IMPROVING TECHNOLOGIES FOR INLAND AQUACULTURE IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Inland aquaculture is a technology driven industry which relies heavily on research to develop new and improved species and the appropriate technology for commercial production. At present, inland aquaculture in Nigeria is dominated by finfish and exciting new industry initiatives are presently underway that are exploring the culture of indigenous shellfish farming. However, despite these enterprises there is considerable scope for the sector to diversify further as a way of improving the production in the sector. In fact, expanding and improving the species base can be regarded as a prerequisite for the development of a globally competitive industry as well as for bringing appropriate technology to the small-scale, community-based operation.

Nigeria is by far the most important state for the direct human consumption of fish, owing to a mixture of large population and relatively high per capita consumption levels. Its costal fisheries resources are depleted or close to depletion, so little growth could be expected from capture fisheries. Therefore inland aquaculture production must improve and increase to meet the further demands of the population. The present study is intended to highlight some directions that could help arrive at more widespread and improved fisheries prosperity. There is now burgeoning knowledge, wide range of tool and scientific and technical approaches including insights into social, economic and cultural conditions.

Inland aquaculture has relied on hatchery-produced seed which does not lead to overfishing of wild stocks. Overfishing has been reported in connection with tropical marine fish and shrimp culture, causing depletion of wild stocks (Beveridge and Phillips, 1990). The amount of seed available is not always enough, causing ponds to remain un-stocked, thus providing mosquitoes and snails with ideal habitats. This can increase the prevalence of schistosomiasisand malaria, as well as other mosquito-transmitted diseases such as filariasis.

Fish seed production is a specialized farming system practiced by skilled farmers only. An increasing number of hormones and growth promoters are used to change the sex, productive viability and growth of cultured organisms. It is capital intensive and time consuming. A fingerling production technique involves a series of breeding and feeding activities that can be grouped under several successive operational stages.

Aquaculture activities are being carried out with floating cage made from reinforced foams. These reinforced foams have excellent resistance to a wide range of chemicals and solvents and is compatible with water and solvent based coatings and adhesives, polyester and epoxy resin-based coatings. Rigid polyurethane foam is highly impervious to fungi and mould growth, non-fibrous, odourless and non-tainting.

The first attempt at fish farming and inland aquaculture was in 1951 at a small experimental station in Onikan, Lagos, where different tilapias were cultured while modern pond culture started with a pilot fish farm in Panyam, Plateau State for rearing the common/mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio following the disappointing results with Tilapia culture. The success led to the establishment of fish farms at Buguma in Rivers state, Abagana in Anambra state and Agodi Garden farm in Ibadan. Although, the major species cultured include fin-fish (tilapias, catfish, and carp), catfishes of the family, Clariidae are the mostly farmed fish. Since the culture of Clarias gariepinus through hypophysation was initiated in Western Nigeria in 1973 (Elliot, 1975), the procedure has been widely practiced throughout Nigeria.

The Clarias (Clarias anguillaris and Clarias gariepinus) and Heterobranchus (Heterobranchus longifilis and Heterobranchus bidorsalis) clariid catfish, are the most important fish species used in inland aquaculture in Nigeria. This species has shown considerable potential as a fish suitable for use in intensive aquaculture. This fish grows rapidly, it is disease and stress resistant, high fecundity, sturdy due to the presence of arborescent air-breathing organ and highly productive in polyculture, ability to grow on a wide range of natural and low cost artificial foods and ability to withstand low oxygen and pH levels (Zheng et al., 1988; Fagbenro et al., 1993).
Sarotherodon galileaus, Tilapia zillii, Tilapia guineensis, Sarotherodon melanotheron, and Oreochromis niloticus are the cultured tilapia species. However Oreochromis niloticus appears to be more popular among fish farmers. It is a popular species, endemic to most part of the country and grown by many farmers in inland aquaculture (Maluwa and Costa-pierce, 1993). This species has cultural advantages characteristics such as ease of production, ready acceptance of artificial feed, fast growth, and adaptability to a wide range of environmental conditions. One of the major problems in tilapia culture is its highly prolific nature having early maturity which results in stunted populations because energy is being diverted to gonadal development instead of somatic growth (Gale et. al., 1999).

Current advances in aquaculture production have been achieved through the application of genetic principles which includes selective breeding, hybridization, chromosome manipulation, sex reversal, gene transfer and polyploidy (Aluko and Olufeagba, 1999). Hybridization has been used to increase growth rate, manipulate sex ratios, produce sterile animals, improve flesh quality, increase resistance, improve tolerance to environmental extremes and improve a variety of other traits that make aquatic animals production more profitable (Dunham et al., 2001). Hybridization between species can also result in offspring that are sterile or have diminished reproductive capacity. The more distantly related the two species, the greater likelihood of their hybrid being sub-viable or sterile (Chevassus, 1983). The hybrid cross between Heterobranchus and Clarias species is receiving considerable attention in Nigeria’s aquaculture industry. These hybrids have been reported to show heterosis (Madu et al., 1992; Salami et al., 1993).
Aquaculture has the unique opportunity and responsibility to conserve natural (wild) populations while maintaining desirable production traits as disease resistance, fast and efficient growth, increased product yield, and lower input costs. Therefore, to support the growth of aquatic food consumption, domestication and genetic improvement of the cultivated species is a critical R&D need

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Inland aquaculture is dependent on progressive science and technological innovation to be competitive in world seafood markets, sustainable in development, and compatible with evolving social expectations. Productive aquaculture will require building a next generation of human capacity in diverse scientific fields to find solutions to scientific, economic, social, and management needs of aquaculture systems, natural resources, and 21st century communities. Public education and understanding of new areas of science, contemporary issues, and performance of diverse aquaculture systems create a scientifically literate population leading to sound policy-making. Science-based information, integrated with new information delivery systems, offers new outreach opportunities to the public and the aquaculture community. However, this study is looking into how there can be improvement in technologies used in inland aquaculture in Nigeria.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

To examine the technologies been used for inland aquaculture in Nigeria.
To identify the improvements in technologies been used in inland aquaculture in Nigeria.
To identify the factors hindering improvement in technologies for inland aquaculture in Nigeria.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What are the technologies been used for inland aquaculture in Nigeria?
What are the improvements in technologies been used in inland aquaculture in Nigeria?
What are the factors hindering improvement in technologies for inland aquaculture in Nigeria?

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

The findings from this study will expatiate on the modern technologies that can be adopted in the industry of inland aquaculture in Nigeria with the aim of bringing improvement to the sector.
This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover all the modern technology been used in inland aquaculture industry all over the world. It will also cover the level of practice of inland aquaculture in Nigeria.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF SPORT FISHERIES FOR COMMUNITIES AROUND NIGER RIVER

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Locally based sport fisheries on the River Niger have the potential to provide stable alternative livelihoods for poor coastal villagers. The industry would provide new income to improve food security, and build community resilience to external impacts such as climate change and fluctuations in commodity prices (McCully, 2000). This study will conduct the research needed to underpin the development of a sustainable and resilient locally based sport-fishing industry. It will examine the ecology and biology of sport-fish resources and devise protocols to maximize long-term industry viability. It will also investigate potential livelihood costs and benefits and determine the commercialization needs of a sport-fishing industry on the River Niger. Development of sport fishing would not only provide communities around the River Niger with income opportunities, but also bring benefits of conserving vital fisheries resources, by converting unsustainable capture fisheries into viable release fisheries; providing the incentive and knowledge to support ecosystem health and resilience; and supporting extensive capacity building across fisheries research, business and tourism (Gislason, 1998).

Recreational fishing, also called sport fishing, is fishing for pleasure or competition. It can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is fishing for profit, or subsistence fishing, which is fishing for survival (Wikipedia, 2015). The most common form of sport fishing is done with a rod, reel, line, hooks and any one of a wide range of baits. Other devices, commonly referred to as terminal tackle, are also used to affect or complement the presentation of the bait to the targeted fish. Some examples of terminal tackle include weights, floats, and swivels. Lures are frequently used in place of bait. Some hobbyists make handmade tackle themselves, including plastic lures and artificial flies. The practice of catching or attempting to catch fish with a hook is known as angling. Big-game fishing is conducted from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna, sharks and marlin. According to Horne (2005), noodling and trout tickling are also recreational activities.

The Niger River support a wide variety of quality recreational angling opportunities for tens of thousands of residents of the river bank and visitors alike. The diversity of opportunities reflects the large numbers of species available and the varied geographic features of the area around the river including its topography and climate (Herd, 2003). Freshwater angling is an integral part of Nigerian culture and heritage as observed in the case of Argungun festival which is also a sport fishing festival. Sport fishing can be enjoyed at any age, provides an escape from the stresses of modern life, and provides an opportunity to connect with family and friends through shared outdoor experiences.

Sport fishing methods vary according to the area fished, the species targeted, the personal strategies of the angler, and the resources available. It ranges from the aristocratic art of fly fishing to the high-tech methods used to chase marlin and tuna. Sport fishing is usually done with hook, line, rod and reel rather than with nets or other aids. Even sports fisherman discard a lot of non-target and target fish on the bank while fishing. However, Niger River has been considered by the researcher as a good ground for sport fishing in order to boost the economy of the coastal communities.

In North America, freshwater fish include snook, redfish, salmon, trout, bass, pike, catfish, walleye and muskellunge. The smallest fish are called panfish, because they can fit whole in a normal cooking pan (Wikipedia, 2015). Examples are perch and sunfish. In the past, sport fishers, even if they did not eat their catch, almost always killed them to bring them to shore to be weighed or for preservation as trophies. In order to protect recreational fisheries sport fishermen now often catch and release, and sometimes tag and release, which involves fitting the fish with identity tags, recording vital statistics, and sending a record to a government agency.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Sport fishing is not just an enjoyable pastime but it is an important engine of the economy in many regions. This notwithstanding, the sector is little known and little appreciated in African countries like Nigeria. A major reason for the sector’s lack of profile is the lack of accessible information on the sport fishery’s economic dimensions and importance. The economic importance of the fishery is not well understood and, to a large extent, the industry is getting eclipsed by other business sectors that can more coherently demonstrate their stature. However, the researcher is out to examine the sustainable management of sport fisheries for communities around Niger River.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

To examine the level of practice of sport fishing in Nigeria.
To examine the prospects of sport fishing in Nigeria.
To evaluate the process of sustainable management of sport fisheries for communities around the Niger River.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What is the level of practice of sport fisheries in Nigeria?
What are the prospects of sport fisheries in Nigeria?
What is the process of sustainable management of sport fisheries for communities around the Niger River?

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

The outcome of this study will be useful for stakeholders in agricultural sector, sport sector and the general public on the economic benefits the nation stands to derive from sport fishing if properly managed especially in the coastal communities of Niger River.
This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the rudiments of sport fisheries and how it can be adopted in the coastal communities of Niger River.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

Gislason, Gordon. (1998). “The Angling Guide Industry in the Skeena Watershed – An Assessment of Business Issues”, Prepared for BC Ministry of Environment, Lands & Parks, Victoria BC, February 1998.
Horne, Gary. (2005). “British Columbia Economic Multipliers and How to Use Them”, BC Stats, October 2005.
Herd, Andrew (2003) The Fly. Medlar Press. ISBN 978-1-899600-29-8
McCully C. B. (2000). The Language of Fly-Fishing. Taylor & Francis. p. 41.

SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF SPORT FISHERIES FOR COMMUNITIES AROUND NIGER RIVER

EVALUATION OF FRESH AQUATIC PLANT (Azollapinnata) AND ARTIFICIAL DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, GASTRIC EVACUATION RATE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromisniloticus)

ABSTRACT

Alternative plant protein sources are generally cheaper compared to animal protein sources and may be the solution to reduce the high dependence of farmers on fish meal due to the limited world supplies and increasing price of fishmeal. This study focuses on growth performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus); its gastric evacuation rate and carcass composition when fed with fresh aquatic plant and artificial diet.

Azollapinnata and artificial diet (control) were fed at 3% body weight of 90 Oreochromisniloticus weighing 24±1.43g for 56 days (8 weeks) in three treatments T1(artificial diet), T2 (artificial diet 50% and aquatic plant 50%) and T3 (aquatic plant); each having  three replicates. Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Mean Weight Gain (MWG), Protein Intake (PI) and Length-Weight Relationship were used to determine the growth performance and feed utilization. The serial slaughter method was used to determine Gastric Evacuation Rate (GER) and Gastric Transit Time (GTT). Proximate composition of fish carcass was determined using standard methods. Data were analysed using Descriptive analysis and ANOVA at α0.05.

Fish fed both artificial diet and aquatic plant T2 attained a significantly higher MGW and SGR, and attained the best correlation coefficient value which indicates a good relationship between length and weight. T1 and T2 showed no significant difference in FCR but were significantly lower than T3. The PER showed that T2 was significantly higher than T1 and T3. Duncan’s test of significance indicated that there was no significant difference in the daily feeding rate and GER of Oreocromisniloticus across the treatments but GTT differed in T3. Fish fed only Azolla, T3 had a GTT of 3 hours where as T1 and T2 was 4 hours. Carcass proximate analysis showed that crude protein of T3 was significantly higher than T1. Fat content of T3 was significantly higher than those of T1 and T2.

Oreohchromisniloticus performed better when fed with both artificial diet and aquatic plant, it also attained a higher crude protein level and lower moisture content when fed only aquatic plant compared to those fed only artificial diet.

Key words: Oreohchromisniloticus, utlilization of aquatic plant, growth performance, gastric evacuation, carcass composition.

EVALUATION OF FRESH AQUATIC PLANT (Azollapinnata) AND ARTIFICIAL DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, GASTRIC EVACUATION RATE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromisniloticus)

IMPROVING RESILIENCE AND ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF FISHERIES-DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

More than 70% of people living in riverine area including the Nigeria Niger Delta derive most of their basic needs from subsistence fishing and agriculture. However, threats to the ability of small-scale fisheries to continue to provide villagers’ needs are increasing. In Nigeria, the rural sector comprises more than 60% of the population and is heavily dependent on subsistence agriculture and fishing. Subsistence fisheries are dominated by small-scale fisheries in near-shore waters and these are under threat as human populations grow and an increasing need or desire for cash fuels the commercial harvest of marine commodities (Pemeroy et al, 2004). The strong reliance on inshore fish resources to meet subsistence needs, combined with a paucity of income-generating opportunities, means their loss would have severe consequences not only for those directly affected in the rural areas but also for the nation’s economy as a whole. 
The concerns that are commonly expressed by rural fishing communities includes stocks of commercially important invertebrates are low; there is a need for money to cope with external shocks (disasters) food price rises with the attendant risk of pressure to harvest fish and other marine commodities to obtain this money; traditional taboo (fishery control) systems have declined or disappeared in some places, and there is a poor understanding of fisheries/resource management issues or national regulations and effect of pollution occasioned by the activities of the oil exploration companies e.g. Shell and Chevron in Nigeria. The commercial value of coastal fisheries in Nigeria is poorly quantified but is recognized as being very important because it allows rural people to meet their needs for cash at critical times or for important costs, such as school fees. Comprising reef and pelagic fish and invertebrates, marketing of reef fish within the community and to nearby urban centres are significant sources of income for some communities. The export market for dry fishes and other aquatic products has been a main source of income, particularly in coastal communities that are remote from markets for fresh (fish or garden) products (Cohen, 2011). The transition from subsistence to the cash economy exposes people to global market forces. In addition, predicted changes in climatic conditions (sea level rise, frequency and intensity of cyclones) (Brokovich and Schwarz 2011) pose additional threats to coastal communities and reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience and adaptive capacity will be central to their long term quality of life. 
This study focused on fisheries dependent communities in Nigeria from a vulnerability, adaptive capacity and resilience perspective. Within small scale fisheries that exists in riverine communities, we define resilience and adaptive capacity together as the capacity of a complex system to absorb shocks while still maintaining function, and to reorganize themselves disturbance. However, the goals of management are to prevent the fishery system (the ecosystem plus people) from moving into undesirable states or circumstances, and to nurture and preserve the elements that enable it to renew and reorganize itself following stresses and disturbance (Boro, et al, 2011). Although resilience concepts are attractive and are increasingly widespread in academic literature applying them to the lives and ecosystems of rural communities has yet to be effectively implemented. 
Moving beyond theory to action remains the key challenge for resilience approaches. In order to ensure the establishment of more flexible management approaches and thereby improve the resilience and adaptive capacity of fisheries dependent communities to various sources of uncertainty, this study is aimed at testing a generic adaptive management framework (Andrew et al. 2007) and a set of diagnostic tools that feed directly into its application. The framework purpose is to organize the outcome to guide the development of new methods and refine appropriate indicators of sustainability and resilience and adaptive capacity in fisheries dependent communities. 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The coastal fisheries in Nigeria provide more than 70% of the protein intake of the nation and if these fisheries were lost or degraded, the impacts on people’s diets and potentially their health would be enormous. Despite the advantages of relatively well defined customary rights to marine resources and the continued influence of traditional institutions on small-scale fisheries management, managing the pressures on coastal reef fisheries is a challenge for local riverine communities. There are relatively few tools and traditions to reconcile the limited capacity of aquatic resources with the rapidly increasing demands made on them. Over the last two decades, various forms of community based management and conservation targets have been implemented in Nigeria with varying degrees of success. Also, a lot of factors including climate change, pollution occasioned from oil spillage has damage the aquatic habitat thereby limiting fisheries activities in the fisheries dependent communities. However, this study seeks to examine ways to improve resilience and adaptive capacity of fisheries dependent communities in Nigeria. 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.  To examine ways to improve resilience of fisheries dependent communities in Nigeria. 
2.  To examine ways to improve adaptive capacity of fisheries dependent communities in Nigeria. 
3.  To identify the factors threatening the sustainability of livelihood in fisheries dependent communities in Nigeria. 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What are the ways to improve resilience of fisheries dependent communities in Nigeria? 
2.  What are the ways to improve adaptive capacity of fisheries dependent communities in Nigeria? 
3.  What are the factors threatening the sustainability of livelihood in fisheries dependent communities in Nigeria? 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.  The outcome of this study will educate the individuals living in the fisheries dependent communities on the ways to improve resilience and adaptive capacity and they will have more knowledge about factors threatening their survival. 
2.  This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area 

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover the factors threatening the survival of individual living in fisheries dependent communities in Nigeria and how to improve their resilience and adaptive capacity. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).  
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

Andrew, N., Béné, C., Hall, S.J., Allison, E.H., Heck, S. and Ratner, B.D. (2007). Diagnosis and management of small-scale fisheries in developing countries. Fish and Fisheries 8: 227-240. 
Boso, D., Bennett, G., Paul, C., Hilly, Z., Schwarz, A. (2011). Livelihoods and Resilience Analysis in Toumoa, Western Province, Solomon Islands. WorldFish Center Unpublished Report. ACIAR, project FIS/2007/116. Brokovich, E. and 
Schwarz, A. (2011) Building social and ecological resilience to climate change in Roviana, Solomon Islands: PASAP country activity for the Solomon Islands Unpublished Project Report to Univeristy of Queensland: Climate Change trends and predictions in Solomon Islands. 
Cohen, P (2011) Social networks to support learning for improved governance of coastal ecosystems in Solomon Islands. CRISP/SPC/CoE-CRS -JCU, Noumea, 34pp. 
Pomeroy, R.S., Parks, J.E. and Watson, L.M. (2004). How is your MPA doing? A guidebook of natural and social indicators for evaluating marine protected areas management effectiveness. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. xvi + 216 pp.

IMPROVING RESILIENCE AND ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF FISHERIES-DEPENDENT COMMUNITIES IN NIGERIA

ASSESSING ECONOMIC AND WELFARE VALUES OF FISH IN THE LOWER NIGER RIVER

ABSTRACT

This study was intended to assess the economic and welfare values of fish in the lower Niger River. This study was guided by the following objectives; to examine the economic and welfare values of fish in the lower Niger River. To examine the effect of artisanal fishery production on the lower Niger River on the Nigerian economic growth. To identify the limitation of the artisanal fisheries on the lower Niger River. The study employed the descriptive and explanatory design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using the chi square statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under the study were 120 residents of the lower Niger River. The study findings revealed that fishery production has an effect on the economic and welfare values of residents of lower Niger River; based on the findings from the study, efforts should be made by the Nigerian government and stakeholders in creating an enabling advanced fishing in the lower Niger River since it economically benefits Nigerians. 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Freshwater capture fisheries in the Lower River Niger Basin provide 47 to 80% of the animal protein consumed, as well as livelihood opportunities on a large scale for the neighboring settlements. However in absence of a solid estimate of the total economic value of these fisheries, their importance remains very poorly recognized by institutions and in development plans, which hampers rural development (Okechi, 2004). Furthermore the respective role of fish and agricultural resources in livelihoods and in rural welfare has never been quantified. Accordingly, the overall aim of this study is to quantify the multiple values of fish resources, interpret findings, analyze implications, and hopes that the high level results and implications will be useful to national decision-makers, development agencies and local actors, for sustainable and improved rural livelihoods. This information should provide essential guidance for future agriculture and rural development programs aimed at improving welfare in the Lower Niger Basin. Economic and welfare consideration in the selection of an appropriate fish harvesting system includes observations of its potential for its efficiency, fisher’s access to operating capital and economic returns, (Hebicha et al., 1994). Economically, fishing on the lower Niger River has the potential for growth into large industry that could lead to wider business network in terms of supply services, fishing and marketing which could provide job opportunities to the teaming populace (Okechi, 2004). It could also provide investment opportunities in feed mills, equipment manufacturing, processing, packaging and the provision of raw ingredients for research and education (Okechi, 2004). Fish industry also provides alternative source of high valued animal protein needs of the populace, contributing over 60 % of the total protein intake of the rural population (Adekoya and Miller, 2004). 
Fish has a nutrient profile superior to all terrestrial meats and equally has a high digestible energy that can meet the nutritional requirements of the rural populace (Amiengheme, 2005). In Nigeria, commercial fishing on the lower Niger River started over 40 years ago (Ekwegh, 2005). Meeting the fish protein demand of the current population of over one hundred (100) million people in Nigeria may require over 1.5 million metric tons of fish. Even with aquaculture, production is currently only 500,000 metric tons (Raufu et al., 2009). The consumption of nearly 19.38/output/day is low and far below FAOs recommendation of 65gms/output/day (Adewuyi et al., 2010). Therefore the need to invest into fish production to increase and meet the protein needs of its populace whose demand for fish has geometrically increased Kudi et al. (2008) is import. African catfish (Clariasgariepinus) is a disease resistant fish species Ritcher et al. (1987) which can tolerate extreme environmental conditions (FAO, 1999). The cultivation and growth of such specie of freshwater fish could limit losses by farmers, improve income earnings and raise fish farmer’s socio-economic standards. It could also close the demand–supply gap of 0.7 million metric tons that exists nationally, and costs Nigeria about US $0.5billion per year (Kudi et al., 2008). Investment in aquaculture will also reduce the pressure on the natural source of fish including the Niger River.   

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The Niger Delta alone in the lower Niger River contributes more than 50% of the entire domestic Nigerian fish supply, being blessed with abundance of both fresh, brackish and marine water bodies that are inhabited by a wide array of both fin fish and non-fish fauna that supports artisanal fisheries. Despite the dearth of empirical information on the economic and welfare values of the fishery sub-sector to the nation’s economy, there exists a myriad of empirical information on the linkage between fishery production and economic growth in Nigeria and its perspective for sustainable economic development which has formed the basis for policy formulation towards enhancing the fishery sub-sector. Therefore, there is the need to fill the existing gap in literature by providing empirical information on the economic and welfare values of fish in the lower Niger River. In view of the foregoing, this study was carried out to achieve the objective of establishing basic facts about the economic and welfare values of fish in the lower Niger River.   

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.     To examine the economic and welfare values of fish in the lower Niger River. 
2.     To examine the effect of artisanal fishery production on the lower Niger River on the Nigerian economic growth. 
3.     To identify the limitation of the artisanal fisheries on the lower Niger River. 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.     To examine the economic and welfare values of fish in the lower Niger River. 
2.     To examine the effect of artisanal fishery production on the lower Niger River on the Nigerian economic growth. 
3.     To identify the limitation of the artisanal fisheries on the lower Niger River. 

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.     The outcome of this study will educate the stakeholders in agricultural sector and the general public at large on the economic and welfare values of fish in the lower Niger River.
2.     This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area 

1.7     SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the economic and welfare values of artisanal fishery on the lower Niger River with special focus on the Niger Delta rivers. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

ASSESSING ECONOMIC AND WELFARE VALUES OF FISH IN THE LOWER NIGER RIVER

ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND THE CHANGES OR EFFECTS IN THE SERUM OF AFRICAN CATFISH

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 

1.1  BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Leachate is any liquid that in passing through matter, extracts solutes, suspended solids or any other component of material through which it has passed, introducing environmentally harmful substances (Wikipedia, 2010). Leachates normally enter the environment from waste disposal sites. The lack of proper management of solid waste has been a major environmental issue in Nigeria. Solid wastes are often disposed of in uncontrolled and undesignated public places rather than in the few and probably inadequate designated dump sites. Increase in urbanization and population growth are likely to increase the annual generation of municipal solid waste estimated at 29.78 x 109kg (Ojolo et al., 2004). Leachate contains a range of chemical compounds, which may leach into the environment particularly into nearby water sources (Christensen et al., 2001). Leachate may also contain pathogenic microbes some of which are capable of producing toxins that may have public health implications (Donnelly et al., 1988). Studies on the possible hazards of solid waste leachate and its effects on aquatic organisms have been reported (Wong, 1989, Wick and Dave, 2006, Koshy et al., 2007). Leachate has been reported to impact negatively on water quality parameters of the aquatic ecosystem. Leachate contamination of water bodies can result in increase of water turbidity, limiting the amount of light penetration which reduces photosynthesis and production of dissolved oxygen (Pillay, 1992). Leachate has also been reported to increase water alkalinity and hardness (Dupree and Huner, 1984). Leachate may clog fish gills reducing resistance to diseases, lowering growth rate and affecting egg and larval developments (Ovre and Adeniyi, 1990). Few reports are available on the effect of leachate-contaminated water on tropical fish species especially cat fish which are hardy and can withstand more stress than other tropical fish species (Holden and Reed, 1978). This study investigates the growth and survival of Clariasgariepinus cat fish in different concentrations of domestic leachate.   

1.2   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

In this studies, leachate simulated from domestic waste, its physio-chemical characteristics and the changes or effects in the serum of African catfish where assessed. The objectives of the investigation include: 
·        To evaluate the effect of simulated leachate on the haematological parameters 
·        To determine effect of simulated leachate on the serum cholesterol concentration 
·        To determine the effect of simulated leachate on the protein concentration of the African catfish. 
·        Determination of potential risk posed on aquatic animals domestic leachate contamination of their habitat since blood parameters are considered pathopysiological indicators of the whole body and therefore are important in diagnosing the structural and functional of fish exposed to toxicant.
·        To serve as reference material for further investigation of haematological effects of simulated leachate on aquatic organism and the environment in general.        

1.3   RELEVANCE OF STUDY

The relevance of this study is to show the adverse effect of simulated domestic leachate at different concentration at 5% and 10% in tissues such as the blood, kidney, liver, the gills of the African catfish and the possible effect it will have on human. Claris garipinus is commonly known to be a very good source of high quality protein containing essential amino acid in the amount and proportion required for nutrition. It also provides a good source of vitamins and minerals. And to also know if the leachate will alter the biochemical properties of the amino acid, to what extent with reference to the control A.

ASSESSMENT OF THE PHYSIO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND THE CHANGES OR EFFECTS IN THE SERUM OF AFRICAN CATFISH

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EXTENT OF GENETIC INTROGRESSION IN EXOTIC CULTURE STOCKS OF TILAPIA

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION 

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 

Aquaculture of tilapias provides a classic example of a success story of a species group outside its natural range of distribution. The group currently contributes about 3.8 percent to the cultured fish and shellfish production of about 40 million tonnes globally (FAO FishStat, 2002). The current aquaculture production of tilapias in 2002 is about 1.5 million tones accounting for nearly 80 percent of the total world production. It is important to note, however, that tilapia culture in Africa including Nigeria is also increasing. Prior to the mid-1990s, the yield of tilapia from capture fisheries was greater than that from aquaculture. Currently, the later accounts for approximately 2.5 times the production from capture fisheries. Tilapia aquaculture production increased from 28 000 tonnes to 1.504 million tonnes globally from 1970 to 2002. This increment can be said to have occurred has result of better breeds of tilapia occasioned by hybridization through genetic introgression (Amarasinghe, 2002). Culture practices of tilapias in the world are very diverse, perhaps the most diverse among all aquaculture species in the world. It is a group of fish that could be cultured at many desired intensities, thus, appealing to all socio-economic strata, enabling the culture practices to be adjusted to suit their economic capabilities. 
Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)is commonly cultured in backyard and/or home garden ponds to supplement the income of poor households as well as provide a fresh source of animal proteins to the family. In such situations, the cultured stock is often fed with kitchen waste and supplemented by relatively readily available, often low cost agricultural by-products such as rice bran. However, the direct nutritional value of the latter to the stock is not known and in all probability rather low; the inputs act more as a fertilizer. Oreochromis niloticus is cultured in relatively poor quality waters, including sewage fed ponds and primary and secondary treated waste effluents. So far, there have not been any reports of detrimental effects of consumption of fish reared in sewagefed farms on human health even as the practice has been in operation since the 1930s (Nandeesha, 2002). Genetic introgression of most cultured aquatic species lags far behind that of farmed plants and animals. Availability of genetically improved seeds is considered as the single most important factor in the green revolution that became responsible for averting a famine in the developing world during the second half of the last century (Gjedrem, 2002). Gjedrem (2002) in reviewing the degree of response of aquaculture species to selection concluded that the mean genetic gain per generation among ten species was 13.3 percent generation with a range of 9.0 to 17.5 percent in clams and channel catfish, respectively. 
The gain in tilapia was estimated to be about 13.5 percent. While developments are taking place on all-male tilapia production (hormone treated or genetically), it was increasingly recognized that tilapia genetic resources in its native habitats need to be conserved, wild stocks protected and an international research programme on tilapia genetics be established (Pullin, 1988). Pullin and Capili (1988) also took into consideration the possible bottleneck effects of tilapia introduction to Africa and addressed the need for genetic improvement of cultured tilapias, particularly O. niloticus. The increasing interests in tilapia culture and the almost unanimous acceptance that cultured tilapia stocks needed genetic assessment and improvement led to the birth of the regional research and development programme “Genetic Improvement of Farmed Tilapia – GIFT”, under the leadership of the WorldFish Centre – WFC, based in Penang, Malaysia (then referred to as the International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management – ICLARM, based in Manila, Philippines).
The “GIFT Fish” was the result of this carefully conducted genetic introgression, selection and improvement programme based on broodfish collected from four African countries (Egypt, Ghana, Kenya and Senegal) and four commercial O. niloticus strains (from Israel, Singapore, Taiwan Province of China and Thailand) used in the Philippines (Eknath et al., 1993; Dey and Gupta, 2000). In the initial phase of the research, it was evident that the gain in growth and survival through crossbreeding was less than expected. This was followed by a pure-breeding strategy among the best performing purebred and crossbred groups that led to the build-up of a genetically-mixed base population. This population formed the basis for the final selection programme through a combined family and within-family selection strategy (Eknath, 1995). Subsequent selection resulted in the emergence of the GIFT strain, which is purported to have an 85 percent cumulative genetic gain compared to the base population (Eknath et al., 1993). The development of a better strain by itself does not complete the task particularly in regions where tilapia culture is widespread, often rural and very diverse, unless the findings are extended to practitioners to enable them to reap the benefits. 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

Unfortunately, there is no information available on the impact of the genetic introgression on tilapia culture in general. However, what is common knowledge is that GIFT tilapia has been introduced into a number of African and Asian countries including Nigeria. Oreochromis niloticus is widely distributed in Nigeria already and there are no reports, even anecdotal ones, that it has been responsible for the decline of indigenous species. As such it may be argued that the “GIFT Fish” may not cause any negative impacts on the environment when introduced and/or established. In contrast, it could also be suggested that “GIFT Fish”, because of its genetic superiority, it could be more invasive and would increase its range of distribution and thereby bring about detrimental environmental impacts which were not evident with O. niloticus. The reverse also could occur because of its rather specialized traits (e.g. fast growth) that may have reduced fitness in the wild. However, this study is assessing the extent of genetic introgression in exotic culture of stocks of Tilapia. 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.  To examine the extent of genetic introgression in exotic culture of stocks of Tilapia. 
2.  To examine the process of genetic introgression in exotic culture of stocks of Tilapia. 
3.  To examine the prospects of genetic introgression in exotic culture of stocks of Tilapia 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS 

1.  What is the extent of genetic introgression in exotic culture of stocks of Tilapia? 
2.  What is the process of genetic introgression in exotic culture of stocks of Tilapia? 
3.  What are the prospects of genetic introgression in exotic culture of stocks of Tilapia? 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.  The outcome of this study will educate aquaculture experts on the improvements achieved through the hybridization and genetic introgression of exotic culture stocks of Tilapia. 
2.  This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area 

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 

This study will cover the process involved in the hybridization and genetic introgression in exotic culture stocks of Tilapia.

LIMITATION OF STUDY 

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).  
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES
 
Amarasinghe, U.S. 2002. The fishery and population dynamics of Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus (Osteichthyes, Cichlidae) in a shallow irrigation reservoir in Sri Lanka. Asian Fisheries Science 715: 7 – 20. 
Dey, M.M., & Gupta, M.V. 2000. Socioeconomics of disseminating genetically improved Nile tilapia in Asia: introduction. Aquaculture Economics and Management 4: 5 – 11. 
Eknath, A.E. 1995. Managing aquatic genetic resources. Management example 4: the Nile tilapia. In J. Thorpe, ed. Conservation of fish and shellfish resources: managing diversity, pp. 176 – 194. London, Academic Press.

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EXTENT OF GENETIC INTROGRESSION IN EXOTIC CULTURE STOCKS OF TILAPIA

APPLICATION OF FISH PASSAGE DESIGN PRINCIPLES TO ENHANCE SUSTAINABILITY OF INLAND FISHERY RESOURCES IN THE WEST AFRICANS WATERS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Inland capture fisheries in whole world including African rivers deliver food security and income for rural households and also serve as a valuable source of protein and important micro-nutrients. Nevertheless, inland fisheries are becoming increasingly threatened by riverine development projects (Bell, 1991). Construction of cross-river obstacles such as dams, weirs, roads, etc. as means for rapid development in response to increasing population and demand for agriculture products, hydropower generation or urbanization, are major threats to the long term sustainability of inland capture fisheries as any changes in migration, reproduction and biodiversity of aquatic populations has the potential to decrease capture fisheries productivity. Appropriate mitigation measures to alleviate possible impacts from such migration barrier are therefore necessary. According to Abernathy et al (1991), fish ways (fish passage) have been constructed worldwide and have proved to help mitigate many fisheries globally. Nevertheless, in order to assure the effectiveness of the fish ways, it is important that fish passage design criteria are established for local species and conditions of the specific region, and not adopted from studies conducted elsewhere. Fish passage systems may provide a means to mitigate the barrier effect of dams on migrating fish species. Even though design criteria were initially developed for the fish fauna of temperate regions, they are widely used in tropical rivers with relative success (Brett et al, 1998). 
A fish passage concept has been developed for a hydroelectric power project on the Niger River in the absence of suitable fish passage design criteria. The design of a fish passage, the effectiveness of which is closely linked to the water velocities and flow patterns, should take into account the behaviour of the target species. Thus the water velocities in the passage must be compatible with their swimming capacity and behaviour. A large water level difference between pools, excessive aeration or turbulence, large eddies or low flow velocities can act as a barrier for fish. In addition to hydraulic factors, fish are sensitive to other environmental parameters (level of dissolved oxygen, temperature, noise, light, odour, etc.), which can have a deterrent effect. Downstream fish passage technologies are much less advanced than those for upstream passage. Obviously, this is partly due to the fact that efforts towards reestablishing free movement for migrating fish began with the construction of upstream fish passage facilities and that downstream migration problems have only more recently been taken into consideration. Second, the development of effective facilities for downstream migration is much more difficult and complex. Research continues to improve downstream passage, especially at large obstacles where satisfactory solutions were scarce (EPRI 1994). Design for fish passage can either be a low flow or high flow. 
Design low flow for fish passage is the mean daily average stream flow that is exceeded 95% of the time during periods when migrating fish are normally present at the site. This is determined by summarizing the previous 25 years of mean daily stream flows occurring during the fish passage season, or by an appropriate artificial stream flow duration methodology if stream flow records are not available (Clay, 1995). Shorter data sets of stream flow records may be useable if they encompass a broad range of flow conditions. The fish passage design low flow is the lowest stream flow for which migrants are expected to be present, migrating, and dependent on the proposed facility for safe passage. Design high flow for fish passage is the mean daily average stream flow that is exceeded 5% of the time during periods when migrating fish are normally present at the site. 
This is determined by summarizing the previous 25 years of mean daily stream flows occurring during the fish passage season, or by an appropriate artificial stream flow duration methodology if stream flow records are not available. Shorter data sets of stream flow records may be used if they encompass a broad range of flow conditions. The fish passage design high flow is the highest stream flow for which migrants are expected to be present, migrating, and dependent on the proposed facility for safe passage (Clay, 1995). However, this study is examining the application of fish passage design principles to enhance sustainability of inland fishery resources in the west Africans waters considering Niger River as the case study.   

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Any form of conduit, channel, lift, other device or structure which facilitates the free passage of migrating fish over, through or around any dam or other obstruction, whether natural or man-made, in either an upstream or a downstream direction can be considered as fish passage which the application can enhance the sustainability of the inland fisheries resources. In the past the provision of fish passes has usually only been concerned with the upstream migration of the diadromous (sea to freshwater cycle) migratory salmonid species. In recent years interest has widened to include the potadromous (within fresh water) coarse fish species, and other diadromous species such as eels and shad. This study seeks to encourage the consideration of fish passes for the all species. Recently there has been an upsurge in the use of existing, and sometimes new, obstructions for the purposes of electricity generation by hydropower. It is essential in such projects that account is taken of fish passage needs both in the upstream and downstream directions.   

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.  To examine the various design of fish passage that is applicable in West African waters. 
2.  To examine the applicability of fish passage design principles to enhance inland fisheries resources in West African waters. 
3.  To identify the factors limiting the application of fish passage design principles in West African waters. 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What are the various designs of fish passage that is applicable in West African waters? 
2.  What is the applicability of fish passage design principles to enhance inland fisheries resources in West African waters?
3.  What are the factors limiting the application of fish passage design principles in West African waters? 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.  Outcome of this study will be useful in developing a better fish passage that can enhance the sustainability of the inland fisheries resources especially in West African waters. 
2.  This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area 

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover various approaches to fish passage design with respect to West African waters especially the Niger River which shall be focused upon in this study. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).  
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

Abernathy, C.S., D.A. Neitzel, and E.W. Lusty. 2009. Velocity Measurements at Six Fish Screening Facilities in the Yakima Basin, Washington, Summer 2008. Annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration. 
Bell. M. C. 1991. Fisheries handbook of engineering requirements and biological criteria. Fish Passage and Development Evaluation Program, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland. 
Brett, J.R., Hollands, M., and Alderdice, D.F. 1998. “The effect of temperature on the cruising speed of young sockeye and coho salmon” Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Journal 15(4): pp 587-605. 
Clay, C. H. 1995. Design of Fishways and Other Fish Facilities. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

APPLICATION OF FISH PASSAGE DESIGN PRINCIPLES TO ENHANCE SUSTAINABILITY OF INLAND FISHERY RESOURCES IN THE WEST AFRICANS WATERS

MANAGEMENT AND POLICY FRAMEWORKS FOR ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED AND UNREGULATED (IUU) FISHING IN NIGERIAN WATERS

Abstract

The study examines the management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing in Nigerian waters, how maintaining a legal and regulated fishing system in Nigeria is a pre-requisite for the growth and development of the Nigerian economy, to examine the prevalence of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters, to examine the consequences of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters, to examine factors that has militated against cordial management of fishing in Nigeria, to propose ways of improving fishing in Nigerian waters. 
The methodology of the study cited the population of the study area with the sampling techniques used to ascertain the sampling size for this research work. It also explained the mode of data collection and analysis; Questionnaires were used to sample people’s opinion while carrying out the survey. The researcher discarded the secondary data designs so as to get new, accurate findings and data analysis on the subject matter.  
Base on finding, the study has the sample size of one hundred (100) respondents. From the result and the conclusion of this study, the following recommendations are made by the researcher,fishing should be properly managed and well regulated, it would pave room for more Nigerians to become interested in fishing and by so doing, more and more corporate individuals and even the government will begin to appreciate and support the idea behind fishing in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

West Africa’s waters are endowed with one of the world’s richest concentration of finfish, crustaceans and mollusks (Tobor, 1989). In contrast, its coastal fishing communities are amongst the most impoverished and therefore vulnerable to Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing by foreign fishing vessels (FAO, 1995). The increased efforts of the present administration in Nigeria to drive the development of the fisheries industry which has been taking shape to the applause of many stakeholders, is being plagued with a major challenge of illegal fishing in its territorial waters, which according to a recent report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) results in an annual loss of over $60 million and has been identified as a major clog in the wheel of the development of the sub-sector.Many marine and coastal ecosystems are close to collapse due to Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing, also known as Pirate fishing. Global losses from IUU fishing range from $10bn – $23.5billion annually as the harvest from IUU fishing represents almost one-fifth of the entire global catch. 
IUU fishing is easy and highly lucrative due to lack of monitoring and enforcement especially in West Africa. These pirates target places called Inshore Exclusive Zones (IEZ) – which were created to protect shallow coastal waters where fishes come to reproduce (FAO, 2001). They target high value species whilst generating a huge amount of unwanted by-catch which is then tossed into the oceans dead or dying.Coastal communities across West Africa are reporting a dramatic decline in the amount of fishes caught (FAO, 2001). As a result, they spend longer time at sea for fewer and smaller fish. This is because the rate of harvest far outstrips that of replenishment. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in its 2015 biennial report to Congress on IUU fishing has identified Nigeria as one of the six nations including Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua and Mexico in which IUU fishing is very rampant and as such is threatening the current efforts to secure long term sustainable fisheries as well as promote healthier and more robust ecosystems.In a bid to tackle the situation, the United States has declared that if any of the listed nations do not take sufficient action as well as receive a positive certification in the next biennial report, it may prohibit the import of fisheries products from that nation and deny port privileges to their fishing vessels. In Nigeria, the fisheries resources poached within territorial waters include shrimps, tuna, and sharks, among others. The estimated value of catches exploited by IUU fishing is enormous, up to30 million US dollars per annum. It is unfortunate that illegal fishing activities, particularly those committed by foreign private fishing vessels, continue unabated and unchallenged due to the lack of an adequate monitoring, control and surveillance structure with regards to both equipment and management systems in the developing West Africa sub-region. Nigeria with her vast coastlines,is blessed with valuable aquatic resources of commercial interest, particularly in the global market. It would therefore be desirable to undertake a detailed study of IUU activities in order to stop illegal plundering of fisheries resources in the West African Country of Nigeria through proper management and policy framework. It is envisaged that this would contribute to the attainment of sustainable fisheries management in Nigeria and the West Africa sub-region at large. 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU)Fisheries are a global phenomenon which require an international, holistic and coordinated approach in order to stem these distasteful activities. Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing has many facets and motivations, although the mostobvious underlying motivations are driven by economic considerations. Other considerations likely to contributeto IUU fishing include the existence of excess fleet capacity, the payment of government subsidies (where they maintain or increase capacity), strong market demand for particular products, weak national fishery administration (includingweak reporting systems), poor regional fisheries management, and ineffective monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) including the lackof vessel monitoring systems (VMS). A key consideration in addressing IUU fishing is the need to achieve effective flag State control over the operations of fishing vessels. However, this study will examine the management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.     To examine the prevalence of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 
2.     To examine the consequences of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 
3.     To examine the management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.     What is the prevalence of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters? 
2.     What are the consequences of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters? 
3.     What are the management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters? 

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESES          

Hypothesis 1:
H0:    There are no consequences of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 
H1: There are consequences of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 
Hypothesis 2:
H0:    There are no management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 
H1:    There are management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters 

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.     The outcome of this study will educate the general public on the prevalence, consequences, management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 
2.     This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area 

1.7     SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover all issues related to the prevalence, consequences, management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). 
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Hypothesis 1:
H0:    There are no consequences of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 
H1: There are consequences of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 
Hypothesis 2:
H0:    There are no management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 
H1:    There are management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters 

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.     The outcome of this study will educate the general public on the prevalence, consequences, management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters. 
2.     This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area 

1.7     SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover all issues related to the prevalence, consequences, management and policy frameworks for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in Nigerian waters.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). 
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

MANAGEMENT AND POLICY FRAMEWORKS FOR ILLEGAL, UNREPORTED AND UNREGULATED (IUU) FISHING IN NIGERIAN WATERS

CAPACITY BUILDING AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN APPLIED POPULATION GENETICS OF AQUATIC SPECIES IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Population Genetics of aquatic species focuses on describing the genetic differences between populations of fish, between the individuals within the same population and between fish in aquaculture. For example, a brown trout from one part of Nigeria does usually not have the same genetic fingerprint (DNA profile) as a brown trout from another part of Nigeria, just as the North Sea cod does not have the same genetic fingerprint as the Baltic Sea cod.  The genetic variation of contemporary fish populations is the result of evolutionary processes, reflecting both geographical separations of populations over thousands of years and genetic adaptation to local conditions. The genetic differences can be analyzed and described using modern DNA technologies, providing important information on the factors influencing the distribution and dynamics of fish populations. They also provide us with a technical tool for tracing individual fish and fish products back to the sea-areas or aquaculture plants from where they originated.   
Population genetic analyses are used to determine the population composition of fish catches in order to avoid over exploitation of small and vulnerable fish populations. The analyses may also be used to control illegal fishing by testing whether landed fish and fish products originate from species and stocks which can legally be caught.  Genetic monitoring also plays an important role in planning the long-term management of fish resources. The work is carried out by comparing DNA from contemporary fish samples with DNA analyses of samples from historical time series.  This is done by comparing DNA from fish scales and otoliths sampled more than 100 years ago, providing insight into how wild populations have responded to stocking, fishing and environmental change. Thus, inferences from such experiment can be used to guide management in order to preserve the genetic variation, resulting in healthy and productive fish populations that can be exploited sustainably. Population genetics is the study of genetic variation among species, individuals and populations; fundamentally, it shows that distribution of genetic variability is affected by evolutionary forces of mutation, migration, selection, and random genetic drift (Hansen, 2003). 
Assessing genetic diversity in aquaculture stocks or wild fish populations is crucial for effective management, interpretation, and understanding and of fish populations or stocks. Many characteristics and methods have been used to analyze stock structure in fish populations; they include ecological, tagging, parasite distribution, physiological and behavioural traits, morphometrics and meristics, calcified structures, cytogenetics, immunogenetics and blood pigments (Samaradivakara et al., 2012). Unfortunately, environmental variables often affect the relationship between genes and their phenotypic expression significantly. Thus, the population geneticists mainly focused on Mendelian traits in species widely used in laboratory studies or on available pure breeds of few species (Hallerman, 2003). The development of DNA amplification using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) technique opened up the possibility of examining genetic changes in fish populations over the past years (Ferguson et al., 1995). 
Capacity building also referred to as capacity development, is a conceptual approach to development that focuses on understanding the obstacles that inhibit people, governments, international organizations and non-governmental organizations from realizing their development goals while enhancing the abilities that will allow them to achieve measurable and sustainable results. Due to the slow adoption of modern technologies by developing countries occasioned by poor economic status, research into applied population genetics of aquatic species in Nigeria is at its lowest helm. However, there is need for rapid capacity building and technology transfer in applied population genetics of aquatic species to increase productivity and for the creation of new and better breeds of aquatic animals in Nigeria. 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Molecular genetic markers used in applied population genetics are powerful tools to detect genetic uniqueness of individuals, populations or species (Doveri et al., 2008). Modern sequence based marker systems for genetic analysis such as Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are now predominantly used in applied population genetics of aquatic species (Duran et al. 2009). However, Microsatellites have become the marker of choice for application in fish population genetic studies (Beckmann and Soller, 1990). They have multiple alleles which are highly polymorphic among individuals. The polymorphism obtained with microsatellite markers has provided powerful information to be considered in the management of fish stocks (Alam and Islam, 2005), population analysis and biodiversity conservation. In addition; microsatellites have a wide distribution in the genome and can be efficiently identified, which is essential in studies about genetic variability of populations (Boris et al., 2011). High cost of developing species-specific markers has been the main challenge of microsatellite markers in Nigeria. Now, this can be alleviated with effective capacity building and technology transfer. 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.  To examine the benefits of applied population genetics of aquatic species in Nigeria. 
2.  To examine the level of practice of applied population genetics of aquatic species in Nigeria. 
3.  To examine the benefits accruable form capacity building and technology transfer in applied population genetics of aquatic species in Nigeria. 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What are the benefits of applied population genetics of aquatic species in Nigeria? 
2.  What is the level of practice of applied population genetics of aquatic species in Nigeria? 
3.  What are the benefits accruable form capacity building and technology transfer in applied population genetics of aquatic species in Nigeria? 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.  The outcome of this study will expose the benefits accruable form capacity building and technology transfer in applied population genetics of aquatic species in Nigeria ranging from production of new and better breeds of aquatic animals to the increased productivity that will boost the economy. 
2.  This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area. 

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover various technology used in applied population genetics of aquatic species all over the world including microsatellite. It will also cover the benefits accruable form capacity building and technology transfer in applied population genetics of aquatic species. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).  
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work. 

REFERENCES

Alam S and Islam S (2005). Population genetic structure of Catla catla (Hamilton) revealed by microsatellite DNA markers. Aquaculture 246: 151-160. 
Beckmann, J.S and Soller, M (1990). Toward a unified approach to genetic mapping of eukaryotes based on sequence tagged micro satellite sites. Bio/Technology 8, 930– 932 
Boris Brinez, Xenia Caraballo O, Marcel Salazar V (2011). Genetic diversity of six populations of red hybrid tilapia, using Microsatellite genetic Markers. Rev.MVZ Cordoba 16 (2): 2491-2498. 
Doveri S, Lee D, Maheswaran M, Powell W (2008). Molecular markers: History, features and applications. In Principles and Practices of Plant Genomics, Volume 1, C.K.a.A.G. Abbott, ed. (Enfield, USA: Science Publishers), pp. 23-68. 
Duran, C., Nikki,A.,David,E and Jacqueline B (2009).Molecular Genetic Markers: Discovery, Applications,Data stoarage and visualization.Current Bionformatics 11,37 -41. 
Ferguson, A., Taggart, J.B., Prodohl, P.A., McMeel, O.,Thompson, C., Stone, C., McGinnity, P. and Hynes, R.A (1995). The application of molecular markers to the study and conservation of fish populations,with special reference to Salmo.Journal of Fish Biology,47:103-126.

CAPACITY BUILDING AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER IN APPLIED POPULATION GENETICS OF AQUATIC SPECIES IN NIGERIA

DEVELOPMENT AND DELIVERY OF PRACTICAL DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMS FOR SMALL-SCALE SHRIMP FARMERS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The world production of farm shrimp in 1996 was valued at over $10 billion. In Nigeria, the bulk of producers are also small farmers that operate on average on 15 ha of ponds. Penaeus monodon is the most important farmed shrimp species West Africa (Dunlap, 2002). Infectious diseases are consistently identified as the major threat to the long-term viability of the shrimp farming industry in the west Africa sub-region, and recurrent massive outbreaks of viral diseases have caused serious financial losses among smallholders (Dunlap, 2002). To address this situation, researchers have worked towards developing effective farm-level, shrimp disease-control programs. This study will produce relevant expertise and information, but because of lack of definitive, on-farm program validations and inadequacies in the delivery of extension programs, smallholders have generally failed to benefit in the previous practical disease control programs set up by government.
Shrimp farming is a clear example of outstanding development in the aquaculture industry in Nigeria (Lin, 1989). In the last 10 years, shrimp production worldwide has been more than doubled. This rapid development came at a cost and the need for a more sustainable approach to reduce the environmental impact, improve shrimp health and quality became clear to several stakeholders. A Consortium Program involving the World Bank, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) was initiated in 1999 and was later joined by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). Through this program, principles for responsible shrimp farming were developed following a process of stakeholder consultations (WB/FAO/WWF/UNEP, 2005). At the same time Better Management Practices to help farmers in the implementation of those principles were also developed and their implementation by farming communities promoted. Facing a compelling need to control shrimp diseases such as White Spot Disease (WSD), which continued to claim a huge share of shrimp harvests, and the resulting quality problems associated with the use of banned chemicals and antibiotics, the government took a leading role in the process by taking part in stakeholder consultations and by supporting both directly and indirectly the implementation of best management practice approaches (FAO/NACA, 2001).
Despite the explosive growth in world production of cultivated shrimp, there have also been staggering, periodic losses due to disease. A global shrimp survey by the Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) in 2001 revealed a rough overall loss to disease of approximately 22% in a single year. Given a total production of 700,000 metric tons in 2001 valued at roughly US$8 per kg, this translated into an estimate of about US$1 billion loss in a single year. This was probably a conservative estimate, since farms with very bad results may not have responded to the survey. Thus, a conservative estimate for the total loss to disease over the past 15 years may be in the order of US$15 billion (Chen et al, 2005). This illustrates the importance of disease control to the industry.
With respect to disease agents, the GAA survey revealed that 60% of losses were attributed to viruses and about 20% to bacteria. Thus, the majority of our effort on disease control (80%) should clearly be focused on viral and bacterial pathogens. Indeed, that has been the case as that should be the focus point of practical disease control programs. The control effort must emphasize prevention, and this has required the development of good diagnostic tools, trained personnel and a better understanding of the hosts and their pathogens. 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Serious viral and bacterial disease outbreaks revealed that the shrimp industry had to be better prepared with more knowledge and practical approaches about shrimp and their pathogens so that disease prevention methods could be improved and effective disease control measures should be adopted. This need shifted attention to biosecurity, that is, possible methods of cultivating shrimp in restricted systems designed to prevent the entry of potential pathogens and organization pf practical disease control programs. The industry also realized that a good number of disease outbreaks originated from careless transboundary movement of contaminated but grossly normal aquaculture stocks. More than any other problem, the white spot shrimp virus pandemic served as a “wake up” call that shocked the industry into concerted actions. The catastrophic losses had serious impacts on whole national economies all the affected countries including America. They resulted in increased support for research and development/delivery of practical disease control programs on shrimp diseases (including epidemiology) and in increased farmer awareness of the need for biosecurity. 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.  To examine various shrimp diseases and how they affect productivity of small scale shrimp farmers in Nigeria. 
2.  To develop and deliver a practical disease control programs for small scale shrimp farmers in Nigeria.
3.  To identify the effect of practical disease control programs for small scale shrimp farmers in Nigeria. 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What are the various shrimp diseases and how do they affect productivity of small scale shrimp farmers in Nigeria? 
2.  How can a practical disease control programs be developed and delivered for small scale shrimp farmers in Nigeria? 
3.  What are the effects of practical disease control programs for small scale shrimp farmers in Nigeria? 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.  The results from this study will educate on approaches to develop and deliver a practical disease control program for small scale shrimp farmers in Nigeria. It will also educate on way to increase productivity in shrimp farming through effective disease control measures and prevention of diseases. 
2.  This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area. 

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the approaches used in developing and delivering a practical disease control program for small scale shrimp farmers in Nigeria. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).  
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

FAO/NACA. 2001. Manual of procedures for the implementation of the Asia regional technical guidelines of health management for the responsible movement of live aquatic animals. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 402, Supplement 1. Rome, FAO. 106 p. 
Dunlap, P.V. 2002. Quorum sensing and its potential application to vibriosis, pp. 59-71. In Lavilla-Pitogo, C.R, and Cruz-Lacierda, E.R. (eds.). Diseases in Asian aquaculture IV.  Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila. 
Chen, J.-Y., Chuang, H., Pan, C.-Y., Kuo, C.-M. 2005. cDNA sequence encoding an antimicrobial peptide of chelonianin from the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 18:179-183. 
Lin, C.K. 1989. Shrimp culture in Taiwan, What went wrong? World Aquaculture 20:19-20

DEVELOPMENT AND DELIVERY OF PRACTICAL DISEASE CONTROL PROGRAMS FOR SMALL-SCALE SHRIMP FARMERS IN NIGERIA

EXPLORING OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING LIVELIHOODS AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA COASTAL COMMUNITIES

ABSTRACT

This study was centered on exploring options for improving livelihoods and resource management in Nigeria coastal communities. The main objective of this study is to examine ways of improving resource management and livelihood. The study employed the descriptive and explanatory design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed using the correlation statistical tool at 5% level of significance which was presented in frequency tables and percentage. The respondents under the study were 200residents of Port Harcourt. 
The study findings revealed the following; effective government implementation of contracts can help improve the livelihood of Nigeria coastal communities. Ensuring transparency by government and stakeholders would enhance resource management in Nigeria coastal management.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Nigeria is endowed with a long coastline of about 960km, a large area of inshore waters, and a vast inland system comprising natural and man-made lakes, rivers, creeks, lagoons and wetlands all of which support a good variety of fisheries. Thus, artisanal fisheries occupy a very significant position in the Nigerian economy providing employment for over 400,000 people and supplying about 90% of the total local production of about 300,000 metric tons (FDF, 1997). It impacts on the quality of lives of various groups through supplying 58% of per capita animal protein intake and engagement in fishing and allied occupations as primary or secondary source of income (IFAD, 1997). Fisheries resources represent the foci of the livelihood activities of most coastal communities. About 300,000 indigenous people and migrant fishermen, mostly Ghanaians, depend on fisheries resources as the main source of sustenance, assets and investment capital (Liverman, 1999). Fishing supply 75% of their animal protein intake, and more than 98% of the population of the fishing communities is dependent on fishing and fishery related activities. Over 80% are engaged primarily in fishing as the main source of livelihood while about 95% are engaged directly or indirectly in the fishing industry. Some communities date back to the 18th century when the original settlers first arrived (e.g. Orimedu, Lagos State) (Dosunmu, 2007). Six major livelihood groups that depend largely on fisheries and aquatic resources are small-scale fisher, fish processors, fish mongers / marketers, net fabricators, boat builders and out board engine mechanics. To these livelihood groups, the acquisition of assets, such as shelter, boats, nets, engines, fishing gears, is mainly through fishing, fish processing, marketing and other fish related activities (Caldwell, 1996). Similarly, their financial requirements for investment, food consumption, education, health and other family needs depend on fishery. According to Murray (2002), the vulnerability of each livelihood is relative to the percentage of dependence of each livelihood on the fisheries resources / activities. It is hinged on the state of the resource / stock exploitation, growth rate, emigration, local knowledge, varieties of technologies in use and policy. The vulnerability of this livelihood group in the coastal fishing communities is in terms of environmental shock e.g. erosion in the Benin River System destroying nursery grounds of the fisheries resources; accretion on the Lagos East; mud flat in the Mahin coastline, and the resultant drudgery in landing of boat. 
Population presents a formidable challenge to food security and employment opportunities. In the coastal communities, population densities per habitable area are high as the wetland ecology of the region restricts habitation to the relatively small are of higher elevation (Haugaard, 2003). This therefore translates to higher pressure on the fisheries resources that are the bedrock of these coastal communities livelihood. Moreover there are issues with resource base. Changes in abundance due to recruitment failure or environmental impact resulting in poor catches and multiple user conflict occasioned by trawler menace, destroying nets due to trawling in non-trawling zone of the coastal waters. Furthermore, there are issues of communal conflict – e.g. Bakasi are in Akwa-Ibom compelling fishermen to abandon fishing and going into motor bike transportation business in the cities and changes in macro-economic policies – removal of subsidy on fishing inputs, non-preferential interest rate on fishery loans (interest rate on loan determined by free market strategy) and difficulty accessing credit facility, high rate of inflation, increased cost of inputs, resulting in difficulty in input replacement, continuous use of input beyond designed life span, incessant breakdown and irregular fishing trips and low catches and the risk of losing life at sea. All these has called for the need to explore options for improving the livelihoods and resource management in the Nigerian coastal communities. 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The major constraints to artisanal fisheries and other fishing-related employment opportunities for the people living in the coastal communities in Nigeria include poor rural infrastructure, particularly accessibility, education, electricity, health, water and sanitation facilities. Indeed, poverty in the fishing coastal communities as in other rural Nigeria may be said to be due to the constraints of lack of basic infrastructure as this inhibits efficiency, reduces the quality of their products and puts enormous strains on their living conditions. It also makes it too easy for diseases to infest them and upset their fragile income-earning capacity. However, this study is exploring options for improving the livelihoods and resource management in Nigeria coastal communities. 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.     To examine ways of improving the livelihood of the Nigerian coastal communities. 
2.     To examine ways of improving resource management in Nigerian coastal communities.
3.     To identify the challenges faced by people dwelling in the Nigerian coastal communities.

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.     What are ways of improving the livelihood of the Nigerian coastal communities? 
2.     What are the ways of improving resource management in Nigerian coastal communities
3.     What are the challenges faced by people dwelling in the Nigerian coastal communities?

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.     The outcome of this study will expose the livelihood challenges faced in the Nigerian coastal communities. It will also explore options for improving livelihood and effective resources management in the Nigerian coastal communities. 
2.     This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area 

1.7     SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover livelihood challenges and ways of improving it in the Nigeria coastal communities with emphasis on effective resource management. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). 
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

EXPLORING OPTIONS FOR IMPROVING LIVELIHOODS AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA COASTAL COMMUNITIES

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED MUD CRAB CULTURE SYSTEMS IN THE NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

In all countries actively involved in mud crab aquaculture development, the national government is taking a key role in aquaculture planning to underpin national aspirations and growth targets for their respective industries (Ji & Huang, 1998). The Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Nigeria, or similar organizations in other countries, all are implementing national policies and regulations, which will flow down to provincial areas. As a result, an individual or organization seeking to develop a mud crab farming venture will need to seek local government advice on correct procedures and processes to follow to obtain the appropriate authorities, licences and permits to undertake the activity. In addition, discussing development plans with government agencies will enable potential farmers to be made aware of any incentives or regional initiatives that may assist the development and operation of their business. Mud crab aquaculture is currently undertaken at relatively low densities compared with other types of pond- or pen-based aquaculture (Bian, 1980). In Nigeria, mud crab is just one species of many being used in integrated mangrove-aquaculture farming systems, which are focused on productive and sustainable use of mangrove ecosystems. 
The guidelines for sustainable mud crab aquaculture in mangrove pens have been developed. Environmental assessment of an aquaculture development is undertaken by government agencies in most countries. However, the low risk of any environmental degradation from most forms of crab culture should mean that assessment of mud crabs farms is simple and relatively low-cost. For example, it may be more practical for environmental monitoring of farms based in mangroves to be undertaken in partnership between farmers and government agencies, rather than requiring sophisticated, expensive environmental impact assessments, as required for large pond-based developments involving intensive culture (Anon, 2006). For farms involving pond construction, guidelines on how to mitigate against their environmental impact during construction and operation are provided in both the “Guidelines for constructing and maintaining aquaculture containment structures” (Anon, 2007). Crab farming as a practice is not common in Nigeria. 
The crab species Scylla serrata is the biggest and most important member of the family of edible crabs in the Nigeria. Mud crab is considered a delicacy and has become a popular fare in seafood restaurants. It is sought for its very tasty aligue or ripe eggs in the ovary. Crabs abound in estuaries, mangroves, swamps and tidal waters, living both as a scavenger and a cannibal. The mating period of crabs is usually long. When mating, the female is carried by the male, clasping her with three pairs of walking legs. In this condition, it is very easy to catch them. After five days, the female is finally released by the male. Mating usually occurs for four months, during the period May to September. Prior to that, in April, the females develops eggs or aligue. Crabs spawn in the sea. The newly hatched larvae called zoea are free-swimming. They are carried by the tide to the coast where they migrate to live-in estuaries, swamps and mangroves. Fertility is very high among females. As much as a million eggs can be laid but mortality is also high because of inclement climatic conditions (Anon, 2006). Molting is an indispensable stage in the life cycle of crabs. 
During molting, they shed their covering or carapace. This happens when there is an abrupt increase in the size of their body. After shedding the old carapace, the crab is left with a very soft covering. It becomes an easy prey to other animals and to survive, the crab buries itself under the mud until the soft shell hardens (Guo et al, 2008). For the purpose of culture and cultivation, Small crabs or crab seeds are caught by fishermen in seashores, swamps and other natural habitats. They are gathered and sold to fishponds operators. Crabs are raised in brackish water fishponds. It is, however, not advisable to culture crabs together with prawns, because when prawns undergo molting, crabs eat them. 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Crab culture system in Nigeria is not common because it has not gained the required attention from the government in terms of financial support considering the lot of processes involved in developing the farm. First, there should be adequate supply of estuarine water because good and stable salinity is conducive to growth. Smaller ponds are advisable since they are easier to manage. It is important to ensure that the soil is clay or clay loam. This kind of soil is capable of retaining water. If possible, the site should be free from floods. The depth of water is also important. Advisable depth is one meter to prevent exposure of cultured crabs and stop them from boring holes through the dikes. 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.  To examine the process of development of improved mud crab culture system in Nigeria. 
2.  To examine the level of practice of mud crab farming in Nigeria. 
3.  To identify the limitations in the mud crab culture system in Nigeria. 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What is the process of development of improved mud crab culture system in Nigeria? 
2.  What is the level of practice of mud crab farming in Nigeria? 
3.  What are the limitations in the mud crab culture system in Nigeria? 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.  Outcome of this study will educate fish farmers and the likes in Nigeria on the development of improved mud crab culture system in Nigeria. 
2.  This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area 

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the process of mud crab culture system for the purpose of improved production. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).  
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

Anon. 2006. Australian Prawn Farming Manual. Health management for profit. The State of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. 157 pp. 
Bian, B.Z.E.S. 1980. Atkinsiella hamanaensis sp. nov. isolated from cultivated ova of the mangrove crab, Scylla serrata (Forsskal). J. Fish Dis., 3(5): 373–385. 
Guo, Z.X., Weng, S.P., Li, G., Chan, S.M. & He, J.G. 2008. Development of an RT-PCR detection method for mud crab reovirus. J. Virol. Methods, 151(2): 237–241. 
Ji, R. & Huang, S. 1998. Studies on pathogenic bacteria of “Yellow Body” disease of mud crab Scylla serrata. J. Oceanogr. Taiwan Strait/Taiwan Haixia, 17(4): 473–476.

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED MUD CRAB CULTURE SYSTEMS IN THE NIGERIA

FISH DRYING IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Fresh fish rapidly deteriorates unless some way can be found to preserve it. Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food, which inhibits the growth of microorganisms. Open air drying using sun and wind has been practiced since ancient times to preserve food. Water is usually removed by evaporation (air drying, sun drying, smoking or wind drying) but, in the case of freeze-drying, food is first frozen and then the water is removed by sublimation. Bacteria, yeasts and molds need the water in the food to grow, and drying effectively prevents them from surviving in the food. Fish are preserved through such traditional methods as drying, smoking and salting. The oldest traditional way of preserving fish was to let the wind and sun dries it (Wikipedia, 2016). Drying food is the world’s oldest known preservation method, and dried fish has a storage life of several years. The method is cheap and effective in suitable climates; the work can be done by the fisherman and family, and the resulting product is easily transported to market (Wikipedia, 2016). Any kind of fish can be smoked or dried. There are three main methods of smoking: Smoking and roasting; Hot smoking; and Long smoking Smoking and roasting is a simple method of preservation, for consumption either directly after curing or within twelve hours. Re-smoking and roasting can keep the product in good condition for a further twelve hours. Fresh unsalted fish is put over a wood or coconut husk fire (Adedeji and Adetunji, 2004; Adedeji, 2012). The hot smoking system can be used for immediate consumption or to keep the fish for a maximum of 48 hours. Small fish can be salted first for half an hour (see wet salting). After salting they are put on iron spits and dried in a windy place or in the sun for another half hour. It is necessary to have an oil drum to make the smoking stove (Adedeji and Adetunji, 2004; Adedeji, 2012). For long smoking, If fish must be kept in good condition for a long time, for instance, two or three months or even longer, it can be done by smoking, provided the fish is not oily. For this purpose, a small closed shed made of palm leaves or other local material can be used (Adedeji and Adetunji, 2004; Adedeji, 2012). 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study is considering the two types of dried fish in Nigeria which are stockfish and clipfish. Stockfish is unsalted fish, especially cod, dried by cold air and wind on wooden racks on the foreshore. The drying racks are known as fish flakes. Cod is the most common fish used in stockfish production, though other whitefish, such as pollock, haddock, ling and tusk, are also used. Over the centuries, several variants of dried fish have evolved. Stockfish, dried as fresh fish and not salted, is often confused with clipfish, where the fish is salted before drying. After 2–3 weeks in salt the fish has saltmatured, and is transformed from wet salted fish to Clipfish through a drying process. The salted fish was earlier dried on rocks (clips) on the foreshore. Stockfish is cured in a process called fermentation where cold adapted bacteria matures the fish, similar to the maturing process of cheese. Clipfish is processed in a chemically curing process called saltmaturing, similar to the maturing processes of other saltmatured products like the Parma ham. 

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: To provide an overview of fish drying in Nigeria. To examine the benefits of fish drying. To determine the effect of fish drying on the nutritional values of fish. 

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What is the process of fish drying in Nigeria? What are the benefits of fish drying? What is the effect of fish drying on the nutritional values of fish? 

1.5     STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: fish drying has no significant effect on the nutritional value of fish 
H1: fish drying has significant effect on the nutritional value of fish 

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: Outcome of this study will educate on the process and the benefit of fish drying in Nigeria. This study will also reveal the effect of fish drying on the nutritional values of fish. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area. 

1.7     SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the process and the benefit of fish drying in Nigeria. It will also cover the nutritional value of the dried fish. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). 
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work. 

REFERENCES 
Adedeji O.B. 2012. Principal Human Disease Resulting From Ingestion or Contact With Fish and Shellfish. A Power Point Lecture Supplement in the Department of Veterinary Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Adedeji O. B. and Adetunji V.O. 2004.Pests in Farm Animals and Stored Animal Products.Agriculture, Renewable Natural Resources, Animal Husbandry and Health.Published by General Studies Programme (GSP) University of Ibadan. Nigeria. 141 – 151pp. 
Wikipedia (2016): www.wikipedia.com

    RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What is the process of fish drying in Nigeria? What are the benefits of fish drying? What is the effect of fish drying on the nutritional values of fish? 

1.5     STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: fish drying has no significant effect on the nutritional value of fish 
H1: fish drying has significant effect on the nutritional value of fish 

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: Outcome of this study will educate on the process and the benefit of fish drying in Nigeria. This study will also reveal the effect of fish drying on the nutritional values of fish. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area. 

1.7     SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the process and the benefit of fish drying in Nigeria. It will also cover the nutritional value of the dried fish. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). 
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work. 

REFERENCES 
Adedeji O.B. 2012. Principal Human Disease Resulting From Ingestion or Contact With Fish and Shellfish. A Power Point Lecture Supplement in the Department of Veterinary Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Adedeji O. B. and Adetunji V.O. 2004.Pests in Farm Animals and Stored Animal Products.Agriculture, Renewable Natural Resources, Animal Husbandry and Health.Published by General Studies Programme (GSP) University of Ibadan. Nigeria. 141 – 151pp. 
Wikipedia (2016): www.wikipedia.com

FISH DRYING IN NIGERIA

ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL FOR LOW COST FORMULATED DIETS FOR MUD CRAB AQUACULTURE IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Global demand for mud crabs has risen over the past decade, led by expanding wealthier markets such as those in Asia, America and parts of Africa. This demand has largely been met by exploitation of wild stocks, causing many to go into decline. Current trends in these fisheries suggest this exploitation is unsustainable. This situation continues to be exacerbated by rising demand for seafood. Mud crabs (Scylla species) are widely distributed across the West Africa sub-region, mainly in coastal and estuarine areas, making them ideal for fishing. This does also make them highly suitable for aquaculture, providing some barriers to production can be overcome. 
Past researches has developed laboratory-scale technologies for hatching crabs from larvae, a first step in aquaculture development. Large-scale hatchery production is now under way where a leading centre for crab aquaculture has been established especially in advanced countries of the world.Until diets suitable for crab grow-out can be formulated, based on meeting their nutritional needs, further advances will be limited. Most aquaculture of crabs uses ‘trash-fish’ collected from marine inshore areas or mussel meat from intertidal areas. This can damage these environments and not all feed is likely to be consumed, fouling hatchery ponds. Growing exploitation of trash-fish is also leading to declining numbers, threatening the viability of aquaculture. A cost-effective replacement diet is needed to ensure the benefits gained to date are not lost. Species identification of mud crab has been controversial, and for many years only one species in the genus Scylla was recognized (Fuseya, 1998). Based on genetic and morphological discoveries, however, Keenan (1999) identified four species form the genus Scylla and revised their taxonomic nomenclature as S. serrata, S. olivacea, S. paramamosain and S. tranquebarica. Among the four mud crab species, S. serrata has the widest distribution range, and is commonly found from southern Africa to Tahiti, including the northern half of Australia, north to Okinawa, and south to the Bay of Islands in New Zealand (Keenan, 1999). S. serrata is exploited throughout its range, and in Nigeria it is estimated to accounts for 95% of the total mud crab harvest (DPI&F, 2007). 
One of the main challenges for mud crab hatcheries is the lack of appropriate larval diets. Seed production of most aquatic animals, including Scylla spp., relies on live foods such as rotifers and Artemia nauplii (Hamasaki, 2003), as these live foods have several beneficial characteristics; they are slow swimmers, available in different sizes and are hardy enough to be suitable for mass culturing (Verischele, 1989). From a nutritional perspective, however, rotifers and Artemia are far from ideal, as they show nutritional inconsistency depending on source, age and culture technique (Tucker, 1992). They also lack certain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) essential for growth and survival of marine larvae (Southgate, 2003), and they are known to be a vector for introduction of pathogens into the larvae culture (Person-Le Ruyet, 1990). To overcome the nutritional deficiency it is common practice to ‘enrich’ live foods to enhance their levels of important HUFA, particularly decosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA), prior to introduction to the larval rearing tanks (Southgate and Lou, 1995). This practice results in increased growth and survival of larvae for many species and has been viewed as a solution to the nutritional deficiency problem associated with the live prey. However, recent experiments conducted on the effectiveness of this enrichment method has shown that despite elevated HUFA levels in Artemia following enrichment, these fatty acids may not be readily available to crustacean larvae. For example, a study conducted on the larvae of rock lobster, Panulirus Cygnus showed that DHA in tissue of larvae fed enriched Artemia was low compared to the level in Artemia itself, indicating that crustacean larvae have a limited ability to absorb DHA directly from Artemia (Liddy et al., 2004). This may be linked to Artemia ’s ability to metabolize dietary DHA for energy (Danielsen et al., 1995) or alternatively, DHA is being convert to EPA in Artemia shortly after enrichment (Han et al., 2001). 
Live foods production in aquaculture hatcheries is further disadvantaged by the need for specialized personnel, dedicated equipment and facilities, and the need for micro-algae culture as a food source for the live food culture. On this basis, live prey production may account for 50-75% of the total running costs of aquaculture hatcheries (Dainteath and Quin, 1991). Finally, as Artemia cysts are collected from the wild environment they are subject to an inconsistent supply, unpredictable prices and varying quality. These factors influence the sustainability of the use of Artemia as a food source and may present a serious bottleneck for the global aquaculture industry in the coming years (Lavens and Sorgeloos, 2000). 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In response to the problems associated with the use of live foods in the aquaculture of mud crabs, research into the development of alternative diets has become increasingly important. Several different types of formulated diet particles with potential for use with mud crab larvae have been developed. These are better known as microparticulate diets and have commonly been categorized as either micro encapsulated diets (MED) or microbound diets (MBD) (Kanazawa, 1986). Although less common, commercial larval foods are also available as microcoated diets (MCD), flakes, granulated foods and liquid foods (lipid walled capsules). A shared advantage of these formulated diet particles is that unlike live foods, the size and composition of micro particulate diet particle can be adjusted to suit the exact requirements of the various species and the different larval stages, the cost cannot be said to that low. However, this study is assessing the potential for low cost formulated diets for mud crab aquaculture in Nigeria. 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.  To examine the potential for low cost formulated diets for mud crab aquaculture in Nigeria. 
2.  To examine the nutritional constituents of a low cost formulated diet for mud crab. 
3.  To identify the effect of low cost formulated diets on the productivity of mud crab aquaculture. 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What are the potential for low cost formulated diets for mud crab aquaculture in Nigeria? 
2.  What are the nutritional constituents of a low cost formulated diet for mud crab? 
3.  What is the effect of low cost formulated diets on the productivity of mud crab aquaculture?

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.  This study will provide a clear understanding to fish farmers on approaches of assessing the potential for low cost formulated diets for mud crab aquaculture in Nigeria. It will also educate on the nutritional benefits of low cost formulated diets for mud crab. 
2.  This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area. 

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the the potential for low cost formulated diets for mud crab aquaculture in Nigeria. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).  
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL FOR LOW COST FORMULATED DIETS FOR MUD CRAB AQUACULTURE IN NIGERIA

DEVELOPMENT OF THE AQUACULTURE COMPENDIUM

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The Aquaculture Compendium is an encyclopedic, multimedia tool that brings together a wide range of different types of science-based information to support sound decision-making in aquaculture and aquatic resource management worldwide. It is comprised of information sourced from experts, edited and compiled by an independent scientific organization, and resourced by a diverse international Development Consortium. The datasheets are enhanced with data from specialist organizations, images, maps, a bibliographic database and full text articles. New datasheets and datasets continue to be added, reviewed and updated (Wikipedia, 2016). 
Aquaculture compendium covers fish, molluscs, crustacea, algae and live feed culture in marine, brackish and freshwater environments, including: Production, health and husbandry/Engineering and technology/Economics, economic development and marketing/Environment/Governance, trade, legislation and social impact (Scott, 2003). Increasing pressure on wild capture fisheries from rising global demand for fish and other aquatic resources has resulted in moves to promote the potential of aquaculture, or fish farming. Aquaculture has the potential to improve socio-economic conditions and environmental sustainability, both in coastal settings and through preservation of wild fisheries and their associated ecosystems. Asia produced more than 90 per cent of all global aquaculture products as well as providing an important source of food security and dietary protein (Scott, 2003). 
Despite this aquaculture is limited by a lack of knowledge and information. This is particularly the case in the areas of environmental management and sustainability. Knowledge about aquaculture in rural settings is also limited, including from a systems viewpoint. A recent study in Thailand where extension materials were disseminated after development through farmer participatory approaches led to significant yield increases. This shortfall in the knowledge base led to the development of aquaculture compendium (Scott, 2003). A substantial research knowledge base for rural aquaculture has been developed over the past few years. This knowledge suggests a yield gap between current and potential levels is real for smallholders. Poor knowledge about many areas of aquaculture is the reason, yet much of this knowledge is contained within the research knowledge base. Compendium Technology can be used to organize and present this knowledge to extension networks to help increase information and reduce the existing yield gap. 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Aquaculture has great potential to improve socioeconomic conditions and environmental sustainability worldwide, but realization of this potential is severely hampered by a lack of relevant knowledge that can be applied to address these goals. The aquaculture compendium is being built to address these needs, and ultimately to contribute towards improving the sustainable livelihoods of people dependent on aquatic resources. 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.  To provide an overview of the aquaculture compendium. 
2.  To examine the process of development of the aquaculture compendium. 
3.  To examine the benefits of the aquaculture compendium. 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What is the aquaculture compendium? 
2.  What is the process of development of the aquaculture compendium? 
3.  What are the benefits of the aquaculture compendium? 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.  The outcome of this study will educate on the use of aquaculture compendium, its process of development and its benefits. 
2.  This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area 

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the use of aquaculture compendium, its process of development and its benefits. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).  
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE AQUACULTURE COMPENDIUM

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROBES FOR PRAWN VIRUSES IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Viral diseases have been seriously impacting the sustainability and economic success of prawn aquaculture as they have been resulting in heavy mortalities (Carr et al, 1996). About 20 different prawn viruses have been reported, which have been implicated in mass mortalities in cultured prawn, such as White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow head virus (YHV), infectious hypodermic and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV). IHHNV, Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmoDNV), formerly referred to as hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and lymphoidal parvovirus (LPV) associated with parvoviral infections in prawns (Felix & Devarag, 1993). Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is one of the major viral pathogens of prawn worldwide, which has resulted in severe mortalities of up to 90 % in cultured prawn from Nigeria and hence designated Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV). Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus is distributed in prawn culture facilities worldwide. It causes large economic loss to the prawn farming industry (Anon, 2009). Our knowledge about the natural reservoirs of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus is still scarce. Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) of prawn, one of the major viral pathogens of prawns has recently been classified as Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) under the family Parvoviridae and is a DNA virus. 
It has been reported to cause Runt deformity syndrome (RDS) in the two species of prawn namely P. (Litopenaeus) vannamei and P. monodon which is a chronic, non-lethal disease (Kalagayan, 1991). Like all other parvoviruses, Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus do not encode a DNA polymerase and depend on host cells for DNA replication and multiplication (Bell et al, 1988). Therefore, they need rapidly proliferating cells of the host for their replication. The target organs for Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus infection include tissues of ectodermal (cuticular epidermis, hypodermal epithelium of the fore and hind gut, nerve cord and nerve ganglia) and mesodermal (hematopoietic organs, antennal gland, tubule epithelium, gonads, lymphoid organ, connective tissue and striated muscles) origin. The virus does not infect organ systems of endodermal origin (i.e., hepatopancreas, mid-gut epithelium, anterior mid-gut caecum or posterior midgut caecum). 
Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus infection has been demonstrated in all life stages of prawn species including eggs, larvae, postlarvae (PL), juveniles and adults. PL and juvenile prawns are more susceptible to Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus infection than adults due to the presence of actively dividing cells (Anon, 2009). Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus-infected females fail to develop embryos and also fail to hatch the eggs (Anon, 2009). This virus is highly species-specific, particularly in terms of gross manifestations. Due to the importance of prawn culture, the availability of easy and rapid methods that allow early diagnosis is essential for routine monitoring of the animal health status and to restrain further disease outbreaks (Pantoja et al, 1999). Traditionally, the diagnosis of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus infection is by examining histological sections wherein prominent Cowdry type A, eosinophilic, intranuclear inclusion bodies surrounded by marginated chromatin in hypertrophied nuclei of cells is seen in tissues of ectodermal and mesodermal origin (Carr et al, 1996). These inclusion bodies of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus can be confused with the developing inclusion bodies. 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Viral pathogen of prawns has resulted in mass mortalities in prawn culture worldwide. In addition, it also causes abnormal deformities of cuticle, abdominal segments, tail fan and rostrum, wrinkled antennal flagella, bubble-heads along with wide size variations and reduced growth that finally affects the quality of the commodity prawn. Several important issues related to the process of infection, propagation and interaction of prawn viruses with hosts at the cellular and molecular level, remain to be elucidated. Studies are needed as well, to determine the true risks of the viral infections on wild populations of prawns. Since Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus is widely distributed in prawn culture facilities throughout the world, this study will focus on its diagnosis and its epidemiological probes. Recent reports show that genetic diversity of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus is not uniform across geographic regions. For investigation on mutations within a geographic area or individual hosts, genome sequencing is the method of choice. 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.  To identify the diagnostic tests for Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus of prawns. 
2.  To examine the epidemiology of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus of prawns. 
3.  To examine the mortality rates of prawns infected with Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus. 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What are the diagnostic tests for Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus of prawns? 
2.  What is the epidemiology of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus of prawns? 
3.  What is the mortality rates of prawns infected with Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus? 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.  The outcome of this study will reveal various approaches to the diagnosis of Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus in infected prawn. It will also educate on the epidemiology and mortality rate occasioned by Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus in prawns. 
2.  This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover procedures and investigations into the diagnostic tests and epidemiological probes for viruses in prawn in Nigeria with specific emphasis on Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).  
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

Anon. OIE manual of diagnostic tests for aquatic animals. Paris: Office International des Epizooties; 2009 Bell TA, Lightner DV. A handbook of normal prawn histology. 
Baton Rouge: World Aquaculture Society; 1988 Carr WLH, Sweeney JN, Nunan L, Lightner DV, Hirsch HH, Reddington JJ. The use of an infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus gene probe serodiagnostic field kit for the screening of candidate specific pathogen-free Penaeus vannamei broodstock. Aquaculture. 1996;147:1–8. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(96)01291-4. 
Felix S, Devaraj M. Incidence of MBV and IHHNV viruses in a commercial prawn hatchery-a first report of virus incidence from India. Seafood Export J. 1993;25:13–18. 
Kalagayan H, Godin D, Kanna R, Hagino G, Sweeney J, Wyban J. IHHN virus as an etiological factor in Runt-Deformity Syndrome (RDS) of juvenile prawn cultured in Hawaii. J World Aquacult Soc. 1991;22:235–243. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.1991.tb00740.x 
Pantoja CR, Lightner DV, Holtschmit HK. Prevalence and geographic distribution of IHHN parvovirus in wild prawn from the Gulf of California, Mexico. J Aquat Anim Health. 1999;11:23–34. doi: 10.1577/1548-8667(1999)011<0023:PAGDOI>2.0.CO;2

DIAGNOSTIC TESTS AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROBES FOR PRAWN VIRUSES IN NIGERIA

INDIGENOUS FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Coastal indigenous fishing communities have close economic, social and cultural linkages with marine ecosystems that are vital for maintaining their food security and cultural heritage (Durand, 2003). Like other small-scale fisheries, they are vulnerable to global changes, including those related to climate. Little is known, however, about the impacts and influence of climate change on indigenous fishing management. This represents a significant global issue, as indigenous groups are often the most vulnerable coastal communities. This research aims to help fill this knowledge gap by providing a global overview of development and management of indigenous fisheries in Nigeria. It has been estimated that most of the world’s major indigenous fisheries are now at their maximum level of exploitation (FAO, 1995). Furthermore, Welcomme and Bartley (1997) have indicated that catches from indigenous fisheries are in decline due to the deteriorating quality of the aquatic environment and poor management. FAO (1995) has also identified, that in response to this crisis, there has been an increase in the level of fishery interventions, including various enhancements, as defined by the following statement: “Any increase of the yields from indigenous fisheries will in future be derived from fisheries enhancement activities and the effects of direct human intervention in the production processes of aquatic environments”. 
The indigenous systems of fisheries management in Nigeria have originated within the communities concerned, and conform with the definition of “indigenous” provided by Berkes and Farvar (1989), i.e. practices which have historical continuity among a group of people. Under the indigenous system, the fisheries can also be classed as common property resources in that use-rights for the resource are controlled by an identifiable group (e.g. local community who may exclude others) and are not managed by government of the modern state. As explained in Neiland et al. (1997), the objectives of the indigenous fisheries systems in Nigeria are not easy to ascertain. However, three objectives have been identified, including the control of fishing rights and reduction of conflict, generation of food/income for the community, and conservation of fish stocks. The main method of management is the control of access, and the decision-making authorities are the leaders of the community and traditional government, although all users can have an input into the process (“bottom-up” approach), under certain circumstances. The major indigenous method of fishery in Nigeria is the artisanal fishery. The Coastal artisanal fishery sector of Nigeria is scattered among numerous large and small fishing settlements along the 960km. coastline of Nigeria with its extensive coastal lagoons. Majority of these settlements are characterized by their remoteness and are cut off from the main national roadway system which have to be approached by boats and by trekking several kilometers from the nearest road-head (Cunningham et al, 2005). 
The coastal artisanal fishermen number approximately 250,000 and operate about 50,000 traditional wooden canoes of various sizes – a small percentage of which approximately 4,000 are fitted with cut-board motors of different manufacturers. Fishing gear used from these canoes comprise mainly of set-gill nets, beach seines, long line, basket traps, cast nets etc. This indigenous fishery as being practiced now is labour intensive and because of the limited capabilities of the craft and gear results in low productivity. Their operating range is generally around the 20m depth contour, with operations sometimes extending up to a maximum depth of 40 metres (Cunningham et al, 2005). Yet in view of the large number of craft and gear involved, this sector has recorded a production of nearly 270,000 tons of fish in 2005 which is nearly 50% of the total fish catch of Nigeria and which shows a probable 35% increase in the catch during the decade. About 95% of the catches of the coastal fishermen are normally smoked and the limited quantities which are sold fresh are mostly consumed within a range of 25 Km, from the coast. These fishes are handled by traditional marketing channels that are dominated by fish mammies who are most often wives or mothers of fishermen (Cunningham et al, 2005). 
A recent desk study of the Fishery sector in Nigeria prepared by the Investment Centre of the FAO/World Bank Cooperative programme at the request of the World Bank has concluded that “the principal developments which would lead to an expansion of landings would probably be restricted to providing more effective means of fishing, handling, processing and distribution of catches and the provision of adequate services in the indigenous small scale fishery sector. An improvement in this sector would provide the most immediate and productive returns as compared with the other sectors”. 

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The constraints to the development and management of the indigenous fishery sector in Nigeria were well identified when the country’s National Development Plan was drawn up and they includes lack of modern fishing inputs by way of improved fishing craft, gear and methods, lack of access feeder roads or canals from the nearest road-head, lack of proper service facilities at the village sites, loss of product due to lack of facilities for proper handling, processing, transport and marketing, shortage of trained manpower, and lack of effective fisherman organizations. Several efforts has been made by the government of Nigeria through National Development Plans to manage and develop the sector properly while laying emphasis on increased fish production with a view to attaining the goal of self-sufficiency in fish production and also aims at encouraging local manufacture of fish products, which are being imported now, providing employment to young school leavers and increasing the per capita income of the fisherman to enable him improve his life style. 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.  To examine the state of the indigenous fisheries sector in Nigeria. 
2.  To determine ways to develop the indigenous fisheries sector in Nigeria. 
3.  To identify ways to achieve proper management of the indigenous fisheries sector in Nigeria. 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What is the state of the indigenous fisheries sector in Nigeria? 
2.  What are ways to develop the indigenous fisheries sector in Nigeria? 
3.  What are the ways to achieve proper management of the indigenous fisheries sector in Nigeria? 

1.5   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.  The outcome of this study will educate the stakeholders in agriculture sector and the general public on the state of the indigenous fisheries sector in Nigeria with emphasis on ways to develop it and ensure the effective management of the sector. 
2.  This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area 

1.6   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the present state of the indigenous fisheries sector in Nigeria and ways to develop and manage the sector effectively. 

LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).  
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

Berkes, F. and M.T. Farvar. 1989. Introduction and overview. In: Common Property Resources: Ecology and Community-Based Sustainable Development (Berkes, F., ed.): 1–18. Belhaven Press, London. 302p. 
Cunningham, S., M. Dunn and D. Whitmarsh. 2005. Fisheries Economics: An Introduction. Mansell. 372p. 
Durand, J-.R. 2003. The exploitation of fish stocks in the Lake Chad region. In: Lake Chad: Ecology and Productivity of a Shallow Tropical Ecosystem (Carmouze, J.P., J.R. Durand and C. Leveque, eds): 425–482. 
Monographiae Biologicae 53. The Hague, Dr. W. Junk. FAO. 1995. Review of the State of World Fishery Resources: Inland Capture Fisheries. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 885. FAO, Rome. 63p. 
Neiland, A.E., J. Weeks, S.P. Madakan, S.P. and B.M.B. Ladu. 1997. Fisheries management in the Upper River Benue, Lake Chad and the Nguru-Gashua wetlands (N.E. Nigeria): A study of 53 villages. In: The Traditional Management of Artisanal Fisheries in N.E. Nigeria: Final Report. ODA Project No. 5471. CEMARE (University of Portsmouth, UK) Report. Paper No. 12. 
Welcomme, R.L. and D.M. Bartley. 1997. An evaluation of the present techniques for the enhancement of fisheries. (This publication).

INDIGENOUS FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA

EXPANDING SPINY LOBSTER AQUACULTURE IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Spiny lobsters are of two different species known as Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus with cylindrical shaped body comprising cephalothorax, heavily spined and conspicuously marked by two frontal supra-orbital horns; abdomen smoother, having six somites with no distinct rostrum (Priyambodo & Jaya, 2010). They are characterized with large antennae with basal segments well developed and spined, flagellum stiff, robust and longer than body (Thuy & Ngoc, 2004). However, Nigerian fish farmers has been diversifying and investing hugely in spiny lobster aquaculture all over the country. Of the two species of spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus is emerging as the favoured specie for aquaculture in Nigeria. This is based on a number of factors including market demand and pricing, availability of naturally settling seed (for on-growing), development of hatchery technology, suitability for captive grow-out and adaptability to a variety of production systems (Hart, 2009). According to Peterson & Phuong (2011), aquaculture production of lobsters is an attractive proposition worldwide, as the species are generally of high value and in great demand, and fishery production cannot be increased. Active research and development programmes throughout the world have sought to develop this sector, but to date none have been successful, beyond the developments been practiced in Nigeria. 
Jones (2010) also opined that tropical species of spiny lobsters are likely to remain at the forefront of aquaculture production development because of the availability of wild seed, the development of commercially viable hatcheries, and their highly economic grow-out characteristics. The expansion and development of spiny lobster culture has been actively pursued in Nigeria for many decades, although advances have been slow to realize because of the protracted larval phase. To date the only significant established lobster aquaculture industry in the country is that of tropical region, based on the grow-out of wild caught juveniles. Based on the fact that spiny lobsters are reef dwelling species, most abundant on coral and coastal fringing rocky reefs and the areas surrounding them. They are less commonly found in inshore areas of a sedimentary nature, indicating their broad environmental tolerances that make them suitable for aquaculture. They are found in depths of 1 to 50 m. 
The juvenile and adult stages of both species are omnivorous, grazing primarily on small crustaceans, molluscs, worms and algae (Tuan & Mao, 2004). They are generally nocturnal, most active from dusk through to dawn. Both are highly social, preferring to congregate in groups in hollows, caves and crevices within and beneath the reef structures. This social nature also confers a distinct advantage for aquaculture which can likely encourage the expansion of the spiny lobsters farming in Nigeria. Another factor to consider in the expansion of Lobster farming is that it is currently reliant on a natural supply of wild pueruli (young, transparent lobster from the larvae), which in Nigeria comprises a fishery that employs a range of gear and methods to attract and capture the swimming pueruli as they move inshore after their oceanic larval stage. In Nigeria, two to three million pueruli are caught each year between October and March, of which around 70 per cent are Panulirus ornatus and 25 per cent Panulirus homarus.  
The captured pueruli are very delicate and mortality can be very high (>50 percent). For the purpose of expanding spiny lobster aquaculture, pueruli are purchased from the fishers by Nigerian dealers, who hold and transport them to nursery farmers. The bulk of pueruli are transported in small styrofoam boxes by motorbike over distances of up to several hundred kilometres. The nursery phase typically involves stocking the pueruli at 50-100/m2 into submerged cages, consisting of mesh surrounding a steel frame. Each cage is placed on the sea floor at 2-5 m depth and a feeding tube from the surface to the cage provides the means to feed the baby lobsters. Finely chopped trash fish, crustaceans and molluscs are used as food. The nursery phase lasts for 3-6 months, during which the lobsters grow to 10-30g. They are then harvested and moved to grow-out cages. Mortality during the nursery phase may be as high as 40 per cent but under optimal conditions is usually less than 10 per cent (Williams, 2009).   

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Overgrowing technique, feed supply, handling and processing, production cost, disease control and measures and marketing strategies are the factors to consider in the quest of expanding spiny lobster aquaculture in Nigeria. However, the primary constraint to industry expansion is the availability of seed. Reliance on wild seed is risky, and while the Nigerian farmers have made great use of a natural seed resource to establish the industry, its long term future can only be secured with a hatchery supply. Fortunately, research efforts (even in advanced countries) in tropical spiny lobster hatchery technology are nearing a commercialisation phase, so it is likely that by 2017-2020, the expansion of spiny lobster farming will no longer be constrained by the seed supply. 
Disease is also a major constraint and spiny lobster farming in Nigeria has already experienced the severity of a disease outbreak. The positive effect of this has been that spiny lobster diseases are better understood, and prevention and treatments have improved. Hopefully the Nigerian experience will be instructive to other countries in planning, managing and expanding the development of the industry. 

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study: 
1.  To examine the level of practice of spiny lobster farming in Nigeria. 
2.  To examine the strategies involved in expanding spiny lobster aquaculture in Nigeria. 
3.  To identify the challenges and constraints in spiny lobster aquaculture in Nigeria. 

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What is the level of practice of spiny lobster farming in Nigeria?
2.  What are the strategies involved in expanding spiny lobster aquaculture in Nigeria? 
3.  What are the challenges and constraints involved in spiny lobster aquaculture in Nigeria? 

1.5   HYPOTHESIS

HO: Spiny lobster aquaculture has not been well developed in Nigeria. 
HA: Spiny lobster aquaculture has been well developed in Nigeria. 

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study: 
1.  The outcome of this research will provide a clear knowledge on spiny lobsters aquaculture overgrowing technique, feed supply, handling and processing, production cost, disease control and measures and marketing strategies which are the relevant factors in the expansion of spiny lobster aquaculture in the Nigerian fish farming industry. 
2.  This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area. 

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study will cover the latest researches on the development and expansion of spiny lobster aquaculture. It will also cover the overgrowing technique, feed supply, handling and processing, production cost, disease control and measures and marketing strategies in spiny lobster farming in Nigeria.

REFERENCES

Hart, G. 2009. Assessing the South-East Asian tropical lobster supply and major market demands. ACIAR Final Report (FR-2009-06). Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. 55 pp. 
Jones, C.M. 2010. Tropical rock lobster aquaculture development in Vietnam, Indonesia and Australia. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 52:304-315. 
Petersen, E.H. & Phuong, T.H. 2011. Bioeconomic analysis of improved diets for lobster, Panulirus ornatus, culture in Vietnam. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 42:1-11.
Priyambodo, B. & Jaya, S. 2010. Lobster aquaculture in Eastern Indonesia. Part 2. Ongoing research examines nutrition, seed sourcing. In: Global Aquaculture Advocate, January/February:30-32.

EXPANDING SPINY LOBSTER AQUACULTURE IN NIGERIA

MANAGEMENT/CONSERVATION OF IN-LAND FISHERIES RESOURCES IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

In this research work the important of appropriate institutional arrangements for the development of in-land fisheries enhancement strategies in Anambra state is emhasined .

Chapter one contains a general discussion based on the general trend of fish production  in most intend water bodies in Nigeria and high lighted some factors which where  though to be responsible for the drastic decline .  furthermore this chapter highlighted the activities of some of various institutional that are responsible for coordinating the activities of in-land water bodies in Nigeria can the view of some individual contributor.  It went further to state the problem and limitation of the study and finally the definition of terms.

In addition a number of case studies of traditional fisheries management techniques operated at the village level example construction if fish shelters in seasonal pools as well as some other related materials are outlined and reviewed in chapter two as part of literature review.

Chapter three deal of literature review the method used in collecting data of the study the way the questionnaire were constructed distributed and the treatment of data.

Chapter four deal with data presentation and analysis.

This paper finished in chapter five with an identification of the opportunities and constraints for future fisheries enhancement strategies in Nigeria.  It also contains the conclusion drawn from all the analysis and findings of the research work can the recommendation made.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1                  BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

            In recent years there has been a growing concern that the fisheries in most water bodies in Nigeria a have been increasingly over exploited leading  to reduction in socio- economic benefits far local communities and they regional economy in general.  It has been estimated that most of the world’s major inland fisheries are now at their maximum level of exploitation (FAO1995) for example before now the formal East central state now consist of (Anambra Imo Enugu and Abuja) were know for their richness in terms of natural resources particularly in the area  of  fish production. For instance during 1980’s about 40% of the total fish supplied in Nigeria were produced form these region.  But as time goes on   there become a drastic decline in fish production from these region.

This became a matter of specially concern to the people of these region. However it is on record that recently specifically in March 2005 that president Obasanjo in his official visit to Delta State was asked why the present government is hesitating in signing into law a bill that would pave way for the draining of River Niger in the region in order to allow for confluence of Rivers so as to increased fish spawning.  His answer was” there are more it takes to attaining  full production in fisheries production than only to draining Rivers”

Meanwhile, combinations of factors were though to be responsible. Firstly environmental changes caused by drought and dam construction has resulted on lower fish production.  Secondly an intensification of fishing effort has been brought about increased  communalization the introduction of modern  gears restriction (such as gears net mesh net etc) which are used in capturing  fish. Furthermore welcome and  Barthey discovered that catches  from in-land fisheries are Indic line state due to deteriorating quality of aquatic environment and  poor management. Similarly  Nigeria  and Biosphere (an association responsible for  the studying of intercalation ship between man and living organism) in 1990 organized an educative seminar on Nigerian water bodies which in broad sense includes flood plain lake reservoir and swamp

Despite all these protective effort capture fisheries remains highly vulnerable to over exploitation and degradation.  It follows therefore that if fisheries enhancement are to be successful the problems of overexploitations and  degradation must be address in parallel from  the out-set. In response to the need for better understanding of in-land fisheries management and to investigate the possibilities for designing a more effective approach to fisheries management the researcher takes Osimiri Dudu flood pond in Anambra State as a case study.  A particular focus of the project is to investigate whether traditional management system which were perceive to be successful and well adopted to local condition could   be use as a basis for community based approach to fisheries management in the  future in in-land fisheries management.

1.2                  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

There have been a concerted effort by Anambra State River basin authority (ASEBA) and some organized private sector individuals to improve productivity of fish in here various water bodies recently for instance federal government and state government recently conducted a research work which was assisted by food and agriculture organizaiton (FAO) to find out the rate at which fishes propagate in in-land water bodies in Nigeria  Similarly there  have been also series of seminars and work-shop geared towards educating fishermen for the need for the conservation of Nigerian water bodies.

Inspite of all these effort most water bodies in Nigeria are still in declining trend.   This left the researcher with no other option than only to ponder: what really are the cause of the low productivity? Is it possible that an accurate assessment of the status of these in in-land  fisheries have not been  conducted? Or could it be a lack of detailed information to the stake- holders? Or is the management techniques in use are not suitable? These are what the researcher want to find out in this research work and suggest a possible solutions to the problems.

The challenge to this research work is to therefore to find some management system that would best support fisheries management in the  state in finding and implanting its approach by specifying  institutional arrangement that would prevent degradation and over exploitation occurring in the first place rather than trying to find way to repair the damages ones it has occurred. Such strategy make clear economic sense.  It is also ecologically desirable in line with precautionary principle in that there is no guarantee that renewable natural resources   degradation is reversible. 

1.3                  OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

From all that has been written it is the objective of this study:

1.                 To find out why productivity in most in-land water bodies in Nigeria especially that of Osimiri Dude is very low

2.                 To find a means of minimizing over- exploitation in Nigeria water  bodies

3.                 To determine the  cause of the  deteriorating quality of aquatic environment in Nigeria.

4.                 To degraded status of our water bodies.

1.4                  RESEARCH QUESTIONS

As a guide to finding solution to the research problem the research posed the following research questions.

1.                 What are the effect of using toxic substance in fishing activities?

2.                 Does environment changes have any impact on in-land  fisheries management?

3.                 What type of management system does local fishermen proffered most?

4.                 How does drought and dam construction effect  fish stocking?

5.                 What time of the year does over concentration of fishermen occurs in water bodies?

6.                 Is there any policy or programme regulating fishing activities?

7.                 Why does over-exploitation occur in Nigerian fishery industries?

1.5                  HYPOTHESIS FORMULAITON

The following hypothesis forms the frame work for carrying out the study.

H0:    Using toxic substance during fishing does not effect fish propagation

H1:    Using toxic substance during fishing  effect fish propagation

H0:    Traditional management of system is not the best and general acceptable

management system in local community in fisheries management 

H1:    Traditional management of system is  the best and general acceptable

management system in local community in fisheries management 

1.6                  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It should be recognized that the fundamental issue as regards to fisheries management in  most cases is the allocation of scarce (natural) resource to alternate ends. For example in the case of water bodies which contains major in-land fisheries as population pressure and other stress increase the natural resources become increasingly scare and become valuable.  However because in many cases invitational management do not exist (or inadequate ) for the allocation of resource free and open access to increasingly valuable resources result inevitably in the degradation.

As a result of this, this study become very important especially today that all hands are on deck to develop Nigerian economy. this study will be of immense benefit to both public sector organization and organized private sector in the fishery industries in addition the study will determine the factor limiting fish production in this sector of economy (fishing industries).  It is expected that the findings will help to rediscover the past abundant fish production in in-land water bodies in Nigeria.    

1.7                  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is very wide if  it has to be carried out in all inland fisheries resource of Nigeria.  The study is limited based on the fact that there is no tome and material resources to see to the whole nation

MANAGEMENT/CONSERVATION OF IN-LAND FISHERIES RESOURCES IN NIGERIA