involved in the study with data for the study collected through the administration of questionnaire to both teachers and students. Their responses were tabulated and placed side by side related research questions for analysis and interpretation for a desired result. Lastly, Summary, findings and conclusion with recommendation were made.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE           

  • Introduction
  • Problem of the study
  • Purpose of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Limitation of the study
  • Operational definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO        

2.0     Review of related literature

2.1     Poor teacher approaches to lesson

2.2     Sociological factors

2.3     Behaviorism

CHAPTER THREE    

3.0     Methodology

3.1     Goals of study

3.2     Population

3.3     Class sampled

3.4     Sampling techniques

3.5     Instrumentation

3.6     Method of data collection

3.7     method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR       

Presentation and analysis of data

CHAPTER FIVE         

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

REFERENCES  

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Nigeria adopts English Language as its official language due to many reasons. Of course the principal reason cannot be divorced from ethnic linguistic diversities and the major ethnic languages are Hausa/Fulani in the North, Ibo in the East and Yoruba in the West. English is the language of government, institutions and businesses transaction in the country. It then stands to reason, therefore, that one must have a thorough grasp of the language in both its spoken and written forms. Nigeria therefore remains blessed with a language that is meeting her national aspirations, one that is well advanced and embraced universally, English language that is on this premise is hinged, the various governments, local, state and federal attachment of great importance to the teaching and learning of English language in the educational institutions of learning.

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THE PROBLEM OF ORAL EXPRESSION IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE. SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE

THE PREDOMINANT LINGUISTIC DEVICES USED BY NGUGI WA THIONG’O IN WIZARD OF THE CROW

THE PREDOMINANT LINGUISTIC DEVICES USED BY NGUGI WA THIONG’O IN WIZARD OF THE CROW

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Language is the distinctive quality unique to man. It is what enables man to express him/herself and communicate with his/her fellow man, and it is acquired naturally. According to Fromkin et al “…language is the source of human life and power” (3). They also state that “we use language to convey information to others…, ask questions…, give command…, and express wishes” (173).  There are two specific media of using language: oral – which is by words of mouth; and written – which is a graphic representation of words on paper. It is in the use of language that style comes in. Style shows the difference between one piece of writing and the other. According to Adejare, “style is an ambiguous term…” (1). He further states that the term style means different things to different professions. Some examples are: to a psychologist, style is a form of behaviour, to the critic, style is individuality and to the linguist, it is the formal structures in function (1)  Stylistics is the study of oral and written texts. It is the description of the linguistic characteristics (which means features of linguistics) of all situationally restricted uses of language. Linguistics is the scientific study of language or of a particular language. Linguistics is scientific because it applies the method of objective observation, collection, classification and application of facts to the study of language. Stylistics focuses on texts and gives much attention to the devices, parts of speech and figures of speech. It goes further to look into the effects of the use of the devices on the reader. Talking about the scope of stylistics, Onwukwe Ekwutosi gave four distinctive types of stylistics and they are:

  1. General stylistics
  2. Literary stylistics
  3. Stylo-stylistics
  4. Phono-stylistics

 

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THE PRAGMATIC ANALYSIS OF HOSPITAL POSTERS IN SELECTED ABUJA HOSPITALS.

THE PRAGMATIC ANALYSIS OF HOSPITAL POSTERS IN SELECTED ABUJA HOSPITALS.

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO STUDY

The exhibit from the world’s largest collection of public heath posters housed in the National Library of Medicine (United States) reveals the potential of posters as effective medium for communicating information about disease, identifying risk factors, and promoting behavioral change. By examining the history and function of public health posters, the exhibit suggests that social, biological, and cultural factors have collectively influenced the design of public health campaigns throughout the preceding century (Boyle, 2003). Due to the many qualities posters have, public health campaigners are encouraged to use them as powerful medium for visually communicating knowledge about disease, and for promoting changes in behavior. In the process, poster designers developed a visual vocabulary to help shape and define “normal “and “healthy” behaviors and conditions which has provided the basis for a variety of campaigns against infections diseases and environmental health hazards (Boyle, 2003,2).

Statement of the problem

This study intends to analyse how effectively hospital health posters in selected Abuja hospitals communicate health message. In other words, it looks in to whether the poster are designed in a way the audience understands them. It also explores the strategy presently employed by hospitals communication unit in designing health messages. Posters and posters are believed to play vital role for people to gain awareness and control over factors that influence their basic needs. Concerning this visual aids, Starrs and Rizzuto (1995, 1) state “experience has shown that, a welldesigned campaign can change people’s knowledge, attitudes and behavior” (Starrs and Rizzuto, 1995, 1). They also emphasize that effective campaigns begin through research to find out what people currently know, believe and do. Particular attention needs to be paid in designing posters and posters especially for a society where reading culture is not vastly developed. Many people doubt the quality of health posters and posters produced in Abuja. Most of these visual materials seem to be produced on impulse rather than assessing audience’s background and involving target audience. So their effectiveness is also doubtful. Though initiatives have been taken to curb health problems (like the spread of HIV) little has been done to certain the impact of these posters and posters on bringing awareness and promoting behavior change.

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THE PRAGMATIC ANALYSIS OF HOSPITAL POSTERS IN SELECTED ABUJA HOSPITALS.

THE POLITICAL CORRUPTION AND PSYCHOSOCIAL DISORDER, USING TANURE OJAIDE’S THE ACTIVIST AND OKEY NDIBE’S ARROW OF RAIN

THE POLITICAL CORRUPTION AND PSYCHOSOCIAL DISORDER, USING TANURE OJAIDE’S THE ACTIVIST AND OKEY NDIBE’S ARROW OF RAIN

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION 

Nigeria’s political problems sprang from the carefree manner in which the British took over, administered, and abandoned the government and people of Nigeria. British administrators did not make an effort to weld the country together and unite the heterogeneous groups of people. Though, many things we have today is due to their enlightenment, they still left us hanging. According to Adewele Ademoyega in his book Why We Struck 1981, he said that when the British came, they forcibly rubber-stamped the political state of the ethnic groups of Nigeria, and maintained that status quo until the left. According to him upon their departure nearly a hundred years later, the people resumed fighting for their political rights.  When the British came to Nigeria as an imperial nation to take over the rulership of the country from 1861 (with the cession of Lagos), they met the people of the south totally free, only observing and regulating their own monarchies and institutions (Adewele Ademoyega: Why We Struck). Chinua Achebe in his work or novel Things Fall Apart, 1958, tries to portray the life Africans lived before and during the arrival of the Europeans in Nigeria.  Things Fall Apart tells the tragic story of the rise and fall of Okonkwo and the equally tragic story of the disintegration of Igbo culture, symbolized by the agrarian society of Umofia, under the relentless encroachments of British Christian imperialism.  For Achebe, Mister Johnson represents the worst kind of portrayal of Africans by Europeans. To him, the portrayal was all the more disheartening because John Cary was working hard to achieve and accurate depiction, unlike many British authors during the imperial colonial period who deliberately, often cynically, exploited stereotyped of Africans and African society. It was precisely because John Cary was a liberal-minded and sympathetic writer, as well as a colonial administrator that Achebe felt the record had to be set straight. Achebe’s purpose then is to write about and for his own people

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THE POLITICAL CORRUPTION AND PSYCHOSOCIAL DISORDER, USING TANURE OJAIDE’S THE ACTIVIST AND OKEY NDIBE’S ARROW OF RAIN

THE OSUN OSOGBO FESTIVAL: ITS FUNCTIONS AND AESTHETICS.

THE OSUN OSOGBO FESTIVAL: ITS FUNCTIONS AND AESTHETICS.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                         ii

Dedication                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                     iv

Table of contents                                                                                        v

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction 1
  • The Concept of Aesthetics in the Osun Osogbo Festival 4
  • Purpose of study 7
  • Scope of study 8
  • Methodology 8

1.6     Justification

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 The concept of oral literature                                                      10

2.2  The Origin of OsunOsogboRiver                                               12

2.3   The Osun Festival                                                                     16

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 The Aesthetics in the Osun Osogbo Festival                               25

3.1.1 Drums                                                                                               25

3.1.2  Dance                                                                                               27

3.1.3  Costumes                                                                                28

3.1.4  Music                                                                                                29

3.1.5 Languages                                                                               32

3.2 Major Roles at The Osun Osogbo Festival.                            32

3.2.1 The Ataoja (king)                                                                     33

3.2.2  The Iya osun (osun priestess)                                                 33

3.2.3  The Arugba osun (osun bowl carrier)                                               33

3.2.4 The Aworo osun (osun priest)                                                 34

3.2.5  The Audience                                                                          35

 

CHAPTER FOUR.

4.1 Importance of Osun Osogbo festival                                          36

4.2  Findings on the Osun Osogbo festival                                       37

         

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Summary                                                                                    41

5.2 Conclusion                                                                            41

5.3 Recommendations                                                                       42

Appendix 1 Oriki of Osun                                                                44

Bibliography

Appendix II  ( Pictures Taken during the Festival)

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  Introduction

Festival is an event usually set by a local community. It centres on and some unique Aspects of that community. It is a set of activities and practice designed to entertain the People of that particular community. Among many religions, a ‘feast’ is a set celebration in honour of God or gods. A Feast and a festival is historically inter-related. Festival of many types serves to meet specific Needs as well as to provide entertainment. These types of celebration offer a belonging to Religious, social or geographical groups. Festivals also reminds people of their traditions and in resents times also helps in unity among family. There are numerous types of festival in the world, though many have religious origin, Others have some cultural significance. Also, certain people celebrate their own festival to mark some significance occasion in their history. Festival is also a set of activities and practice designed to educate and to entertain the People of a particular community through ritual performance, celebrations or social activities.

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THE OSUN OSOGBO FESTIVAL: ITS FUNCTIONS AND AESTHETICS.

THE LANGUAGE OF FEMINISM AND ITS IMPACT ON THE SOCIETY

THE LANGUAGE OF FEMINISM AND ITS IMPACT ON THE SOCIETY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of Study

The struggle for women’ right began in the 18th century during the period of intense intellectual activity known as the Age of Enlightenment. In traditional Africa the woman is an object of constant scorn, degradation and physical torture. In the past, women did not exist as individuals with personalities to defend. They rather existed as mere docile and exotic accompaniments to the males. Throughout that period, women lacked a voice to articulate their dilemma and their points of view. They, thus, accepted their fate without resistance. Such passive stance results from societal conditioning through questionable cultural practices. From birth, through childhood and adolescence, to adulthood, Africans receive from society and others around the messages and feedbacks which launch them into roles and behaviors considered appropriate for males and females respectively. Most often, female are accorded inferior roles and such long years of cultural suppression and intimidation, unfortunately, misled the women into an underestimation of their capabilities and self worth. Encased in such a cultural mystique, the African women were particularly driven by a community sense since culture obviates individualism. In those days, these women, in addition to experiencing the same oppressive social condition as their male counterparts in a developing world, were subjected to extra repressive burdens arising from the socio-cultural structures of patriarchy and gender hierarchy. These years of subjugation have, however, produced in today’s women relentless questioning of the status quo. They protest against dehumanization, political enslavement and social oppression. They rationalize that the running of the Africa world is not the preserve for males and thus there should be absolute equality of both sexes in all spheres of life. Such a reaction is termed feminism, which is an ideology that urges, in simple terms, recognition of the claims of women for equal rights with men.

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THE LANGUAGE OF FEMINISM AND ITS IMPACT ON THE SOCIETY

THE LANGUAGE IN FEMINIST LITERATURE IN MARIAMA BA’S SO LONG A LETTER

THE LANGUAGE IN FEMINIST LITERATURE IN MARIAMA BA’S SO LONG A LETTER

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of Study

The struggle for women’ right began in the 18th century during the period of intense intellectual activity known as the Age of Enlightenment. In traditional Africa the woman is an object of constant scorn, degradation and physical torture. In the past, women did not exist as individuals with personalities to defend. They rather existed as mere docile and exotic accompaniments to the males. Throughout that period, women lacked a voice to articulate their dilemma and their points of view. They, thus, accepted their fate without resistance. Such passive stance results from societal conditioning through questionable cultural practices. From birth, through childhood and adolescence, to adulthood, Africans receive from society and others around the messages and feedbacks which launch them into roles and behaviors considered appropriate for males and females respectively. Most often, female are accorded inferior roles and such long years of cultural suppression and intimidation, unfortunately, misled the women into an underestimation of their capabilities and self worth. Encased in such a cultural mystique, the African women were particularly driven by a community sense since culture obviates individualism. In those days, these women, in addition to experiencing the same oppressive social condition as their male counterparts in a developing world, were subjected to extra repressive burdens arising from the socio-cultural structures of patriarchy and gender hierarchy. These years of subjugation have, however, produced in today’s women relentless questioning of the status quo. They protest against dehumanization, political enslavement and social oppression. They rationalize that the running of the Africa world is not the preserve for males and thus there should be absolute equality of both sexes in all spheres of life. Such a reaction is termed feminism, which is an ideology that urges, in simple terms, recognition of the claims of women for equal rights with men.

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THE LANGUAGE IN FEMINIST LITERATURE IN MARIAMA BA’S SO LONG A LETTER