COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FOUR COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF AFRICAN CATFISH. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FOUR COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF AFRICAN CATFISH. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

With global population expansion, the demand for high quality animal protein is rising dramatically (Yisa et al., 2006). Increased aquaculture production is clearly needed to meet this demand, because capture fisheries are showing serious decline due to over fishing, aquatic habitat destruction and pollution (FAO, 2004). World capture fisheries have been in a stable state throughout much of the past decades, and it has been estimated that maximum capture fisheries potential from global waters has been reached .In 2007, as many as 50 percent of stocks were labeled as fully exploited (FAO, 2008).Fish is an important and the cheapest source of animal protein and account for about 37% of Nigeria total protein requirement (FAO, 2002). Fish provides approximately 16% of the animal protein consumed by the world population (FAO, 1997). It is particularly an important protein source where livestock is relatively scarce. Billions of people mostly in developing countries depend on fish as a primary source of animal protein (FAO, 2000). FAO estimated that by the year 2010, demand of fish will increase by 13.5%-18.5% or to about 105-110% millions metric tons (FAO, 2000). Further increase in capture fisheries are not anticipated under the current global condition (Ounham et al., 2001). Faturoti (1999) noted that recent trends all over the world pointed to a decline from capture fisheries which are all indicators that fish stock have approached or even exceeded point of maximum sustainable yield. The Food and Agriculture Organization recommended that an individual takes 3 series per capture of animal protein per day for sustainable growth and development (FAO). However, the animal protein consumption in Nigeria is less than 8g per person per day which is a far cry from the FAO recommendation. The rapid growth of Nigeria population has lead to insufficiency in supply of animal protein food. Fish is a major source of animal protein and an essential food item in the diet of many people in Nigeria. Fish is also a good source of Thiamine, Riboflavin, Vitamin A and D, Phosphorus, Calcium, and Iron. It is also very high in polyunsaturated fatty acids which are important in lowering blood cholesterol level, it is therefore suitable for complementing high carbohydrate diets typical of low income group in Nigeria (Areola, 2008). Apart from being food, fish is also an important source of income to many people in developing countries including Nigeria. FAO (1996) confirms that as much as 5% of the African population have 35million people depending wholly or partly on fisheries sector for their livelihood.

 

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF FOUR COMMERCIAL FISH FEEDS IN THE PRODUCTION OF AFRICAN CATFISH. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

CHALLENGES OF WOMEN INVOLVED IN AQUACULTURE ACTIVITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

CHALLENGES OF WOMEN INVOLVED IN AQUACULTURE ACTIVITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the STUDY

The Fisheries subsector is a significant source of fish food and livelihood for many people living in the coastal communities as it supplies animal protein necessary for growth and income. However, it has become clear that the challenges women are facing needs to be addressed and evaluated at their various levels. There is enormous need to study the challenges of artisanal women fisherfolks as they are regarded as the backbone of aquaculture. The engagement of women is particularly in coastal communities as women represent almost 50% of the total workforce engaged in fisheries around the world though have been generally overlooked in marine conservation and fisheries management in developing countries (Robinson, 2000).

In Africa particularly around the great lakes women have been participating more actively in promoting hygienic and food (fish) safety aspects of the landing sites (Den de pryck , 2012) but the focus has been mainly on post harvest roles. In Gambia, women have been involved with the National fisheries post harvest operators platform and participated in the formulation of fisheries Act (FAO, 2012). The World Bank, FAO and World fisheries (2012) found out that women make up to 47% of the fisheries supply chain workers, which is equal to about 56 million jobs in the harvest, and post harvest sectors.

Just in the harvest sector, FAO (2012) estimated that 5.4 million women worked either as fishers or fish farmers. Women account for half of the workforce in inland fisheries while in Asia and women market West Africa, 60 percent of the seafood. FAO (2012) also estimated that at least 30 percent of the people employed in fisheries (harvest and post harvest were women with regards to FAO (2008) majority of fishers (womenfolk’s) are poor, small scale fishers, their poverty and challenges encompasses more than just low income: It includes land ownership, high degree of indebtedness, poor access to health, education and financial capital and political and geographical marginalization. Fishing is often seen as a male activity, especially where this involves boats, equipment and long absences at sea or river but women play key roles in maintaining equipment, processing and marketing of the fish even though women roles are often less acknowledged. In Africa, for example women are charged with 80 percent of the food security (Mandosela, 2002) and 90 percent of the water security in rural and coastal communities (GWA, 2006).

 

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CHALLENGES OF WOMEN INVOLVED IN AQUACULTURE ACTIVITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

 

MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF IN-LAND FISHERIES RESOURCES IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF IN-LAND FISHERIES RESOURCES IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

In this research work the important of appropriate institutional arrangements for the development of in-land fisheries enhancement strategies in Anambra state is emhasined .

Chapter one contains a general discussion based on the general trend of fish production in most intend water bodies in Nigeria and high lighted some factors which where though to be responsible for the drastic decline . furthermore this chapter highlighted the activities of some of various institutional that are responsible for coordinating the activities of in-land water bodies in Nigeria can the view of some individual contributor. It went further to state the problem and limitation of the study and finally the definition of terms.

In addition a number of case studies of traditional fisheries management techniques operated at the village level example construction if fish shelters in seasonal pools as well as some other related materials are outlined and reviewed in chapter two as part of literature review.

Chapter three deal of literature review the method used in collecting data of the study the way the questionnaire were constructed distributed and the treatment of data.

Chapter four deal with data presentation and analysis.

This paper finished in chapter five with an identification of the opportunities and constraints for future fisheries enhancement strategies in Nigeria. It also contains the conclusion drawn from all the analysis and findings of the research work can the recommendation made.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

In recent years there has been a growing concern that the fisheries in most water bodies in Nigeria a have been increasingly over exploited leading to reduction in socio- economic benefits far local communities and they regional economy in general. It has been estimated that most of the world’s major inland fisheries are now at their maximum level of exploitation (FAO1995) for example before now the formal East central state now consist of (Anambra Imo Enugu and Abuja) were know for their richness in terms of natural resources particularly in the area of fish production. For instance during 1980’s about 40% of the total fish supplied in Nigeria were produced form these region. But as time goes on there become a drastic decline in fish production from these region.

This became a matter of specially concern to the people of these region. However it is on record that recently specifically in March 2005 that president Obasanjo in his official visit to Delta State was asked why the present government is hesitating in signing into law a bill that would pave way for the draining of River Niger in the region in order to allow for confluence of Rivers so as to increased fish spawning. His answer was” there are more it takes to attaining full production in fisheries production than only to draining Rivers”

Meanwhile, combinations of factors were though to be responsible. Firstly environmental changes caused by drought and dam construction has resulted on lower fish production. Secondly an intensification of fishing effort has been brought about increased communalization the introduction of modern gears restriction (such as gears net mesh net etc) which are used in capturing fish. Furthermore welcome and Barthey discovered that catches from in-land fisheries are Indic line state due to deteriorating quality of aquatic environment and poor management. Similarly Nigeria and Biosphere (an association responsible for the studying of intercalation ship between man and living organism) in 1990 organized an educative seminar on Nigerian water bodies which in broad sense includes flood plain lake reservoir and swamp

Despite all these protective effort capture fisheries remains highly vulnerable to over exploitation and degradation. It follows therefore that if fisheries enhancement are to be successful the problems of overexploitations and degradation must be address in parallel from the out-set. In response to the need for better understanding of in-land fisheries management and to investigate the possibilities for designing a more effective approach to fisheries management the researcher takes Osimiri Dudu flood pond in Anambra State as a case study. A particular focus of the project is to investigate whether traditional management system which were perceive to be successful and well adopted to local condition could be use as a basis for community based approach to fisheries management in the future in in-land fisheries

 

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MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF IN-LAND FISHERIES RESOURCES IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

A STUDY ON CONSUMERS ACCEPTABILITY ON FRESH AND SMOKED CATFISH. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

A STUDY ON CONSUMERS ACCEPTABILITY ON FRESH AND SMOKED CATFISH. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

Fish is a major source of food for humans, providing significant portion of the protein intake in the diet of large proportion of the people, particularly so in developing countries. Fish is less tough and more digestible compared to beef, chicken and mutton. Moreover, has little or no religious rejection that gives it an advantage over pork and beef (Kumolu-Johnson and Ndimele, 2011). The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell (1822) is a remarkable and fascinating species, as it is extremely hardy and withstands adverse environmental condition and habitat instability. It is hardy and does not easily succumb to disease and feeds all types of biowastes .The fish can efficiently assimilate a wide variety of animal and plant proteins. Growth of this fish under natural condition is fast. The predatory, cannibalism and voracious feeding habit of this fish catch the impression of the farmers to culture them in natural inland freshwater bodies. Moreover the faster growth rate and relative higher market price of this fish has been luring the famer to take up its culture.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Fish is a major source of food for humans, providing significant portion of the protein intake in the diet of large proportion of the people, particularly so in developing countries. Fish is less tough and more digestible compared to beef, chicken and mutton. Moreover, has little or no religious rejection that gives it an advantage over pork and beef (Kumolu-Johnson and Ndimele, 2011).

The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell (1822) is a remarkable and fascinating species, as it is extremely hardy and withstands adverse environmental condition and habitat instability. It is hardy and does not easily succumb to disease and feeds all types of biowastes .The fish can efficiently assimilate a wide variety of animal and plant proteins. Growth of this fish under natural condition is fast. The predatory, cannibalism and voracious feeding habit of this fish catch the impression of the farmers to culture them in natural inland freshwater bodies. Moreover the faster growth rate and relative higher market price of this fish has been luring the famer to take up its culture.

Fish production and consumption

In recent years, capture fishery production has been flat, at around 90 million tonnes per year, while aquaculture has continued to show sustained growth – currently around 6.5 percent a year – faster than all other food sectors (FAO 2012, FAO 2013 and FAO 2014). In 2011 it amounted to 62.7 million tonnes. Some gains in capture fisheries might be possible by adopting better management through an eco-system approach, but significant increases are unlikely. However, it has been estimated that if all inputs were available, aquaculture could provide 16 – 47 million additional tonnes of fish by 2030 (Hall et al., 2013). A comparison of capture fisheries and aquaculture production in the top five aquaculture producing countries in 2011. It is interesting to note that in four out of the five top aquaculture producers the output from aquaculture exceeds that from capture fisheries. Only in Indonesia, a vast archipelago is capture more than aquaculture.

A total of 156 million tonnes of fish was produced from all sources in 2011, of which 132 million tonnes was available for direct human consumption. In 2014 alone, Nigeria imported 8000 metric tons of fish and thereby employing foreign producers to feed Nigeria thus depleting our hard earned resources and foreign exchange.

Gomna and Rana (2015) reported an annual fish consumption of 5.8 and 9Kg/caput years to meat in Lagos state in the southwest Nigeria. Despite the fact that fish is the most consumed source of animal protein in Nigeria, the level of consumption is still far below the world average, as reported by The Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statitical Database (FAOSTAT, 2005). In addition, substantial proportion of the fish consumed in Nigeria is still being imported, hence the need to expand local production to meet the increasing demand and save the country from available negative balance payment.

 

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A STUDY ON CONSUMERS ACCEPTABILITY ON FRESH AND SMOKED CATFISH. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD PARAMETERS OF CLARIAS GARIPENUS FED GRADED LEVEL OF MELON SHELL AS REPLACEMENT FOR MAIZE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD PARAMETERS OF CLARIAS GARIPENUS FED GRADED LEVEL OF MELON SHELL AS REPLACEMENT FOR MAIZE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.        Background of the Study

Fish is the primary source of protein for about 950 million people worldwide and represents an important part of the diet of many people, provide about 10% of the animal protein consumed by humans and is a valuable source of minerals and essential fatty acids (Food and Agriculture Organization, 1997). The production of fish for direct human consumption doubled between 1950 and 1970 and has stabilized since then at an average of 9.0kg to 10kg of fish per capita (FAO, 2003). The implication is that Fish consumption per person is on the increase and supply will probably be limited by factors like high cost of feed materials (Obi, Kolo and Oriere 2011). Currently there is a global increase in consumption of food fish will take place largely in the developing countries, where population is growing and higher incomes are allowing purchase of high value fisheries products. However, fish production in the developing nations where fish protein is needed to prevent malnutrition is a key element for food security. A critical area where innovative programmes are needed to increase production is in feed production (FAO, 1997).

Production of fish in homestead fish ponds have been adopted by families as a means of improving family protein intake and income (Eyo, 1995). Yet availability of high quality fish feed is one of the greatest problems that is affecting the expansion of the small scale fish industry in Nigeria. Local production of high quality fish feed using local ingredients has to be encouraged especially extruded (floating) feed to replace the present dependence on imported ones. Floating feed is very suitable for pelagic or surface feeders in the sense that the fish quickly access the feed and do not expend much energy in going to the bottom to source for food ( Orire and Ricketts., 2013). The actual machine for producing floating feed known as extruders (insta PRO 2000) is very expensive and cannot be afforded by our local farmers. Nigeria therefore is a permanent buyer of expanded floating feed at high cost from United State of America and other Western and Asian countries (Falaye, 2009). The Nigerian economic policy should not support such outrageous wastage of our scarce foreign exchange. It is therefore imperative that emphasis should be geared towards the technology of developing floating fish feeds using local non-conventional feed ingredients which are cheap, affordable and do not compromise the quality of compounded diets.

Floating feed is a management tool that farmers can use to observe how much and how actively the fish feed. Physically seeing the fish is almost a necessity before the ponds are harvested and restocked periodically without draining and the farmer have precise knowledge about the mass of fish in the pond ( Falayi, Balogun, Adeboye., 2004).

 Mellon (Collocynthis citrulus L.) is a widely cultivated and consumed oil seed crop in West Africa. Melon is a cucurbit crop that belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family with fibrous and shallow root system. It is a tendril climber or crawling annual crop mostly grown as a subsidiary crop intercropped with early maize and yam in the savannah belt of Nigeria. (Abiodun and Adeleke, 2010). They are consumed in “egusi soup”, melon ball snacks and ogiri (fermented condiment) (Odunfa, 1981). Eugene and Gloria, (2002) in their study concluded that melon seed contains 50% and 30% oil and protein, respectively. Melon seed contains a fairly high amount of unsaturated fatty acid, and linoleic acid suggesting a possible hypocholesterolic effect of lowering blood cholesterol ( Obi, Kolo and Orire., 2011). The oil extracted from the seed is for edible purpose (Ajibola et al.1990). The shell of melon is usually considered an agricultural waste. The shell is light brown in colour and light in weight like flakes hence usually floats when scattered in water. Obi, Kolo and Oriere (2011) have reported that melon shell contains crude protain value of as high as 13.83%. However, large quantities of the melon shell are discarded and burnt, which pollute the environment yet the fish industry is threatened with acute shortage of conventional feed ingredients leading to low productivity. It may be possible to utilize melon shell as non-conventional source of fish feed ingredient for aquaculture. However, there is little or no Information on the nutritional composition of melon shell and its potential as a feed ingredient for Clarias gariepinus.

 

 

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GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD PARAMETERS OF CLARIAS GARIPENUS FED GRADED LEVEL OF MELON SHELL AS REPLACEMENT FOR MAIZE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

CULTURE OF DIPLOID AND TRIPLOID OF (HETEROBRANCHUS BIDORSALIS AND CLARIAS GARIEPINUS) FED WITH DAPHNIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

CULTURE OF DIPLOID AND TRIPLOID OF (HETEROBRANCHUS BIDORSALIS AND CLARIAS GARIEPINUS) FED WITH DAPHNIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

This research work was carried out to examine the effect of cold and warm shock on hybridized fish order of Siluriformes (Heterobranchus bidorsalis and Clarias gariepinus) in indoor tanks crossing of two different species is a process called hybridization, with the offspring known as the hybrids. The length of the cold shock, warm shock and even the diploid fish ranges from 0.7 to 3.6cm, 0.6 to 3.5 cm and 0.6 to 2.7m while their weight varies from 0.008 to 0.226g, 0.008 to 0.242g and 0.009 to 0.140g after 6 weeks of culture. The hatchability rate for the triploid fish was low. The feed used in raising the hatchlings for the first two weeks were mostly live feed daphnia which encourage  growth and are preferred by the fish. This study has shown that bigger Heteroclarias was produced when triploid cold shock than warm shock and diploid. Thus this research has provided information that will enhance the production of bigger fish in aquaculture.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     Introduction
Aquaculture in Nigeria is in the developing stage, because it has not been able to meet demand and supple of the ever-increasing human population (Ojutiku, 2008).The development of improved fish seed stocks that can contribute to increased fish production and at the same time ensuring protection of biodiversity and the environment is seen as one of the key solutions to securing future food requirement of the growing world population (Lincoln,1980).Genetics and the successful application of breeding programs in crops and livestock have provided the impetus for the governments it has been acknowledged as the most efficient means of providing protein rich food, income generation and employment opportunities for the populace. (Ojutiku 2008) noted the interest in fish culture is growing very rapidly in Nigeria but the scarcity of fingerlings of widely acceptable species of catfish such as Heterobranchus species (Val. 1840) and Clarias species tend to constitute a major constraint to the rapid development of fish farming in Nigeria. He also mentioned that economically productive aquaculture, is heavily dependent on adequate supply of fish stock to ponds and other culture systems.
One of the methods of improving growth performance of aquaculture species is through biotechnology. This could be through hybridization, genetic engineering and chromosome manipulation.

 

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CULTURE OF DIPLOID AND TRIPLOID OF (HETEROBRANCHUS BIDORSALIS AND CLARIAS GARIEPINUS) FED WITH DAPHNIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ASPECTS OF CRYO-PRESERVATION OF Clarias gariepinus OBTAINED FROM THE LOWER RIVER NIGER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ASPECTS OF CRYO-PRESERVATION OF Clarias gariepinus OBTAINED FROM THE LOWER RIVER NIGER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

To service the growing demand of insufficient supply of (Clarias gariepinus) brookstock for aquaculture in Nigeria, Conserve valuable genetic resources and with the intent of obtaining a semen preservation protocol that can serve as a means of making fingerlings available to fish farmers all year round, this study assessed cryopreservation (Clarias gariepinus) of three specimen were discested and milt preserved. Result showed that there was significance difference between fresh semen and control. Cryopreservation of sperm, remains essentially a research activity that is just beginning to have commercial application. It is hope their efforts will be geared towards standardization of research result to enhance beneficial repeatability by interested fish farmers

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2     JUSTIFICATION
As fish farming expands and harvesting of wild stocks becomes more intense, there is a growing need for techniques of gamete storage to facilitate replacement of extinct fishes.
Cryopreservation of sperm is now a widely used method for long term storage of fish milt. It is effective tool for conserving genetic materials in threatened and endangered species, which can also be used for genetic improvement through selecting breeding programme.

1.3     AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
1.       To evaluate the sperm characteristics of C. gariepinus.
2.       To determine efficacy of some extenders in the preservation of milt of C. gariepinus.

 

 

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ASPECTS OF CRYO-PRESERVATION OF Clarias gariepinus OBTAINED FROM THE LOWER RIVER NIGER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

A STUDY ON THE PRELIMINARY KNOWLEDGE OF AQUACULTURE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

A STUDY ON THE PRELIMINARY KNOWLEDGE OF AQUACULTURE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

CHAPTER ONE

1.1    INTRODUCTION
Aquaculture according to FAO (1997) is defined as the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants up to final commercial production in selected or controlled environment. The rapid growth in the culture fisheries sector contrasts with the decline or near stagnation in the growth of supplies from capture fisheries. There are inherent hazard and risks associated with aquaculture production. (Erondu and Anyanwu, 2005).
In developed countries there have been heated debates among stakeholders as to the risk and hazards of the system. This does not in any way preclude the importance or significance of aquaculture in the food sector; rather it is a means of resolving issues related to the undesirable effects of the system. Unfortunately, the awareness has not been created in developing countries that produce a major proportion of the product. This is predicted on the fact that majority of the producers belong to the informal sector of the economy.
The production system also present risk to public health, change landscape of aquatic system resulting in habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity. Chemical used in culture fisheries can become disruptive and when they: Find their way into natural aquatic system, they can cause irreparable damage to the ecosystem. Effluents from culture fisheries which consist largely of fish and feed wastes contain large quantities of nutrients that damage the water quality and also generate unwanted algae. The situation is exacerbated by the fact that these farms operate outside the institutional regulatory framework and with minimal supervision from regulatory bodies.

1.2    AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS AND ANCILLARY 
INDUSTRIES
The associated processes in aquaculture are:
(a)     Processing: fish product are processed and packaged for local 
consumption and export. The processes are carried out at the local and industrial level. Theses include smoking, chilling, freezing, canning, filleting and production of other value-added products.
(b)     Laboratories: These are established in research station, large hi-tech farms and processing plants for environmental/facility water quality monitoring and quantity control.
(c)     Feed mill plants: These are established to produce on farm or commercial feeds. The scale operation is varied.
(d)     Association industries: These are industries that are involved in manufacturing equipment used in culture fisheries, these include nets, fertilizer plants, bio filter, drugs, fibre glass tanks etc. Finfish, shell fish and other farmed aquatic organisms are produced in fresh water, brackish water and marine environment.

A STUDY ON THE PRELIMINARY KNOWLEDGE OF AQUACULTURE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

FISH ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THREE WATER BODIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

FISH ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THREE WATER BODIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

Fish abundance and distribution of three water bodies namely Onah lake, Anwai river and River Niger at cable point was studied. Fish specimens were collected using gill nets, traps, and hook and line  between July-December, 2013.. One thousand four hundred and eighty seven fish specimens were collected and brought to the laboratory at Delta state university for further identification using identification  key. The family Mochokidae was the most abundant with 441 individuals from the three sampling stations followed by Cichlidae with 374 individuals. The least represented families were Notopteridae and Dasyatidae with 3 individuals each. On the species level, Oreochromis niloticus had the highest number with 118 individuals followed by Synondontis occeilifer with 104 individuals, while the least representation were Hemichromis bimaculatus and Aechenoglanis biscutatus with 1 individuals each. The rich assemblage of fish species collected indicates that these waterbodies have the potential for fish production if properly managed. It is hoped that the information gathered will be useful  for future planning and management of the fisheries resources of Onah lake, Anwai river  and River Niger at Cable point

CHAPTER ONE
1.0  INTRODUCTION
Fisheries resources are on the reduction in Nigeria due to over exploitation and inadequate management of her coastal waters (Lawson and Olusanya, 2010). For sustainability of these resources, an adequate knowledge of species composition, relative abundance of her water bodies must be understood and actively pursued (Lawson and Olusanya, 2010).
Different species in a given area is the fundamental unit in which to assess the homogeneity of an environment and community used in conservation studies to determine the sensitivity of the ecosystems and their resident species while rare species is relative to other species in a given community and are usually describe for a single tropic level (Lawson and Olusanya, 2010).
Nigeria is blessed with abundant natural aquatic resources in Marine, Estuarine and Freshwater environments. The freshwater components are within extensive river systems, lakes, flood plans and reservoirs scattered over the entire land surface area of over 4,212, 500ha (Ita, 1993) as cited by (Obasohan and Oransaye, 2006). Nigeria also has (8) coastal states namely; Ogun State, Lagos State, Ondo State, Delta State, Bayelsa State, Akwa-Ibom State and Cross River state.
The fish fauna of the Nigerian freshwater system has been the focus of research for quite sometimes. Some of the researcher are Welman (1984); Banks et al., (1965); Akinyemi (19850; Idodo-umeh (1987) and Ita (1987). These studies  concentrated more on rivers, with less attention on the lakes and wet lands yet they produced a variety of reports on  the Nigerian Freshwater.

FISH ABUNDANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF THREE WATER BODIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN AFRICAN RIVER PRAWN (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) OF ETHIOPE RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN AFRICAN RIVER PRAWN (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) OF ETHIOPE RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

The concentrations of four heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, nickel and vanadium) in the African river prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) sampled in three months (April, May and June) at three locations along the Ethiope River bank in Delta State, were investigated by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of 135 samples of M. vollenhovenii were collected from the three locations: Station A (Ogberikoko), Station B (Ogorode) and Station C (Ugbeyiyi) along the river. Results showed that the total mean concentrations of metals in M. vollenhovenii were as follows: Cd (0.1182mg/kg), Cr (0.0792mg/kg), Ni (0.0764mg/kg) and V (0.3323mg/kg). The corresponding total mean values in the water were: Cd (0.0591mg/l), Cr (0.0567mg/l), Ni (0.0329mg/l) and V (0.0389mg/l) respectively.

Significant differences (p<0.05) were recorded between the concentration of each metal in M. vollenhovenii during the different months of sampling. However, the concentration of Ni was not significantly different (p>0.05) in the month of April compared to May. No significant differences (p>0.05) were recorded between the concentration of each metal in the water during the months of sampling except Ni that was significantly different (p<0.05) in the month of April when compared to the month of June. Metal concentrations in prawns were lower than the Food and Agriculture Organisation, (FAO), the World Health Organisation (WHO) and Federal Ministry of Environment (FMENV) recommended limits in fish and fishery products. However, the concentrations of Cd and Cr in water exceeded the recommended limits for portable drinking water by WHO.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The contamination of freshwaters with a wide range of pollutants has become a matter of great concern over the last few decades. Heavy metals are natural trace components of the aquatic environment, but their levels have increased due to domestic, industrial, mining and agricultural activities (Kalay and Canli, 2000). Trace metals in natural waters and their corresponding sediments have become a significant topic of concern for scientists and engineers in various fields associated with water quality, as well as a concern of the general public. Direct toxicity to man and aquatic life and indirect toxicity through accumulations of metals in the aquatic food chain are the focus of this concern (Odu et al., 2011). At low levels, some heavy metals such as copper, cobalt, zinc, iron and manganese are essential for enzymatic activity and many biological processes. Other metals such as cadmium, mercury, and lead have no known essential role in living organisms, and are toxic at even low concentrations (Al-Weher, 2008). Organic substances from oil spillage and petroleum products disposed into water bodies significantly contaminate and degrade them and could possibly elevate the concentration levels of heavy metals. Heavy metals are persistent and can easily enter food chain and accumulate until they reach toxic levels (Medjor et al., 2012).

Aquatic organisms including fish and shellfish accumulate metals to concentration levels many times higher than present in water (Olaifa et al., 2004). Hence, estimation of heavy metal accumulation is of utmost importance in this sector of biotic community. Increased circulation of hazardous heavy metals in soil, water and air has raised considerable concern for environmental protection and human health (Mitra et al., 2012). Heavy metals are one of the more serious pollutants in our natural environment due to their toxicity, persistence and bio-accumulation problems (Tam and Wong, 2000).

 

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HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN AFRICAN RIVER PRAWN (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) OF ETHIOPE RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

A STUDY OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION IN WATER AND SEDIMENT OF OGBE-IJOH WATERSIDE OF WARRI RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

A STUDY OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION IN WATER AND SEDIMENT OF OGBE-IJOH WATERSIDE OF WARRI RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

A study of the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals contamination in water and sediments of Ogbe-Ijoh waterside of Warri river, Delta state, Nigeria was carried out between February and July 2013. All samples were taken from three different points along the river. The physico-chemical parameters of the water samples were measured both in-situ and in the laboratory. The parameters measured included air and water temperature, pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD5), dissolved oxygen (DO1), chemical oxygen demand (COD), electrical conductivity (EC), transparency, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, ammonium-nitrogen (NH3-N), chloride, sulphate, nitrate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The range values of the measured parameters were compared with World Health Organisation (WHO) and Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) standards. The findings showed that all the physico-chemical parameters measured were within the tolerable value ranges except pH, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and phosphates (PO43-). The pH of the water was found to be between 5.49 to 7.98; showing a moderately acidic to neutral condition in the study area as opposed to WHO (7.0 – 8.5) and FEPA (6.00 – 9.00) limits. COD exceeded WHO and FEPA limits (10mg/l) with the range values of 7.60-71.92mg/l while phosphates with range values between 0.18 – 0.90mg/l exceeded WHO (0.26mg/l) and FEPA (0.50mg/l) limits. The results from the heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb and Hg) assessed for both water and sediments showed that Cd, Ni, Mn and Cr were not detected in the water but were detected in the sediments; however, Hg was detected in neither water nor sediment. The mean concentration of metals in water were 0.25±0.38mg/l (Cr) and 0.13±0.06mg/l (Pb), and mean concentration of metals in sediment were 4.13±2.06mg/kg (Cd), 107.90±16.08mg/kg (Mn), 2.08±0.63mg/kg (Ni), 1.61±0.52mg/kg (Cr) and 72.03±11.2mg/kg (Pb). These values exceeded WHO and FEPA limits thus suggesting thatthe water is unfit for consumption, therefore, frequent monitoring of physico-chemical parameters of Ogbe-Ijoh waterside of Warri river is imperative.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1Background to the Study

Water is a finite resource that is very essential for the human existence, agriculture and industry thus, inadequate quantity and quality of water have serious impact on sustainable development. In developing countries such as Nigeria, people have little or no option but to accept water sources of doubtful quality, due to lack of better alternative sources or due to economic and technological constraints to treat the available water adequately before use (Calamari and Naeve, 1994; Aina and Adedipe, 1996). The scarcity of clean water and pollution of fresh water has therefore led to a situation in which one-fifth of the urban dwellers in developing countries and three-quarter of their rural dwelling population do not have access to reasonably safe water supplies (Lloyd and Helmer, 1992).

Water quality characteristics of aquatic environment arise from a multitude of physical, chemical and biological interactions. A regular monitoring of water bodies with required number of parameters in relation to water quality prevents the outbreak of diseases and occurrence of hazards. According to Wotton (1992), material pollution of rivers is caused by toxic pollutants (heavy metals, phenols and insecticides, among others) that have direct adverse effect on aquatic biota and by-pollutants (human and animal waste) that indirectly affect aquatic biota, which are not toxic but due to bacterial action on them, dissolved oxygen is used up which harms aquatic biota. Assessment of water is not only for suitability for human consumption but also in relation to its agricultural, industrial, recreational, commercial uses and for its ability to sustain aquatic life. Water quality monitoring is therefore a fundamental tool in the management of freshwater resources.

 

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A STUDY OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION IN WATER AND SEDIMENT OF OGBE-IJOH WATERSIDE OF WARRI RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

EFFECTS OF POLLUTION ON WATER AND FISH PRODUCTION IN IKPOBA RIVER USING MACRO INVERTEBRATES AS BIO-INDICATORS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

EFFECTS OF POLLUTION ON WATER AND FISH PRODUCTION IN IKPOBA RIVER USING MACRO INVERTEBRATES AS BIO-INDICATORS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

The study of water quality using macro invertebrates as bio indicators of pollution in the Ikpoba river Benin City, Edo State was carried out for a period of 3months (march-may) in 2013. Water and macro invertebrate samples were collected from three stations (Okhoro), Reservoir and the Bridge.) along the river. Physiochemical variables were determined using standard methods. A total of 652 macro invertebrates were collected. Twenty seven (27) taxa were recorded in all the stations. Station 2(Reservoir) had 23 taxa, while station 1(Bridge) and 3(Okhoro) had 16 and 18 taxa, respectively. Also station 1 (Bridge) contributed the highest number (46%) of the total number of individuals and the least number of taxa (16).A total of11 Bulinus spp, 39 Biomphalaria spp and 4 Physia spp represented the Mollusca family in all the stations. Coleopteran was represented by 12 Sphaerodema spp, 6 Hydrous spp and 8 Phithydrus spp. Ditera species collected in the sampling stations were, 18 enstalis larvae, 4 Simulium spp, 283 Chironomus spp, 20 Pentaneura spp, 18 Coatate pupa, 23 Chronomus pupa, 5 pupa type 1 and 2 Anopheles larvae.Only 1 Notonecta specie represented the Hemiptera family. Four (4) Neoperia and 7 Branchythermis spp represented the Plecopera family. The Odonata family was represented by 9 Coenagrion spp, 6 Pseudagnon psp and 3 Enallagma spp. Ephemeroptera was represented by two members of the Pseudocleon spp. Crustacea was represented by 18 astacidae. Annelid was represented by 31 Tubifex spp, 48 Nais spp and 55 Stalaria spp. Hirudinea spp was represented by 15 members of the Glossiphonia spp. The presence of low densities of pollution tolerant macro invertebrate groups, the deteriorating water quality and the physiochemical conditions of the water during Month march was a reflection of organic pollution by decomposing domestic refuse and inorganic fertilizers washed into the river by run-off.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

Although biologist have been studying the effects of human activities on aquatic systems and its effects on fish production for decades, their findings have only relatively recently being translated into methods suitable for monitoring the quality of water bodies. Mostly, bio-indicators such as benthic macro-invertebrates, phytoplankton and zooplankton are among the common bio-indicator organisms used during bio-monitoring of water to determine the suitability for fish production (Tassi, 2009). Artificial (and in some cases natural) changes in the physical and chemical nature of freshwaters can produce diverse biological effect ranging from the severe (such as a total fish kill) to the subtle (for example, changes in enzymes level or sub-cellular components of organisms) (Pagano et.al., 2006), changes like these indicates that the ecosystem and its associated organisms are under stress or that the ecosystem has become unbalanced (Masona, 2007).

 

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EFFECTS OF POLLUTION ON WATER AND FISH PRODUCTION IN IKPOBA RIVER USING MACRO INVERTEBRATES AS BIO-INDICATORS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH AND WATER OF IKPOBA RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH AND WATER OF IKPOBA RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

This study determined the concentrations of Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in four fish species (i.e Brycinus nurse, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Hemichromis fasiatus, and Tillapia zilli). This was evaluated in whole fish and water collected from two locations (Okhoro and Bridge) of Ikpoba River, Benin City, Nigeria, in order to ascertain the magnitude of impact by these heavy metals on the resources of the investigated ecosystem. Heavy metal concentrations in water and fish were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals in water were Cu (0.047-0.063mg/l), Fe (0.067-0.167mg/l), Pb (0.0137-0.0185mg/l) and Zn (0.47-0.53). The mean concentrations of the heavy metals in fish were Cu (B. nurse 1.100mg/kg, C. nigrodigitatus 2.106mg/kg, H. fasiatus 2.060mg/kg, T. zilli 1.480mg/kg,), Fe (B. nurse 78.20mg/kg, C. nigrodigitatus 85.80mg/kg, H. fasiatus 83.30mg/kg, T. zilli 84.64mg/kg), Pb (B. nurse 0.040mg/kg, C. nigodigitatus 0.1408mg/kg, H. fasiatus 0.296mg/kg, T. zilli 0.0452mg/kg), Zn (B. nurse 36.40mg/kg, C. nigrodigitatus 54.54mg/kg, H. fasiatus 88.80mg/kg, T. zilli 37.92mg/kg). The mean concentrations of metals in fish species were not significantly different (P > 0.05), the mean concentrations of metals in water were also not significantly different (P > 0.05) between stations. Metals were bioaccumulated by the fish species at various stations with higher values of Cu and Fe at station 2 and Pb and Zn at station 1. Heavy metal concentrations in fish and water were discussed with reference to the World Health Organisation (WHO) limits for food fish and water, the mean levels of Fe, Pb and Zn in fish exceeded the WHO limits for fish and fishery products. Therefore it was advocated that regular monitoring of heavy metals in fish and water in the River be carried out in order to curtail further negative impacts.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

Africa is blessed with a lot of inland water bodies. These aquatic ecosystems could be lagoons, creeks, rivers, streams e.t.c. which play important role in the socio-economic lives of the riverine populace. The inhabitant of these areas depends on these water bodies as a source of livelihood, recreation among other things (Ndimele et al., 2011a). Apart from this, some of these aquatic ecosystems are major nursery grounds for fish species, so they are also important for their continuous existence (Kumolu-johnson, 2004). Fish constitutes an important and cheap source of animal protein to human beings and a large number of people depend on fish and fishing activities for their livelihood. All these benefits are threatened by industrialization in a bid to meet the growing demands of the world population. Nations are investing massively in industrialization, industrial, agricultural and domestic activities have led to the pollution of the Nigerian environment and subsequently increased the problem of waste disposals, however they are not committing enough funds to develop processes that will treat the waste generated by these industries as well as mitigate their effects on the environment and man (Ndimele et al., 2011b). A lot of industrial effluents are emptied into the aquatic environment untreated, in few cases where they are treated, the products of the treatment plants are still potentially harmful to aquatic flora, fauna and even man.

 

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DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH AND WATER OF IKPOBA RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

 

EFFECT OF TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH POULTRY HATCHERY WASTE MEAL IN THE DIET OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) FINGERLINGS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

EFFECT OF TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH POULTRY HATCHERY WASTE MEAL IN THE DIET OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) FINGERLINGS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

This study examined the total replacement of fishmeal (FM) with poultry hatchery waste meal (PHWM) in practical diets for African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Five iso-nitrogenous diets containing levels Diet1, 0% (control); Diet 2, 25%; Diet 3, 50%; Diet 4, 75% and Diet 5, 100% of PHWM as a replacement for FM were fed to three replicate groups of African catfish with an initial weight of 5.1±0.01 grams. Diet 5 (100% PHWM) has the best growth performance and feed utilization because it has the highest values in weight gain (1.03) with significant difference (P< 0.05) as well as feed intake (1.49) with significant difference (P< 0.05) and has the best feed conversion ratio (FCR), (1.48) with significant difference (P< 0.05). Relative weight gain (RWG), (12.64) and specific growth rate (SGR), (1.67) were highest in Diet 5 but were not significantly different (P >0.05).

And had next to the highest values in PER and NPU. Therefore, PHWM in a proportion of 100% can replace FM totally in African catfish diet without compromising the growth and quality.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION 

The African catfish Clarias gariepinus is a major warm water species in Africa (Ghana, Ethiopia, Egypt, Mali and Nigeria) and Asia (Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand) and has been introduced recently in Europe (the Netherland, Germany and Belgium) Latin America (Brazil) (Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO, 1997; Ali, 2001). The superior performance of C. gariepinus compared with other Clarias species in terms of growth rate has probably contributed to the fact that C. gariepinus has been widely introduced to areas outside its natural range (Verreth et al., 1993). Fish culture has rapidly intensified in the last few decades, at an average rate of 8-10% per year (Tacon et al., 2011). To sustain this growth in aquaculture, an associated problem is the supply of ingredients to formulate aquatic feeds, and in particular dietary replacements for fishmeal.

African catfish is a suitable alternative to tilapia for subsistence fish farming in Africa and using low-grade feed composed of local agricultural by-products, the yield of catfish from ponds could be as much as 2.5 times higher than those of tilapia (Hogendoorn, 1983). A variety of species of genus Clarias and their hybrids were cultured for reasons of their high growth rate; disease resistance and ability to adapt to high density culture; excellent adaptation to high ambient climate and very efficient feed conversion ratio; ability to mature and remain grand throughout this year in captivity; acceptance of relatively cheap feeds; high fecundity potential for all-year round maturation and induction of final oocyte and high consumers’ acceptance (Viveen et al.,1985).

 

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EFFECT OF TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH POULTRY HATCHERY WASTE MEAL IN THE DIET OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) FINGERLINGS. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ASSESSMENT OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN SEDIMENT OF IKPOBA RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ASSESSMENT OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN SEDIMENT OF IKPOBA RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

Sediment samples from Ikpoba River in Benin City, Edo State were sampled and analysed for heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd and Pb) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer solar 969 unicam series. Some physio-chemcal properties of the sediment were also determined. The concentration ranges of metals (in mg/kg of dry sediment) measured were in order of Fe (154.00 – 226.1) > Cu (59.64 – 70.20) > Zn (50.98 -66.40) > Mn (39.22 – 57.85) > Pb (5.40 – 22.11)> Cd (3.67 – 16.13). Significant correlation exist at (p<0.01) level and (p<0.05) level between some soil properties and the studies metals. Significant correlation also exist at (p<0.01) and (p0.05) level between the studied metals. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Mn and Cd exceed sediment guideline limit while those of Zn and Pb were below guideline limit.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Sediment is the loose sand, silt and other soil particlesthat settle at the bottom of the body of water (USEPA, 2002). It can come from soil erosion or from decomposition of plants and animals. Wind, water andice help to carry these particles to rivers, lakes andstreams.Sediments near urban areas commonly contain high levels of contaminants (Lambersonet al., 1992; Cook and Wells1996) which constitute a majorenvironmental problem faced by many anthropogenically impacted aquatic environments (Magalhaeset al., 2007).Sediments in rivers do not only play important roles atinfluencing the pollution, they also record the history oftheir pollution. Sediments act as both carrier and sourcesof contaminants in aquatic environment (Shuhaimi,2008).Contamination of sediments with heavy metals may lead to serious environmental problem(Loizidouet al., 1992). Heavy metals may adsorb ontosediments or be accumulated by the benthic organisms;their bioavailability and toxicity depend upon the variousforms and amount bound to the sediment matrices(Chukwujinduet al., 2007). Additionally, pollutantsreleased to surface water from industrial and municipaldischarges, atmospheric deposition and run off fromagricultural, urban and mining areas can accumulate toharmful levels in sediments (Chukwujinduet al., 2007)

Heavy metals are classified as metallic elements that have relatively high atomic weight. They are natural components of the earth crust and they cannot be degraded or destroyed (Lentech, 2011). They have specific gravity greater than 4.0 that is, at least 5 times that of water.Heavy metals exist in water, in colloidal, particulate anddissolved forms (Adepoju-Bello et al., 2009).Their occurrence in water bodies are either of natural origin eroded,minerals within sediments, leaching of ore deposits and volcanism-extruded products or of anthropogenic origin(solid waste disposal, industrial or domestic effluents, harbour channel dredging) (Marcovecchioet al., 2007).However, heavy metals are either essential or non- essential. Although heavy metalssuch as cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenon and zinc are needed at low levels as catalyst for enzyme activities (Adepoju-Bello et al., 2009),Excess exposure tothese essential metals can however, be toxic.Water has unique chemical properties due to its polarity and hydrogen bond which makes it able to dissolve, absorb, adsorb or suspend many different compounds (WHO, 2007). Thus, in nature, water is not pure as it acquires contaminants from its surrounding and those arising from humans and animals as well as other biological activities (Mendie, 2005).

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ASSESSMENT OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN SEDIMENT OF IKPOBA RIVER. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

THE POTENTIALS OF AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN FISHING COMMUNITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

THE POTENTIALS OF AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN FISHING COMMUNITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

Aquaculture continues to grow rapidly every day, and then became bigger and bigger industry every year. So understanding the basic part behind aquatic production facilities is of increasing importance for all those working in this industry. Aquaculture requires knowledge and skills of the many general aspects of production such as spawning, production of feeds etc (Anderson, 2004). Fisheries constitute an important sector in Nigerian agriculture, providing valuable food and employment to millions and also serving as a source of livelihoods mainly for women in coastal communities, in view of the ever-increasing importance of fish as a source of high quality animal protein in Nigeria (Nwuba et al., 2009). Coastal fisheries are important and contributed at least 40 percent of fish production from all sources in Nigeria between 1995 and 2008 (FAO, 2010). According to the Fisheries Society of Nigeria, small scale fisheries provide more than 82 percent of the domestic fish supply, giving livelihoods to one million fishermen and up to 5.8 million fisher folks in the secondary sector comprising processing, preservation, marketing and distribution. Considering Nigeria‘s enormous water resources, human capital and other natural endowments, the Federal Department of Fisheries (FDF) estimated fish production of over 1.7mmt comprising 201,300mt from inshore (brackish and coastal fisheries), 33,900mt (offshore fisheries), 288,200 (inland fisheries) and 1180215mt (aquaculture).

 

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THE POTENTIALS OF AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN FISHING COMMUNITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

This study examines the major effects of climate change on Fisheries and Aquaculture. Factors responsible for climate change which include burning of fuel, oil, coal, gas, deforestation among others cause the emission of green house gases (carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane and nitrous oxide) into the atmosphere with resultant global warming leading to climate change.

A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

The main elements of climate change that would impact on Fisheries and Aquaculture production such as global warming, sea level rise, ocean acidification and ocean salinity, density and stratification were properly looked at and the reasons for their effects were addressed. The different impact of climate change that are experienced in varying degrees can be either positive or negative which can occur directly or indirectly depending on the different culture system that are practiced. The direct effect act on the physiology, growth rate, reproduction, behaviour and survival of individual while indirect effect act on ecosystem processes and changes in production of food or abundance of competitors, predators and pathogen. The major impact of climate change on Fisheries and Aquaculture were carefully discussed as well as the adaptation and mitigation strategies that should be adopted by the society to ameliorate the harsh effect of climate change and the subsequent global warming.

A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

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IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

EVALUATION OF FRESH AQUATIC PLANT (Azollapinnata) AND ARTIFICIAL DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, GASTRIC EVACUATION RATE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromisniloticus).  A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

EVALUATION OF FRESH AQUATIC PLANT (Azollapinnata) AND ARTIFICIAL DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, GASTRIC EVACUATION RATE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromisniloticus).  A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

Alternative plant protein sources are generally cheaper compared to animal protein sources and may be the solution to reduce the high dependence of farmers on fish meal due to the limited world supplies and increasing price of fishmeal. This study focuses on growth performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus); its gastric evacuation rate and carcass composition when fed with fresh aquatic plant and artificial diet.

Azollapinnataand artificial diet (control) were fed at 3% body weight of 90 Oreochromisniloticusweighing 24±1.43g for 56 days (8 weeks) in three treatments T1(artificial diet), T2 (artificial diet 50% and aquatic plant 50%) and T3 (aquatic plant); each having three replicates. Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Food Conversion Ratio (FCR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Mean Weight Gain (MWG), Protein Intake (PI) and Length-Weight Relationship were used to determine the growth performance and feed utilization. The serial slaughter method was used to determine Gastric Evacuation Rate (GER) and Gastric Transit Time (GTT). Proximate composition of fish carcass was determined using standard methods. Data were analysed using Descriptive analysis and ANOVA at α0.05.

Fish fed both artificial diet and aquatic plant T2 attained a significantly higher MGW and SGR, and attained the best correlation coefficient value which indicates a good relationship between length and weight. T1 and T2 showed no significant difference in FCR but were significantly lower than T3. The PER showed that T2 was significantly higher than T1 and T3. Duncan’s test of significance indicated that there was no significant difference in the daily feeding rate and GER of Oreocromisniloticusacross the treatments but GTT differed in T3. Fish fed only Azolla, T3 had a GTT of 3 hours where as T1 and T2 was 4 hours. Carcass proximate analysis showed that crude protein of T3 was significantly higher than T1. Fat content of T3 was significantly higher than those of T1 and T2.

Oreohchromisniloticusperformed better when fed with both artificial diet and aquatic plant, it also attained a higher crude protein level and lower moisture content when fed only aquatic plant compared to those fed only artificial diet.

Key words: Oreohchromisniloticus, utlilization of aquatic plant, growth performance, gastric evacuation, carcass composition

 

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EVALUATION OF FRESH AQUATIC PLANT (Azollapinnata) AND ARTIFICIAL DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, GASTRIC EVACUATION RATE AND CARCASS COMPOSITION OF NILE TILAPIA (Oreochromisniloticus).  A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

PLASTIC MARINE DEBRIS: Importance to Aquatic Environment and Human Health. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

PLASTIC MARINE DEBRIS: Importance to Aquatic Environment and Human Health. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

ABSTRACT

Over the years the importance of plastics for different purposes especially packaging has been emphasized but its adverse effect on the aquatic environment and human health makes it less desirable. Aquatic animals feed on plastic marine debris and sometimes get a sense of satiety. This false satiety results in starvation as these animals no longer have the need to feed. Most often, tiny plastic materials contain or attract toxic Endocrine-like Estrogen Disrupting Chemicals (EEDC) like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and BisphenolA (BPA) from the environment. These toxic chemicals pass to humans indirectly when they feed on the contaminated fish or other aquatic animals; or directly by exposure to the toxic chemicals in plastics. Hence the need to inform, orient and educate the general public on proper waste management and disposal; and proffer solutions.

Plastics in various forms (bottles, bags, cigarette butts and utensils) make up a category of marine debris; they are non-biodegradable, and persist in the environment for a long period of time. Cigarette butt, a plant based plastic also persist in the environment for a long time. Plastics in the aquatic environment entangle fish and other aquatic animals. The frequent indiscriminate disposals of trash on streets and beaches eventually carried into water bodies (lagoon, rivers, seas and oceans) through run-offs are the major cause of plastic contamination in Nigeria’s waters. There is high rate of diseases in humans as a result of direct or indirect consumption of EEDC like PCBs present or leached from plastics beyond WHO Provisional Tolerable Monthly Intake (PTMI) for dioxins, and PCBs (70 picogram per kilogram of body weight).

Aquatic organisms ingest plastic particles directly in water while humans ingest plastics directly through exposure to toxic chemicals in plastic, or indirectly by feeding on contaminated fish or other aquatics. Controlling of challenges of plastic debris requires effective information and orientation. Highlights of the efforts of Government, Individuals and Non Governmental Organisations towards debris free environments are of paramount importance. Government sets regulations and partners with NGO to raise awareness on management of wastes. Meanwhile, the discarded plastics can be re-utilized for other economic uses without recycling. For instance, in fisheries and aquaculture, the discarded plastic bottle corks can be useful for nitrification of aquaculture waste water while the discarded plastic bottles can be used for building fish farm houses.

In conclusion, beneficial uses of discarded plastics can reduce health risks in aquatic environments. All individuals must be sensitized to be involved in ensuring a debris free environment in order to conserve aquatic lives, improve local economies through beaches and recreational centers, and secure safe human health.

KEYWORDS: Aquatic waste management, Estrogen-like Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EEDC), Nitrification.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Marine debris includes any form of manufactured or processed material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine environment. It consists of items made or used by humans that enter the sea, whether deliberately or unintentionally, includingtransport of these materials to the ocean by rivers, drainage, sewage systems or by wind (Galgani et al. 2010). Once in the water, itcan blow around, remain floating on the water surface, drift in the water column, get entangled in algae on shallow bottoms, sink to the deeper seabed, or be washed up onto beaches sometimes many miles away.

Theyare items and materials that are either discarded directly (thrown or lost directly into the sea), brought to the sea indirectly by rivers, sewage, storm water or winds, or left by people on beaches and shores.

Marine debris is a major global threat to biodiversity. For instance, more than six million tons of fishing gear alone is estimated to be lost in the ocean each year (Derraik 2002). Despite this staggering amount of marine waste, fishing gears form only a small percentage of the total volume of debris in the ocean, not even making the list of the top 10 most common items found during coastal cleanup operations (Ocean Conservancy 2010).

The coastal areas of Nigeria have been in the limelight in recent times due the heavy environmentalpollution resulting from oil prospecting activities. The coastal states in Nigeria are Akwa-Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross-River, Delta,Edo, Lagos, Ogun, Ondo and Rivers states. For certain reasons, development, job opportunities, government attention and commercial activities are concentrated in coastal locations than inland locations all over the world. This phenomenon, which is best explained by anthropologists and sociologists, is also the case in Nigeria.

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PLASTIC MARINE DEBRIS: Importance to Aquatic Environment and Human Health. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPICS ON FISHERY AND AQUACULTURE

CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL FISH PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF RIVERS STATE)

CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL FISH PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF RIVERS STATE)

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Global marine fisheries not only face overfishing, pollution and other anthropogenic impacts, but also climate change (Halpern et al., 2008; Pauly et al., 2002).
Climate change is the most widespread anthropogenic threat for ocean ecosystems (Halpern et al., 2008), causing sea-level rise, sea temperature change, ocean acidification, changes in precipitation and changes in ocean circulation (Brander, 2007). These climate elects on ocean conditions will impact ocean
organisms, the composition of marine communities and ecosystem function (Brown et al., 2010), increasing the complexity of the challenges facing current fisheries (Sumaila et al., 2011). Climate change impacts fish stocks either directly or indirectly. Direct impacts act the physiology and behaviour and alter
growth, reproductive capacity, mortality and distribution. Indirect effect change the productivity, structure and composition of the marine ecosystems on which fish depend (Brander, 2010; Hare et al., 2010; Perry et al., 2005). Changes in the geographic distribution of fish species in marine ecosystems have already been documented throughout the world (Barange and Perry, 2009; Brander et al., 2003; Perry et al., 2005), and several studies have predicted that changes in water temperature, driven by climate change, may lead to local extinctions and also to colonization by species previously absent in those areas (Cheung et al., 2009; Vinagre et al., 2011). These shis in geographic range will most likely aect the abundance, distribution and composition of fisheries catches, and consequently fishing operations, catch shares and the eectiveness
of fisheries management measures (Gamito et al., 2013; Kim, 2010; Sumaila et al., 2011). However, these eects might not necessarily be negative, as new fishing opportunities may also arise in some areas of the world. The eects of climate change on fisheries may then be regarded to act on resource availability, fishing operations, fisheries management and conservation measures and profits from fisheries (Cheung et al., 2012). Both the observation of recent climate change and predictions of climate change in future scenarios show that the eects of climate change will not be homogeneous throughout the world (IPCC, 2007). Belkin (2009) has studied changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in large marine ecosystems (LMEs). LMEs are large coastal areas with broad ecosystem similarities, such as bathymetry, hydrography, productivity and
trophically dependent populations (Sherman and Duda, 1999; Watson et al., 2004). Belkin (2009) has found a coherent global pattern of rapid warming in LMEs, from 1982 to 2006. This rapid warming (net SST change higher than 0.6 ºC) was observed for three groups of LMEs: (1) Scotian Shelf, NewfoundlandLabrador Shelf, Canadian Eastern Arctic-West Greenland, Iceland Shelf and Sea, Faroe Plateau and Norwegian Sea; (2) North Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Iberian Coastal and Celtic-Biscay Shelf; (3) Yellow Sea, East China Sea, Japan/East Sea and Kuroshio Current. A slow warming was observed in the Indian Ocean LMEs and most LMEs around Australia and between Australia and Indochina. The only cooling LMEs were the California Current and the Humboldt Current, both located in the Eastern Pacific upwelling areas. As the LME spatial system groups together large coastal areas with similar ecosystem characteristics, this methodology has recently been used for several large-scale marine studies (Merino et al., 2012; Pauly et al., 2008; Pikitch et al., 2014; Sherman and Duda, 1999; Watson et al., 2004). From a global perspective, analyses on the LME scale are extremely valuable for marine ecosystembased management. And, as climate change increases the complexity of fisheries management, it is of the utmost importance that these analyses include the eects of climate change on fisheries. Therefore, the present paper aimed to analyse climate change and global fish performance.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
There is an increasing concern over the consequences of climate change and fish performance and the state of marine ecosystems. Climate change is an additional pressure on top of the many (fishing mortality, loss of habitat, pollution, disturbance, introduced species) which fish stocks already experience.
This means that the impact of climate change must be evaluated in the context of other anthropogenic pressures, which one have greater and more immediate effect . It will be proper to assemble and analyse evidence of eects of climate on fish performance in order to (i) show that climate affect the distribution, productivity and resilience of fish stocks, (ii) develop our understanding of the processes, and (iii) draw lessons from past experience. The scientific study of the impacts of climate change on fish performance has developed very rapidly, but is unevenly spread geographically and methodologically. Until the past decade or so the principal subject for investigation was the effect of climate variability (i.e. decadal and shorter variability) on recruitment, with related work on regime shis and on distribution changes.

1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the effect of climate change and global fish performance. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the nature of climate change.
2. To examine fishery performance and its adaptation on climate change.
3. To examine climate change and its effect on fish production.
4. To examine the problems fish farmers face due to effect of climate change.
5. To examine the relationship between climate change and global fish performance.
6. To suggest the strategies for alleviating the impacts of climate change on agricultural practices in Nigeria.

 

 

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CLIMATE CHANGE AND GLOBAL FISH PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF RIVERS STATE)