THE EFFECT OF INCOMPATIBLE LAND USES IN CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN METROPOLIS)

SYNOPSIS

The central Business District (C.B.D) is the focal point of the city which comprises of all activities such as commercial, social, civic life, cultural and prominent land use.

Majority of the central area of the city provides a wide different of uses serving the needs not only of the towns own residents, but also of people in the neighboring villages or small towns that come within the surrounding of its zone.

It is an area of rapid growth in population, so the demand upon its central area services becomes intensified. Large building are developed while residential buildings are given over to commercial, industrial, education, civic or other non- residential uses.

The above features often create certain problems which may be in compatible with the zoning regulation of an area or it may structurally affect the existing land uses of the area. In view of the above statement, this project will highlight the main reason responsible for incompatible land use in the central area which include poor classification of central area uses, lack of zoning of building use group and the traffic circulation problem(vehicular versus pedestrians traffic). The general existing land use of the study area, impact of government on land use control and management as well as the problems caused by the incompatible. Land uses in the study area, will be discussed and appropriate recommendation will be given.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                      

Certification                                                                  

Dedication                                                                     

Acknowledgement

Synopsis

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE                                                             

1.0     Introduction

1.1     Statement of Problem

1.2     Aim and Objectives

1.3     Significance of the study

1.4     Scope of study

1.5     Limitation of study

1.6     Study Area

1.7     Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Theoretical framework and literature review

2.1     Concentric zone theory

2.2     Sector theory

2.2.1  Neighborhood by homer, Hoyt

2.3     Multiple nuclei theory

2.4     Urban location

2.5     Factor that determine the pattern of land uses

2.6     Review of existing literature

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Preamble [Introduction]

3.1     Method of data collection

3.2     Target population

3.3     Sample frame

3.4     Sample size

3.5     sampling technique

3.6     Data Instrument

3.7     Data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Data presentation and analysis

4.1     Introduction

4.2     Effect of the incompatible land uses in the study area

4.3     Government impact on land use control and management

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, recommendations and conclusion

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendation

5.3     Conclusion

          References

          Appendices

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

According to market beat United States C.B.D. office report 2011, scallywag org.uk website) A city core is after referred to as its central business district (C.B.D). It contains the peak land value which is usually an intersection and is often an area of congestion.

The CBD or central business district is focal point of a city. It is the commercial, office, retail, and cultural center of the city and usually is the center point for transportation networks

THE HISTORY OF THE CBD

The CBD developed as the market square in ancient cities. On market days, farmers, merchants and consumers would gather in the center of the city to exchange, buy, and sell goods. This ancient market is the fore runner to the CBD.

As cities grew and developed, CBDs become fixed location where retail and commerce took place. The CBD is typically is at or near the oldest part of the city and is often near a major transportation route that provided the site for the city’s location, such as a river, railway, or highway.

Over time, the CBD develop into a center of finance and control government as well as office space. In the early 1900s, European and American cities had CBD that featured primarily retail and commercial cores. In the mid 20th century, the CBD expanded to include office space and commercial business while retail too k a back seat. The growth of the sky scraper occurred in CBD making them more and more dense.

THE MODERN CBD

By the beginning of the 21st century, the CBD had become a diverse region of the metropolitan area and included residential, retail, commercial, government, financial is institutions, medical centers, and culture. The experts of the city are often located at work Places of institutions in the CBD- lawyers, doctors, academics, government officials and bureaucrats, entertainers, directors and financiers.

The recent decades, the combination of gentrification (residential expansion) and development of shopping malls as entertainment centers have given the CBD new life. Once can now find, in addition to housing, mega- ,as, theaters, museums, and stadiums. Sam Diego’s Horton plaza is an example of redeveloping the downtown as an entertainment and shopping district. Pedestrian malls are also common today in CBD in an effort to make the CBD a 24hour a day destination for not only those who work in the CBD but also to bring in people to live and to play in the CBD. Without entertainment and cultural opportunities, the CBD is often far more populated during the day than at night as relatively few workers live in the CBD and most do commute to their jobs in the CBD. By matt Rosenberg, (2008)

Hence, the ways in which incompatible of land uses exist between commercial, industrial and residential land use in the central business district of Ilorin metropolis will be examined by taking Tanke area and Taiwo Road as a selected area for the study.

THE EFFECT OF INCOMPATIBLE LAND USES IN CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN METROPOLIS)

THE PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH RURAL HOUSING FINANCE” A CASE STUDY OF ALAPA TOWN, ILORIN EAST ASA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Housing finance is one of the basic needs of every individual, the family and the community in general.

            As a pre-requisite to the survival of a man, it refers to security or safety and ranks second in the physiological needs, otherwise called clothing and food in the Abraham  Maslow’s “Hierarchy of need Theory” propounded in (1976)

            The housing which is a unit of the environment, has a profound influence on the health, efficiency, social behavior, satisfaction, and general welfare of the community.

            It reflects the cultural, social and economic values of a society, as it is the best physical and historical evidence of civilization in a country. The importance of providing adequate housing in any country cannot be overstated, hence it is a stimulant of the national economy.

            In most developed countries, housing sector contributes significantly to the performance of their economy. Increase in the housing market activities usually indicates a strong economy, while a decrease in the market portrays weakness in the economy.

            Governments should therefore encourage and foster the establishment of financial institutions to offer credit for housing development and also adopt such fiscal policies as will ensure that a larger portion of the national wealth is made available for housing development. As a specific case, governments should consider the establishment of housing developments funds or the issue of development stocks for housing. If the postulate that housing is a national social problem is accepted, then the private sector should take its share of the responsibility to supplement and reduce the reliance on governmental efforts.

            Commercial and industrial concerns, and other organization should be made to include in their development programmes, plans for providing for workers, the rural dwellers are not privileged to have access to housing finance system.

            This is as a result of population explosion and continues influx of people. Finance being universally accepted as one of the basic needs of individuals as the second after food that is most important and essential in human life.

            The problem of rural housing finance that serves as impediments to the successful implementation of housing finance and programmes in the study area.

            Housing finance is considered the most important factor of rural area problem in Nigeria, adequate housing finance therefore the first requirement for a new develop area in any nation.

            This is because there are so many problems associated with rural housing finance development such as adequate and effective buildings in the study area, there are some mud structure of building presently which suppose not to be so.The importance of housing finance delivery is stressed by Agboola (1998) who asserted that without a well-organized and efficient housing mechanism, the goals of rural housing finance development policy will be largely in attainable.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

            The problem of rural housing has become on everyday discussion in all quarters of the public and private sectors of the developing countries by J. Abiodun. This is emphasized by Olotuah (2000), that the pooled effect of high population large increase and urbanization in declining economy has thrown Nigeria into serious housing problems.   

            Ironically, the low income groups and poor who constitute the majority in the Nigeria society are most affected by the finance and housing menace.

            In Alapa village, the problem that is being generalized to each household includes;

  1. Lack of pipe borne water
  2. Absence of desence building
  3. Service and facilities, such as access of motor able road apart from the main road.

      In other to provide answer to these problems, some questions must  be raised, these includes;

Why has rural housing finance remained passive and irrelevant in drive toward housing delivery?

Is there any existing superstructure of housing finance that caters for rural housing in the study areas?

How has individuals contributed to the financing of rural areas?

1.3       AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of this study is to examine the problems associated with rural housing finance in Nigeria. In other to achieve this aim, the following objectives where required.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

  1. To identify the types of housing development within the study area.
  2. To examine the sources of rural housing finance.
  3. To investigate the problem of rural housing finance

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

            The relevant of this project is to provide some essential useful information and suggestion to the developer as to the development of rural housing finance in the study area.

            This research project will also serve as useful information to the government tactic sensitized the various level of government to rise up to their responsibilities to provide necessary housing facilities, social services within the study area.

            It will also be of help for students and researcher for further investigation.

1.5       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

            The disciplinary scope of the study is to examine the magnitude of rural housing problem in Nigeria, where the spatial scope is to cover the Alapa Village of Asa Local Government, Kwara State. And the target population are the resident Of Alapa village.

1.6       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

            The smooth execution of this study was hampered by certain constraints.

  1. Adequate information: – The information gathered during the research was not totally received from the villagers, the people living in the village seem to be under informed, some question asked about their own town even seem strange to them as they don’t have any idea of what it entails.
  2. The time limit with into undertaken that study is another limitation where respondent delay in giving information.
  3. Lack of capital or fund to be used in many/various aspects e.g. transportation fees from school to case study and other element that require finance.
THE PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH RURAL HOUSING FINANCE” A CASE STUDY OF ALAPA TOWN, ILORIN EAST ASA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

THE EFFECT OF HIGH COST OF BUILDING MATERIALS ON PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF ILE-IFE IN OSUN STATE)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Table of content                                                       v

Synopsis                                                                  vi

CHAPTER ONE

  1. Introduction
    1. Statement of problem
    1. Aim of the study
    1. Objectives of the study
    1. Significant of the study
    1. Scope of study
    1. Limitation of study
    1. Study area

1.7.1 Locational plan

  1. Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature review and conceptual framework
    • An appraisal of Nigerian’s economic policy on real market
    • Property development process
    • Those involved in real property development
    • Concept of real property development
    • Source of property finance
    • Concept of property investment
    • Factors affecting high cost of building materials

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research methodology
    • The research design
    • Data types and source
    • Instrumentation for data collection
    • Sample frame, sample size and sampling procedure
    • Method of data collection
    • Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data presentation and analysis
    • Trend of building materials prices in the study
    • Types of property along with their rental values
    • Nigerian economic indicators

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1   Summary of findings

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Recommendations

        Bibliography

SYNOPSIS

In any planned economy of the world, the issue of high cost of building material cannot be over-emphasized. There should be a regulatory bodies or agencies of government with the view to achieve harmonic development in real property market in such a way and manner as to promote economic growth and satisfaction to the terming population who invest in this sector of economy as a result of significant role building materials play in real estate, there must be a check to any abnormal rise in such materials being used in other not to cause high cost of building construction

However, due to weakness in regulatory agencies there is an alarming rate of inflationing trend leading to unstable economy in our nation which therefore has an adverse effect on the building industry.

Furthermore, due to the capital that will be part and property development, investor in real estate found it very difficult to build. And as a result there is delay in completion of any project been proposed to the done.

This study is therefore aim at highlighting the various problems with high cost of building materials on real estate development.

It is believed that the result of the study will provides the recommendation which if implemented will ensure effective control of high cost of building materials and enhance property development in real estate sector of our economy.

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

Development has a wide meaning among Architects, Engineers and surveyor. Development has been defined by statute the best known being the town planning laws in Europe America, Africa and else where. The most collaborated of them all, the British town and country planning Act of 1947 has defined “Development building engineering mining of other operations in, on, over or under the land or the making of any materials charge in the use of any building or other land.

In the course of time, the cost of construction of a decent shelter for an average family began to rise, cost of building materials and inflation much more than thus, was the immediate need to contain the over populated urban centres, which were fast charring out ghettos of different sorts. The rise in the population could no longer be match with corresponding rise in the provision of good shelter for the populace majority of the people did not even have enough to live not to mention having money to build their own houses. There, nor arise a problem of providing shelter for the ever-emphasizing population in a depressed economy.

Properly development may be under taken to meet new or an expanding demand as in the case of house building be needed to replace existing assets in order to meet present demand more effectively or the supplant oblate properties.

THE EFFECT OF HIGH COST OF BUILDING MATERIALS ON PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF ILE-IFE IN OSUN STATE)

RURAL MANAGEMENT AS A STRATEGY FOR REDUCING RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN NIGERIA, A CASE STUDY OF AUCHI.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          According to Aniker (1973), rural management is the strategies, policies and programs for the development of rural areas and the promotion and empowering of activities carried out in such areas as rural crafts, fishing, buildings and social infrastructures with the ultimate aim of achieving a fuller utilization of available physical and human resources and yield higher incomes and better living conditions for the rural people and effective participation of the later in the development process.

Nigeria, a country in West African sub-region is blessed with abundant natural and material resources. With an estimated current population of over nine hundred and twenty four thousand (924, 000) square kilometers, Nigeria is unarguably the most populous country in African and one of the largest in terms of geographical area. About seventy percent (70%) of the population depend on agricultural activities for their livelihood and live in rural communities. Currently, over forty million (40,000,000) out of the total population of over one hundred million (100,000,000) people live in urban area. Therefore, the rural area within the geographic entity of the country is whereby majority of the population is found.

The country is passing through a social economic and technological revolution which is separating rural development from merely agricultural development. Rural development and agricultural development have been considered synonymous but agriculture is by no means the only possible occupation for the rural dwellers and therefore there is the need to distinguish between rural management and agricultural development. New and broader views have emerged which distinguished rural lands development and management from merely agricultural development.

          Rural land management is not merely agriculture and economic growth alone but also a strategy, policy and program designed to improve the economic and social life of the people in the rural areas. In this vain, it implies a modernization which would not only increases the productive capacity but also change attitude and need to replace the sense of dependence on the natural environment by the desire and a broody to manipulate it.

          The above assertion reveals that the ambit of rural management is very wide indeed. It therefore includes generation of new employment, more equitable access to arable lands, equitable distribution of income, wide spread  and improvement in health, housing, maintenance of law and order, creation of incentives and opportunities for individuals to realizes their full potentials through education and sharing in the decisions and actions which affect their general lives.

          Rural management has been pursued by rural people themselves, government, different institutions and organizations. Though, in rural management we are primarily concerned with people who are engaged in agricultural pursuits, the peoples’ immediate and pressing problems are not all concerned with food. The most pressing need of the rural people were for more roads, schools, community halls, also good drinking water, rural electrification and industrialization amongst others.

          Hence, rural development has been approached by the government and people in one or more of the following ways:

  1. Provision of incentives and means of raising agricultural productivities.
  2. Providing suitable opportunities for widening the base of gainful employment in the rural areas through such schemes as rural industrialization and other non – farm activities oriented towards local needs.
  3. Providing rural areas with means and facilities (schools, recreation centres, hospitals, pipe borne water, electricity, etcetera) for realizing with an urban standard of living in their places of residence.

Thus, in discussing the objectives of a sound rural management, (Rural Management Authority) RMA noted the following three important features:

  1. Improving the standards of living of the rural population which involves mobilization and allocation of resources so as to reach a desirable balance in relation to the welfare and productive services available to the rural sectors.
  2. Mass participation requires that resources be allocated to low income regions and classes and that the productive and social services actually reach them.
  3. Creation of employment opportunities.

In addition to, some rural management proponents suggest that the major objectives of rural management should be a non–economic goal that is “rural as quality of life” which gives primacy to environmental quality. Other proponents suggest that the “empowerment” of local citizens is the most appropriate goal for rural management activities that require that local people and institutions develop the capacity to manage rural development.

1.2     AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this research is to examine rural management as a strategy for reducing rural–urban migration in Nigerian having Auchi, Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State as a case study.

The objectives of this study are as follow:

  1. To identify the needs why the rural areas should be developed in Nigeria.
  2. To identify rural development programmes /projects available in the study area.
  3. To find out why people in the rural areas migrate to urban areas.
  4. To examine the extent of rural urban – migration.
  5. To identify the general problem faced by the rural population.
RURAL MANAGEMENT AS A STRATEGY FOR REDUCING RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN NIGERIA, A CASE STUDY OF AUCHI.

REAL ESTATE AGENCY PRACTICE IN NIGERIA

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Real Estate agency is essentially a land based profession that deals with the business of buying, selling and leasing of interests in real estate, which may be land or building or the interest therein. Practitioners of this trade are generally addressed as Estate agents in our environment. Considering the importance of housing in mans hierarchy of needs and the huge deficit that exists in the housing sector in Nigeria, Real estate agents generally play a very important role in the socio-economic life of the country, Generally a real estate agent is a person, who possesses the authority to act on behalf of another person with a view to establishing contractual relationship between his principal and a third party. The person, who employs the agent, is usually called the principal (olatunji, 2008)

Commercial activities have been on the increase in Nigeria in the past few years. This is also reflected in the fact that there has been an increase in real Estate activities. The Real estate agency practice has therefore in the recent time  become a business for all comers; mechanics, market men, lawyers, taxi driver etc. The practice of real estate Agency in Nigeria at present remains largely unorganized, unregulated and unprofessional. Apart from the Nigeria Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers that has set standards for its practice by its members i.e the Estate Surveyors

 and Valuers, the large majority of those who practice estate agency do so without the basic training in that field, without any certification or qualification, without any regulation and largely in an unprofessional manner (Gambo & Ashen, 2012) 

In Nigeria, Section 25&26 of Decree 24 of 1975 empowers the Estate Surveyor and Valuer in carrying out operations as an estate agent. The organized body recognized for the regulation of practice is the Estate Surveyors and Valuers Registration Board of Nigeria (ESVARBON). However, the Corporate Affairs Commission (CAC), body statutorily empowered for registration of every business outfit in the country, regards estate agency as a business concern and classifies it under general business practice (Akomolede, 2006; Oni, 2009).

The agency practice is regarded as an all comers’ affairs as lawyers, engineers, accountants and even laymen learned in numeric details carry out this operation. An expression has become synonymous with the estate surveying profession calling every other profession dabbling into agency as quacks. However, there are no clear cut-out edicts granting the estate surveyor and valuer the exclusive preserve of operation even when series of protest has been made to that effect.( Iroham et al, 2011)

A multiplicity of local estate agents associations exists but these are essentially local bodies without the right structure, leadership or plan to advance the practice of real estate agency beyond the parochial interest of the founders (Hemuka, 2002).

The real estate agency is one major and vital aspect of estate management practice that deserves some level of decorum and adequate attention to be given to it so as to ensure that real estate agency practice in Nigeria maintains its course, goals, vision, mission and objectives with regards to the real estate market.

1.1     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Real estate agency practice in Nigeria like other countries of the world contribute massively to housing delivery system for residential and commercial purposes. It helps to meet as well as cater for the accommodation, office space, and shop demand of people. Due to the important roles real estate agents play in housing and accommodation delivery sector of the economy, in recent times real estate agency has experienced the influx of untrained and unqualified agents in the real estate practice. So many people have become victims of fraud and other related activities that are not internationally regarded as best practices from the hands of some of these agents who go about duping genuine property seekers, which has been the reason for calls from many quarters on the need to professionalize the profession in Nigeria. Identifying the challenges associated with real estate agency in Nigeria will benefit not just the consuming public but also the practitioners.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of the study is to examine the challenges associated with Real estate agency practice in Ilorin, Nigeria

  1. To assess the various types of agency practice in the study area.
  2. To examine the system of real estate practice in the study area.
  3. To examine the challenges associated will real estate agency practice in the study.
  4. To recommend a reasonable  solution to the challenge above  

1.3     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is to examine the challenges associated with real estate agency practice in Ilorin, the study will cover the activities of real estate agency professionals (The Estate Surveyors and Valuers) in Ilorin in dealing with real estate agency practice considering the policies been set aside to guide practice of real estate agency in the country with the aid of administering questionnaires to sample the opinion of selected Professionals.

REAL ESTATE AGENCY PRACTICE IN NIGERIA

PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THE MANAGEMENT OF LOW INCOME RESIDENTIAL HOUSING ESTATE (A CASE STUDY OF OLOFA HOUSING ESTATE OFFA)

SYNOPSIS

Housing as a form of property investment required proper management and maintenance in order to ensure a better – standard of living. The inadequacy of good management can however resulted to serious problems that could redness estate life cycle.

Management strategies in this respect are meant to be objectives, plans and policies carefully set up to ensure or to achieve a desirable result. In the course of management; contrary of general belief, management entails more than mere rents collection.

It thus involves finding tenants, arranging, preparing leases, then dealing with the maintenance weather for a landlord or tenants account.

In this research work, effort would be examine the existing management and maintenance procedure of housing estates with a focus on Olofa housing estate and to look into the management problems that effect the living standard of the inhabitant of case study.

The dissertation also looks into the effective measures that should be taken to ensure the housing units provided for the tenant/inhabitant are well managed and preserve to enhance their aesthetic and capital value.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

1.1     Statement of problem

1.2     Aim and Objectives

1.3     Significance of the study

1.4     Scope of the study

1.5     Limitation of the study

1.6     Study area

1.7     Location plan

1.8     Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review

2.1     Concept of property management

2.2     Property management functions

2.3     Basic management functions

2.4     Management policies and administration of the estate

2.5     Objectives of low cost housing estate

2.6     Housing facilities within the estate

2.7     Strategies for effective management challenges or problem of management

2.8     Challenges of Property Management

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Methodology

3.1     The research design

3.2     Data presentation analysis

3.3     Instrumentation for data collection

3.4     Method of data analyses

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Brief History of the case study

4.1     Evaluation of the case study

4.2     Data interpretation and analysis of result

4.3     Survey and presentation of data

4.4     Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

          References

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Housing has been universally accepted as one of the basic needs of every individual, family and the community at large. It is a matter of fact more than mere shelter as it cuts across all the social services and utilities that makes a community a conducive environment.

Problems of housing are not restricted to quantity of the available units. Most of the housing estates are now in more deplorable conditions with poor and inadequate facilities and services. While many building structures are obsolete waiting for renewal others are weakened rapidly depreciated due to lack of repairs. The maintenance culture has been noted poor and inadequate this resulting in a continual loss of their usefulness and value.

The provision of housing estate is one thing the management of the unit to another. It is unfortunate to note that a lot of problems have been identified with the management of low income residential housing estate that requires prompt and urgent solutions.

Also, the provisions which were made to ease the weight of the accommodation problems in the urban areas have now ended up as a heavier burden on the inhabitants of the estate: poor management and ineffective implementation of policies are identified in the study as major constraints.

The process of management procedure are usually neglected equally, the authority charged with the responsibilities of ensuring that the housing estates exist to achieve their stated objectives are sometimes over – strained with the burdens of management therefore a lot are left undone. The functions letting, rent collection, repairs and social welfare that are meant to bring housing authorities and the occupiers into association are not consistently efficient.

This study has tried to dwell much on the need for adequate supervision and efficient management procedure necessary to achieve an optimum result. It also examines the deplorable conditions of the features constituting housing units and suggest possible solutions and recommendations towards a standardized and decent housing environment, in our housing estates especially those for the low income earners.

According to Dakhil (1978) proper housing is an important need for every human being. The proper utilization of his resources and economic well being greatly depend on the type of accommodation he has been provided with. However, a man’s income can justify his accommodation and if this is low he has to be happy with a low cost house.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM     

Management of housing estate goes beyond examining physical condition of the property only but basically how function does all the facilities put in place is.

The estate is now in more deplorable and bad condition of management due to lack of repairs and maintenance of the estate which resulted to loss in usefulness and value of the estate.

PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THE MANAGEMENT OF LOW INCOME RESIDENTIAL HOUSING ESTATE (A CASE STUDY OF OLOFA HOUSING ESTATE OFFA)

PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH RURAL HOUSING IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF IGBO-OWU IN IFELODUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN ILORIN)

SYNOPSIS

The importance of housing to man cannot be over emphasized, because housing is one of the three basic needs of mankind right from the time of early man.

This point can be generalized till date virtually all federal government initiatives targeted at improving the lives or rural dwellers have failed due to poor planning, corruption and avarice by government officials and their collaboration.

Therefore, it is not surprising that the country side national wide has remained rustic and undeveloped all those years.

For example, epileptic electricity supply which is a general; problem in Nigeria is worse in Gbo-Owo area and other villages around, and also lack of motor able roads and portable water supply is a serious problem in rural areas in Nigeria.  

Because of inadequate road network, many farmers go through hell to evacuate their farm produce from the farms.

Most these problems mention above are major problems facing people in Igbo-Owu, Ifelodun Local Government Area.

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION
    1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Housing is a physical structure used for shelter; it includes all equipment, facilities and amenities needed for healthy living of the occupants. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory propounded in (1976).

Decent housing is one of the basic needs for every individual in the family and community in general.

As a pre-requisite to the structure which may be refers to security or safety and rank second in the physiological needs, otherwise called clothing and food in (Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory 1976).

To a great extent, the difficulties examine by housing problem becomes over whelming in recent years. Housing is one of the paramount necessities of humanity. University it reflects the culture, and life style of the society. In addition, housing either in unit or multiple forms is an important component of the physical form and structure of a community, while the human and family occupants of the house are part of the living souls and prosperity of the society, (Wahab 1983).

Agboola (1998) described housing as a unit of the environment having pronounced influence on the health, social behavior, satisfaction and general welfare of he community. If reflects the cultural, social land economics value of a society as it is the best physical and historical evidence of civilization in a country (Agboola 1998).

The importance of providing adequate housing in any country cannot be over emphasized. It is a stimulant of national economy. Housing is more distinct form just shelter or rood over one’s head.

It is for protection form climate element like rain, sun ideal disposal of household and human waste. There should be sufficient space for wealthy living and privacy security of tenure of occupancy, provision and availability of space and clean drinking water should be provided, affordability and access to place of employment, healthcare, recreation and educational services. A housing frame work will the above mention characteristics is regarded as an adequate housing. In addition, a decent house can be regarded as the right of every individual. A great proportion of the populations of the Nigeria live in sub-standard and poor housing and in deplorable unsanitary residential environment (Aubvivis 1975).

In Nigeria, the housing difficult particularly of low income earner have been complicated by condition peculiar to developing countries with rapid growth, inflate real estate values, speculative activity, influx of poor immigrants and clack of planning (Wahab 1983).

Furthermore, housing is one of the bases of human needs; provision of houses through the creation of mortgage is taken for granted in developing countries, especially in sub-Salinayor Africa (Ovuwone 1992).

All government in Nigeria since independence high lighted housing as a major priority. Unfortunately for over 50 years of its independence Nigeria is yet to develop a vibrant mortgage market and houses continue to be provided through the tortuous traditional method of buying land and building over since years, which could be an individual entire lifetime. In many cases, such are left uncompleted or individual have to deplete their entire life saving in order to build a home.

Looking at the statistics, we see that there are tremendous opportunities in the Nigeria Looking at the statistic; we see that there are tremendous opportunities in the Nigeria housing sector waiting to be tapped. We should note that the government alone can not fill the gap, we should have to leverage on the resources available in the private sector while also encouraging foreign investment. Government (federal and the sub-natural government) should focus on providing a favourable investment climate, infrastructure and mortgage insurance to first time home buyers and how to middle income families. We must however note that there are challenges to harnessing the huge potentials inherent. In Nigeria housing sector and invariably providing affordable housing in Nigeria.

 It is necessary to study the problems associated with rural housing in Nigeria because housing is of great importance to man. Thus the study will enable us to examine more problems associated with rural housing in Nigeria, and rural areas.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem of rural housing has become an everyday discussion in all quarters of the public and private services of the developing countries.

This is emphasis by Onibokun (1996 and Nubi 1991) that the shortcoming are inadequate housing provided for people which indicate that the number of housing provision is very low to that number of the inhabitants available in the area.

In Igboowu services and facilities such as electricity which is generally a problem in Nigeria has become worse in rural areas, also absence of portable water supply and motor able roads absence of decent building and generally in adequacy of facilities.

Likewise, in Igboowu inadequate electricity, lack of good roads

Some question must be raised in order to provide the answer to the problem.

  1. Why has rural housing system remained passive?
  2.  Why is the socio-economic development having impact of the rural housing?
  3. Is there any existing structure of housing that caters for rural housing in Nigeria?

1.3    AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of the study is to examine the problem of rural housing in Nigeria. To achieve this aim the under listed objectives are set to be pursued.

  1. To identify the types of houses within the study area
  2. To know rural housing condition.
  3. To examine the types of infrastructural facilities within the study area.
  4. To examine the problem associated with rural housing and provide and appropriate recommendation to the problem.
PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH RURAL HOUSING IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF IGBO-OWU IN IFELODUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN ILORIN)

AN EVALUATION OF ABANDONED HOUSING PROJECTS IN KWARA STATE ( A CASE STUDY OF OMU-ARAN TOWN ,KWARA STATE)

SYNOPSIS

An abandoned housing project is a construction and development work on site of the project that has been terminated for the preceding 6 months or months or more. Such termination has either occurred consecutively or occurred during the period within which the project must be completed or beyond the required completion period.

Abandoned of housing projects during construction is a prevailing problem that the housing sector in omu-aran town, Kwara state has been experiencing, and the issue of abandoned housing project is a matter of grave importance in Kwara state.

Therefore, the research seek to focus on the causes of abandoned housing in omu-aran town, in achieving thus aim of the study, the following objectives are, to identify the causes of abandoned houses within the study area, to identify the causes of abandoned housing projects and to determine the effects of projects abandonment within the study area.

The research design that will be adopted on this project is survey design and the target population on this research is basically people residing at the study area, developers, government agencies and professionals.  The methods of data collection that will be adopted for this research are secondary sources. i.e journals, internet, past project and text books, and primary sources, I. E oral interview, questionnaire and personal observation. The method that will be use to analyze data will be in table, charts, and other statistical method.

CHAPTER ONE

  1.   Background To The Study

1.1     Introduction

    Abandonment of housing projects is considered one of the most common and serious problems facing omu-aran town, Kwara state. It affects not only the immediate purchaser but also other projects players and the general public.  Sometimes it involves expending public fund to revive abandoned housing projects. (Bavani, 2009)

            The unceasing abandonment of development housing  projects is so shocking in the developing town such as that omu-aran town, Kwara state has remained one of the town in such difficulty, therefore, the significance that the incessant abandonment of projects would bring several effects on real properties and it’s values and the economy can not be overemphasized since some of the development projects provide the basic services that should enhance the real properties developed. The abandonment of development project is the act of discounting or any discontinuing any activities or maintenance works on such development project within a time frame of the contract agreement and with no intention of returning back to the development while reflecting on property development projects suggests that it is when the owner or developer is ceasing to provide the required maintenance management to a development or a developed property.

             A project may be abandoned at any stage of the life cycle and incur significant amount of loss.  For a housing projects, the ministryof housing and local government considers tat is has been abandoned if,

  1. There has been no substantial activity on site for six (6) consecutive months.
  2. It is involved in a winding up petition registered at the town planning authority.

        A real property developed project (housing estate or building) though amongst the development projects, whether it be tangible or intangible should be capable of having values, as well as having the right of possession, it must be noted that all the construction projects are completed on time or ahead of schedule. It is also not uncommon for construction projects to be delayed, or in the worst scenario even abandon due to various reasons aforementioned. Although, development projects are temporary endeavors undertaken to create a unique product and services with a define beginning and ending date (Gardner, 2005). The accomplishment of such purposes should be realized at least times otherwise needless of such development (Gardner 2005).

 The causes and effects of the development projects abandonment are not just peculiar to a reason rather cut across several reasons (Ayodele  and Alabi, 2011) and as well as creating a total dwindling effect on the values of developed properties located close and within the vicinity.  The expected prominence of any earmarked development projects is to be completed, while at the same time, adding values to built environment aesthetic.

            However, real property development projects being a capital intensive undertaking should be critically analyzed to ascertain its feasibility and viability before embarking on it. But on several occasions and had been observed governments, contractors and agencies have abandoned development projects mid-way into construction and completion.

Therefore, the study purpose is to investigate and evaluate the causes and effects of development housing project abandonment. Hence the objectives of this study is to; Identify the abandoned houses projects within the study area, to identify the causes of abandoned housing projects and to determine the effects of abandonment of within the study area. There is need for a research that will investigate the causes of abandoned construction projects and this can be acquired from questionnaire, survey, semi-structured interview involving the key players  ( I.e Developers, contractors and consultants)  covering housing projects.  This will allow for more comprehensive view of the problem of abandoned project in omu-aran town.

1.2       Statement Of The Problems

            Concerning the production of housing in omu-aran, the private developers have been allocated development areas which have been identified by the local government authorities for housing development. The allocation for housing development by the local government authorities is made via development plans, such as structural plans or local plans. This means that land supply for housing development in omu-aran has been allocated the local authority, and developers initially have to select on site which has been allocated for housing.

            Therefore, the developers have to study the market before making a decision on any housing development and have to select a suitable site within the area which has been allocated.

            Nevertheless, the existence of abandoned housing projects in omu-aran where the home buyers have suffered and has jeopardized the housing industry and contributed to the housing industry problem. One can see that the existence of abandoned housing problems should be considered seriously. These problems may also influence the housing stock available in the market, thus affecting the supply.

            The existence of abandoned housing projects could affect the credibility of the relevant authority that is involved in giving approval for housing development.

For this reason, this research will evaluate the abandonment of housing problems, specially the causes of abandoned housing projects in omu-aran town, Kwara state.

1.3       Aim And Objectives

The aim of this study is to focus on the causes of abandoned housing projects in Kwara state, a case study of omu-aran town.  In achieving aimof the study, the following objectives are;

  1. To identify the abandoned housing projects within the study area.
  2. To identify the causes of abandoned housing projects.
  3. To determine the effects of projects abandonment within the study area.
AN EVALUATION OF ABANDONED HOUSING PROJECTS IN KWARA STATE ( A CASE STUDY OF OMU-ARAN TOWN ,KWARA STATE)

PROBLEM AND PROSPECTS OF CONVERSION OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS TO COMMERCIAL USES A CASE STUDY OF BODE THOMAS STREET IN SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, LAGOS.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Content

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Introduction

1.1   Statement of Problem/Justification for the study

1.2   Aim and Objectives

1.3   Significance

1.4   Scope of study

1.5   Limitation of study

1.6   Study Area (Historical Background)

1.7   Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.0   Conceptual/Literature Reviews

2.1   Concept of Property

2.2   Factors Influencing Changes in the Land Use Pattern

2.3   Factors Influencing changes in the Land Values

2.4   Social Economic Implication of the Changes in use of the Properties.   

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Research Methodology

3.1   The Research Design

3.2   Data, Types and Sources

3.3   Instrumentation of Data Collection

3.4   Sample frame, Sample size and Sampling procedure

3.5   Method of Data Collection

3.6   Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1   Data Presentation and Analysis

4.2   Nature of the use conversion

4.3   Factor Influencing the Conversion of Residential Building to Commercial Building in the Study Area.

4.4   Problems/Effect of Conversion of Residential Building to Commercial Building in the Study Area.

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1   Summary

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Recommendation

        Bibliography

        Appendixes

SYNOPSIS

        There has been a gradual but steady change of land use pattern from residential to commercial use in Bode Thomas Street in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State in the recent time.

        The aim of this study is to determine the likely cause of this change and what are the problem usually associated with this type of changes. Is it as a result of demand and supply vis-à-vis the present economic and investment climate in Nigeria today? The study will also examine the prospects and causes of changes in use of the property so as to be able to use this project to predict the future of the study in terms doing thorough analysis and field oriented results on property use and values.

        Lastly, recommendation/conclusion will be preferred for the identified problems.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

        Land resources are fixed in location and in supply. Virtually all human activities require land. From the large scale industrial complex the supra metro-line, the traditional market to the roadside Cobbler’s shop all require land in varying dimensions (Agboola, 2004). On the surface of the land, beneath it and hanging above it are all traces of human activities which go a long way to say that land is perhaps the single most important element in development and mankind’s most basic natural resources.

        Because of the diverse needs of different human activities with respect to location and area coverage and the temporal dynamism of the location attributes and need of these human activities, there is often the intense competition for land. However, land is practically limited in supply and the awareness of land as an irreplaceable finite resource has made its care.

        Development in mainly cities starts from the centre as the benefits of inner city location’s attract several land uses towards the city centre. This has significantly influenced land use on urban centres. There is a traumatic change in land use caused by several human activities competing for scarce land in urban centres. The person who is prepared to pay the highest sum for a site is likely to eventually occupy it. Such individual will be able to successful edge out other potential users. By this operation, sites in an urban area will tend to be used for that purpose for which the user makes the highest net gain from alternative uses of that site. This would result in the highest and best use for that land. This scenario has made changes in land use, as part of urban growth inevitable. Land and buildings will continue to witness conversion of use from a lower order to a higher one in order to attain optimal use. The concern of this project is to investigate the level of conversion of land use and their implications in Nigerian cities with a focus on Bode Thomas Street Surulere Local Government, Lagos (Agboola 2004).           

1.1   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

        The land use changes coupled with higher demand for commercial uses led to the continuous increase in rent in the study area. The returns realized from the properties used for commercial purpose is greater than that of properties used for residential purpose. Due to this greater returns most residential property owners prefer their property to be used for commercial.

        Another is indiscriminate dumping of refuse along roads (thus causing road encroachment) and also on storm drainage systems and designated open space causing blockage, air and water pollution.

1.2   AIM AND OBJECTIVES

        The aim of this project is to examine the problem and prospects of conversion of residential building to commercial building taking Bode Thomas Street in Surulere local government area of Lagos state as a case study.

        In order to achieve the set goals of this study or project, few steps of objectives will be undertaking: –

(i)     To identify the residential properties converted to commercial properties in the study area.

(ii)    To examine the values of residential and commercial properties for the past 10 years.

(iii)   To know the problems and prospects of conversion of residential buildings to commercial uses.

(iv)   To study the trend in rental values in the study area.

PROBLEM AND PROSPECTS OF CONVERSION OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS TO COMMERCIAL USES A CASE STUDY OF BODE THOMAS STREET IN SURULERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, LAGOS.

MANAGEMENT OF INSTITUTIONAL HOUSING ESTATE (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN STAFF QUARTERS AT UMARU AUDI, ROAD GRA ILORIN)

SYNOPSIS

        It has been shown that institutional properties like staff quarters. Students hotels, among others are always not property managed. This has direct effect on the life span of the building it is, therefore, the aim of this dissertation to analysis how institutional properties are being managed, to combat the various problems confronting management of institutional property.

        An institutional property is a type of property eligible for special treatment within package policies. This can include religious or charitable organizations, hospital and educational institutions. 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTORY BACKGROUND

1.1   INTRODUCTION

        Right from time, food, clothing and shelter have been the three most basic requirement of man of all these three requirements, food and clothing are two which influence man’s life more than the house in which they seeks shelter, security comfort and dignity.

        Education is very important in our societies, the teaming population and continuous dearth of resources for the provision of real properties especially in our tertiary institution of learning the need for the effective management of our available properties became more pronounced and cumbersome putting the management skills of the present property managers to task.

        In recent time, total student enrolment into our various universities, polytechnics, colleges of education etc have increased several folds above their original projected capacity without a corresponding development of facilities to meet the demand. While it is a fact that there is a significant relationship between intensity of use and the rate of deterioration of real properties. It is also a fact that sound property management policies and its proper implementation could make the difference. Social scientist and educational have shown great concern on the nature of relationship between staff and their working environment and they are unanimous on the fact that conducive environment has a positive bearing on the ability of a staff to perform all things being equal.

        Thus, it is very important to mention that the main aim of property managers in the management of educational properties should be to enhance the welfare of both the students, teaching staff and other supporting staff by ensuring that these properties are designed, constructed and maintained in sound, functional aesthetic and structural condition.

        It is very important to put our institutional properties in a better use in order to make the environment conducive for learning and other activities.

1.2   STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

        The deplorable conditions of most properties in our educational institution has been a subject of concern to both the government, student, educationalist and all progressive minded people alike. This appealling situation apart from being and affront to the dignity of the nation has been traced to have a significant contribution to the rapid and falling standard of education in Nigeria as student, lecturers and other supporting staff are often subjected to working, studying or living in structures/environment which could  be described as pathetic.

        Despite the billions of naira voted annually for the development and maintenance of these educational facilities. They are quite often poorly managed and this had led to the rapid deterioration of landed properties and infrastructure in most of our educational institutions.

1.3   SIGNIFICANCE

        It is helped that the findings of this study will be published in learned journals and be disseminated through media for the management of institutional estate in Nigeria.

–       To emphasis on how our institutional properties should be properly managed to enhance their life span.      

–       To be used has a foot step on how a property can be well maintained or managed.

–       The research work should be use in utilizing a new housing policies and encourage their implementation.

–       It serves as a reference point for other researcher who may be interested in the same research work.

MANAGEMENT OF INSTITUTIONAL HOUSING ESTATE (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN STAFF QUARTERS AT UMARU AUDI, ROAD GRA ILORIN)

IMPACT OF URBAN GROWTH ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF UPPER PART OF GAA-AKANBI ILORIN SOUTH L.G.A KWARA STATE)

ABSTRACT

The term residential property are building constructed to locate for shelter (i.e. to living) for both man and animal, after the day work, own is expected to sleep under his shelter for refreshment of the brain. Examples of residential property are duplex, bungalow and castle.

        The morphology of any town or city in its past and present population determine the nature of social and economic activities in that town urban area search of sites thereby concentrate more workers, building and residential activities into the area. Increase in the number of people who live in urban and also the diffusion of urban life to every habitable world would be seen as one of the characteristics features of modern day life which made it necessary for the study of urban growth so as to examine why it occur, what happen, when it occurs and what impact does it have on residential property values.

        Urban growth is in no doubt associated with some inherit problem which calls for an effective control that will serve as a guide to uplift the living standard of the citizen. These problems can as well be equated or compared to those prevailing in other places. It is therefore hoped that the findings of this project will help both the government investor and their likes appreciate the impact growth and also enable the government to plan ahead.

OBJECTIVES

        The aim of this research is to find out or throw more lightly on the growth problem and prospects of small scale industry in Nigeria.

        The objectives of the projects is primarily to find out the growth problems and prospects confronting small scale industry in Oyo State with a case study of Taotech Quarry and Mining Nigeria Limited Ibadan.

        The study will recommend ways and means of eliminating these problems with a view to achieving was given to small scale industries because I have considered carefully the nature of the state. Industries are just spring up, there are very few large scale industries where as small scale industries are very much and could be found in urban and rural areas. The project is being strutted in to five different chapters which are:

        Chapter one contain, introduction of the study, statement of problems, objective of the study, scope of the study. Limitation of the study, plan of the study, definition of concept and term.

        Chapter two contain, literature review, definition of small scale industry, importance of small scale industry, sources of finance for small-scale industry, characteristics of small business firms in Nigeria, problem facing small-scale industry, I-low small-scale industry can be growth and develop in Nigeria.

        Chapter three also contain, Research methodology, area of study, population of study, sample size and sampling procedure, method of data collection, source of data collection, statistical tool applied data analysis

        Chapter four will also contain Result and discussion, demographic characteristics of the respondents. Chapter five also contain, conclusion of the study, recommendation of the study

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Content

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction

1 .1   Statement of the problems

1 .2   Objective of the study

1.3    Scope of the study

1.4    Limitation of the study

1.5    Plan of the study

1.6    Definition of concept and term

1.7    Historical background of Taotech

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    Definition of small-scale industry

2.2    Importance of small-scale industry

2.3    Source of finance for small-scale industry

2.4    Characteristics of small business firms in Nigeria

2.5    Problem facing small-scale industry

2.6    How small-scale industry can

        be grow and develop in Nigeria

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Area of study

3.2    Population of the study

3.3    Sample size and sampling procedure

3.4    Method of data collection

3.5    Source of data

3.6    Data collection

3.7    Statistical tool applied data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    RESULT, DISCUSSION AND DEMOGRAPHY

4.1    Results and discussion

4.2    Demographic characteristics of the respondents

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Summary of the study

5.2    Conclusion of the study

5.3    Recommendation of the study Reference

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

        Many people have the anonymous belief that Nigeria can become industrialized only through the establishment of large industries. But if one should look critically in to the industries development of the economically developed countries it shows that for a genuine industrial take off in a number and improving the performance of indigenous owned small-scale industries, In the investigation of the entrepreneurial phenomena Enmill (1934) observed that the characteristics features of an entrepreneur include direction supervision, control and risk taking. It is affinity for risk, which distinguishes him from the manager. But according to Schumpeter (1934) emphasized innovation rather than risk taking as the most important distinction between the two. In his opinion an entrepreneur’s goal broadly defined, is to develop new product or services as well as new method of production identify new market, discover new sources of supply and develop how organization forms.

        It is no gain saving that the industrial section has contributed immensely, to the economics and social development in Nigeria, the importance of the small-scale industries has been recognized by the federal government of Nigeria claimed that play especially to the creation of employment opportunities, mobilization of local resources and the diminution of rural-urban migration.

        Small-scale industries are indispensable in the national economy. Since large scale industries depend on it. Hence the path to rapid economic development will depend to a large extent on the efficiency of this sector.

        Therefore, the importance of the industrial sector in modern economic is universally accepted the developing countries have since 1990’s. Shown greater interest in the promotion of the growth of small scale industries (SSI) for three main reasons.

(a) The failure of past industrial police, which anchored on the establishment of large firms to generate self sustaining growth.

(b) Increased emphasis on self reliant to development and greater attention paid to aspect of development other investment and output growth.

(c) This other elements of growth small-scale industry sector (SSI) contribute to include more economic use of resources more employment creation p unit of capital investment. Mobilization of domestic savings bar investment, development, great utilization of level resources and more equitable income distribution. Another justification for the interest, in the experience that growing and dynamic small enterprises have growing in to large ones and have contributed substantially to national development objectives.

1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        All over the World, inadequate access to finance is one of the major objectives inhibiting the establishment and growth of small business firms.

        The finance problem of the small business firm is more serious in the developing countries than in the developed countries in developing countries like Nigeria.

        There is need for improved ways of financing the small business firms but at the same time the needs are difficult to satiety.

        For a very long time now the medium and large scale firms, have been receiving more financing alternation at the expense of the small firms.

1. While the Nigeria industrial development bank (NIDB) and the Nigeria Bank for Commerce and Industry (NBCI) reserve their financial assistance for the medium and large scale enterprise, the small business firms cannot be said to have such special development institution set up solely to cater for their finance needs. It was until 1973 that the Nigeria Bank for Commerce and Industry under took the responsibility of channeling and coordinate loans and credit to small business firms. Since then, the Nigeria Bank for Commerce and Industry has been playing the role of an apex institution.

2. The small scale industries in Nigeria have other problems apart from that of finance; managerial inefficiency is one of such problems. Other include lack of infrastructural facilities, mobility to attract skilled manpower poor making facilities and inaccurate accounting records keeping, this study will however focus attention on the problems of growth and development facing small scale industries.

        The small scale industries are faced general with three types of financial needs.

(a) The need for initial capital

(b) Working capital once the firms is in operation

(c) Capital for expansion

3. Apart from these financial needs the small scale industries have difficulty in securing long term equity finance, obtaining greater protection from the calling of loans and security funds in small amount at lower rates?

4. In light of the discussion small scale industries should not be allowed die because of financial inadequacy. Their survival is of great importance to the country since the majority of firms in the Nigeria business sector are mostly small scale in nature. Moreover many large scale business of today are off show of yesterday small firms.

IMPACT OF URBAN GROWTH ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF UPPER PART OF GAA-AKANBI ILORIN SOUTH L.G.A KWARA STATE)

IMPACT OF URBAN GROWTH ON COMMERCIAL PROPERTY INVESTMENT (A CASE STUDY OF OFFA METROPOLIS)

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

Urban areas are very much human invention which main has evolved as a means of organizing his existence.

In course of time, settlement grew in size and complexity thus, it was observed by “learn and Goodall” (2002) that “the development or urban areas and the increasing proportion of man’s ability to fashion the physical, economic and social world in which he lives”.

However, distinction must be making between factors bringing about a general growth in urban population and urban areas throughout a nation and those which cause the growth of a particular urban area. Thus, these are those by economic and non-economic factors.

In essence the nature of existing economic activities in Offa metropolis i.e. shops, offices, filling station, small scale industries, poultry gardens, garages, shop building converted to nursery and primary school, market, filling station federal polytechnic, private college of education, school of navy etc have brought a guide the size and character of their  respective income; and their population-number brings a guide to their consumption and land use pattern because the seeds for urban growth are very much contained in their urbanization itself. Also with an increase in real income

Couple with the limits growth of urbanization in Offa Metropolis, in relation to their economic activities especially in Offa Metropolis has additional people from different place to settle down there. With this increase in population it has brought an additional supply of foodstuff in needed to support the percentage of their total population area.

1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

National prosperity as explained by Jackson (2003) depends on considerable extent upon adequate functioning of the economic accomplishment and the social achievement of its urban area.

Thus, with the presence of quietness and some other noticeable activities as mentioned above have brought an unprecedented in dome other states. So this rapid growth on the Offa Township has brought about lots of pressure on the demand for landed property and commercial properties if compared with other sub-urban areas with the state.

In the light of this, that this study is designed to examine the effect of urban growth on commercial property investment in Offa Metropolis.

1.2   AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The topic aim to examining the causes and the impacts of urban growth on the commercial property investment in Offa Metropolis, Ilorin. The following objectives are to be considered.

  1. To examine what brought about urban growth in Offa Metropolis
  2. To examine the rate of urban growth in Offa Metropolis
  3. To examine to what extent has the urban growth favour commercial property investment in Offa Metropolis (Kwara State).
  4. To examine other influence and problems caused by the urban growth.
  5. To suggest possible solutions to the problems identified.

1.3   SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The scope is to highlight the impact of the urban growth on commercial property investment in Offa Metropolis. [1] The difficulties encountered during this research were basically on data collection; thus, this has been described as the most tedious, pain and in some area cases frustration so to say [2]. Also inability to obtained the data at the material time contribute to the researcher’s problem which is the back borne for the success of this project [3]. In addition, is the difficulty encountered in tracking down the corners in Offa Metropolis (Kwara State).

In fact, for any research of this nature as a relatively long period of sustained concentration is very vital.

In a nutshell, the researcher’s has rather suffered much interrupted due to above listed reason.

However, despite all odds, the various information collected have been critically synthesis and analyzed to make the research more meaningful and useful.

1.4   GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING

Offa local government Area was creating in 1991both the head quarter of Offa.

The local government has the 10 (ten) wards district Offa, Road distance from the state capital to Offa local government area is 56km.

Population 74, 924 (Male 36, 727 and Female 38, 197) 2006 census

ii.     Major towns; Idi Ogun, Igbo Oran, Owode Oja Market

iii.    Natural resources: Maize, Sweet potatoes

iv.    Major Language: Yoruba

  •  Gronite
  • Major festival: Egungun, Agere, Yan festival

Tourist attraction: Onimokasshrine of Olofa Palace

IMPACT OF URBAN GROWTH ON COMMERCIAL PROPERTY INVESTMENT (A CASE STUDY OF OFFA METROPOLIS)

IMPACT OF PRIMARY MORTGAGE INSTITUTION IN HOUSING DELIVERY (A CASE STUDY OF COOP SAVINGS & LOAN LIMITED)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION 

            Housing which  can be defined as collective structures in which mankind is housed and where he carries out his daily economic, social and commercial activities, which  encompass man’s immediate physical surrounding services, facilities and all available social  amenities.  Provision of housing has been a major challenge since the 21st century to all sovereign states across the world.  Adequate housing provision has been hindered over the years, by various factors which ranges from restricted access  to land which is due to land speculation practices, unavailability of soft loans, low level of income, economic instability, poor maintenance culture, mismanagement of public funds, natural disaster among other vices. Hence, various communities and sovereign states across the world have made controlled and concrete efforts in the provision of housing, housing policies, monitoring institution, land reforms, territory laws e.t.c to guarantee and enhance the continuous provision of housing units in their respective territories. This research is to adequately study the activities, efforts challenges and impact of one of such housing agencies in urban city of Ibadan Nigeria

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Housing is recognised as man’s basic need, it remains one of the most persistent and serious problem facing people in every society. However, provision has been one of the paramount concerns of policy makers in the various countries across the world in recent times. Despites all efforts couples with circulated, well planned and excellent housing policies over the years, there has been a reoccurrence of the problem of housing shortage and insufficient within our society.

It is also pertinent to look into the factors responsible for persistent to look into the factors responsible for persistent housing problems facing people most especially in developing nation like Nigeria. These factors are

  1.     High cost of building materials
  2.     Level of urbanization
  3. High construction rates
  4.     Unavailability of adequate finance
  5.     High birth rate resulting into overpopulation in the urban          centre
  6.    Poor implementation of housing policy

It is on the strength of this situation that this appraised the government institution on housing  development in Ibadan but despite the fact that the efforts were made in favour of urban centre, that is of primary mortgage intends to examine the contribution of primary mortgage institution in solving housing problems in our urban centers and access the problems they encountered.

  1. AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The research aim at examining the contribution of cooperative saving and loans limited in the provision of housing

The following objectives will be revised in order to achieve the aim;

  1. To access the no of houses constructed through the primary mortgage institution
  2. To access the condition attached to loan granted
  3. To identify the problems encountered by savings and loan  limited
  4. To provide  recommendation to the problems
IMPACT OF PRIMARY MORTGAGE INSTITUTION IN HOUSING DELIVERY (A CASE STUDY OF COOP SAVINGS & LOAN LIMITED)

IMPACT OF LAND USE ACT ON PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN)

SYNOPSIS

        The land use decree otherwise known as decree No 6, 1978(Land use Act) is one of the most controversial statues passed during the first is years (1966-1979) of the military rule in Nigerian. It abolished fee simple interest (freehold and made every land owner a tenant of the Government by vesting all the land mass in any state (except land already acquired by the Federal government) in the government of the state to hold in trust and for the use of all Nigerian. It reduced indirectly the largest interest anybody can hold in land to 99years lease, thereby converting all the fee simple interest to a term of not more than 99 years.

        For the purpose of this study (project) the objectives of the land use Act of 1978 will be critically considered, the impact of the land use Act on property development in Ilorin, Kwara state will be examined.      

        Also, the conflicts in the Land use Act, the problems for the past years will be looked into and the possible solutions to the problems in the nearest future will be suggested.   

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

        Development has a very wide meaning, among Architects, Engineers and surveyors, it generally means the process of carrying out construction works which are associated with a change in use of land or of land with its buildings or with a change in the intensity of the use of land or with the re-establishment of an existing use, such works would include the alternation of roads and drains, the building of river wall or even the layout of a plain field.

        In the same vain, development has been defined by statue; the best know being the town planning laws in Europe, America and Africa. The most celebrated of them all, the British town and country planning Act 1947 has defined development in section 12(2) as the carrying out of building, engineering mining and other operations in, on, over or under land or the making of any material change in the use of any buildings or other land.

        There are many kinds of developers; however they can all be broadly classified under two main groups i.e. private and public developers. Public defers to those developers who are part of the government. Example Federal Government, states and local government agencies. Nigeria ports Plc, power Holding company Nigeria and others. Amongst the private developers are private individuals, insurance companies, Banks joint stock companies’ e.t.c

        In this country, even though the property development industry is still largely under developed or rather uncoordinated, there are some companies like HFP or individuals like Alhaji Rasaki A. Okoya in Lagos that have been involved in large scale property development mainly in and around Lagos.

        However, most of the large scale commercial developments are still undertaken by Banks, Insurance companies and so on. These developments are big and large for their use and sub-letting only if there are surplus lettable spaces. The Federal and state governments also embark on property development through the National Housing Programme and State Housing Corporations respectively. These are mainly in the areas of residential accommodation.

        It is still rare to find property developers in Nigeria compared to U.K (United Kingdom) and U.S.A (United State of America) putting up gigantic office blocks or, shopping centers and on completion, setting them off for profit. This is because of the difficulties of raising substantial capital from the money or capital market, lack of local manpower with the necessary expertise to undertake such developments or persons with large hearts to take such bold decision interwoven incalculable risk.

1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        Development/Re-development means adding capital to land resources to alter the natural state or form, changing the use of land, demolishing old structure and erect new ones. Property development contributes its own quota to the housing and economic development of the country and equally to serves as source of income to the investors.

         There are some problems associated with property development such as non-availability of land for development, revolution of right on land and various land policies. All these and other things are examined in this study.

IMPACT OF LAND USE ACT ON PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ILORIN)

IMPACT OF BANKING RECAPITALIZATION ON REAL ESTATE SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF OSOGBO, THE CAPITAL OF OSUN STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The trend in the Nation’s economy in this recent year particularly from the dawn of the democratic salting, the would be revealed that, this has been innovation and reforms to the various sectors of the economy most especially the banking sub-sector of the economy. This development in the banking sector is what is generally known s the bank recapitalization or bank reformation whereby the former capital base of various banks existing in the country was raised from two billion naira (N2 billion) to twenty five billion naira (N25 billion). This is by far the most profound monetary policy measure, witnessed by the banking industry in Nigeria since its interception in 1892.

The key driving force behind this policy is to transform Nigeria banks from the weak, marginal players they have been, to mega banks that would ultimately perform effetivelly in the strong global competitors. The second and equally important reason is to better position these banks to cope with the vagaries of the Nigeria operating environment and endow them with the capacity to finance major project and real sector activity like their counterparts in the advance economics. This development has made the total number of bank in the country to be reduced to just twenty five.

Estate surveyors and valuers have over the recent years been able to discharged their professional duties and services prominent among which is valuation which is a bid to establishing the values of this bank so as to facilitate the merger acquisition, consolidation, asset sharing, etc on relevant bases. In order to present a comprehensive dissertation on this topic i.e the impact of the recapitalization process on the real estate sector. There is a need to build the impact from diverse and given necessary details as may be demanded.

Real estate sector (market) is a place where bundles or clusters of right are being exchanged. It could be a system of transaction between landowner, land user and estate agents.

Real property investment is a capital formation of new asset which involves creation of real estate products such as commercial building, residential building. It can also be described in the sector ranging from commercial sector, residential sector and industrial sector etc.

Since it has been said earlier that banks from the weak. Marginal players they have been in to mega banks that would ultimately transform into strong global competitors and to better the position of these banks to cope with the vagaries of the Nigerian operating  environment and endow their with the capacity of finance major industry project and real estate sector activities.

In view of this, the project work will focus on examine, identifying analyze and recommend all necessary things as regard the impact of commercial banks recapitalization process on real professions.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In Nigerian today, research has shown that real estate sector face some challenges, which has posed problem or set back in the sector. Some of the challenges are lack: of adequate funding, high cost of building, heavy reliance on imported items and costly housing design, low returns from real estate. Since real estate is characterized by relatively large economic size, investors have traditionally relied on third party financial instruction for significant positions of fund required for investment. Control of large parcel of real property is difficult to achieve without access to borrowed fund, which have consequently become ambiguities factors in real estate investment decisions.

 Banking sector, which was the major source of development finance, reneged on it role of financing sustainable economic development by rather supporting the import dependence nature of the economy. Most of the revenues generated by bank before consolidation to the highly fragmented nature and the weak capital base of Nigerian commercial banks as at that time.

In doing this, certain questions become imperative; what is really meant by recapitalization? Why recapitalization? What are the machineries put in place? What was the state of banks in the pre-consolidation era? What was the state of banks in the post consolidation era? What is the relationship between banking industry and real estates sector? What are the impacts of the reform on real estate sector? What are likely shortcomings or challenges of this reform on real estate and banking industry? What are the probable solutions? So this project work is faced with challenges of proffering solutions to some problems that arise in the process of commercial bank recapitalization with emphasis is real estate sector.

1.3    AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of bank recapitalization in real estate sector of the economy.

OBJECTIVES

–        To examine the real estate market prior to the process of recapitalization.

–        To assess the recapitalization of the affected banks in the study area

–        To examine the impact of recapitalization on the real estate sector

–        To identify the problems of the recapitalization on the real estate sector and to suggest possible solutions.

IMPACT OF BANKING RECAPITALIZATION ON REAL ESTATE SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF OSOGBO, THE CAPITAL OF OSUN STATE)

CHALLENGES ASSOCIATION WITH PROPERTY RATING IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

SYNOPSIS

Property rating is not a new phenomenon in history; it is as old as a man himself. The payment of tax was originated as man learnt to live together in an organized community. In Africa society for instance, grown up males are often participating in a communal labor to maintain the path way leading to village, farm kinds, construction of roads, public square.

        In view of the above historical facts, Abeokuta North Local Government Area is been involved in the course of rating exercise. This was backed up by the tenement rate edict of 1995, an edict that makes provision for the levying and collection of tenement rate on properties in Ogun State. The effective year that the local government under study started the exercise was 1996, while they did re-assessment in 1995, up till date.

        The local government in responsible for collection of the tenement rate but they are proposing to give it to a quality estate surveyor and valuers who is capable to collect the rates.

        This study is meant to confirm the challenges of property rating within the period of 1996 till date as well as to evaluate some of the benefits and problems confronting the success of rating exercise and the importance of property rating which make it serves as a durable source of revenue to the local government.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

        Property rating is a form of tax levied on real property and it is normally charged at local level for raising the revenue to carry out specific developmental projects. These rates are levied annually on owners or occupiers of landed property. It is charged on the annual value of occupation of the tenement and should reflect the income earning capacity of the built up landed property.   

        Historically, rating system has its origin in the Poor Relief Act, 1601 generally referred to in Britain as “the statute of Elizabeth”. This system inherited from Britain in 19th century has been recognized as a potentially rich source of raising fund within a Local Government Area for the purpose of providing and maintaining essential services and amenities in the rating area – such as roads, market squares, motor parks, communal halls are maintained through communal efforts. Individual in the community contribute their income and services for the up keep in their leaders’ household.

        It is the present day made of living and modernization that brought about the present sophistication and form of its application and collection. The local government now takes some of the roles formerly played by the Obas, Obis or Emirs which are presently more complicated like provision of electricity, schools, roads, clinics, refuse proposal services etc.

        The first real attempt to property rating was through the federal government guideline for local government reform of August, 1976. This document was designed to give guidelines on the structure, finance and administration of local government in the federation. The document introduced a pattern of rating law for the entire country and since then, all estate government have based their Rating Edict or Laws on it with very little modification. If is important to know that the major principles of the rating system in Nigeria is to defray the Local Government expenses. For example, that of Ogun state was called Tenement Rate Edict of 1995, where property types were zoned and appropriate unit was adopted. Thus the x – ray of the system in Nigeria was that of Tenement Rating, where value of the property for rating purpose is ascertained by a qualified estate surveyors and valuers and a percentage of the property is multiplied by a rate Nairrage to be adopted by the Rating Authority.

        Property Rating is a viable or stable source of revenue generation, though 70 – 80% of the total revenue to the local Government. In Nigeria is from the federal statutory allocation.

This Rating is a way of broadening the financial base of Local Government to provide necessary facilities for its subject.

Other source through which the Local Government can raise funds are, insurance of death and birth certificate, approval of plans, revenue from motor parks and market, insurance of license etc.

1.1   STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

The problem associated with rate collection cannot be underestimated. That is why many Local Government have not being embarking on the implementation.

It is important to say that rating can only be effective when certain conditions such as street numbering, culture, qualified personnel, population etc have to be taken into consideration. Many Rating Authorities did not considered these that is why collection of rate is very tedious.

1.2   AIM AND OBJECTIVES

Aims

        The aim of this study is to examine the challenges associated with Property Rating in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State.

Objectives

–       To identify the rateable hereditament in the case study.

–       To examine the process of assessment of reteable properties within the case study.

–       To evaluate level of awareness of property rating by general public especially in the study area.

–       To identify the challenges of property in the study area.

–       To recommended possible solution to problem, the Local Government is facing as a result of rating exercise.

CHALLENGES ASSOCIATION WITH PROPERTY RATING IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH VALUATION OF SPECIALIZED PROPERTIES (A CASE STUDY OF HOPE ALIVE TRUST HOSPITAL IDOFIAN KWARA STATE)

SYNOPSIS

Specialized properties are classes of proprietary bud wants which fall outside the general range of residential, commercial and industrial properties.

These properties have no comparable in the noble market, they lack rental evidence and they are not easily adapted to alternative uses.

Valuation of specialized properties poses a very tedious task for the values because of its specialized nature. It needs wider experience coupled with the availability for data and involves huge & capital outlay to build up.

The challenges associated with valuation of specialized property with a case study Hope Alive Trust Hospital, Idofian, Kwara State, would aim of revealing all the task and challenges that are involved in the valuation.

Furthermore, appropriate method for the valuing such specialized property shall be employed to determine the capital value of the said property.

Finally relevant recommendation will be made in order to ensure efficiency in the valuation exercise of a such property.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

According to Baun & Mackin define valuation as the act and science of estimating the value of interest in property.

Valuation is a science and art: Its is science because it is involves the use of scientific method and technique d it is an art because it is not science and also involves the use, its imagination to express ideal. Valuation involves attributing vale to land and landed property. It involves computation valuation van be required for many purposes. Valuation is carried for specific period so from these facts valuation can be comprehensively defined as the science and art of attributing value to land and landed property through the process of collecting data, and computing it, for specific purpose and for a particular period of time.

Valuation can be carried out for residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial and specialized properties. Therefore valuation requires expertise’s, skills and technical competence of the practitioner which make the valuation report to be a type of technical report.

As a result of these requirement, a valuer needs to process sound knowledge and undoubted skills, furthermore, substantial portions of the private, corporate and private wealth of the world consist of real estate. The very magnitude of these fundamental resources in our society creates a need for informed valuation to support decision pertaining to the use of and deposition of real estate and the right inherent in the ownership.

Specialized properties are of various categories depending on the applicable valuation techniques. Profit and account method is normally used for such properties as hotels, cinemas,, town halls, hospitals, while petrol filling station and agricultural properties have their own approaches as well. Other category of specialized property can be valued using replacement cost method.

1.1     STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

Valuation of specialized properties often poses a lot of problems because of its uniqueness in nature and due to the fact that they are not always sold and bought frequently in the market. Apart from these two facts, they still back mental evidence and comparable. As a result of these facts a lot of skills are required in its valuation. And also all the valuation process must be duly and thoroughly followed.

1.2     AIM AND OBJECTIVES

This project work aim at examining the challenges associated with valuation of a specialized property.

OBJECTIVES

  1. To identify the various type of property in the study area
  2. To examine the structural component of property in the study area.
  3. To access suitable method to carryout the valuation of property in the study area.
  4. To access the problem associated with the valuation of the property and recommend a reasonable subjection in solution to the problem.

1.3     SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The significant of the study is to find solution to the challenges associated with valuation of specialized property.

Secondly, the recommendation will serve as solution to the problem encountered in the valuation of specialized property.

It’s also a course or research materials for other researchers who want to study on challenges associated with valuation of specialized property.

Furthermore specialized properties valuation involves a lot of challenges and posed a lot of problems for the person and who face the task of estimating its value i.e the valuer.

1.4     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 There is always a limited scope in any research work. The scope of the research is therefore based on the challenges associated with valuation of specialized property using HOPE ALIVE TRUST HOSPITAL Idofian as a point of reference.

1.5     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This dissertion has been subjected to a lot of clog and constraint among which are:-

  1. Lack of adequate fund
  2. Lack of adequate time for collection of data and analysis.
  3. Inadequate of previous work on the thesis of data and analysis.
  4. Lack of proper record.
CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH VALUATION OF SPECIALIZED PROPERTIES (A CASE STUDY OF HOPE ALIVE TRUST HOSPITAL IDOFIAN KWARA STATE)

CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH PROPERTY RATING IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN OGUN STATE)

SYNOPSIS

            Property rating is not a new phenomenon in history; it is as old as a man himself. The payment of tax was originated as man learnt to live together in an organized community. In Africa society for instance, grown up males are often participating in a communal labor to maintain the path way leading to village, farm kinds, construction of roads, public square.

            In view of the above historical facts, Abeokuta North Local Government Area is been involved in the course of rating exercise. This was backed up by the tenement rate edict of 1995, an edict that makes provision for the levying and collection of tenement rate on properties in Ogun State. The effective year that the local government under study started the exercise was 1996, while they did re-assessment in 1995, up till date.

            The local government in responsible for collection of the tenement rate but they are proposing to give it to a quality estate surveyor and valuers who is capable to collect the rates.

            This study is meant to confirm the challenges of property rating within the period of 1996 till date as well as to evaluate some of the benefits and problems confronting the success of rating exercise and the importance of property rating which make it serves as a durable source of revenue to the local government.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0        INTRODUCTION

            Property rating is a form of tax levied on real property and it is normally charged at local level for raising the revenue to carry out specific developmental projects. These rates are levied annually on owners or occupiers of landed property. It is charged on the annual value of occupation of the tenement and should reflect the income earning capacity of the built up landed property.  

            Historically, rating system has its origin in the Poor Relief Act, 1601 generally referred to in Britain as “the statute of Elizabeth”. This system inherited from Britain in 19th century has been recognized as a potentially rich source of raising fund within a Local Government Area for the purpose of providing and maintaining essential services and amenities in the rating area – such as roads, market squares, motor parks, communal halls are maintained through communal efforts. Individual in the community contribute their income and services for the up keep in their leaders’ household.

            It is the present day made of living and modernization that brought about the present sophistication and form of its application and collection. The local government now takes some of the roles formerly played by the Obas, Obis or Emirs which are presently more complicated like provision of electricity, schools, roads, clinics, refuse proposal services etc.

            The first real attempt to property rating was through the federal government guideline for local government reform of August, 1976. This document was designed to give guidelines on the structure, finance and administration of local government in the federation. The document introduced a pattern of rating law for the entire country and since then, all estate government have based their Rating Edict or Laws on it with very little modification. If is important to know that the major principles of the rating system in Nigeria is to defray the Local Government expenses. For example, that of Ogun state was called Tenement Rate Edict of 1995, where property types were zoned and appropriate unit was adopted. Thus the x – ray of the system in Nigeria was that of Tenement Rating, where value of the property for rating purpose is ascertained by a qualified estate surveyors and valuers and a percentage of the property is multiplied by a rate Nairrage to be adopted by the Rating Authority.

            Property Rating is a viable or stable source of revenue generation, though 70 – 80% of the total revenue to the local Government. In Nigeria is from the federal statutory allocation.

This Rating is a way of broadening the financial base of Local Government to provide necessary facilities for its subject.

Other source through which the Local Government can raise funds are, insurance of death and birth certificate, approval of plans, revenue from motor parks and market, insurance of license etc.

1.1                                STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS 

The problem associated with rate collection cannot be underestimated. That is why many Local Governments have not being embarking on the implementation.

It is important to say that rating can only be effective when certain conditions such as street numbering, culture, qualified personnel, population etc have to be taken into consideration. Many Rating Authorities did not consider these that is why collection of rate is very tedious.

2,1                                AIM AND OBJECTIVES

Aim

            The aim of this study is to examine the challenges associated with Property Rating in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State.

Objectives

–           To identify the rateable hereditament in the case study.

–           To examine the process of assessment of reteable properties within the case study.

–           To evaluate level of awareness of property rating by general public especially in the study area.

–           To identify the challenges of property in the study area.

–           To recommended possible solution to problem, the Local Government is facing as a result of rating exercise.

CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH PROPERTY RATING IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN OGUN STATE)

CHALLENGES AND PROSPECT OF PROPERTY RE-DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF TAIWO ROAD ILORIN)

SYNOPSIS

        landed properties ( houses ) have been observed, undergoing changes in their design shapes and uses, this changes in  use as a result of alteration being made could also be know as redevelopment, that is the restructuring of the building to suite the uses which they were designated.

        this dissertation in the pros of redevelopment in an urban centre, which is ilorin metropolis.

        further more, it examines the causes of redevelopment and analysis its effect on re-development properties developer and property users.

        it also, highlights the significance of redevelopment challenges analysis of any project.

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

A study of road property investment in ilorin revealed a number of constraints which were associated with the regulation of houses that is the restructuring of building.

In the area of pre- investment students for property development or redevelopment the anticipated return can only be tested or ascertained with proper understanding analysis and taking into consideration.

The factor affecting redevelopment omuojine ( 1993) history has it  that ilorin was founded  orgurally by those who built according to hallet arahan ( 1979) all value in arty hand  under go continue evaluation form a stage of non existence through a circle of change.

In Nigeria the law of Nigeria (1948) cap 155 defines development or redevelopment as any building operation and any use of land or any building there in for a proposed which is disproved from the proposed which the land for building was last being used.

More ever, british town and country planning act (1947) carrying out building engineer, mining or other operation in an over, under land or the making of any material residential building in the area, which later brought up to a standard of a distinct settlement most of those building built were able to change in their use as a result of the development of the town physically environmentally and economically.

With the federal government pronouncement of ilorin as a capital of kwara state.

There arose the need to create a business district and the resultant use for commercial use some are bergs restored to us  formal use due to obsolescence that had set on the building for instance a three (3) bedroom residential could have it use change to an estate surveyors office.

Similar conversion may governor involve tampering with the structure by way of pulling down we all, addition of new accommodation and imploring the physical fabrics of the building.

Also, an obsolete terminates building with eight (5) rooms (i.e. face to face) may be converted to flat or any other type of design.

Although, the redevelopment enhancement aesthetic value of the building and make alternative enough for the type of the use proposed.

More so in some cases, alternation  may have to be done to be both the internal and external part of the building for instance  a converted office accommodation  proposed to house a new bank may give it s approach view redesign and filled with many architectural decoration further more  the  frontal fence may have to be pulled down to aid visibility  and give room for parking lots redevelopment project  cannot be carried out without learning some  task or challenge on the developer and even the property consumer.

In carrying out such project the developers encounter difficulties which stand as obstacle to the successful, efficient and effective development redevelopment project.

The challenge includes government policies building material the real estate finance and others.

1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

As it is not unusual for any dissertation like this to be   constrained due to some reasons. this particular project work. he therefore, not has been an exception. there searcher had been confronted with the inadequate fund to carryout the project work. he had utilized the very limited resource at his disposal to work toward the success of the work.

Insufficient time was another problem. the writer has to distribute the short available time at his disposal to the pursuit of this project work and to other academic pursuits.

During the collection of the data used for this project work, the researcher was faced with the poor response of the few available people or property owners interviewed thinking that the researcher may have be one of the frauds in the town, thus preferred to keep their words to themselves.

Inadequate literatures on  the topic has been of the problem faced as the researcher could  not lay his hand on one quick referencing, thus, making him to rely exclusively on the data gotten from the field.

Another major problem was the unavailability of some property owners for interview by the researcher.

1.2   AIM

To examine the challenges and prospect of within the redevelopment property in the study area

1.2   OBJECTIVES

  1. To identify the properties under redevelopment on the case study
  2. To know the stage of the properties  under
  3. To examine the prospect of  the  properties redevelopment
  4. To examine the challenge involve in the redevelopment
CHALLENGES AND PROSPECT OF PROPERTY RE-DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF TAIWO ROAD ILORIN)

AN EXAMINATION OF PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MANAGEMENT OF PRIVATE RESIDENTIAL ESTATE. (A CASE STUDY OF ALHAJI OSENI OLANREWAJU ESTATE)

SYNOPSIS

          Developers and property ensure now realizes the close relationship between property management and effectively managed property and the income flow form which property, termites too are becoming increasingly aware of their ringlets and liabilities within the legal framework of their tenancy, a situation which now makes property management practices more technical and broad in operation.

          This research work is therefore carried out to examine a critical analyzes of the management procedure, associated with private residential estate.

          It also identifies the management problems and recommends possible solutions to the problem.

          Both Primary and secondary sources of data collection will be adopted in the research work to get necessary information about the research problem.

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

Until recently, property management as an area of real estate practice was considered as simple of rent collection and attendance to minor repair works in building. Landlords or their appointed surveyor in most cases, were involved in this regard.

However, the national economy coupled with the resultant effect of increasing cost of building material and souring cost of capital caused a shift of attention to corporate management in landed properties, the risk involved in real estate development has inevitably increased. Consequently, additions to existing stock of properties have reduced strongly. In conforming to the attributes of capital appreciation, rents and value on properties rise with multiple years rent now being demanded.

For new lettings, the market forces if supply and demand are easily reflected in rents and other considerations. However, requires professional experience to negotiate comparative terms with “sitting tenants”, besides, vacant possession is not easily obtained as it involves intricate legal procedure.

For these and other related reasons property owners and developers are beginning to appreciate the important roles estate surveyor could pay ion realizing their investment objectives of profit maximization while extending the economic life of their properties.

  1. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Inadequate management of most private residential estate has load most of them being in a state o obsolescence. This inadequate property management is largely due to non discount attitude among Nigerians towards maintenance culture. The owners of most private residential estate have the full responsibility I entrusting their properties into the hands of efficient property manager in other to enjoy profitable returns which will allow the occupant a peaceful stay in the property. But in most cases, it is affected by the interview of those who need to be trained.

Alhaji Oseni Olanrewaju estate which is private residential estate use for developing place have been facing little management problem in view of the state of the economy.

The problems which are connected with private residential estate management include nature of electricity, water supply, effect of inflation on rent, service charge administration and maintenance culture.

  1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this dissertation is to certifiably examine the management procedure associated with private residential estate with or view to identify the management problems and prefer solution.

The following objectives were pursued to achieve the aim:

  1. To determine the various hips of residential properties with the estate.
  2. To examine the state and condition of the state
  3. To analyze the management procedure in the management of Alhaji Oseni Olanrewaju estate.
  4. To identify problems of private residential estate management.
  5. To suggest ways that would enhance better management of the estate.
    1. SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The significant of the study is to analyze management and maintenance procedure of a private residential estate. It also provides an essential body of knowledge that will encourage further research on ht4e topic. It also serves as a valuable material to the general public to stop the non-chalet attribute towards management and maintenance of landed properties. Also the study maintenance of existing physical facilities is part of the overall process of national development.

AN EXAMINATION OF PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE MANAGEMENT OF PRIVATE RESIDENTIAL ESTATE. (A CASE STUDY OF ALHAJI OSENI OLANREWAJU ESTATE)