NEW INSTRUMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE?: NATIONAL EXPERIENCES AND PROSPECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

NEW INSTRUMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE?: NATIONAL EXPERIENCES AND PROSPECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Abstract

The use of so-called “new” environmental policy instruments such as eco-taxes, tradable permits, voluntary agreements and eco-labels has prompted widespread claims that these devices have replaced regulation. These papers offer a fresh perspective on the evolving tool-box of environmental policy.

“For example, water rights originally allocated on a ‘first come first served’ basis may leave no share of a river flow for ‘ecological services’ such as biodiversity conservation. Producer ‘take back’ laws on consumer products extend businesses’ responsibility for products they have sold, and a precaution-based chemicals policy can shift the burden of proof around the risk and safety of novel substances (Jordan et al. 2003). In this sense, the emergence of the environmental state coincides with a (partial) transformation of the terms on which states exercise authority, as well as the way such authority is legitimised.

 

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NEW INSTRUMENTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE?: NATIONAL EXPERIENCES AND PROSPECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

IMPLEMENTING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: STRATEGIES AND INITIATIVES IN HIGH CONSUMPTION SOCIETIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

IMPLEMENTING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: STRATEGIES AND INITIATIVES IN HIGH CONSUMPTION SOCIETIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

This book examines how governments in industrialized countries have engaged with the challenge of sustained development over the past decade. Analysis of initiatives undertaken by nine national governments and the European Union reveal important differences in the ways the international commitment to sustainable development has been received.

 

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IMPLEMENTING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: STRATEGIES AND INITIATIVES IN HIGH CONSUMPTION SOCIETIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT THROUGH THE ADAPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY PRACTICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT THROUGH THE ADAPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY PRACTICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

OVERVIEW

Environment friendly practices are those policies which are concerned with the environmental protection processes and further ensure that there is a logical determination of the costs of environment degradation due to in due to industrial activities and internalize them to co-operate accounts to the extent possible.

Scholars from the discipline are called environmental management technology are of the opinion than man is naturally an environmental animals this means that man is born into an environment s, the environment on the other hand entails all the surroundings where man exists. Man is therefore called by nature to protect his environment since life is Co-ever to each other. These calls to protect environment   entails some methodologist, which are what   this seminar work seems to explain, it is a facer chapter work where chapter one treats with an introduction, the concept of the   environment, chapter two focus on the authors/scholars on environmental study, chapter three highlights the methodological approach towards environmental protection while four evaluates the work, perhaps with some recommendation.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Environmental friendly practices Also called “eco-friendly,” is refers to any product or service that is not harmful to the atmosphere or surroundings. It also implies that the same precautions were taken in the manufacturing of the product.

The term is applied to systems and products that save energy directly or indirectly. For example, capturing rainwater saves the energy required to pump the water from a well and also lessens flooding and other runoff problems.

Man sustains from the environment where they exist and the environment is man itself with things that surround it. That is man and animal as well as plants, water, sand etc. The protection of environment through the adoption of environmental friendly practices and approaches includes the awareness of the environmental and mans ability to cause damage done disclosing commercial services and at all levels whether micro, meso and macro, some chemicals or sewages comes out from the industries damages the environment whereby those chemical contaminates   our drinking water which cause harm to the body when consumed, these chemicals also damage the soil nutrients whereas the crops planted could not field very well.

 

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PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT THROUGH THE ADAPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY PRACTICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

BACTERIAL REMEDIATION OF POLYETHYLENE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

BACTERIAL REMEDIATION OF POLYETHYLENE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ABSTRACT

Improper disposal of commodity plastics e.g. polyethylene (PE) in the environment causes land pollution, soil infertility, is unsightly and poses dangers to plant and animal life. The current effort describes the bacteria mediated biodegradation of commodity plastics by Serratia marcescens marcescens without first subjecting the plastics to thermo-oxidative ageing. It further elaborates on the mechanism and breakdown that are involved in the biodegradation of PE. 90 ml of carbonless medium containing essential minerals and vitamins (minus carbon source) was measured into seven conical flasks and 2 g of powdered PE was poured into each flask. 5 ml of three overnight cultures of Serratia marcescens marcescens was measured into six flasks. The other flask served asthe control. The samples were incubated at 30o C, 141 revolutions per minute (rpm) in a rotary shaker for four weeks to observe the degradation incidence. After 4 weeks, 5 ml of cell-free supernatant from Serratia marcescens marcescens culture was measured into a sterile conical flask to which 2 g of sterile PE was added. This was incubated at 30oC & 141 rpm in a shaker for four weeks. It was discovered that, the supernatants from Serratia marcescens marcescens degrade PE faster than the bacteria with a percent of degradationof 37.5 in a month. The SEM micrographs revealed that the biodegradation of polyethylene occurs due to the presence of voids and pits, which indicates the bacteria feeding on the PE.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

The world has an abundance of land and resources [1]. However, due to human carelessness and negligence, we have contaminated the environment. Industrial activities generated from the past have resulted in polluted lands and landfills that are potentially harmful to the health and wellbeing of people [1]. There is, therefore, a need for improved methods of waste disposal that could limit the long term effects on human wellbeing.

Plastics are artificially made long chain ―polymeric molecules‖ and come from the Greek word ―Plastikos‖, indicating that they are able to form different shapes [2]. Nowadays, plastics are composed of organic and inorganic raw materials comprising Hydrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, Silicon, Nitrogen and chloride. They are often obtained from oil, coal and natural gas [3].

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BACTERIAL REMEDIATION OF POLYETHYLENE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN PRINTING INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN PRINTING INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

CHAPTER 1

1.0   INTRODUCTION

The international Association for impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as “the process identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made. Atmospheric composition affects air quality, weather, climate, and critical constituents such as ozone and aerosols which in turn have effect on printed product. Atmospheric composition is central to earth system dynamics, since the atmosphere integrates surface emissions globally on time scales from weeks to years and involves several environmental issues.

1.1   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Outdoor printed product diminishes in ink content, degree value and contrast over time due to the several environmental and atmospherically conditions or effects on the ink.

The atmosphere of earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet earth that is retained by earth’s gravity. The atmosphere protects life on earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heart relention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).

The common name given to the atmospheric gases used in breathing and photosynthesis is air. By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, (i) 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases, thus invariably the composite elements of air. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapour, on average around 1%.

Considering the atmospheric constituents of chemicals and which results to several radiation and reactions against constituent chemicals of a printed product hence the study “ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN PRINTING INDUSTRY”.

 

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ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN PRINTING INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

IMPACT OF MARINE POLLUTION ON SHIPPING OPERATION IN THE SOUTH-SOUTH GEOPOLITICAL ZONE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

IMPACT OF MARINE POLLUTION ON SHIPPING OPERATION IN THE SOUTH-SOUTH GEOPOLITICAL ZONE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the study

The internationally recognized definition for the marine environment was developed by Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP), currently known as Aspects Of Marine Environmental Protection, which states: ‘Introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the marine environment (including estuaries) resulting in such deleterious effects as harm to living resources, hazard to human health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing, impairment of quality for use of sea-water, and reduction of amenities’. Marine pollution is classed as point source or non-point source. Point source pollution occurs when there is a single, identifiable, and localized source of the pollution. That is, “point source” means any discernible, confined and discrete conveyance, including but not limited to any pipe, ditch, channel, tunnel, conduit, well, discrete fissure, container, rolling stock, concentrated animal feeding operation, or vessel or other floating craft, from which pollutants are or may be discharged. An example is directly discharging sewage (i.e. water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, which is intended to be removed from a community, also known as wastewater) and industrial waste into the ocean Non-point source pollution occurs when the pollution comes from ill-defined and diffuse sources. It arises from a broad group of human activities for which the pollutants have no obvious point of entry into receiving watercourses. Obviously, non-point source pollution is much more difficult to measure, identify and control than point sources. These include agriculture tural storm water discharges and return flows from irrigated agriculture, urban runoff (from roofs, streets, parking lots, etc), transportation (roads, railways, pipelines, hydro-electric corridors) etc. Industries and businesses may discharge wastes to street gutters and storm drains. Overloading and malfunction of septic systems lead to surface runoff.

 

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IMPACT OF MARINE POLLUTION ON SHIPPING OPERATION IN THE SOUTH-SOUTH GEOPOLITICAL ZONE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS (EFFECTS) OF AGULU-NANKA GULLY EROSION, ANAMBRA STATE, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS (EFFECTS) OF AGULU-NANKA GULLY EROSION, ANAMBRA STATE, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

Soil erosion is the systematic removal of soil including plant nutrients from the land surface by various agents of denudation. This paper highlights the social and economic impacts of gulling in the area. Social effects include; loss of ancestral homes, loss of school building, loss of church building and loss of sources of water supply. Economic effects studied are loss of farmland, loss of planted crops, loss of shop/business premises and loss of economic trees. The study intends to identify the percentage of the residents according to localities that have suffered socially and economically from gully incidents. It also intend to determine the relationship between adverse social and economic effects suffered by the affected people in the various localities of the study area. The loacalities studied include, Isiakpuenu-Nanka, Engwu-Nanka, Ududo-Nanka, Madonna-Agulu and Agulu – road cut areas. Data for the study was collected from two major sources; primary source and secondary source. Primary source of data are direct observation from fieldwork and the use of questionnaire while the secondary source include topographic map and library materials.

Descriptive statistical tools were applied to deal with the techniques of summarizing and describing data collected. Percentages, proportion and mean were applied to get other parameters such as expected frequencies and deviations from the actual. X2 (Chi-Square) was used to test the level of agreement of the results of analysis. Pearson’s co-efficient of correlation was used to analyze the relationship between the social and economic effects of gully erosion in the area. Findings are that The adverse social and economic effects of Agulu-Nanka Erosion on the residents in the erosion affected Areas differ significantly from the social and economic situation in the unaffected areas and There is no significant relationship between the social and economic effects of gully erosion in Agulu-Nanka areas.

 

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS (EFFECTS) OF AGULU-NANKA GULLY EROSION, ANAMBRA STATE, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION IN FINLAND — THE PHENOMENON, CONSUMER PROFILES, AND FUTURE SCENARIOS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION IN FINLAND — THE PHENOMENON, CONSUMER PROFILES, AND FUTURE SCENARIOS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

This research introduces eight different types of sustainable consumers and their future scenarios. We profiled consumers from the angles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and egoistic and altruistic motivation. We applied to the Structure of Motivation for Sustainable Choices which is based on the Theory of Interpersonal Behaviour (Triandis, 1977). The qualitative data (n = 37) and quantitative data (n = 1023) were analyzed by mixed methods. The identified consumer profiles were the Uncompromising, the Autocrats, the Curious, the Ambitious, the Bystanders, the Devoted, the Caretakers, and the Dreamers. The quest for sustainable consumption was verified for all the consumer groups.

The Devoted and the Uncompromising are consumers that are strongly aware of the consequences of their consumption. They represent altruistically and intrinsically motivated consumers. From the perspective of marketing and product conceptualizing, it is essential that quality, rather than price, counts for much in several of the consumer groups that are intrinsically motivated.

Extrinsically motivated consumers (the Caretakers, the Dreamers and the Bystanders) account for 53.5% of
Finnish consumers. They represent enormous potential for social change, as they can be influenced in many
ways.

The product or service that appeals many of the identified consumer groups is the one where both the
egoistic and altruistic consequence of consumption coincides. For example, locally produced organic vegetables benefits the local community, food and nutrition promote public health, and consumer choice maintains biodiversity and helps establish global food security.

 

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SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION IN FINLAND — THE PHENOMENON, CONSUMER PROFILES, AND FUTURE SCENARIOS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

 

SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION: ECONOMICS AND ETHICAL CONCERNS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT IN CONSUMER CHOICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION: ECONOMICS AND ETHICAL CONCERNS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT IN CONSUMER CHOICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

The article examines individual action informed by ethical concerns for the environment as a strategy for moving toward more sustainable consumption. The article first employs a model of rational choice to analyze independent consumer choices among the usually assumed self- and welfare-centered consumers and then expands the model to analyze the implications of other than self- and welfare-centered motivations for consumer choice.

The article next analyzes interdependent consumer choices informed by self- and welfare-centered values with the help of a simple game-theoretic model and then moves on to examine the implications of nonutilitarian environmental concerns for interdependent consumer choice in the same game-theoretic framework. The article concludes that although a strategy based on individual action may have limited promise when environmental concerns are widely shared, the case for collective action remains strong because of both efficiency and equity reasons.

 

 

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SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION: ECONOMICS AND ETHICAL CONCERNS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT IN CONSUMER CHOICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT AND THE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT AND THE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

This book is the result of a research project funded by the Fund for Scientific Research—Flanders (Belgium) that looks into strategic environmental assessment as an instrument to develop urban areas more sustainably. This research is carried out at the Environmental Impact Assessment Center, which is part of the Human Ecology Department at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB). In 1975 the VUB instituted a Master of Human Ecology educational program. As the interdisciplinary study of the relationships between the human species and its environment, human ecology is distinct from traditional animal, plant, or microbial ecology in that it recognizes the…

By early in the coming decade, the majority of humankind will be living in cities. For the first time in the two-million-year history of our species, the immediate human environment will be the “built environment.” By some conventional accounts, accelerating urbanization is just another piece of evidence that the human economy is “decoupling” from the environment, that humanity is finally leaving nature and the rural countryside behind. This is a perceptual error. Even as we urbanize, human beings remain dependent on the environment, and cities become the major drivers of global ecological change. Moreover, the sustainability of our cities is…

As a concept, the notion of sustainable urban development is simple, appealing, and an essential component of global sustainability. On a technical level we already have many of the pieces that we need to construct communities that would be much more sustainable than those we inhabit today. We can even identify working examples of urban activities that are more sustainable than the typical ones. However, the incentive structure of regulations, prices, and taxes does not encourage the diffusion of these improved practices. We need to put into place the regulations—such as a tax on carbon emissions—that will create…

 

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SUSTAINABILITY ASSESSMENT AND THE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

CONSUMING VALUES AND CONTESTED CULTURES: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE UK STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

CONSUMING VALUES AND CONTESTED CULTURES: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE UK STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Abstract

The term “sustainable consumption” is subject to many interpretations, from Agenda 21’s hopeful assertion that governments should encourage less materialistic lifestyles based on new definitions of “wealth” and “prosperity”, to the view prevalent in international policy discourse that green and ethical consumerism will be sufficient to transform markets to produce continual and “clean” economic growth. These different perspectives are examined using a conceptual framework derived from Cultural Theory, to illustrate their fundamentally competing beliefs about the nature of the environment and society, and the meanings attached to consumption.

Cultural Theory argues that societies should develop pluralistic policies to include all perspectives. Using this framework, the paper examines the UK strategy for sustainable consumption, and identifies a number of failings in current policy. These are that the UK strategy is strongly biased towards individualistic, market-based and neo-liberal policies, so it can only respond to a small part of the problem of unsustainable consumption. Policy recommendations include measures to strengthen the input from competing cultures, to realize the potential for more collective, egalitarian and significantly less materialistic consumption patterns.

 

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CONSUMING VALUES AND CONTESTED CULTURES: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE UK STRATEGY FOR SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

BUILDING SUSTAINABLE SOCIETIES: A BLUEPRINT FOR A POST-INDUSTRIAL WORLD. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

BUILDING SUSTAINABLE SOCIETIES: A BLUEPRINT FOR A POST-INDUSTRIAL WORLD. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

A collection of articles addressing the issue of whether the industrial model of human progress can be sustained in the long term. It asks what the social, political, economic and environmental implications as well as potential solutions to the problem of resource-intensive growth are.

In the early 1970s, public attention was first focused on the ecological limits to economic growth. A global dialogue about the need for sustainable development began in the 1980s. This collection of previously unpublished articles addresses in a comprehensive fashion the 1990s’ question of whether the industrial model of human progress can be sustained in the long run.

It analyzes the social, political, economic, and environmental implications as well as potential solutions to the problem of resource-intensive growth. Twenty experts consider matters on a global scale, focusing on institutional and value issues, international issues such as Global North vs. Global South, and the debate between growth and development.

The book
–addresses issues from a multidisciplinary perspective;
–suggests realistic responses to the problems of ecological limits;
–provides a variety of fresh alternatives to the non-sustainable growth model that now pervades public discourse;
applies an evolutionary framework to an analysis of building a more sustainable world.

 

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BUILDING SUSTAINABLE SOCIETIES: A BLUEPRINT FOR A POST-INDUSTRIAL WORLD. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND THE IMPORTANCE OF NEIGHBORHOOD: A CENTRAL CITY/SUBURB COMPARISON. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND THE IMPORTANCE OF NEIGHBORHOOD: A CENTRAL CITY/SUBURB COMPARISON. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Abstract

This paper applies urban and environmental sociological theory to survey data on self-reported sustainable consumption practices, using a matched sample of central city and suburban residents in Edmonton, Alberta. We use cluster analysis to create an ordinal typology of four types of consumers, conduct an analysis of variance to characterize the resultant clusters, and perform logistic regression to predict the net effect of urban and neighborhood context on sustainable consumption practices. We find that neighborhood and environmental attitude are the strongest predictors of sustainable consumption practices. We conclude by arguing many sustainable activities are more difficult to incorporate into daily routine when residing in the suburban neighbourhood.

While suburban residents may feel strongly that they should consume less, their geographic location appears to significantly constrain their ability to meaningfully reduce their own consumption. This urban Canadian case study has implications for middle class environmental practices in other North American urban and suburban settings.

 

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SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND THE IMPORTANCE OF NEIGHBORHOOD: A CENTRAL CITY/SUBURB COMPARISON. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

HARNESSING THE POWER OF SCIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: WHY WE SHOULD, WHY WE DON’T, AND HOW WE CAN. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

HARNESSING THE POWER OF SCIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: WHY WE SHOULD, WHY WE DON’T, AND HOW WE CAN. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Abstract

Environmental Law was born out of the new scientific understandings of ecology in the mid-20th century. Although science has historically played a role in environmental law, its role has been more limited than may seem appropriate for an area of law that it so dependent on science to inform sound decision-making. Unfortunately, a number of factors have limited the ability of environmental law to adapt to and incorporate new scientific developments that could greatly improve environmental decision-making.

This article will begin by reviewing the ways in which science is employed in environmental law and the barriers that often inhibit new scientific developments from being used in environmental law. While recognizing that barriers and opportunities exist in a number of legal fora, including in the judicial setting and the legislative setting, this article will focus on barriers and opportunities in the administrative rule-making and policy development setting. To illustrate how legal scholars, lawmakers, environmental agencies, and practicing lawyers have attempting to incorporate new scientific developments into environmental law, particularly in the administrative context, this article will trace the journey of three distinct scientific developments: 1) risk assessment; 2) adaptive management; and 3) energy synthesis, from scientific academia to environmental administrative law. These three scientific developments were chosen because although all three are relatively recent developments, each has had a unique journey and a varying degree of success being incorporated into the law.

Risk assessment has been embraced by regulatory agencies and has become an integral part of environmental law. Adaptive management, on the other hand, while endorsed by scientists and legal academics, has not yet successfully found a home in the law.

 

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HARNESSING THE POWER OF SCIENCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: WHY WE SHOULD, WHY WE DON’T, AND HOW WE CAN. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

PROTECTING LIFE ON EARTH: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCE OF CONSERVATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

PROTECTING LIFE ON EARTH: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCE OF CONSERVATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

Written to be accessible to any college-level reader, Protecting Life on Earth offers a non-technical, yet comprehensive introduction to the growing field of conservation science. This multifaceted exploration of our current biodiversity crisis delivers vivid examples throughout, including features on some of nature’s most compelling wildlife. Beginning with a brief introduction to environmental history, the text introduces the central concepts of evolution and ecology, and covers several major issues related to the conservation of biodiversity including extinction, climate change, sustainability, conservation law, and invasive species.

It also touches on adjacent disciples such as economics and sociology as they relate to conservation. The text even includes practical advice on the decisions we make every day—how we spend our money, where we live and work, what we eat and buy. Throughout, Protecting Life on Earth underscores the ways in which our future is tied to that of Earth’s threatened species, and demonstrates exactly why conservation is so vitally important for us all.

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PROTECTING LIFE ON EARTH: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCE OF CONSERVATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

EQUALITY AMONG UNEQUALS IN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

EQUALITY AMONG UNEQUALS IN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

To deal effectively with global environmental problems, such as climate change, we need global cooperation. Yet all too many developing countries lack the economics, infrastructures, and technical capacity to tackle these problems; therefore, developing countries need to be accorded differential treatment in the international environmental law agreements adopted to prevent or mitigate the problems, if these agreements are to succeed.. This study addresses a very current, cutting-edge, and controversial issue of great importance to international environmental law and its success in protecting a livable planet.

In an attempt to get beyond words to action, this book looks at global environmental problems from the perspective of getting developing countries more involved in solving these problems. How can they best be brought into the realm of international environmental regulation and gotten onto the pathway to sustainable development? The idea is that the new trend of using incentives to promote developing country participation in international environmental agreements – in effect, giving them differential treatment – must continue and become part of the framework of international environment

 

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EQUALITY AMONG UNEQUALS IN INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

THE IMPACT OF STUDENT POPULATION ON RENTAL VALUE AROUND THE POLYTECHNIC NEIGHBORHOOD (CASE STUDY OF RUFUS GIWA POLYTHECNIC OWO). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

THE IMPACT OF STUDENT POPULATION ON RENTAL VALUE AROUND THE POLYTECHNIC NEIGHBORHOOD (CASE STUDY OF RUFUS GIWA POLYTHECNIC OWO). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Tertiary institution is viewed as a magnet in the metropolitan area that attracts people and economic activity towards it (O‟Flaherty, 2005). In recent time the Nigeria government has shown strong commitment to growth in higher education sector by the establishment of more institutions especially polytechnics and the liberalization of its ownership. While this is the focus of the government little or no attention is given to the provision of accommodation in the polytechnic to meet the rising student population. As a result of this majority of the student population take solace in the rental market for alternative accommodation. The demand has resulted in the establishment of niche market because student’s market especially appears to be robust. Hence, Peacocke (1999) opined that the major characteristics of students demand is that it monopolizes the market thereby reducing supply to other tenant groups. For instance, close to 80% of students’ populations of the Rufus Giwa polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State are living in privately rented accommodation. The result of this is a sharp increase in rent since the available housing accommodation even in the rental market are not enough to meet the demand. In the past, houses were completed by landlords or property investors, but today, students struggle to make payment even when such accommodation are yet to be completed.
The landlords and investors exploit this situation and rents are arbitrary fixed and outrageous. Therefore, this study aims at investigating the impact of student population on the rental values around the polytechnic neighborhood.
Polytechnic as a social institution is seen as a great system concerned with imparting knowledge and skills, which help an individual to participate in the society (Ramon-Yusuf, 2003). Babalola and Okediran (1997) views Polytechnic education as that which facilitates creation of knowledge and innovation for the overall socio-economic empowerment of the individual and community development. Historically in Nigeria, majority of the Polytechnics were located at the community outskirts so as to create conducive environment for learning; less difficulty in getting required land size and the minimum financial implication attached. However, these polytechnics including the Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo have enjoyed circumferential expansion in their neighborhoods primarily because of the functions they perform.
A polytechnic may generate different sort of impacts in a neighborhood. The presence of a polytechnic in a derelict area may initiate the transformation of the entire neighbourhood through the action of development, regenerating houses in order to attract students, staff, and those providing support services to live nearby (Perry and Wiewel, 2005). More also, polytechnic can also function completely apart from the surrounding neighborhoods, ignoring social problems (Anamaria and Melchior, 2007).
Anamaria and Melchior (2007) used two concepts to analyze the impacts produced by the presence of a tertiary institution in an area: to include magnets and enclave. The first concept used to describe the impacts of large land owners such as the polytechnic is the “magnet”. In urban terms, magnet represents a concept or metaphor which describes a territory in the metropolitan area which attracts people and economic activity towards it. Polytechnics can be qualified as magnets since they have the power of attracting many students, schools/faculties and staff as well as business and institutional activities to a specified region in a town. Polytechnics, when acting as a magnet, besides attracting uses that promote urban and economic growth, attracts activities regarded as damaging by particular groups in the society (Anamaria and Melchior, 2007). The second concept used to describe the impact of large land owners such as the polytechnics is the “enclave”.

 

THE IMPACT OF STUDENT POPULATION ON RENTAL VALUE AROUND THE POLYTECHNIC NEIGHBORHOOD (CASE STUDY OF RUFUS GIWA POLYTHECNIC OWO). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

THE EFFECT OF REFUSE DISPOSAL ON HUMAN HEALTH IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF BAYELSA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

THE EFFECT OF REFUSE DISPOSAL ON HUMAN HEALTH IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF BAYELSA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background of the study

human health: The importance of living in a clean environment cannot be over-emphasized. Once an environment is free of indecent waste, its impact is usually seen in all aspects of life of individuals having contact with that environment. The focus of this study was to assess the effect of waste disposal practices in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State. The need for effective management of solid waste is an issue that has required public health attention in various parts of the globe. It is of utmost importance to ensure that solid waste products are properly managed in order to prevent the occurrence of attendant problems associated with poor waste management including water contamination, air contamination, increased prevalence of vector-borne diseases, infection spread etc. Improper waste management methods have been shown to contribute to the decrease in the quality of health of a population as a result of environmental health nuisances that have arisen as a result of these poor waste management methods (Oyebode, 2013; Igbinomwanhia et al., 2014; Awajiogak, 2013). These waste products broadly called Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), includes effluents arising from agricultural, industrial, construction, mining and exploration or commercial activities which could be gaseous, solid, semi-solid or liquid in nature; garbage disposed at refuse dumps, abandoned non-functional cars/equipments and all other materials which are regarded as no longer useful. These waste products are however at certain times are not properly disposed or managed which in turn leads to the occurrence of environmental of environmental and public health challenges (Onwughara et al., 2010; Schübeler et al., 1996; Karija et al., 2013). Municipal solid waste management however remains a major environmental health challenge in Nigeria which has been attributed to indiscriminate roadside refuse disposal, open dumping of waste products, a massive unplanned urbanization trend and growth of the population, absence of actionable guidelines as regards refuse dumping and refuse dumpsites, inadequacy in funding, laxity in the practice of effective waste management as well as absence of organized waste management systems etc (Igbinomwanhia et al., 2014; Abah and Ohimain, 2010; Agwu, 2012). An assessment of the urban waste problem in Nigeria has revealed that Nigerian cities were among the dirtiest cities in the world and that over 80% of Nigerians use waste disposal methods that are not in line with World Health Organization standards (Federal Ministry of Environment, 2002). It is noteworthy to state that the government of Nigeria on its own part has played significant roles in ensuring that this menace is curbed through the enactment of regulations and legislations that ensure the practice of adequate waste management.

 

THE EFFECT OF REFUSE DISPOSAL ON HUMAN HEALTH IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF BAYELSA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE (FLOOD) ON HOUSING FOR THE URBAN POOR IN ILAJESOMOLU LOCAL GOVERNMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE (FLOOD) ON HOUSING FOR THE URBAN POOR IN ILAJESOMOLU LOCAL GOVERNMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

INTRODUCTION:

In the past four decades, economic losses due to natural hazards such as, floods disasters have increased in many folds and have also resulted in major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damages (Munich, 2002). Flood could be seen as one of the most common natural disasters in the world. Floods, one of natural hazards result from the potential for extreme geographical events, to create an unexpected threat to human life and property (Smith, 1996). When severe floods occur in areas occupied by humans, they can create natural disasters which involve the loss of human life and property plus serious disruption to the ongoing activities of large urban and rural communities (Smith and Ward, 1998).

However, besides the negative flood impact such as damage to houses and other buildings, loss of life, loss of jobs or income, disruption of the network of social contact, and interruption to normal access to education, health and food services, there can be a variety of positive flood impacts, for instance, increased fertility of agricultural land (Parker et al. 1987). For poorer groups, some of the impacts are very direct, if flood becomes more frequent and hazardous. The urban poor are the most vulnerable socially, economically and physically to the impacts of extreme events and, to the impact of adverse environmental tendencies resulting from climate change such as flood, drought, increasing sea-level etc. Vulnerability, is a critical dimension of poverty, though synonymous with poverty, but refers to defenselessness and insecurity (Idowu, 2011). With the increasing number of urban dwellers worldwide, the number of people at risk or vulnerable to flood hazards is likely to increase. Any increase in disasters, whether large or small, will threaten development gains and hinder the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (UN-ISDR, 2008). Disasters such as flooding, poses serious challenge to the economy of a nation. It must be noted that the economic environment of a nation consists of its financial systems, social welfare, power sector, transportation, investments, commerce, manufacturing, construction and banking among others.

Disasters when they occur usually result in pains and huge losses to the economy and in most cases; it is always difficult to quantify the actual cost of damages and recovery. A single case of disaster such as the one that occurred in Lagos, Nigeria on July 10, 2011 actually destroyed several years of developmental efforts. In flood disaster, there are loss of lives, destruction of public utilities and disruption in the smooth functioning of the system that renders fear and uncertainties among the populace. In addition, there was loss of livelihoods, damage to the environment, financial loss, and diversion of resources, epidemics, migration, food shortages and displacement of the people. The impact can be very high in the urban areas, because the areas affected are densely populated and contain vital infrastructure such as in Ilaje community in Lagos state. A more disturbing issue is the lack of attention to the promotion of sustainable environmental management especially in disaster prone areas resulting in devastations which could have been averted.

 

EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE (FLOOD) ON HOUSING FOR THE URBAN POOR IN ILAJESOMOLU LOCAL GOVERNMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

CHALLENGES OF POOR DRAINAGE SYSTEMS AND FLOODS CONTROL IN LAGOS METROPOLIS, NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

CHALLENGES OF POOR DRAINAGE SYSTEMS AND FLOODS CONTROL IN LAGOS METROPOLIS, NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Flooding is persistent in Lagos Metropolis. The objective of this paper is to ascertain the causes,  magnitude, and effects; and to indicate directions for policy makers and urban dwellers. Topographical maps were used for data collection on the physical environment. Some physical measurements were made of the drainage channels and floods. 2,000 inhabitants of the metropolis were randomly selected and

made to respond to some questions. In addition, authorities in professionally related fields including policy makers were made to make contributions. Intermittent supplies and torrential rainfall in its seasons are usually beyond the capacities of the channels. These are compounded by inadequate planning of the physical environment, wastes dumped in drainage channels and erosion passages, and deliberate or inadvertent physical structures that block free flow of water along the drains. Floods are as wide as 500m and above on each side of the channels and as high as 2.00m at some times and localities. There are some advantages associated with it. Living habits of the inhabitants have to change. Physical planning efforts have to be drastic, radical and deterministic towards sustainable drainage and erosion
channels. There must be massive investment in dredging and re-dredging of the existing drainage network and channelization of the new suburbs. Floodable zones should be re-planned; and flood plains can be rehabilitated as parks and recreation centers

 

CHALLENGES OF POOR DRAINAGE SYSTEMS AND FLOODS CONTROL IN LAGOS METROPOLIS, NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE