CONSTRAINTS TO EFFECTIVE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN JOS-SOUTH L.G.A OF PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study focused on the constraints to effective solid waste management in Jos-South LGA of Plateau State, Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, four research objectives were posed with one null hypothesis postulated and tested at P = 0.5 level of significance. The population of the study is 162,387 registered voters as at 2011. A sample size of four hundred (400) was determined using Yamane (1967) method of sample size determination. Proportionate sampling technique was used to determine the sample population for each ward. Twenty nine (29) staff of PEPSA were drawn using simple random sampling technique. Two set of questionnaires were used for data collection for this study. The instruments were subjected to validation by three experts. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages were used to analyze the data collected and presented in tables. Principal Component Analysis was used to evaluate the constraints to effective solid waste management in Jos-south LGA; while ANOVA was used to test hypothesis at P = 0.5 level of significance. Findings from base-line studies revealed that the current solid waste management practices in Jos-south LGA are: Use of dump soil for soil enrichment, waste sorting, waste recovery, waste burning, waste storage, waste composting and waste disposal in rivers, gutters/drainages, open spaces, illegal communities, dumpsites and disposal in burnt houses. The Principal Component Analysis was used and it evaluated four component constraints for each of the Households’ and PEPSA. Household component constraints identified were institutional problems, instability in governance, and perceptions on waste laws, poor accessibility and utility; while PEPSA component constraints are: management and evacuation problems, funding problems, crisis problems and administrative problems respectively. Base on the findings and conclusion of this work, it was recommended that there should be communities’ involvement in solid waste management, also efforts should be made to end the ongoing crisis in Jos and plans be made on how to create awareness on waste laws and the danger of inappropriate disposal of waste .

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.0 Background to the study

Solid waste can be defined as “any residue that is of no use in its current state to the people who caused it’’ (Khattak, Khan and Ahmad, 2009). Synonyms to solid waste are terms such as garbage, trash, refuse, and rubbish. Solid waste management refers to the collection, transfer, treatment, recycling, resource recovery and disposal of solid waste in urban areas (Ogwueleka, 2009). Human activities create waste, and it is the way these wastes are handled, stored, collected, and disposed of, that can pose risks to the environment and public health.Themanners in which human beings dispose of their waste reflect the level of development of that society.

During the primitive society, waste was not a problem as land was plentiful andwastes generated were biodegradable (Ahmed and Ali, 2004). With urbanization and industrialization, urban centres witnessed influx of people, which brought about change in production and consumption resulting in the production of non-biodegradable waste which requires special management (Ajadike, 2001). In managing solid waste in developing countries, the interest is to protect the environment and public health, without recourse to urban development in relation to urban space to enhance site locations for waste collection and disposal. The inability of developing countries to plan for the high rate of solid waste generation, rapid urbanization and high population growth in relation to the accessibility of waste facilities have continued to bedevil recent programmes and policies for solid waste management.

Developed countries such as United State of America (U.S.A), United Kingdom, Switzerland and Germany have since around 1860’s strategized and planned their cities with appropriate solid waste management systems, and technology by allowing the private sectorto  manage their wastes(Ofodile, 2002, Rosenthal, 2005). The success story of the European countries in effective solid management is through the legal framework and programmes implementation, such as source reduction, recycling, composting, incineration and landfills (Wilson, 1996).A massive volume of solid waste is generated every day in the cities of developing countries and unfortunately, solid waste management deteriorates day by day due to inadequacies in handling the increasing rate of solid waste generation(Enajetullahand Hashmi, 2006).

According to Pierce and Turner (1994),‘the systems of solid waste management in most developing countries are inefficient and ineffective’. Zurbrugg(2003) also a noted that one to two third of solid waste generated in developing countries is not collected. The result of the incapability of the waste management systems to effectively manage solid waste is the deterioration of the environment via air pollution, generation of greenhouse gases, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, vegetation depletion, water, and soil pollution (Visvanathan, 2006). In urban areas of developing countries, especially in the rapidly urbanizing cities of Nigeria, problems and issues of solid waste management are of immediate importance. The uncollected solid waste is often mixed with human excreta, clinical waste, anddumped indiscriminately in streets and drains, resulting in flood, breeding of insects, rodents, andvectors which spread diseases (Majumed and Karim, 2012).

Because of the increasing awareness of the adverse effect of poor solid waste management and some positive changes in economic circumstances, some African countries are beginning to put in place, policies, programmes and institutions to enhance environmental management, especially in municipal solid waste management at all levels (Olowameye, 1991). In Nigeria, the Federal Government showed its concern by establishing Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) in 1988, which was later upgraded in 1999 tothe Federal Ministry of Environment, thevarious States and Local Government Areas also established their Sanitation Agencies. These moves however shows how grave the issues of environmental problems are, particularly solid waste management has become. The general urban scenery today exhibits the gradual takeover of virtuallyevery available open space by refuse dumps, stagnated drainages and gutters, smoke-laden air,hence posing serious health hazard.

Similarly,Filani and Abumere(1996)observe that heaps of solid waste to say the least, disfigure the city image, and notonly create an eye sore, but also pose tremendous health hazards. In Nigeria, the most suitable and sustainable measures of solid waste management and governance are still being debated. Theinability of the state sanitation agencies to cope with effective management of solid waste in Nigerian cities including Jos-South LGA continues to pose serious challenges.

This state ofconsistent inability to effectively manage solid waste in Nigeria especially in Jos-south LGA necessitates continued research to identify the constraints to solid waste management. For this reason this study is being carried out to evaluate the constraints to effective solid wastemanagement, with a view to making recommendations for improvement.

 1.1.1 Statement of the Research Problem

Solid waste management is one of the major problems facing urban centres in Nigeria. With rapid increase in population and urbanization, solid wastes are accumulating faster than agencies’ ability to cope with its effective management. The rate of urban growth in Nigeria is about 3.75%, while population is increasing by about 2.47% per annum (Nigeria Demographic report, 2014). As cities grow, land use becomes increasingly complex and waste generated increase in volume and variety (Omuta, 1987).

Like most cities in Nigeria, Jos city is rapidly increasing in population; from a small town of less than 10,000 people in 1930, 20,000 people in 1950, the population grew to over 600,000 in 1991 (Dung-Gwong, 2006). Besides mining, Jos was a popular recreational and holiday town for colonial officials due to its clement weather and appealing natural environment. This rapid growth of the city led to the creation of Jos-South LGA in 1991 and by 2006 it had a population of 306,716 (NPC, 2006) and this population continues to generate solid waste. In Jos-South LGA, people tend to utilize the most expedient means of waste disposal such as burying, dumping on land, in ditches and gutters, or drainage systems or burying in pits and burning. These practices have resulted in a degraded urban environment and prevalence of diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, and malaria as reported by (PLMH, 2009).This has serious implications for the economy and livelihood realities of the teeming population (Okafor, 2011).

Conscious of the above health implication, the government of Plateau State has made deliberate efforts to rid Jos city of indiscriminate dumping of solid waste. In 1976, Jos-Metropolitan Development Board (JMDB) was created to oversee urban development and city sanitation,but the Board could not achieve its goal on sanitation, which resulted in the creation of Plateau Environmental Protection and Sanitation Agency (PEPSA) in 1991 to manage waste in the city. Yet, the desire for effective management of solid wastes was again not realized. Consequently, there was a declaration of the state of emergency on sanitation in 2008 whereby task force on sanitation was inaugurated to supervise the activities of PEPSA and report directly to the Deputy Governor.Gyang (2008) and Moses (2010) report that despite all these efforts, the city is still littered with indiscriminate dumping of solid waste. Owing to the consistent inability to effectively manage solid waste in the area, it has become necessary to verify and identify the constraints militating against it.

payment

AN ASSESSMENT OF GOVERNMENT EFFORT ON THE PROVISION OF PORTABLE WATER SUPPLY IN BIDA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NIGER STATE

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Nigeria has enormous quantity of water resources, surface and underground, that requires a well-articulated administrative structure that can manage the resources effectively. The present position of water supply in Nigeria is grossly inadequate. The Federal, States and Local Governments have over the years been intervening from time to time in terms of the provision of potable water to the people through the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF), River Basin Authorities, DFRRI, National Water Supply Rehabilitation Project, National Borehole programme and of course, the present government‘s Legislative Boreholes. Despite these efforts, potable water supply is still poor and grossly inadequate. In reality, the problem of water supply in Nigeria is enormous and can only be solved through properly coordinated approach so as to overcome the problem.

According to Babatola (1997), Offodile (2003, 2006), Nwankwoala &Mmom (2008), water supply lies at the heart of development whether it is urban or rural. Water supply and development of any nation are continuing long-term process which requires careful planning and implementation geared towards achieving improved conditions of life. Consequently, there should be an overhaul/review of the existing water policy or a new national water policy that would involve a comprehensive hydro geological mapping of the country. The exercise must be based on known groundwater and surface water sources (Mobogunje, 1975).

According to Uwais, (2004) man cannot survive longer without food than water. But because water is freely available through rainfall, man has until fairly recently, taken this unique resources for granted.

Although more than 70% of the earth surface is water, water has become a scarce commodity in many part of the world. The threat of a world water crisis becoming increasingly real in the face of increase demand, relatively statistic supply and deteriorating

quality due to over exploitation. It is universally accepted that an adequate supply of water for drinking, personal hygiene and other domestic purposes is essential to public health and wellbeing. It is well known fact that large number of people in Nigeria mostly those in rural area lack safe portable drinking water, in about 90% of the rural communities in Nigeria are lacking portable for their domestic activities. (uwais, 2004)

As stakeholders in water and sanitation business converged on the Hague, Netherland on march 22 to mark the 2013 edition of the world water day, the authorities at Niger State ministry of water resources dedicate the day to takes stocks of it achievement and to marshal out ways of improving on it effort of tackling the challenges of supplying portable water to the 4.5 million people spread across the 25 Local Government Area of the state.

The ministry also embarks on other semi-urban water supply schemes in the state and introducing mini water scheme in Kuta, Madaka, Mashegu, Agwara, Lemu and Kata eregi. It produces several borehole rigs for drilling of borehole in communities and trains some of it staff on water related issues both locally and abroad. The state has also brought several water supply vehicles and distributed some to the 25 Local Government Areas for distribution of water to communities known to be facing water shortages which has aimed to reduce the problem of water scarcity in these communities.

At the global scene, there has been continuing efforts in respect of sustainable management of water resources. The Earth Summit, the World Water Commission, the World Water Forum as well as other water related projects of Global Water Partnership, such as World Bank, WHO, UNESCO, FAO, UNICEF and UNDP, have been at the forefront in the timely efforts of water resources management, especially in the provision of safe drinking water and basic sanitation which is within the frameworks of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In the early 1950s, government‘s has attempted to develop groundwater by exploring the ground water potentials across the country. This led to

construction of hand dug shallow wells especially in rural areas. The Nigerian government’s major intervention in water resources development came during the first National Development Plan (1962 – 1968) which saw the establishment of the River Niger and Lake Chad Basin Commissions. In 1973 and 1974, the Sokoto-Rima and Chad Basin Authorities were established. In 1976, the river basin authorities were increased to eleven (11) to cover the whole country. But, before then in 1975, the Federal Ministry of Water Resources (FMWR) was created. Following the creation of the ministry, extensive water resources development (both surface and groundwater) was embarked upon to boost economic activities such as irrigation, fisheries as well as hydropower generation. More importantly, all these giant strides were aimed at improving water supply delivery in line with the United Nation‘s International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (IDWSSD, 1981 – 1990). Beside these noble efforts, the Federal Government embarked upon other numerous intervention programs in the water sector, including the National Borehole Project (1980), Department of Food, Roads, and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI) in 1986 -1994, The Petroleum (Special) Trust Fund (PTF) Rural Water Supply Project (1995-1999), Improved National Access to Water Supply (1999) and lastly the Senate Constituency Water Projects (2001 to date) (Nwankwoala, 2010).

Drinking water or potable water is water safe enough to be consumed by humans or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the tap water supplied to households, commerce and industry meets the water quality standards to qualify as potable, even though only a very small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation. Typical uses other than drinking and cooking include washing, toilet flushing, and irrigation (USEPA,2010).

Due to high level of poverty in Nigeria, safe portable drinking water is a scarce resource especially in rural areas. It is against this background that this study seeks to assess the accessibility of portable water In Bida local Government area of Niger state.

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Over 90% of deaths from diarrheal diseases in the developing world today occur in children under 5 years old (Salman 2004). Malnutrition, especially protein-energy malnutrition, can decrease the children’s resistance to infections, including water-related diarrheal diseases. From 2000-2003, 769,000 children under five years old in sub-Saharan Africa died each year from diarrheal diseases. As a result of only thirty-six percent of the population in the sub-Saharan region have access to proper means of sanitation. More than 2000 children’s lives are lost every day. In South Asia, 683,000 children under five years old died each year from diarrheal disease from 2000-2003. During the same time period, in developed countries, 700 children under five years old died from diarrheal disease. Safe drinking water is therefore a prerequisite for good health.(USEPE2010).

Therefore improved portable water supply reduces the frequency of water related illness and deaths, especially in area like Bida local government area.

Therefore it is essential to find out;

1.      What is the source of water supply in Bida Local Government?

2.      Are these sources of water supply safe for drinking and other domestic uses?

3.      Was there any effort made by Niger State and Bida local Government council in improving water supply in the study area?

These form the research Question that will be pursued in this study.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

AN ASSESSMENT OF GOVERNMENT EFFORT ON THE PROVISION OF PORTABLE WATER SUPPLY IN BIDA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NIGER STATE

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF WASTE GENERATED IN ABATTOIRS

ABSTRACT

This project aimed at finding out the Environmental Health Implications of Waste Generated in Abattoirs- A Case Study of Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State. Questionnaire, personal observations, oral interview and labouratory analysis were used to collect the data. Water samples were taken from the selected area to assess the level of PH, BOD, Colour, Test, and Odour. Out of the total number of households which is 3418, 358 were randomly chosen to obtain their views. Based on their responses, it is observed that the water of the selected abattoirs is significantly polluted by abattoir effluents. The result is further supported by labouratory analysis which is then compared with FEPA acceptable

limit. The labouratory results revealed that the various samples were contaminated with E.Coli and other enteric bacteria which pollute the water biologically beyond permissible limits. The presence of coliform staphylococcus aurens was confirmed in the water to an extent that it may be injurious to human health. The presence of various form of bacteria which cause Anthrax, Q-fever, Campylobacteriosis, Ornithosis, Botulism, Staph, Salmonellosis, Brucellosis are confirmed. These pose a serious public health problem. Therefore, the following recommendations were made: Enforcement of existing health and hygiene regulations guiding abattoir operation; provision of adequate wastes disposal facilities to cater for both solid and liquid waste; and also the provision of modern abattoir.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The slaughtering of animals for community consumption is inevitable in most nations of the world and dates back to antiquity. The existence of public abattoirs has been traced to the 15th and 16th centuries, in Italy and France, where slaughter houses were among the public facilities provided by the State (Edwards et al., 1979). In Italy, a law of 1890 required that public abattoirs be provided in all communities of more than six thousand inhabitants. Similar public abattoirs were established in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands and Romania in the late 18th century (Jode, et al., 1906). Edwards et al., (1979) state that in Nigeria, nearly every town and neighbourhood is provided with a slaughter house or slaughter slab. They further observe that abattoirs may be situated in urban, rural and nominated industrial sites, and that each has advantages and disadvantages.

The manufacturing of animal products for human consumption (meat and dairy products) or for other human needs (leather), leads inevitably to the production of waste. In the sanitation of environment, waste management has been identified as the most important environmental challenge. It is a problem which must be discussed in every community because the success of any sanitary measures introduced will depend to a large extent on the efficiency to which it is solved (Shuval, 1972)

Waste management as defined by Veterinary Dictionary (2014) defines as the systematic administrations of activities provided for the collection, transportation and processing of wastes. Proper waste management is a desirable asset for human health and it recognizes the need for each individual to participate in the improvement of wastes management, because poor waste management contribute

to contamination of the environment and pollution (liquid, gaseous, solid), spread of insects like mosquitoes, flies and many other vectors and pathogens of infections. All these can be easily controlled and prevented through a proper waste management.

The slaughtering of animals results in meat supply and other useful by-products such as hide and skin. Livestock waste spills can introduce enteric pathogens and excess nutrients into surface water and can contaminate ground water. Abattoirs operations produce a variety of highly organic waste with relatively high level of suspended liquid and solid waste. The liquid wastes are mostly composed of dissolved solid, blood, gut contents urine and water. While the solid waste are usually condemned meat, bones, horns, hairs and aborted fetuses (Shuval, 1972).

The most important issues in all meat processing plants are maintenance of proper hygiene and adequate sanitary conditions. Feeding a growing population from a limited land area is a challenge and pro-livestock lobby maintains that livestock are essential to developing sustainable agricultural system in many parts of the world. However, livestock production which is perceived by the public to be potential food for the world’s needy people is a major pollutant of the country side (where they are raised) and the cities (Alonge, 1991; Meadows, 1995). Abattoir wastes could consist of pollutants such as animal faeces, blood, fat, animal trimming, paunch content and urine. An abattoir is a premises approved and registered by the controlling authority for hygienic slaughtering, inspection of animals, processing and effective preservation, and storage of meat products for human consumption (Anjaneyulu, 2006).

Ezeoha et al. (2011) report that one type of waste that is of great concern in both urban and rural areas in Nigeria is abattoir or slaughterhouse wastes. Almost every day in all the urban and rural markets in Nigeria, animals are slaughtered and the meat sold to the public for consumption. Meat wastes originate from killing; hide removal or dehairing, paunch handling, rendering, trimming, processing and clean-up operations. Therefore, abattoir wastes often contain blood, fat, organic and inorganic solids, and salts and chemicals added during processing operations contains undigested materials called paunch manure, which can contain long hairs, whole grains and large plant fragments. The faeces of livestock (animal manure) consist of undigested food, mostly cellulose-fibre, undigested protein, excess Nitrogen from digested protein, residue from digested fluids, waste mineral matter, worn-out cells from intestinal linings, mucus, bacteria, and foreign matter such as dirt consumed, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Phosphorous, Sodium, etc. Abattoir effluent (waste water) has a complex composition and can be very harmful to the environment. Therefore the importance of knowing the pollution potentials of abattoir wastes cannot be over-emphasized.

Abattoir wastes just like any other waste can be detrimental to human and the environment if definite precautions are not taken. In the Nigerian livestock industry, slaughter houses are littered with non-meat products and wastes that need to be recycled into useful by-products for further agricultural and other industrial uses (Osibanjo et al, 2007). This constitutes public health risk and nuisance in most slaughter houses spread across Nigerian markets; producing air, soil, and water pollution as well as infestation of flies and other disease vectors. For hygienic reasons abattoirs use large amount of water in processing operations; and this produces large amount of wastewater. The major environmental problem associated with this abattoir wastewater is the large amount of suspended solid and liquid waste as well as odour generation (Gauri, 2006).

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Livestock are being slaughtered on daily basis in abattoirs across the Local Government. In light of the negative effects of waste from these abattoirs, there is a need for us to properly understand the types of waste being generated and how they are managed across the different abattoirs. These abattoirs vary in sizes from one location to another and the wastes generated at these abattoirs also vary (Abdulmalik, 2009). Similar researches have been done by several scholars across Nigeria, such as Alex et al, 2009; Abdulmalik, 2009; and Nwanta et al, 2010. But the most striking problem is they put more emphasis on solid and liquid waste produced by these abattoirs. Therefore, this study will focus on environmental health implications of wastes generated by the abattoirs to the host communities. This constitutes the problem for the study.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH

The aim of this research is to examine the environmental health implications of waste generated in the study area. This aim could be achieved through the following objectives: –

v  To identify the categories of waste generated in the selected abattoirs.

v   To highlight the implications of waste on human health.

v   To determine the implications on the air quality.

v   To determine the implications on surface water quality

v   To determine the implications on land quality

v To find out if there is any government role in waste management of the selected abattoirs.

v To determine the variation of effluent in the selected areas

v   To find out perception on possible infections

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH

The research is aimed at finding out the environmental health implication of waste generated in the study area. Therefore, the study is of paramount importance since the research will try as much as possible towards finding ways in which butchers uses to manage their waste (management practices). And also the implications of the wastes generated to the host communities

The butchers generate waste in their own routine activities in Abattoirs, therefore, the research finding will definitely be to their advantage because they will be familiar with their waste management practices and as well as the environmental health implications of each of the method they are using in disposing of their waste. Additionally, as for Kaduna South Local Government Area, the research can serve as a guide which could provide the basis for imposing some bye-laws and regulations within their jurisdiction on waste management practices in abattoirs across the area.

1.5       THE SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH

The scope of this research shall limit itself to the Environmental Health Implications of Waste Generated to the host communities. Areas concern for this study includes Makera, Tudun Wada, and Barnawa; all located in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State.

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF WASTE GENERATED IN ABATTOIRS

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND COASTAL FLOODING IN BRASS AND NEMBE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS WITHIN BAYELSA STATE. NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

1.1    BACKGROUND   

In the past few year, the whether climate is changing and been characterised by the temperature, wind, precipitation, clouds and other weather elements. This phenomenon has caused the migration of human and environmental vulnerability in the world leading to hunger, poverty and malnutrition. (Todd et al. 2010 and IPCC (2007). According to Zewdie (2012), the Sub Saharan Africa regions is most likely to be affected with climate change. Moreover, it is forecasted that coastal communities will be more affected by the earth climate change as a result of increased participation would increase the vulnerability of coastal area to natural disasters (IPCC 2001,   Wu SY, Yarnal and   Fisher 2002). In the recent times, the Niger delta region of Nigeria has consistently experienced recurrent flooding as a result of increased participation and runoff from rivers. (7, 8).  These phenomenon has significantly affected the ecosystem, thus putting the ecosystem under posed a great concern and danger on the ecosystem risk from earth climate change and other element.

The introduction of the delta to the influences of climate variability is now a source worry within the Niger delta region (IPCC 2007). The Niger Delta has an estimated population of over 30 million people. About 70% of this population and infrastructure are located in the low lying coastal regions. The economic activities and development of the Niger Delta region. Is no doubt threaten by climate change

A warming world will no doubt change the earth’s climate system and lead to severe environmental consequences (Globalchange.gov, 2014). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defined climate change as changes observed in weather conditions from statistical observations over extended periods, lasting for decades to centuries. Research has shown that from 1983 to 2012 with a baseline of 1850, temperatures in the earth’s climate system have increased (IPCC, 2014). The impact of climate change is experienced globally, regionally and locally, affecting both human and natural systems (Goldenberg, 2014).  One of the most devastating effect of climate change is Sea Level Rise (SLR) (NASA, 2017). SLR is an increase in water volume on the earth due to basic factors such as thermal expansion and melting ice caps. Anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) have increased in recent decades causing a relative increase in land and ocean surface temperatures (Elum and Momodu 2017; IPCC, 2014).     

In Nigeria, the southern coastal region is known to be susceptible to climate change influences like flooding that causes environmental degradation and hazards.  High increase in rainfall and subsequent flooding within the coastal region have been observed in recent years (Tawari-Fufeyin; Paul and Godleads, 2015; Israel, 2017). An example, is the most recent event of the 2012 flooding which affected over 500,000 people as internally displaced from their homes (Amangabara and Obenade, 2015) and claimed over 51 lives. The most devastating flood for the past 40 years (NASA 2012). Coasts in Nigeria are characterised by high tides that can cause flooding events. Bayelsa State is one of such states within the region in Nigeria that have recorded such rise in tidal waters as a result of climate change. The geographic location and elevation ranges at Longitudes 6º3’ and 6º40’ East and Latitudes 4º23.3’ and 4º38.2’ north and at 50m above sea level respectively (Okiongbo and Ogobiri, 2011) after inland which makes it vulnerable to flooding. The state, especially its coastal communities are heavily populated with the people being closer to land degradation effects. The State has major crude oil and gas reserves which accounts for over 30% flaring in Nigeria. 

This project seeks to investigate the effect of the consequences of climate change in Nembe and Brass local government areas and the effective policies for coping with these changes to reduce the vulnerability of the environment to extreme weather conditions.

1.2      RESEARCH PROBLEM 

 Oil and gas exploration and production in the Niger Delta has enhanced the economy (Ite et al., 2013), but also led to several environmental and health hazards. According to Odubo (2014), Bayelsa State was reported to be one of the worst affected state in the 2012 flooding. Climate change and sea level rise will have a negative impact on Nembe and Brass local government areas, disrupting business, farms and river systems. I intend to investigate the direct and indirect effects of coastal flooding in Nembe and Brass local government areas of Bayelsa State and the working policies for adaptation and mitigation of flooding in these areas.

1.3      RESEARCH RATIONALE    

The issue of climate change induced sea level rise is crucial. From history deadly floods have been recorded with death tolls of over 100,000 people. For example the 1931 china flood with a record of  above 2500000 death, the 1938 yellow river flood in china with about 5000000-700000 deaths, the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami with about 230000 (USEPA 2002). The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster (CRED) reported that over a period of 1995-2015 about 606000 deaths was recorded owing to weather related disasters (CRED 2015). In Nigeria over a period of 1985-2014 about 11 million lives have been affected, 1100 deaths recorded and asserts worth 17 billion dollars have been damaged (Nkwunonwo, Malcom and Brian 2015).   

Bayelsa State is of high economic importance to Nigeria because of the abundant oil deposits. With projected sea level rise from 0.5 – 1m by 2100 (IPCC 2014), people will be forced to leave their homes. Thus, the government will be faced with several challenges (Sayne 2011, Odubo 2014). About 3. 8 million people in the Niger Delta are at risk of flooding. This can be avoided and/or the impact reduced if, the Nigerian government will implement the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) commitment, made in the Paris agreement and make effective policies relevant to coastal flooding, to drastically reduce Nigeria’s emissions from business as usual (BAU) to conditional levels (INDC 2015). Nations like the UK amongst others who have implemented the INDCs have made significant progress with tackling exasperated flood issues (Haigh and Nicholls 2017)

1.4      RESEARCH QUESTIONS 

This study is intended to find means to a lasting solution to the issues below:

1.    Are Bayelsans aware of climate change and the impact?

2.    Is the effect of sea level rise induced flooding felt in Nembe and Brass local government areas in Bayelsa State? 

3.    Has the government made policies to mitigate for climate change and flooding in the state?

4.      What policies have been implemented and what infrastructures have been built for adaptation and mitigation?

1.5      AIM   

The project aims to evaluate the effect of coastal flood in Nembe and Brass regions and how effective the government policies are in Bayelsa state.

1.6       OBJECTIVES  

1.    To assess the effect of climate change in Nembe and Brass local government areas of Bayelsa State.

2.    To evaluate individual orientation levels on climate change and its causative effects.

3.    To evaluate government’s policies and implementation levels on climate change in Nembe and Brass Local Government Area.

4.    To carry out a comparative analysis of climate change mitigation policy implementation in Nigerian using a case study of the United Kingdom.

1.7      SCOPE AND LIMITATION  

This study focuses on two local government areas namely Nembe and Brass in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. This is because of their proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, which increases the susceptibility of these communities to coastal flooding. The study, was not without some limitations, they are;  

·         Availability of research materials: The research material available for the study was insufficient, thereby limiting the research.         

·         Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the research, has to be combined with other academic activities and examinations with the study.

·         Unwilling responses: Responses to structured questionnaires from natives and residents of both local government areas was limited due to their unwillingness to corporate. It was found out that individuals with previous experiences with multinational corporations, have a prevailing perception of forceful entry and degradation of farm lands due to crude oil exploration exercises. 

1.8      PROJECT STRUCTURE

This project paper consists of five chapters as listed below: 

·         CHAPTER ONE: Introduction-This chapter consist of the background of study, Problem statement, research justification, research questions, and aim of study, objective of study, scope and limitations.

·         CHAPTER TWO: Literature review-The chapter contains reviewed literatures on sub stops relevant to the topic both new and very important earlier research.

·         CHAPTER THREE: Methodology- This chapter outlines the method and approach used in this research to achieve the needed result using the Saunders research onion technique.

·         CHAPTER FOUR: Result and discussion- In this chapter, the outcomes of the survey is presented and interpreted in discussion in comparison with relevant literatures and case study.

·         CHAPTER FIVE: Recommendation and conclusion- This chapter contains suggested practices and policies to adapt and mitigate the effect of climate change on coastal flooding in the focus areas and a summary of the finds of the research and further research of the subject of study in the areas researched.

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND COASTAL FLOODING IN BRASS AND NEMBE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS WITHIN BAYELSA STATE. NIGERIA

MINISTRY OF LAND, SURVEY AND HOUSING

ABSTRACT

          This report is concerned with work done and the skills acquired during the student industrial training which is primarily on survey and town planning, principles of town planning and procedures for effective planning . This and many more are all enlisted in the work, the meaning of siwes and its relevance to the student.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          The student industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) is the accepted skill program which form part of the approved minimum academic standard in the various degree program for all Nigerian universities, its an effort to bridge the gap between theories and practicals of engineering and technology, science agriculture, medical management and other professional educational program in the Nigeria tertiary institution.

          However the purpose is to expose student to a real practical aspect of what they learnt in the various schools so that they can adopt readily for the labour world, the student are being supervised by the ITF (Industrial Training Fund) and are being paid after the completion of the training and the student are also expected to write a report on the knowledge they acquired during the exercise in their various part of the training. I am writing this report based on the experience  i acquired at the Ministry of Lands, survey and housing Benin City, Edo state based on survey and town planning.

1.1     AIMS OF THE REPORT

          The aim of this report is to access the experience of the student during the work training by the institution for the student to produce the summary of the experience acquired during the exercise writing.

1.2     SCOPE

          Survey is the act of making measurement in the field for the purpose of producing a map, plan or estimate of an area, it is primarily concerned with determination of linear and angular measurement with a view to know the plan of an area, in other works survey is the technology, profession and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three dimensional position of points and the distance and angles between them, these points are usually on the surface of the earth and they are often used to establish landmaps boundaries for ownership or government purpose.

          Survey is divided primarily into 2 Geodetic and plane surveying. In geodesy, the earth is considered a sphere in geodetic surveying the curature of the earth is taken into consideration so that knowledge of spherical geometry is acquired, the survey of countries are based on this method, in plane survey, the area under consideration in an horizontal plane, here, knowledge of trigonometry is required, the use of plane surveying include the measurement of area, making the plans by civil engineering, builders, architect s, town planners etc.

          Town planning on the other hand is the art and science of ordering the use of land on the character or siting of a building and communication routes so as to secure the maximum practicable degree of economic convenience and beauty.

1.3     RELEVANCE OF WORK EXPERIENCE

          The relevance of work experience cannot be over emphasized for it exposes the student to work, method and techniques in handling equipment and machines that may not be available in the universities.

          It also provides students with an opportunity to apply their theoretical knowledge in real work situation thereby bridging the gap between university work, actual practices and to prepare student for the work situation they are likely to meet after graduation.

          The ministry of lands, survey and housing is one of the oldest ministries in the state as it was created in 1963 during the former mid-western region of the first republic, it is the arm of government charged with responsibilities of land administration, management of government properties, within and outside the state as well as the provision of housing, delivery on the joint platform of public private partnership (ppp) for housing estate in the state.

1.4     STRUCTURE OF THE MINISTRY

          The ministry is structured into offices, departments and units as follows;

a)                 Office of the Honourable Commissioner

b)                Office of the permanent secretary

c)                 Five departments

i.                   Department  of administration and supplies

ii.                 Department  of finance and account

iii.              Department of town planning (state, capital development)

iv.               Department of survey

v.                 Department of town planning

Units

i.                   Internal audit

ii.                 Public relations

MINISTRY OF LAND, SURVEY AND HOUSING

IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH ON UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the study

Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa and the 8th in the world with an estimated figure of about 170 million people based on the facts released by the National Population Commission (NPC, 2012). In addition to this, the nation boasts of being the largest economy in Africa as the GDP figure for 2013 and 2014 stood at N13, 526.25 and N14, 475.38 billion respectively (Economic Watch, 2015).  Despite these magnificent feats, the country is still faced with several developmental, economic and political challenges such as unemployment, poverty, corruption, income inequality, population explosion and political instability. Nigeria has a growing population, which can equally be referred to as increasing population. The census conducted in Nigeria in 1991 put Nigeria’s population at 88.9 million people with growth rate of about 3% and the total fertility rate as disclosed by the Post Enumeration Survey (PES) at about 6%. From the statistics obtained at the 2006 Nigerian population census, Nigeria’s population stood at 140,003, 542 (NBS, 2009).  The growth rate then was less than 3% and the population has the tendency of doubling itself in less than 23 years (Odusina 2013). The United Nations estimated Nigeria’s population to be around 150,003, 400 and further corroborated that Nigeria’s population is the largest in Africa and ranked 7th among the populous countries globally (United Nations, 2009). The population of Nigeria is rising rapidly. A rapid rise in population can be attributed to three main factors which are birth rate, death rate and migration (Yesefu, 2002). In the Nigeria population experience, migration has not contributed to rapid population, because most of Nigeria’s technocrats, experts and professionals immigrate to other countries for an improved means of livelihood (Odusina, 2013). If a rising population is brought about as a result of increase in birth rate, there will be larger proportion of children and young people in the population. On the other hand, if rapid population is a result of decrease in death rate, the adults and older people will constitute a larger percentage of the total population. Furthermore, if a rising population is due to high net migration, the population will constitute a large proportion of the economically active people, between the ages of 15 and 60 years. According to National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS, 2003), crude birth rate in 1990, 1991 and 2003 stood at 39.0, 44.6 and 42.0. This evidences that Nigeria’s rapid population is primarily as a result of high birth rate. The population of Nigeria has gathered momentum over time. Population will continually increase event if there is usage and practice of contraceptives, family planning system and birth control. Increasing population is a burden to the government especially in less developed countries, which is considered injurious to the citizenry living standard and the socioeconomic development of the country. Unemployment occurs as a result of the insufficiency of jobs to commensurate with the growing population, even those who are employed live with the fear of being rendered unemployed due to job insecurity, economic recession and retrenchment of workers. (Akiri etal. 2016). The term ‘unemployment’ can be applied to any factor of production that is idle and under-utilized. With precise application to labour, unemployment occurs when active and able-bodied men are actively seeking jobs but unable to find one. Underemployment is a variant of unemployment which arises when labour is working below full capacity or not fully utilized in production. Unemployment has been a hindering factor to the attainment of sustainable development. In Nigeria, unemployment is more prevalent among the youths. Every year, tertiary institutions turn out thousands of graduates in large mass with no absorptive capacity in the labor market. Moreover, young people are more likely to be employed in jobs of low quality, poor working conditions, poor remuneration and engagement in dangerous works or receive a short term informal employment arrangements. Unemployment has been regarded as global economic problem and has been tagged as a barricade to social and economic advancement especially in developing nations, Nigeria inclusive. Unemployment tantamount to huge wastage of a country’s human resources, generates welfare loss in terms of social output, leads to low income and increases the cost of living (Umo, 1999). The inadequate employment situation of youths has resulted into a number of socio-economic, moral and political vices such as armed robbery, huggers, vandalisation of government assets, corruption, prostitution, rural-urban migration, high dependency ratio, frustration, corruption, depression, wastage and underutilization of human resource. The prevalence of unemployment has birthed the presence of poverty in the nation. Successive government has employed several strategies to curb both challenges, but the results achieved so far have not been remarkable.

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Nigeria is bedeviled with a dual-problem of high population and high unemployment. The jobs available in the labour market are not commensurate with the teeming number of unemployed persons. Rapid population growth is inimical to the economic and social development of a country. There will be little time or no time to adjust the economy to development efforts. Increasing population has the tendency of eroding the benefits of economic development and producing disastrous effects on living conditions of the citizenry if not properly checked. Nigeria population requires urgent attention, regulation and control due to its excessive growth rate. Nigeria need to learn from the Chinese population experience, when the latter country encountered many challenges linked to population growth. A large number of people lived in poverty; they were unable to deal with the aftermath of flood and drought. This occurred because the Chinese government never made any strategic plan to avert the ugly incident (Clunas, etal., 2008).The population situation of Nigeria and issues related to it needs to be discussed to expose many population-related factors to the consciousness of the people. For instance, Nigeria is suffering from high rates of poverty and unemployment. Moreover, there is mass migration of people from rural areas to urban areas, thereby creating social vices. This is because the available industries are unable to employ all the participants in the labor market. For Nigeria to overcome these developmental challenges, effective policies need to be formulated to raise domestic production of food, create jobs; reduce absolute poverty, lower population growth amongst many other things.

1.3      OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The overall objective that will guide the study is as follows:

1.   To determine the relationship between unemployment and Economic growth in Nigeria.

2.    To ascertain the rate of population growth that affect unemployment

3.   To check whether population growth has any impact on unemployment in Nigeria.

4.   To proffer appropriate solution / recommendation to authority in
Charge of managing the economy on how to remedy the situation population growth.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher; 

H0: Population growth has no significant impact on unemployment in Nigeria.

H1: Population growth has significant impact on unemployment in Nigeria.

H02: there is no relationship between unemployment and Economic growth in Nigeria.

H2: there is relationship between unemployment and Economic growth in Nigeria

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study deals with the population and the problem of unemployment in Nigeria. The economy of the Nigeria is characterized by high population growth. They are facing great challenge in generating adequate job opportunities for their teeming population. Nigeria population is ever increases with limited number of job opportunities. Reviewing the socio-economic organization, monitoring rural-urban migration, promoting agriculture and entrepreneurship programs, investment in human capital and encouraging Public Private Partnership are some of the recommendations made to avoid a “worst-case scenario” of the above problem and to realize the nation’s vision as being one of the leading economies by the year 2020 

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Scope of the study covers the impact of population growth on unemployment in Nigeria. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

 a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study 

b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Population: The total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, or any district or area.
Population Growth: Is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.         
Unemployment: 
The number or proportion of unemployed people.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

IMPACT OF POPULATION GROWTH ON UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA

DIGITAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAP OF KADUNA STATE UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF SCIENCE COVERAGE AREA WITH THE VIEW OF SHOWING (RELIEF, NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FEATURES IN THEIR RELATIVE POSITIONS)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.0.1    MAP

A map is a pictorial, diagram or analogue (or all) of the surface of the earth (or other mappable area) and is a device for transferring selected information about the mapped area to the map user.

The surface of the earth is a vast area 510,900,000sqkm with a greatly variety of surface features. These may be classed as natural topographic (sea, lakes, rivers, mountains, desert, forecast etc.) none of these features is permanently fixed in size and shape. There are always smaller or larger changes in progress.  They constitute the main factor in the environment of mankind, and currently increasing demand for more information about our physical environment map serves as a base tool or bedrock for planning and development of an area or a nation as a whole.

Surveying is typically used to locate and measure property lines; to lay out buildings, bridges, channels, highways, sewers, and pipelines for construction; to locate stations for launching and tracking satellites; and to obtain topographic information for mapping and charting. Surveying  is the act of making measurement of the relative positions of  natural and man made features of the earth surface , and the presentation of this information either, graphically or numerically (A. Bannister and S. Raymond 1993).

However, Surveying can be described as the art of making measurements upon the earth’s surface for the purpose of producing a map, plan, or estimate of an area and thus making measurements in the horizontal plane, and leveling as taking measurements in the vertical plane (A.L Higins 1974).

An alternative definition, per the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM), is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative position of points and/or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points and/or details. Furthermore, as alluded to above, a particular type of surveying known as “land surveying” (also per ACSM) is the detailed study or inspection, as by gathering information through observations, measurements in the field, questionnaires, or research of legal instruments, and data analysis in the support of planning, designing, and establishing of property boundaries. It involves the re-establishment of cadastral surveys and land boundaries based on documents of record and historical evidence, as well as certifying surveys (as required by statute or local ordinance) of subdivision plats/maps, registered land surveys, judicial surveys, and space delineation. Land surveying can include associated services such as mapping and related data accumulation, construction layout surveys, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as well as horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and utilization of land survey data. The  most common is by the  way of a plan, a true to scale representation of an area in two dimensions which forms the horizontal plan, the third dimension, height is normal to the horizontal and can be shown on the plans in various ways.

1.0.2    TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYING

This is a surveying operation carried out for the purpose of determining both planimetric horizontal and vertical coordinates to establish the position and shape of natural and man made features over a given area usually for the purpose of producing a map of the area. Such surveys are usually classified according to the scale of the final map Viz: Small scale, medium scale or large scale.

Topograpic maps support a diversification of applications. Topographic maps are general purpose maps that represent an area of interest based on scale, projection and with the appropriate cartographic general purpose maps (Sewell, 1995).

Heights information is shown with the aid of contour lines. Entities are represented in terms of points, lines and area with the aid of cartographic symbols. Scale, coordinates and legend and the keys for the map interpretation (Thrower, 1996)

Topographic map are being used for planning, earthwork, military and administrative purposes (Tongkul, 2000)

1.0.3    IMPORTANCE OF TOPOGRAPHICAL MAPPING

Topographical maps are an important tool because they can represent the three – dimensional landscape in two dimensions. A person who can read a topographical map can find out the location of peaks, valleys, ridges and saddles, among other land features. Topographic maps can also show you whether you will be travelling uphill or downhill on a particular road or trail.

1.0.4    CONTOUR LINES

Elevations on a topographic map are marked with contour lines, which connects points of equal elevation. Contour lines show elevation and the shape of the terrain. They’re useful because they illustrate the shape of the land surface — its topography– on the map. E.g. Take an object like a ball or a pile of laundry, and shine a redlaser pointer along the object’s side. The line you see will look like a contour line on a topographic map.

In order to keep things simple, topographic maps show lines for certain elevations only. These lines are evenly spaced apart. We call this spacing the contour interval. For example, if your map uses a 10-foot contour interval, you will see contour lines for every 10 feet (3 meters) of elevation — lines at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and so on. Different maps use different intervals, depending on the topography. If, for example, the general terrain is quite elevated, the map might run at 80- to even 100-foot (24.4- to 30.5-meter) intervals. This makes it easier to read the map — too many contour lines would be difficult to work with. Look in the margin of your map to find out its contour interval.

To make topographic maps easier to read, every fifth contour line is an index contour. Because it’s impractical to mark the elevation of every contour line on the map, the index contour lines are the only ones labeled. The index contours are a darker or wider brown line in comparison to the regular contour lines. You’ll see the elevations marked on the index contour lines only. To determine elevations, pay attention to the amount of space in between lines. If the contours are close together, you’re looking at a steep slope.

If the contours have wide spaces in between — or aren’t there at all — the terrain is relatively flat.

1.0.5    LAND FEATURES

The shape of the contour lines can tell you the shape of the landform in a particular area. For example, concentric circles show peak, with the smallest circle marking the summit. Contour lines that are close together indicate that the land is very steep, while contour lines that are spread apart shows that the land is relatively flat. Contour lines that encircle two peaks or two sets of concentric circles can indicate the presence of a saddle, or gap, between two peaks.

1.0.6    METHODS INVOLVED IN MAPPING

Traversing

This is a method in the field of surveying to establish control networks. It is also used in geodetic work. Traverse networks involved placing the survey stations along a line or path of travel, and then using the previously surveyed points as a base for observing the next point. It provides horizontal controls and is carried out to determine the position of (coordinate) of a point by their bearings and distances relatively to a reference point.

Leveling

This is the measurement and mapping of the relative heights of points on the earth’s surface showing them in maps, plane and charts as vertical sections or with conventional symbols.

Tachometry

This is a branch of surveying where details are taken and their heights and distance obtain by optical means only. All data information obtained from the field work are then plotted as a topographical map. But for a small scale mapping, the field measurement method may not be sufficient and then the best option is the use of photogrammetric method.

1.1       PROBLEM STATEMENT

Since the inception of (KASU), there has been no up to date detail topographic map covering exclusively the faculty of science. This project is to produce a digital Map of the Faculty of Science and create Land Information that will provide useful information for planning.

1.2       STUDY AREA

Geology and Hydrogeologic Setting of the Study Area

The study area is Kaduna State University (KASU) Faculty of Science main campus, Kaduna State. It is however located along Tafawa Balewa Way, Ungwan Rimi, Kaduna North Local Government area. It is relatively bounded to the East by Ungwan Rimi, and to the west by Marafa, south of Gamji gate and bounded to the north by the golf course. It is located with coordinates: 100 30I 58.6″ N and 70 27I 7.4″E in the National grid. This   falls within the general geology of the Basement complex of Nigeria, where two broad geologic units are recognized namely; The older Precambrian unit of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks consists of quartzite, muscovite schist, muscovite biotite schist, biotite gneiss, migmatite and marble and the younger precambrian igneous rocks comprising of biotite granite, and few plugs of diorite, gabbro and syenite (Alagbe, 1979).

The study area has typical savannah climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The raining season extends from March/April to September/October and dry season between November and March. Average annual rainfall for Kaduna is 1054 mm (Eduvie, 1998). Rainfall generally reaches its peak in August. Temperature varies between less than 15 C around December/ January and 300 C in March/April. Vegetation consists of broadleaved savannah woodland which, when well developed, may be dense enough to suppress the growth of grasses. The hill features in the area are inselbergs and whalebacks which belong to the category of residual hills commonly associated with massive granite bodies (Mc Curry, 1976). One of the major sources of recharge in the study area is from river Kaduna.

The river is a long tributary of the River Niger and is about 550 km (140 miles) long. Rain water is another recharge source which is seasonal. The area is being discharged through river, ditches to river Kaduna (Mamman, 1992). The hydrogeology of the study area is controlled by factors such as geology, climate and structure. The rocks are predominantly gneisses and migmatites, the relief is generally low, while deep weathering is common with attendant wide spread variation in the ground water level. Appreciable porosity, permeability and storability of aquifer in rocks of the basement complex depend primarily on secondary structural features such as fractures, fissures and joints, there and volume together with the thickness of the weathered zone.

1.3       AIMS

The aim of the project is to produce a more detailed exclusive up to date digital topographic map of Kaduna State University, faculty of science coverage area with the view of showing (relief, natural and artificial features in their relative positions) after carrying out all the field work successfully.

1.4       OBJECTIVES

·         To provide a precise Benchmark for the control the construction of buildings and the information that will serve as an initial database for general construction and planning

·         To map the area at a scale of so as to clearly show the positional relationship of existing artificial and natural features.

·         To detail in all physical feature within the site by any survey techniques

·         To plot the locations of the relative positions on the site using any survey software suitable for it.

·         To produce a topographical map of the faculty of science (KASU) serving as a reference document and use as a research material.

1.5       SPECIFICATIONS

In terms of understanding this survey project, it is however billed to produce a map of the faculty of science area to a suitable scale and that any instrument could be used, provided it serves the purpose and carrying out a comprehensive detailing of the site in order to produce a map.

1.6       METHODOLOGY

The method employed in the exercise is ground survey method and it includes

(a) Office planning

(b) Reconnaissance

(c) Perimeter survey

(d) Control extension

(e) Detailing

(f) Plotting and digitization

1.7       SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The extent of work done covers the following steps:

Identifying control points of the survey area and plan to carry out extension of control by method to where the allotted mapping area will be carried out.

The type of details found in the map includes.

(a) Buildings

(b) Roads (tarred roads, foot paths)

(c) Electric poles

(d) Culvert drainages

(e) Economic trees

1.8       LIMITATION

The project is only restricted to the faculty of science coverage area

1.9       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The work is immensely significant particularly to new researchers in providing information that will serve as initial database or as the base for further survey and construction. The work will also serve as a guide and provide a very good background for understanding topographical mapping survey.

1.10     EXPECTED RESULT

The project work is expected to produce a map of the area at a suitable scale

DIGITAL TOPOGRAPHIC MAP OF KADUNA STATE UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF SCIENCE COVERAGE AREA WITH THE VIEW OF SHOWING (RELIEF, NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FEATURES IN THEIR RELATIVE POSITIONS)

ASSESSMENT OF URBAN EXPANSION IN AKURE-SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

Urbanization as a process is a universal phenomenon being experienced all over the world, anywhere humans live (Sudhira etal., 2004), and it has been observed as a major trend in recent years (Weber and Puissant, 2003).According to UN (2009), research showed that half of the world population is in urban areas. Moreover, most of the urban population growth has been in the developing countries. In some cases, the space taken up by urban areas is increasing faster than the urban population itself (Pijanowski et al, 2010).

Industrial Revolution led to the rapid expansion of cities globally and in the last 10 years, lots of attention was given to urban land use/cover change because ecosystems in urban areas are strongly affected by human activities and have close relations with the life of almost half of the world’s population (Xiao et al., 2006).

This rapid growth of urban areas has caused complex problems such as environmental pollutions; endanger natural resources, reduced open spaces, the modification of the thermal environment, unsatisfied infrastructures and unplanned or poorly planned land development

(Parka et al., 2011). It also has caused an unprecedented urban environmental degradation and inadequate urban infrastructure needed to support the population. Urban expansion is defined as modification of environment or the replacement of natural or agricultural land cover with urban land use (e.g., buildings, transportation, parking lots) (Slempet al., 2012). Urban development and expansion comes with increase in population as a major factor, because aspopulation increases, it brings up the needs for new facilities, amenities and decentralization from the urban center and valuable farmland is often left exposed as a result of activities of commercial or residential developers. These cause land use/land cover (LULC) changes. Land use/land cover (LULC) change is a key driver of global change.Noted that changes in land cover and in the way people use the land have become recognized over the last15 years as important global environmental changes in their own right. In Nigeria, several studies on LULC using maps, aerial photographs and satellites imagerieshave been documented. Also, it was reported that several factors such as agricultural colonization, spread of rural settlements, and evolution of rural road networksand governmenthave modified the original form of land cover in Nigeria.

This is also the case in Akure where urbanization, housing development, agriculture and deforestation are the driving factors of land cover change and in extension to urban sprawl. The effect of these changes can be seen on the population growth, land consumption rate and local climate (Owoeye and Akinluyi, 2018). The expansion in the urban status of Akure has caused the depletion of natural resources and also contributed tothe deterioration of the environment due to incompatible changes in land use pattern (Oyinloye, 2013).Agriculturally productive land and forestland are being converted to residential and other private and public uses.

Balogun et al., (2011) in their argument state that the land use land cover pattern of a region is an outcome of natural and socio-economic factors and their utilization by man in time and space. Hence, the uncontrolled growth of urban development of Akure has adversely affected its ecosystem which may indirectly reflect on weather parameters with eventual local climate modification (Akinbode et al.,2007).

Urban sprawl is an adverse effect of urban expansion if not managed properly, it comes up as an unplanned, undisturbed monotonous developments that does not provide for a functional mix of uses and which variously appears as low-density, ribbon or strip, scattered, leapfrog discontinuous development, hot and inefficient use of land. According to Glaeseret al (2001), urban sprawl as a pattern in an urbanized area that exhibits some combination of eight distinct dimensions such as density, continuity, concentration, clustering, centrality, nuclearity, mixed uses and proximity. These dimensions eliminate agricultural lands, pollute water quality, increase the landsurface temperature and cause air pollution.Covering the earth surfaces with construction materials like concretes and asphalts, for example buildings and paved roads, the areas as a result have a higher absorption of solar radiation and greater thermal conductivity and capability for emitting the heat stored during the day and night. This came up as a process of urbanization which changed the natural landscape of the earth.

Remote sensing technology makes the assessment and management of an urban area efficient. It serves as a reliable source of thematic maps such as those that represent land cover as it provides the representation of the Earth’s surface on a map with consistent spatial features, as well as available at a range of spatial and temporal scales (Giles, 2002). UrbanPlanners frequently make use of remotely sensed imagery, which they can overlay on other demographic or geographic information to provide a more detailed and insightful picture of the human landscape (Carlson, 2003).Few studies provided enough consideration to urbanexpansion and linked directly to its impact on natural resources and community character; however a lack of quality land use/cover maps for successful management and monitoring made their work redundant in the long run.

1.2Statement of Problem

Akure-South local government as part of Akure metropolis has undergone rapid population growth, environmental changes and witnessed immense growth in the size of built-up areas, transportation and commercial activities. Within the last three decades, these have resulted in environmental deterioration and stress on the ecosystem structure, increased air pollution, water consumption, lost of wildlife, increase racial and economic disparity, increase in risk of obesity, insufficient housing facilities, insuffi­cient infrastructure, and increasing urban climatological and ecological problems. All these were gotten from news forecast, the ministry of lands, housing and urban development in Ondo State and national agency for population program and development act.  This study is carried out to assess these problems and how they can be solved using remote sensing and GIS techniques.

1.3 Research Questions

        i.            What are the patterns of the urban expansion?

      ii.            What are the effects of urban expansion on vegetation, land surface temperature?

    iii.            How urban expansion modifies the land use/cover change?

1.4.1 Aim of the Study

The aim of the study is to carry out the assessment of urban expansion in Akure-South Local government area using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques.

1.4.2 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are:

  i.            Assessment of the Land use/land cover change in the study area between the years 1986 to 2017.

ii.            Assessment of the Land surface temperature variation for a period between 1986 to2017.

iii.            To assess the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the 30 years-period in the study area (1986-2017).

iv.            Determine patterns of the urban expansion in respect to the previous years.

1.5Justification for the Study

Akure, the state capital of Ondo state, Nigeria is undergoing rapid growth in every sense of its urban status. Ranging from its population which has tremendously increased from 157 947 in 1990 to 500 000 in 2006 (Balogunet al., 2011), the infrastructural development of the city also has been given a facelift, transportation and commercial activities have also increased.

The city serves as the administrative and economic seat to Akure South Local Government Area and Ondo State with its creation in 1976 from the old Western State. Since then, Akure South Local Government Area has seen extensive growth in the size of built-up areas, number of inhabitants, transportation, and commercial activities, especially with establishment of the Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) in 1981.In the last three decades, it has experienced urban growth and expansion with respective changes in the land-atmosphere energy balance relationships which have occurred alongside traffic related, air quality degradation over the city (Balogunet al., 2011). Also the energy balance has been affected due to the increase in the number of built-up area there’s been some built up structures not adequately planned being put into place that did not follow regulations of relevant environmental agencies.

For this reason it’s crucial that a research/study is carried out to monitor, assess and evaluate the effect of this urban expansion for proper understanding and management of the environment.

1.6The Study Area

The Akure-south LGA lies within Latitudes 7º 12′ 18.04̋ N and Longitudes 5º 11′ 15.58̋E (Nothings 790820 – 809277 mN and Easting 733726 – 752139 mE, UTM Minna Zone 31). The area is located on a gently undulating terrain surrounded by isolated hills and inselbergs. The study area covers about 331 km².

Topographic elevations vary between 260 and 470 m above sea level (Owoyemi, 1996). The metropolis is drained by several streams and rivers. The major ones are Ala and Owena.

The city of Akure since it became the administrative headquarters of Ondo State in 1976 has been witnessing rapid developmental changes in terms of physical landscape, city growth and urban sprawl. In 1982 establishment of the Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) has also brought about rapid and unprecedented development leading to deforestation in Akure South Local Government Area. Figure 1.1 below shows the study area.

Figure 1.1: Map of the study area

1.6.1Geology of Study Area

AkureSouth is underlain by precambian basement complex rocks of South Western Nigeria. The major types ofrocks in Akure South are theMigmatite-Gneiss-Quartzite Complex, Charnockitic and Dioritic rocks, Older Granites and Unmetamorphosed dolerite dykes. The study area exhibits varieties of structures such as foliation, schistosity, folds, faults, joints and fractures. Generally, the structural trends in the study area are NNW-SSE and NNE-SSW. Numerous small and long fractures, joints and fissure zones whichgenerally trend north-south are common.Seven principal varieties are recognized, the fine-grained biotite granite, medium to coarse grained granite rocks, porphyritic gneissmigmatite, gneiss, charnokiteand pegmatite.

Figure 1.2: Geologic map of study area

1.6.2Climate of Study Area

The climate is tropical with two distinct seasons, the rainy season, (April- October) and dry season (November – March) with slight variations from year to year. The annual rainfall is about 1500mm in the study area, the area generally enjoys luxuriant vegetation. The vegetation consists of coastal forest and mangrove swamp forest and moist lowland forest.

ASSESSMENT OF URBAN EXPANSION IN AKURE-SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES

STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF GEOGRAPHICAL IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The Nigerian policy on education has made provisions to make education of the citizenry both functional and relevant with a view to ensuring all round development. Specific provisions have also been made for different levels of education system so as to ensure effective curriculum delivery in schools. For the benefits of all citizens, the country ‘s educational goals shall be clearly set out in terms of their relevance to the needs of the individual and those of the society, in consonance with the realities of the environment and the modern world (Federal Republic of Nigeria, (FRN, 2004). Orji and Uka (2012), argued that in order to actualize this in any society, there is the need of attending to certain unavoidable variables such as teaching materials, methods adopted, curriculum, teacher as well as students‘interest. With particular reference to secondary education in Nigeria, various subjects have been included in the curriculum to enable pupils acquire knowledge and skills. Certain subjects are categorized as core while others are either vocational electives or nonvocational electives. Geography is found under both core and non-vocational electives categories. This shows the importance of Geography in achieving the national educational goals whose significance cannot be overemphasized.

 However, teaching of Geography as science or social science subject in senior secondary schools is not without some problems. Poor academic performance of students in all science subjects and Geography in particular has been documented by many researchers. This has also been corroborated by high failure in public examinations in the country such as the West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO).

Studies have shown decline in students performance in sciences … and this has been attributed to the fact that strategies used in our classrooms are not very effective (Akinniyi, Olaleye & Adewumi, 2008). Students‘ academic performance is being used as one of the predictors of overall quality of education system. To this end, Effandi and Iksan (2007), stated that the quality of education that teachers provide to students is dependent upon what the teachers do in the classrooms. Similarly, Awoyemi cited in Linda (2000), attributed the poor performance of students to the low quality of teachers. Alimi and Balogun (2010), showed positive relationship between teachers‘ attributes and students‘ academic performance in Geography.

 The foregoing underscores the importance of teacher pedagogical effectiveness in achieving quality education and as correlate of students‘ academic performance. Persistent use of traditional teaching methods such as the lecture in Geography classrooms has been the underlying factor for student‘s poor performance in the subject. Clar and Wareham (2003), observed that Geography has traditionally used a wide range of teaching methods than many other subjects and the range has tended to expand further over the last few years.  As a synthesis of other subjects, Geography has a number of recurring themes which distinguish it from other disciplines and help to unite the human and physical aspects of the subject. The nature of this subject calls for paradigm shift from teacher-centred to learner-centred instructional strategies that permit active involvement of learners in the learning process such that a more meaningful learning can be achieved. 

 The use of cooperative learning strategy (CLS) as an effective instructional strategy for improving the academic performance of students in a wide range of subject areas has been well-documented by several researchers. Johnson, Johnson and Stanne (2000), opined that:

 Modern cooperative learning a widely used instructional procedure in preschool through graduate school levels, in all subject areas, in all aspects of instruction and learning, in non traditional as well as traditional learning situations, and even in after school and non-school educational programs (p.2)

 Cooperative learning has been called one of the biggest educational innovations of our time and represents research-based best practice for instruction (Ellis & Fouts, 1997). In cooperative learning situations there is positive interdependence among students‘ goal attainment, students perceive that they can reach their learning goals if and only if the other students in the learning group also reach their goals (Deutsch, 1962 in Johnson & Johnson, 1987). Cooperative learning or group learning strategy is an instructional strategy which organizes students into small groups so that they can work together to maximize their own and each other‘s learning (Teaching Methods, 2003). 

 Researches conducted so far on effects of CLS on students‘ learning outcomes have shown significant correlation between CLS and students‘ academic performance. Researchers such as Rahvard (2010);  Slavin (2007) and Johnson and Johnson, (1987) have shown the effectiveness of CLS in promoting students‘ learning and academic performance, increasing their retention and enhancing their satisfaction with their learning experiences. It is against this background that the researcher intends to determine the effect of CLS on Geography students‘ academic performance in senior secondary schools in the study area, Sokoto State Nigeria.  The general public outcry against poor academic performance of Senior Secondary

School students in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC), National Examination Council (NECO) and similar bodies is illustrative of low quality education and associated teachers‘ ineffectiveness at this level. Secondary school teachers have been held responsible for growing decline in students‘ academic performance since the quality of education depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties. The results of learning are always influenced by the nature and quality of the methods and techniques employed for the teaching and learning of a particular content, subject mater or learning experience (Mangal, 2009).  Teachers‘ ineffectiveness in classroom interaction with students could be responsible for the observed poor performance of students and the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Nigeria (Akiri & Ugborugbo, 2009). Eduwen (1993), also discussed problems in teaching of Geography which included shortage of professionally trained teachers and subject wide coverage. Useni, Okolo and Yakubu (2012), attributed the problem of poor performance of secondary school students to the quality of teaching, environment and attitudes of students towards the subject. Students‘ performance in Geography is generally poor when compared with their performance in other subjects. Teachers‘ persistent use of ineffective instructional methods such as the lecture method has been responsible for students‘ poor academic performance in Geography. In this regard, Tshibalo (2003), attributed the poor performance of Geography students to the use of ineffective traditional teaching methods such as the lecture method. There is the need for the teachers to shift from their present traditional, teacher-centred to modern and student-centred strategies that enhance academic performance of students.  The search for more improved and modern method of teaching Geography has

become part of the professional concern of Geography teachers if they are to succeed in their duties. There is need for the Geography teachers to try other teaching strategies that are found effective in other subjects. A variety of instructional strategies have been proposed and used in many different subject areas with positive effects on students‘ academic performance. As one of such strategies, cooperative learning strategy provides many learning opportunities that do not occur in the typical traditional classroom and its potential in science, mathematics and many different areas. For these reasons, geography teachers need to try cooperative learning strategy in their classes in order to improve their instructions and the students‘ academic performance. In the words of  Van Wyk  (2011) excellent and effective teaching demands a host of devices, techniques and strategies not only to achieve cross critical outcomes, but because variety, itself, is a desirable. To enhance senior secondary school students‘ performance in Geography therefore, pedagogical competence of Geography teachers is highly imperative. In view of the fore going, a more improved and modern strategy of teaching Geography has been proposed for use at upper secondary school level- the cooperative learning strategy. In cooperative learning strategy, the emphasis is on getting students to work together on a given problem in small heterogeneous groups of 2 to 5 students in order to achieve a common goal. A Geography teacher using this strategy to teach an aspect of map reading can make use of limited topographical maps at his disposal to maximize learning among students even in large size class since our secondary schools are characterized by limited resources and large size classes. 

 Specifically therefore, the researcher seeks to determine the effects of CLS on Geography students‘ academic performance in senior secondary schools in sokoto state. This is with the view to providing information on the strategy and how Geography teachers can take advantage of it in teaching-learning process.     

The main objectives of the study are to:

1.      Determine the difference between the academic performances of students taught Geography using Cooperative Learning Strategy and those taught with traditional lecture method in Sokoto State.

2.      Examine the extent to which cooperative Learning Strategy affects the academic performance of students in Geography in senior secondary schools in Sokoto state as a result of gender differences in Sokoto state.

3.      Find out the difference between the academic performance of urban and rural students taught Geography with Cooperative Learning Strategy in senior secondary schools in Sokoto state.

4.      Find out the differences in students‘ practical geography performance after exposure to Cooperative Learning Strategy in Geography in sokoto state.

5.      Investigate the effect of Cooperative Learning Strategy on physical geography performance of students before and after exposure to Cooperative Learning Strategy in Sokoto state.

6.      Ascertain the effect of cooperative learning strategy on human geography performance of students before and after exposure to cooperative leaning strategy in

Sokoto state.

The following research questions were formulated to direct this study.

1.        What is the difference between the academic performance of students taught Geography using Cooperative Learning Strategy and those taught with traditional lecture method in Sokoto State?

2.        To what extent does Cooperative Learning Strategy affect the academic performance of male and female students in Geography in sokoto state?

3.        What is the difference between the academic performance of urban and rural students taught Geography with Cooperative Learning Strategy in Sokoto State?  

4.        What is the difference in students‘ performance in practical geography before and after exposure to Cooperative Learning Strategy in Geography in sokoto state?

5.        To what extent does Cooperative Learning Strategy enhance geography students‘ performance in physical geography in senior secondary schools in Sokoto state?

6.        What is the effect of Cooperative Learning Strategy on the performance of students in human geography before and after exposure to Cooperative Learning Strategy?

The following null hypotheses were postulated to be tested:

Ho1: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of   students taught Geography using Cooperative Learning Strategy and those taught using traditional lecture method in senior secondary schools in sokoto state. 

Ho2: There is no significant difference between the academic performances of male and female students taught Geography using Cooperative Learning Strategy in senior secondary schools in sokoto state.

Ho3: There is no significant difference between the academic performance of urban and rural students taught Geography with Cooperative Learning Strategy in senior secondary schools in sokoto state. 

Ho4: There is no significant difference in students‘ performance in practical geography before and after exposure to Cooperative Learning Strategy. 

Ho5: There is no significant difference in students‘ performance in physical geography before and after exposure to Cooperative Learning Strategy in Geography in Sokoto State.

Ho6: There is no significant effect of cooperative learning strategy on geography students‘ performance in human geography before and after exposure to Cooperative Learning

Strategy in Geography in Sokoto State.

             With respect to this study, the following assumptions are made:

1.        Students taught geography with cooperative learning strategy are likely to achieve higher than peers taught with traditional teaching methods.

2.        Geography teachers at secondary school level can use cooperative learning strategy to develop and promote self confidence of their students who are passive in terms of participation in classroom activities thereby promoting students‘ learning and academic performance.

3.        Cooperative learning strategy should result in positive effects on students‘ ability to work out tasks on map reading.

4.        The effects of cooperative learning strategy on the academic performance of geography students differ from one aspect of geography to another

This study, titled effects of CLS on Geography students‘ academic performance in senior secondary schools in the sokoto state, will be of enormous benefits to an array of stakeholders in education. It will be helpful to Geography teachers, students, school administrators as well as curriculum developers. Information from this study will help Geography teachers improve their teaching effectiveness through the use of cooperative learning as effective instructional strategy in their field. For the Geography students, the benefits derivable from the study are numerous. It is hoped that the use of cooperative learning strategy for teaching Geography will enhance the academic performance of students, retention of learned materials and encourage positive interaction among them.

For curriculum developers and school administrators, findings from this study will provide them with insights into the effectiveness of CLS in achieving maximum result with limited curriculum instructional materials or resources and therefore consolidate it in their future policy efforts. CLS has a wide range of applicability in different levels and subject areas, the study will expose this fact to educators in different fields of study, academic training and research activities including workshops and seminars which, in turn, results in improving the teaching-learning process.   

There are many teaching and learning methods. Cooperative learning has different dimensions (Learning Together, Group Investigation, Jigsaw, Structured Groups, Unstructured Groups etc.). This study is delimited to the consideration of the effect of cooperative learning strategy on Geography students‘ performance in secondary schools in sokoto state.

STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF GEOGRAPHICAL IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL

ACCESSING OF THE EFFECT OF SAND EXCAVATION ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN ABRKA EKU ALONG ETHIOPE RIVER

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Within the last decade, environmental concerns have gained prominence throughout the world. Several international protocols have been established by the global community to deal with the emerging environmental issues. In Nigeria, these global changes coincided with the enactment of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (1999) the law that governs environmental issues in the country. The Act established the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) which, among other functions, monitors and evaluates development activities to ensure there is no threat to environmental stability. Activities, such as quarrying in urban areas become significant in this respect.

Quarrying is a huge supporter of local economic development; it enhances trade, creating jobs for people annually, creating new habitats sometimes new roads are built, first to transport the machines and then extracted materials which are then left to be used by residents. Most people in quarrying regions wholly depend on these quarrying for their livelihoods aside from other economic activities.

Quarrying activities around Abraka Eku area in Delta state  have been going on since the 1950s when the place was sparsely inhabited. Today, the population of Embakasi area has grown tremendously and there is stiff competition between various land use practices in the area. Moreover, new residential areas have sprouted throughout the area further instilling pressure onto what used to be open space.

1.2 Statement of research problem

Quarrying activities has led to development of infrastructure, created employment opportunities, growth of towns and has contributed to the establishment of various industries. Quarrying activities have also lead to environmental damage (Siachoono 2009). There are two reasons why land degradation generally results from mineral extraction: first is industrial development and secondly short term economic benefits such as reaching production goals and employment. The quarrying activity has affected the environment in both negative and positive ways. Scholars in different parts of the world have tried to carry out research in order to identify how this activity has impacted the environment ((Adekoya, 2003; Ajakaiye, 1985; Kibet, 2004)

The benefits of the quarrying activity should trickle down to the people living in the neighboring area; this can be in form of good roads and other infrastructure. According to (Aigbedion 2005) the benefits of quarrying include socio-economic development and growth due to internal revenue and/or foreign exchange earnings. This study attempts to establish the positive effects of quarrying on the environment in Abraka eku. The study area is characterized with poor roads especially the one leading to the quarry site, contrary to what is expected due to the presence of the quarries in the area. There is need therefore to establish why that is the case.

Studies have been carried out by different scholars in relation to quarrying, Kibet (2004) carried out a research on environmental problems associated with sand mining.

He looked at how the sand mining affects the environment and the working conditions of the sand miners. Charles (2002) carried out a research about different types of mining that is used in the sand mining industries and mainly the effects of sand mining to the health of the workers, Mweni (2002) investigated extend of quarry worker welfare and Otieno (1998) researched on the quarrying in Kayole and its contribution to defects in adjacent residential building.

1.3 Research Questions

·        Does the quarrying activity have any effect on the people living in the given area and quarry workers?

·        What problems do people living next to the quarries experience due to their activities?

·        What dangers/problems do the worker in the quarries experience?

·        What are some of the measure being taken by the quarry owners to reduce the effects of quarrying to the environment?

1.4 Study Objectives

This states the main aim of the study in the given area.

To establish the effect of quarrying activities to the environment.

1.5 Specific Objectives

1.     To examine the effects of quarrying on the natural environment.

2.     To establish the effects of quarrying activities on the quarry workers and the area residents.

3.     To establish if the law governing quarrying activities are adhered to by concern parties.

1.6 Research Hypothesis

The hypotheses for the study areas follow:

H0

There is no significant relationship between quarrying activity and the

physical environment.

H1

There is significant relationship between quarrying activity and the

physical environment.

H0

There is no significant relationship between quarrying activity and the

health of the workers in the quarries.

H1

There is significant relationship between quarrying activity and the

health of the workers in the quarries.

H0

There is no significant relationship between quarrying activity and the

area resident.

H1

There is significant relationship between quarrying activity and the

area resident.

1.7 Justification of the study

This study is an attempt to assess the environmental problems of quarrying in areas around Embakasi in Nairobi. This is because most of these quarries are located next to the residential areas and the people living there are affected by the activities that go on. The topic of study helped to establish the effects of quarrying activity to the environment, this include the physical environment and human environment: the quarry workers and residents around the area of study.

There several studies that have been carried out (Musyoka 1997, Okafor 2006, Azad and Ashish 2006) in other area and have identified that quarrying activities have negative effects to the health of the quarry workers and the people living near them. The study endeavored to establish if the same problems are also experienced in this area of study. The study need to be done in order to find a solution to problem that affects the people living in that given area.

Quarrying in Nigeria suffers from a number of constraints including lack of basic knowledge, safety precautions, poor working conditions, low socio-economic status, lack of clear quarrying legislation and environmental degradation that call for special attention. These are more pronounced in small scale quarry operations all over the country.

There has been growing public dissatisfaction in the manner in which quarrying activities are being undertaken in the country. The country has witnessed various quarry disasters and complaints associated with quarrying activities especially with the abandoned quarries. A lot of research has been done the rehabilitation of quarries after use and all projects usually conduct EIAs before the beginning of the projects but during the actual process of quarrying nothing much is done.

Most quarry sites are unsafe for operation and most quarry operators also fail to observe environmental and safety measures when carrying out mining activities. Most quarries use of explosives for blasting operations, this has made the site weaker. Most the workers do not wear protective gear and as a result they are exposed to great danger. Lack of clear regulatory framework for the management of quarries in the

country and inadequate and uncoordinated enforcement of existing legislation has led to haphazard and unsafe quarry operations.

The task force that was set by the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources (MEMR) established that most of the quarries are located near the residential area and because of this, the study tried to examine the how their location has affected the people from the neighboring community and the workers in general. There are constant problems between the quarry owners and the community as a result there is need to identify some of these problems that arise.

The quarries were directed to relocate to an area that is less populated some have complied with this orders and they have relocated to Athi River area but the seven quarries in Embakasi are still very active , with some of them still carrying out blasting regardless of the effects to the environment and the people in the area.

EMCA (2009) Mines and quarries where explosives and machinery used are located in designated areas and not less than two kilometers away from human settlements. Any person carrying out construction, demolition, mining or quarrying work shall ensure that the vibration levels do not exceed 0.5centimetres per second beyond any source property boundary or 30metres from any moving source.

The finding will help environmental institutions such as NEMA whose function is to examine land use patterns so as to determine their impact on the quality and quantity of natural resources advice the government on legislative and other measures for the management on the environment. The government through the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources (MEMR) will then make decision on whether to renew the licenses or not.

1.8 Scope and limitation of the study

The study covered Abraka eku  Division within Delta state where there is an active quarry site. It dwelt with only seven active quarries where active blasting and crashing was on going this was due to accessibilityProximity to the quarries, economic activities 6

and social status are some of the factors that were considered in drawing up the sample.

The study embraced a holistic approach which enabled in the generation of useful information of various aspects of environmental effect of quarries in the area, the effect on the quarry workers and residents around the quarries. The study has suggested several far reaching implications to the planners, policy makers, and change agents in tackling the various environmental issues.

There are many quarries but time and money being the main constraint, the study confined to only the active quarries in the area due to availability of funds. These are some of the limitation that the study faced. However, proper care and considerate thought was exercised in making the study as empirical and systematic as possible.

ACCESSING OF THE EFFECT OF SAND EXCAVATION ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN ABRKA EKU ALONG ETHIOPE RIVER

MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF WELL WATER WETHIN MAKURDI METEROPOLIS

CHAPTER ONE

Water is a simple molecule, consisting of two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom with molecular formula H2O (Bassem, 2013). It is one of the most important chemical substances for the sustenance of life and is vital for all known forms of life on Earth; It constitutes about 75% of the Earth`s surface (UN, 2005; EL-Jakee et al., 2009; Hongyue et al., 2013). In terms of sheer volume, About 97.5% of all the water on Earth is salt water, only 2.5% of all the water on Earth is fresh water and 98.8% of that fresh water is frozen in Antarctica and Greenland icecaps or lies too deep underground to be accessible; only 1.2% of the Earth’s freshwater is available for withdrawal and human use (Shiklomanov, 2000; UN, 2005; Bassem, 2013). However, this is continually being polluted by various anthropogenic activities thereby further reducing the available freshwater for human use. The drinking water of most communities including Zaria in Nigeria is obtained from various sources: boreholes, rivers, streams, and well waters. Source water contamination poses a risk to public health and increases the cost of drinking water treatment.

The threats posed by deteriorating water quality caused by among other things, the contamination of potable water sources have led the public to seek for alternative potable water sources. Although access to safe and reliable sources of drinking water is a global challenge, it is particularly acute in developing countries, including Nigeria (Ivey et al., 2006).

The production, sale and consumption of plastic bagged drinking water has grown tremendously over the years in many developing countries such as Nigeria. The plastic bagged drinking water was introduced into the Nigerian market as a less expensive means of accessing drinking water than bottled water.

1.1       Statement of Research Problem

Estimate of the global burden of water associated human diseases provide a simple index hiding a complex reality. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that worldwide some 2.2 million people die each year from diarrhoeal related diseases. For an estimated 88% of diarrhoeal cause, the underlying cause is unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and poor hygiene (WHO, 2008; Mosier et al., 2012). Water borne diseases continue to be one of the major health problems in developing nations, including Nigeria especially on the issues of safe drinking water quality (Mead et al., 1999). Water borne diseases account for one third of the intestinal infection worldwide (Hunter and Syed, 2001; Offre et al., 2011). 

The high prevalence of diseases such as diarrhoea, typhoid fever, cholera, and bacillary dysentery among the populace have been linked to the consumption of unsafe water and unhygienic drinking water production practices (Mead et al., 1999; Park et al., 2010). Pathogens such as Salmonella species, Shigella species, Vibrio cholerae and E. coli being seen in human and animal faeces ultimately find their way into water supply through seepage of improperly treated sewage into ground water, (Dipaola, 1998; Wei et al., 2011).

1.2    Justification for the Study

Most bottle water manufacturers in Nigeria also engage in sachet water packaging and obtain their raw water mostly from local, municipal piped or well water, however, adherence to production and analytical standards are doubtful as most of the factories are observed to lack the appropriate technology for achieving these (Oyedeji et al., 2013). Diseases related to contamination of drinking-water constitute a major burden on human health and interventions to improve the quality of drinking-water provide significant benefits to health (UNDP, 2006). The potential health consequences of microbial contaminations are such that its control must always be of paramount importance and must never be compromised (Mead et al., 1999). 

1.3 Research Hypothesis

HO: Packaged and other drinking water sources in Zaria do not meet the bacteriological      quality standard.

HO: Drinking water sources do not contain Escherichia coli O157:H7.

HO: The target pathogenic bacteria are not resistant to the antibiotics tested.

HO: Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Enterococcus spp isolated do not possess the virulence shigatoxin genes (Stx1 and Stx2) and antibiotics resistance genes (CTX-M, TEM) and vanr.

1.4    Aim

The aim of this study was to carry out bacteriological and physicochemical quality assessment of packaged and other drinking water sources in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

1.5    Objectives were to:

1.      Determine the bacteriological quality and physicochemical properties of packaged and other drinking water sources. 

2.      Isolate and characterize Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Enterococcus spp in the water samples

3.      Determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics and screen for the presence of multiple antibiotic resistance strains.

4.      Screen the Escherichia coli O157:H7 for the possession of extended spectrum βlactamases genes (bla-CTX-M and bla-TEM) and virulence shigatoxin genes (Stx1 and Stx2) using the polymerase chain Reaction (PCR) technique.

5.      Confirm Enterococcus using genus specific primer and detect the Vancomycin resistance gene (VANR) in Enterococcus spp. isolated. 

MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF WELL WATER WETHIN MAKURDI METEROPOLIS

AN ASSESSMENT OF BUILT-UP EXPANSION IN USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY, SOKOTO

ABSTRACT

This research project is an assessment of built-up expansion in Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto from 2007 to 2015. Data for this research project was collected from both primary and secondary sources. The primary source of data include field observation, interview and satellite imageries. While secondary data include relevant published materials such as textbooks, journal articles, dissertations, reports, and the internet. The method used is satellite image processing, image classification, overlay operations, vectorisation and digitizing. The study revealed that built-up expansion is more towards the north-east and eastern part of the study area and to some extent in the central part. From the result of analysis, it was discovered that in 2007, there are 208 structures covering 145,715 square meters. While in 2015, 50 structures were raised with an area of 92,328 square meters. The total built-up structures are 250 with a total area of 238,044 square meters. It is recommended that, the management should solicit for adequate funding in order to maintain and sustain the original master plan

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.0          Introduction

Built-up means the built- up areas, while Expansion is a space through which anything is expanded (Advanced English Dictionary).

Built-up areas have been expanding throughout the world. Monitoring and prediction of the built-up is not only important for the economic development but also acts as sentinels of environmental decline important for ecologically sustainable development of a region. (ARER, 2003).

In the year 2000, urban areas occupied only about 2% – 3% of the earth’s surface; However, they sheltered nearly half the world’s population. The rapid expansion of urban areas, is dramatically changing the landscape of the urban-rural fringe, clearly highlighting the intensity of the ecological footprints of cities. The ecological footprint is defined as “the total area of productive land and water required continuously to produce all the resources consumed and to assimilate all the wastes produced, by a defined population, wherever on earth that land is located”. Kitzes, etal (2007). The wealthy quarter of the world’s population consume over three-quarters of world’s resources, and of the total global resource depletion and pollution, contribution from cities is probably 70% or more. (RWWMEIA, 1996). For example, the per capital ecological footprint of North Americans is 4-5 ha/capita, which accounts for three times their fair share of the Earth’s bounty. Similarly Japan’s footprint is about 2.5 ha/capita and the Netherland’s is 3.3 ha/capita, accounting for about eight and is times greater than the areas of total domestic territories respectively. Lenzen and Murray found Australian’s ecological footprint to be about

13.6 ha/capita, if determined in terms of actual land use on all types of land. These footprints are associated with the provision of non-farm job opportunities, shifts to higher-valued farm enterprises (such as vegetables, fruits, or livestock) to meet the demands of urban consumers.

On the other hand, the provision of environmental services and landscape amenities place heavy demands on the ecological system in terms of resource extraction, disposal of waste, and discharge of pollutants. Urbanization is mostly taking up agricultural lands and it is estimated that one to two million hectares of cropland are being taken out of production every year in developing countries to meet the land demand for housing, industry, infrastructure, and recreation. The 20th century witnessed some of the most dramatic urban transformations in the history of earth’s terrestrial environments. Lenzen, etal (2007).

1.1         Statement of Research Problem

Urban environment is one of the most dynamic systems on earth and rapid urbanization has been a major development in most parts of the world. The effects of urban concentration become noticed in the 19th century with the alarming rate of urban population, and this trend continues. (De Sherbinin etal, 2002) noted that several decades of accelerating urban growth have exerted profound environmental socio-economic impacts felt in every parts of the world. The continuously growing population culminates in overcrowding resulting in pressure on the land and, consequently, becomes a burden to limited civic cycle amenities forcing the “middle class” as well as the builders to move to outlying suburbs, a phenomenon called urban growth or sprawl.

The European Environment Agency (2006) likened urban sprawl to unplanned, incremental urban development, characterized by low-density mix of land uses on the urban fringe. It is the

physical pattern of low –density expansion of large urban areas mainly in to the surrounding agricultural areas. Burak and Karen (2008) identified three phases of urban growth and develop scenarios to evaluate the impact of urban growth on several environmental indicators: land use, air quality, and demand for water and energy.

Unchecked and unmanaged urban growth has been attributed to lack of adoption of efficient and effective urban planning tools, sustainable development is often proposed. UN-Habitat (2008) presented global report on planning sustainable cities, which reveals that developed countries have adopted some innovative approaches in recent decades for achieving a sustainable urban environment. Among such approaches are strategic spatial planning, use of spatial planning to integrate public sector functions, new land regularization and management approaches. However, contrary is the case in developing countries where older forms of master planning still persist. This approach fails to accommodate the ways of life of the majority of the inhabitants in rapidly growing and largely poor and informal cities. It has not been flexible to planning spatial structures of the cities which have enhanced the unbridled expansion of cities as well as laxity of monitoring and evaluation of urban plans. This have over time often directly contributed to social and spatial marginalization. Likewise in some areas they could not even follow the guide line provided by the master plan, which in return may result to so many environmental problems, such as flooding, pollution, climate change and land degradation all of which can be happen as a result of building on where it is not supposed to be for example on a drainage line, refuse dump places and in a shelter belt or forest reserves.

Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto is one of the oldest tertiary Institution in the northern region, since it was founded in 1975, it is always increasing both in terms of the student population and staff strength which necessitate the expansion of buildings.

In considering the research problem of the study area, there is the poor implementation process of the original master plan in the University where only 52% of the building structures are implemented which corresponded or tally to the original master plan (Zayyanu 2015), this occurred as a result of insufficient funding of capital project and also the increase in population which could linked to increase in number of the student’s enrolment. This common phenomena lead to the deviation of some structures from their original locations due to lack of funds to compensate settlers of some surrounding villages within the study area. However, insufficient fund also made it difficult to construct buildings far away from academic core area as these buildings cannot be link to amenities like water and electricity supply. Among the deviation areas are old Faculty of Management Sciences now Mathematics Department, Mini Market, and Faculty of Education among others.

It is in view of the foregoing that, the research work will be conducted to assess the extent of built-up expansion in the area using remote sensing and GIS application as a tool.

1.2          Aims and Objectives

The aim of this study is to assess the built up expansion in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto for sustainable development.

The specific objectives in this study include;

1.   To determine the trend and direction of built-up expansion in the permanent site of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto

2.  To identify the deviation of built-up in relation to the original master plan

1.3          Research Question

It is believed that the expansion of the University could be linked to socio-economic determinant of the management, students, employees, as well as the people living (settlers) within the campus. It is in view of these that the study seek to find answers to the following research questions;

1.  How does the built up expansion contributes to the overall development of the University?

2.  To what extent did the built-up expansion conformed with the master plan?

3.  What is the direction of built up expansion?

1.4          Justification of the Study

Remote sensing is a means of non-contact data capture and GIS is a tool for data management. The integration of both systems provides effective and efficient tool for urban planning and management. For instance, Shupeng, etal (2000) integrated remote sensing and GIS application in analysis of urban growth in china. They emphasized the early application of remote sensing to environmental monitoring and resources investigation and its achievements in china since the early 1970s.

However, this study focus on the assessment of built-up expansion in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. Therefore, this study tend to incorporate an integrated approach of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques. Similar studies conducted in the study area which did not explore the use of these spatial technology includes; An Apraisal of the Usmanu Dan Fodiyo University Sokoto Master Plan from 1980 to 2004 by Zayyanu (2005), Growth and Expansion of Dandima Area by Zainaf (2005), Land Use Pattern

and Soil Characteristic in Villages Around Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto by Bara’atu (2008).

1.5          Scope of the Study

The scope of the study covers Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, comprising all Faculties, Libraries, Lecture Halls, Research Centers, V.C Complex, V.C Quarters, and Students Hostel as well as surrounding settlements.

The study emphasizes on built-up expansion in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto from 2007 to 2015.

1.6         Significance of Study

The output data analysis of this research work will aid the school management, government and stake holders in the following ways;

1.    Aid decision making processes and implementation strategies for rapid development of infrastructures, facilities, and intensive expansion of built-up land.

2.   To identify the location of newly built faculties, Departments, Lecture halls, research centers and Library among others facilities in line with the institution master plan.

3.To make futures predictions on the growth and development of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto.

Other students and researchers will benefit immensely from these studies since it provide the data and information regarding to the impact of the expansion of the University.

1.7         Study Area

Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto (UDUS) formerly University of Sokoto, is one of the initial twelve federal Universities in Nigeria founded in 1975. It is in the ancient city of Sokoto. The school is named after Usmanu Dan Fodio, the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate. It currently has ten Faculties (Agriculture, Arts, Education, Law, Management Sciences, Social Sciences, Medical College, and Veterinary Sciences. In addition, it has a Postgraduate School and four research centers (Centre for Islamic Studies, Centre for Hausa Studies, Centre for Energy Research, Centre for Environmental Studies and Centre for Peace Studies). Its Students come from across Nigeria and West Africa.

1.7.1         Geographical Location

Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto is located between latitudes 13• 07I41.094IIN and longitudes 5•1I54.055IIE respectively. The Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto lies to the north west part of Sokoto State and share its borders with ‘Yar Kanta village to the north, Sokoto rima-river to the south, Makera and Gidan yaro villages to the West, and Sokoto-Gwadabawa-Ilela Border Road to the East, all of which are fall in Wamakko Local Government in Sokoto, Sokoto State.

1.7.2         Physical Characteristics

The topography of the study area is dominated by the famous dissects plain and provides the rich alluvial soil fit for a variety of crop cultivation in the area. There are also isolated hills and mountain ranges scattered all over the area.

During the cold season; the climate is dominated by hamatten wind blowing sahara dust over the land. The dust dims sunlight, thereby lowering temperatures significantly and also leading to the inconvenience of dust everywhere in the area. While in the hot season however, the maximum daytime temperatures are generally under 40•C (104.0•f) in most of the year.

In terms of Vegetation, Usmanu Danfodiyo University falls within the Savanna zone. This is an open tse-tse fly-free grassland suitable for cultivation of grain crops and animal husbandry. Sokoto Caliphate: (phD. Thesis) A S. A.B.U Zaria.

1.7.3        Climate

Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto is in the dry sahel surrounded by sandy savannah and isolated hills. With an annual average temperature of 28.3•C (82.9•f), it is one of the hottest area in the world. The warmest months are February to April, where daytime temperatures can exceed 45.

AN ASSESSMENT OF BUILT-UP EXPANSION IN USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY, SOKOTO

FUELWOOD EXPLOITATION AND ITS IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AMONG OF KAKAU DAJI VILLAGE, CHIKUN LGA KADUNA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

Fuelwood is a source of energy derived by burning wood materials like logs and twigs and is common among the rural dwellers and low level earners of urban dwellers. It is a traditional source of energy, which has remained the major source of fuel for over half of the world’s population (FAO, 1981: Fuwape, 1995; Ogunsanwo & Ajala, 2002). According to (IFAD, 2006; Aide, 2002), the share of various energy sources in the total primary energy supply in Nigeria is made up of oil, 10.4%; gas, 6%; hydro, 0.6%; and commercial renewable energy, 83%. The greater portion of the source of income is fuelwood, while other agricultural wastes constitute the remaining smaller portion.

The over-dependence on fuel-wood for energy is chiefly because of its relatively low prices and easy accessibility (Fuwape, 1985; Adedayo et al., 2008). Other reasons are constraints in the supply of the conventional fuels and the growing population with a larger segment still falling below incomes that can afford the cost of conventional fuels (Aide, 2002). In most rural parts of Nigeria as in South Asia where there is a large poor population, poverty is the most significant parameter that drives extensive traditional use of fuel-wood and residues (UNDP, 1997; Aide, 2002).

Fuelwood is consumed in diverse ways and at different levels and the life of the majority of rural dwellers depends either directly or indirectly on fuelwood. However, meeting rural household fuelwood energy needs in the country has become a herculean task due to the enormous quantity of wood required. Daily exploitation of firewood by the rural communities in Nigeria is estimated at 27.5 million kilogram per day (Aide, 2002). In the drive to satisfy

fuelwood requirements, most lands have been stripped bare of vegetation cover. This has resulted in soil exposure and erosion thereby placing a heavy burden on the environment and on the resources base. The scramble for fuelwood has resulted in massive destruction of many wood resources leading to deforestation and increasing desertification in parts of Nigeria and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa (Barrott, 1972; Adedayo, 2005).

The rate of deforestation in Nigeria is estimated at 400,000 hectares per annum. Popoola

(2000) observed that the country’s forest reserve which was estimated to be at 10% of the total land area in 1970 has been reduced to just 5% as of 1999, which is alarming. In Katsina state, which is located in Northern Nigeria, it was reported that the major source of firewood is farm trees, whose density is diminishing (Aide, 2002). In Benue state, the total land area covered by forest reserve is put at 2%. This falls far short of the 20% standard of the total land area set by the federal government for each state as minimum target for self-sufficiency in forest goods and services. With its small percentage (2%) of reserved forests, the projected wood deficit in Benue state is placed at about three million cubic metres by the year 2010. By implication, all the stakeholders in fuelwood exploitation will have to find alternative sources of fuel for energy supply, if the environmental quality and energy supply are to be sustained (Popoola, 2000).

It therefore becomes necessary to examine the fuelwood exploitation and its impacts on the residents of Kakau Daji village of Kaduna state.

1.2         Statement of the Research Problem

Energy is one of the basic and most critical economic, environmental and developmental issues facing the world today. Clean, efficient, affordable and reliable energy services are indispensable for global prosperity (Olatinwo and Adewumi, 2012). The demand for energy today is far greater than ever in our highly technological world. It is a well-known fact that high

rate of industrial growth of any country is a function of the amount of energy available in that country and the extent to which this energy is utilized (Chukuezi, 2009).

However, there are more than 2 billion people who are unable to obtain clear, safe fuels and most rely on burning traditional biomass such as wood, dung, and crop residues (UNDP, 2000). Without access to efficient and affordable energy sources, they have limited Opportunities for economic and social advancement. Most of these people reside in the rural areas of the developing countries. The majority (nearly 70 percent) of Africa’s population live in rural areas, particularly in sub-saharan Africa where rural poverty is great and increasing and is accompanied by chronic hunger, malnutrition and disease (IFAD, 2006).

Nigeria is an energy resource rich country blessed with fossil resource such as crude oil, natural gas, coal and renewable energy resources like solar, wind and biogas (Okoro et al., 2007). According to Olatinwo and Adewumi (2012), Nigeria’s ever-growing population and growth in the household sub-sector has further resulted in increased demand on its energy sub-sector. Wood, dung and crop residues serve as the primary fuel sources in Nigeria’s rural areas. The utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria remains quite limited. The use of solid biomass such as firewood is prevalent and constitutes a major energy source for most rural dwellers in Nigeria, unfortunately, as its continuous usage leads to degradation (Manafa, 1995).

According to Nabinta et al, (2007), 87 percent of rural households are primarily dependent on biomass as their source of energy with about 90 percent of the total annual round wood products serve as fuelwood and 60 percent of this total is used for household exploitation. The rural populaces do not have access to sustainable energy and therefore depend on biomass which include twigs, branches, animal residues, crop residues, fuelwood, charcoal, wood shavings and sawdust. This has therefore created a huge shortage in the supply of fuelwood that

might be needed for other industrial and commercial purposes. These fuelwood supply and demand imbalances now constitute a real threat to the energy and livelihood security of many rural communities.

Indeed, many states are experiencing period of rapid urban population growth with a parallel rise in fuelwood exploitation in which Kaduna State is inclusive. It has never gotten any better in rural areas especially among residents of Kakau Daji settlement in Chikun Local Government Area. It is little surprising that the study of exploitation rate of fuelwood even though important has received comparatively little attention in the past. This gap is to be filled by this study.

1.3         Statement of Research Question

The need to address these problems prompts the following questions; a. What are the sources of fuelwood in Kakau Daji?

b. What quantity of fuelwood is consumed per household?

c. What quantity of fuelwood is sold per household?

d. What are the impact of fuelwood exploitation on Kakau Daji residents’ income and expenditure?

1.4         Aim and Objectives

1.5         Aim

The aim of this research is to examine the rate of fuelwood exploitation and its impacts on environmental degradation among Kakau Daji residents.

1.6         Objectives:

The specific goals of this research are to:

i. Identify the sources of fuelwood and pattern of fuelwood sourcing.

ii.   Examine the volume of sales and usage of fuelwood in Kakau Daji.

iii.   Examine the impact and economic implications of fuelwood exploitation in the area.

IV. Assess the environmental problems associated with the fuelwood exploitation.

1.7         Scope of Study

The study covers Kakau Daji community which is located in Kakau district of Chikun Local Government Area in Kaduna state, the Northern part of Nigerian. The community is comprised of few and scattered settlements with an estimated population of approximately 3,000 inhabitants according to the 2006 national population census. The scope of this study surrounds the whole settlements of Kakau Daji community and their various level of fuelwood exploitation.

1.8         Justification of the Study

In Nigeria, fuelwood has long been recognized as essential components of energy in meeting basic human needs in stimulating and supporting economic growth and enhancing the ability of man in human settlements. This work therefore seeks to contribute to the existent knowledge by highlighting the nature of fuelwood exploitation in Kakau Daji and impacts of fuelwood on both the economic, social, and health issues of the people.

The research will also provide a better framework on using natural resources with little interference on improving environmental stability which can lead to reduction in environmental degradation.

FUELWOOD EXPLOITATION AND ITS IMPACTS ON ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AMONG OF KAKAU DAJI VILLAGE, CHIKUN LGA KADUNA STATE

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN NIGERIA WITH A PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KADUNA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Community development can be viewed as a process, a method, a movement and a programme of human action (Anyanwu, 2010). He described it as a continuous way through which communities continually identity their felt needs and overcome them as they emerge. As a process, it lays emphasis on what happens to people socially and psychologically in the course of community development. In this context also, communities becomes competent to co-operatively find a solution to their problems. They become competent and are able to develop skills to assess the relative important problems and to select appropriate options open to them. The whole process therefore, is based on the premise that when people are given the opportunity to work out their own problems, the chances are that they will find solutions that will have a lasting effect.

A sovereign territorial integrity that operates a political ideology known as federalism often has an organised channel of reaching to its people via federating units. The federating units are such as the federal, state and local government, there is the concept of separation of power which allocates responsibility to each tier of governance. The local councils being the third tier of government connected to the second tier which are the state are closer to the people at the grass root which is the community. This is to say that all government socio-economic, political and programmes targeted at enhancing the socio-economic wellbeing of the citizenry.

Development could therefore be seen as a situation in which human beings or people interact with themselves to transform and utilize the natural resources of their environment for the improvement of their lives leading to change. In other words, it is the ability of the individual or society to make use of the available resources of its environment for the purpose of living a better life.

Nigeria today operates federalism as a political structure, the third tier of government which is at the local community. Has its share of statutory allocation from the federal and state government which is their constitutional responsibility. The role of community development is the participation of the people in the socio-economic development of that community such as provision of social and infrastructural amenities i.e. quality durable road networks, pipe borne water, electricity, security, primary health care etc. to the people at the local community.

The task of nation building through provision of socio-economic service and facilities is a joint responsibility of government and the people. It is in this respect that people are usually called upon and sometime encouraged to wake up and help them for self-help they say is the best help. Through self-help efforts, many communities have been able to provide some of their felt need, with little or no assistance from the government through self-help efforts, does not have the resources to provide all their needs at all time. Government too is able to assess the capability of various community in terms of financial, material and moral contribution is to own development. In short community development has been an effective means of communication between the government and the people for the important purpose of promoting social and economic growth and development.

Community development represents a process of social action which the people of the community organize themselves for planning an action, define their common individual need and solve their problems. It is this seen as an approach which much government employed to teach the rural and urban inhabitants to gather them and overcome their felt needs.

According to Kingsley (2014) conceptualized community development as “the process by which the efforts of the people themselves are United to improve the socio-economic and cultural condition of their environment or community to co-ordinate and enlighten their community and the world in general and which will as well improve the nations standard”. This is to say that the effects of community at uniting themselves to improve the socio-economic and cultural well being do not only end with the community themselves but exposes to the world and also improve their nation’s standard as well. The definition even though, do not imply governmental of non-governmental support, “it however tries to show how communities can inculcate in themselves the spirit of coming together to fight exploitation and oppression perpetuated by the international Bourgeois and their international collaborators”. This definition emphases the fact that development means a structural transformation to the economy, politics and the culture of the society. The definition also viewed development as not only economic development alone, but as socio-cultural and psychological.

Walter (2011) has rightly pointed out that development cannot be seen as an economic affair but rather as an overall outcome of man’s effort to deal with his natural environment. One thing common to all the definition of development is the emphasis of change.

Development must lead to our control over choice as well as what we produce. It must be imminent in economic, social and physical aspects.

True development must lead towards a better quality of life. It must satisfy basic needs, self-reliance and respect for cultural identity. It also implies greater freedom, creativity, self-discipline, responsibility and material well being. Therefore, when we work at development in terms of how Nigeria can obtain and dump Western artifact within our territory, then it will be an unending process with low prospects of Nigeria rising up. This is because the foreign countries always develop new ways of creating new artifacts. If we therefore place emphasis on these items as constituting development in Nigeria without adequate attention paid to the real needs of the people, we will then end up with our misconception of the term.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Every community needs development but the resources needed to develop such communities are insufficient which makes development activities not fully achieved.    

Among various problems, community development lack sufficient financial resources to the local government which has monthly statutory allocation but however, the statutory finance does not reach them directly instead it goes through the state local government joint account, subsequently depriving local government financial autonomy.

Also, lacks of loans given to service members of the community who are enterprising so as to enable them invest in economically distressed communities. More also, local politics has become the bedrock of corruption in Nigeria which is characterized with mismanagement of the available little resources which in turn hinders development at the grassroots and this leads to rising unemployment, poverty, crime among others.

In view of the above, the researcher intends to assess the role of community development as an instrument of socio-economic development.

1.3     Aims and Objectives of the Study

The ultimate goal and objective of this study work is to study and recommend ways to enhance the socio-economic development of rural areas in Nigeria with a particular reference to Kaduna South Local Government of Kaduna State.

The aims and objectives seeks:

1.     To identify and determine the level of corresponding financial ground which adequately stimulate the explanation of provision of rural social infrastructures.    

2.     To evaluate the community development participation by the coming together of students, institution or organisation located in such community and general public.

3.     To proffer solution to the problems of social infrastructure.

4.     To assess the contribution of local government toward actualization of the social objectives.

1.4     Significance of the Study

This extended essay titled “The role of community development as an instrument of socio-economic development” will help to enlighten Kaduna South Local Government to understand better how to use community development. This study work shall be of immense value and gain in order to bring about development in rural communities. The study will also help the general public who are interested in the development of the society to understand how to formulate and implement community development programmes.

It is hoped that this study shall be of immense value to the practitioners of the rural community development workers, student and general public.

This extended essay will help to increase the knowledge of researchers on how to organize community development and also discover the problem associated with community development programmes and how to solve them.

1.5     Scope and Limitation of the Study 

The role of community development as an instrument of socio-economic development study work will be focused on Kaduna South Local Government for a while, within a specific time frame. However, Kaduna South Local Government the study area of focus will cover approximately 7 years (2008-2015). This study cannot avoid some certain limitation during the study period. To start with, the process of administering and collecting data or information needed for this study work subjected the research work to be a difficult task, having miss lectures due to time as a result of short period needed to complete the work. It is also costly in book finance and energy.

1.6     Definition of Key Terms

·        Local Government: Middeck (1997) local government is defined as a sub-unit of government controlled by a local council which is authorized by the central government to pass ordinance having a local application, levy taxes or exact behaviour within a limit specified by the central government.

Local government is also known as the government of the grassroots or the third government that is closer to people.  

·        Community: The term community refers to a population living in legalized established c

·        ity limits where the people have some social and economic feature in common which are used to pursue common goals.

·        Development: According to Dare (1992) view development as a multi-dimensional process which enables that individual to move toward self-actualization. In other words, development means the ability of the individuals to make the best out of their ability.

·        Community Development: The United Nation definition has it that it is the process by which effort of the people themselves are united by that of governmental authority to improve economic social and cultural conflations of communities, to integrate this community into lives of the nation and to enable them contribute fully to national progress.    

MENDES (2008:3), as the employment of community structures to address needs and empower group of people.

·        Economic: According to Lionel Robin, he defines or views economy as the science that studies human behaviour in relation to ends and scarce means which have alternative uses.

·        Socio-Development: According to Robins (1992), who view socio-economic development as a branch of economy that focuses on the relationship between social and economic behaviour.

·        Resources: Resources is a source or supply from which benefits are produced. Typically, study are material, energy, services, staff, knowledge or other assets that are transformed to produce benefit and in the process may be consumed or made unavailable.

·        Empowerment: A management practice of sharing information, rewards and power with employee so that they can take initiative and make decision to solve problems and improve services and performance. Empowerment is based on the idea that giving employees skills, resources, authority, opportunity, motivation as well as holding them responsible and accountable for outcoms of their actions, will contribute to their competence and satisfaction.   

·        Rural Development: This is the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in rural areas, often relatively isolated and sparsely populated area. It can als be seen as a process integrated with economic and social-objectives, which must seek to transform rural society and provide a better and more livelihood for rural people.

·        General Public: Including every part or member of a given or implied entity, whole etc as opposed to specific, general public is not limited a specific class, it is concerned with all branches if a subject or area.

·        Enterprise: A Company business, organization or other purposedful endeavor, it is an understaking or project especially a during and courageous one.

An enterprise is willingness to undertake new or ricky projects, energy and initiative.

·        National Development: National development refers to the ability of a nation to improve the live of its citizens. Some of the measures are increase in gross domestic product, improving literacy rates, improving medical facilities.

·        Decision: It is refers to the firmness of conviction, a choice or judgement, it is a conclusion or resolution reached after consideration of several it possibilities.

·        Association: An association can be seen as a group of people organized for a joint purpose, an association can also be seen as two or move people united by a common interest or goal.

·        Authority: Authority can be seen as the power or right to give orders, make decisions and enforce obedience. Authority can also be seen as the lawful deligation of power by one person to another.      

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN NIGERIA WITH A PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO KADUNA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF KADUNA STATE

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LIMESTONE QUARRYING IN LIMESTONE DEPOSIT AREAS (A CASE STUDY OF INI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN AKWA IBOM STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

Limestone quarrying is a major economic activity in many developing countries including Nigeria. Nigeria is endowed with abundant mineral resources of international value, including gold, marble, gypsum, gemstones, iron ore, natural gas, topaz, coal, clay, lead, tar sand, construction stone and construction sand. While the exploitation of natural resources has traditionally been seen as a vital part of economic growth, it is now well recognized that concern for environmental and socio economic consequences must be included as a key component of development activities. In many developing nations like Nigeria, quarrying is an important contributor to the national economy. However, the negative environmental impacts of quarrying are increasingly being recognized as critical (Bridge, 2004). In response, many companies, especially international ones, are embracing Corporate Social Responsibility as a fundamental component of resource extraction operations, including quarrying (Garriga and Mele, 2004). The quarrying sector may strengthen the economy at the national scale; it may also present an entirely new set of problems at the scale of the local community. Exercising social responsibility in small, remote centers, however, often means that international and transnational corporations must interact with rural or indigenous people who have strong emotional and historical links to the land (Garvin et al., 2009).

The socio-economic impacts are synonymous with adverse and benefits. It could include pressure on local housing, market and increase in community conflict and crime. The creation of supporting social infrastructure including schools, hospitals and so on may transform a previously remote area and investment in transport facilities may improve accessibility to other centers of economic activities, further enhancing its prospect for development. Indeed, governments frequently regard quarrying projects as an opportunity to ‘open-up’ peripheral regions. Impacts do not fall evenly on affected parties and areas. Although a particular project may be assessed as bringing a general benefit. Some groups and / or geographical areas may be receiving most of any adverse effects, the main benefits going to others elsewhere. There is also a distinction between actual and perceived impacts. Subjective perceptions of impacts may significantly influence the responses and decisions of people towards a proposed development. Modern quarrying methods are highly capital intensive by comparison with those prevailing in the 19th century. This limits not only the number, but also the type of job opportunities. Locally-recruited labour often lacks the skills required to operate complex machinery and management usually remains in the hands of imported expatriate personnel. This in turn creates an enclave mentality in which quarrying communities remain isolated from the wider society of the country. Many of the biggest disappointments have resulted from the failure of mineral processing and related downstream manufacturing to develop at or near the site of extraction. It is these activities which create the largest number of jobs and frequently the greatest profit. They are therefore, highly desirable from a policy perspective. It is not only governments in developing countries which have been frustrated by the minimal extent of downstream processing; state authorities within developed economies have had similar experiences. The contribution on people and culture/heritage within close proximity to the quarrying operation (host communities) by the industry should create an environment that will accept and encourage development (McDivitt and Jeffery, 1992).

Investigations carried out by Humann (2004) revealed the Luka community (South Africa) representatives staunchly opposed the proposed Impala open cast mine on the grounds that the community has not benefited from the company’s historical activities in the area and has not been adequately compensated for negative impacts caused by the company activities in the area. The research also revealed that the company efforts to communicate directly with community representatives in the local government ward committee, including constructing a small office building to facilitate community meetings and interaction with the company yielded little or no result due to tribal faction not until the company realizes that, given the new, increasing motives for community engagement, supporting legitimate representation structures in the community.

1.2       Statement of the problem

Limestone quarrying activities can led to health effects ranging from respiratory problems to mental disorders. Studies in Tanzania revealed that symptoms of heavy metal poisoning such as sensory disturbance, tremor, gingivitis, metallic taste, neurasthenia and night blindness are common (Harada et al., 1999). In the last five years, studies on environmental impact of limestone quarrying and processing in Sagamu (Sagamu – Ogun State, Nigeria) have revealed a declining kola nut output from the plantations within a few kilometres radius of the cement factory (Adekoya, 2003; Aigbedion, 2005). Exploitation and processing of minerals in a particular area creates cultural impacts, which involves the changes to norms, values and beliefs of individuals that guide and rationalize the cognition of themselves and their society (Burdge and Vanclay, 1996).

1.3   Significance of the study

The aim of this project is to determine the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in Ini Local Government Area of AkwaIbom state, interpret findings, analyze implications, and convey high level results and implications to national decision-makers for sustainable and better environment of all limestone deposit areas in Nigeria.

1.4   Objectives of the study

This study was undertaken majorly to examine the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit areas.

Specific objectives of the study are:

i.             To ascertain whether there is asignificant environmental impact of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit areas.

ii.           To know whether the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit area is accessible.

1.5   Research questions

In the course of the study, the researcher seeks to provide suitable answers to the problem following the questions below:

1. Is there a significant environmental impact of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit areas?

2. Can the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit area be accessed?

1.6   Research hypotheses

Ho: Limestone quarrying has no significant environmental impact on limestone deposit areas.

Hi: Limestone quarrying has significantenvironmental impact on limestone deposit areas.

Ho: The environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit area is inaccessible.

Hi: The environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in limestone deposit area is accessible.

1.7   Limitations of the study

The study was carried out to investigate the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in Ini Local Government Area. The study is limited to Ini Local Government AreainAkwaIbom State. This is because of the representative nature of all limestone deposit areas in Nigeria, proximity to the researcher, time and financial constraints.

1.8   Scope of the study

This research work is on the environmental impact assessment of limestone quarrying in Ini Local Government Area with particular emphasis on how it impacts on quality standards of the soil and water in Ini Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State.

1.9   Definition of terms

Limestone:This is a hard sedimentary rock, composed mainly of calcium carbonate or dolomite, used as building material and in the making of cement.

Limestone Quarry:This is a place where large blocks of naturally occurring sedimentary calcite or aragonite rock are cut from the earth, mainly for use in construction.

Limestone Deposit Area: This is an area where limestone is found.

Environmental Impact Assessment: This is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LIMESTONE QUARRYING IN LIMESTONE DEPOSIT AREAS (A CASE STUDY OF INI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN AKWA IBOM STATE)

RAINFALL TRENDS AND VARABILITY IN IBADAN, OYO STATE (1984 -2014)

CHAPTERONE

INTRODUCTION

     1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Rain is liquid water in form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then precipitated that is, become heavy enough to fall under gravity (Mordurch, 1995; Sala and Lauenroth, 1982). Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. Rainfall is a determinant factor of many natural occurrences. Vegetation distribution and type of land masses are as a result of rainfall (Ronen and Avinoam, 1999;Tielborger and Kadmon,2000; Shukla et al, 1990). Animals breeding periods synchronize with rainfall periods (Radford and Du plessis 2003). Crop planting, yields and harvests are influenced by rainfall and are practiced in accordance with their respective enabling seasons to ensure improved productivity (Laux et al, 2010; Mudita et al, 2008;Omokhafe and Emuedo 2006). Similarly, the gaseous content of the soil composition from time to time is much affected by rainfall (Lee et al, 2002).

Rainfall trend is the significant change in the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall. Rainfall trend in other words can be said to be the general tendency, movement, or direction and pattern in which rainfall takes. In the global scene for example, rainfall trend analyses, on  different spatial and temporal scales, has been of great concern during the past century because of the attention given to global climate change from the scientific community: they indicate a small positive global trend, even though large areas are instead characterized by negative trends (IPCC, 1996). Murphy and Timbal (2007) reported that most of the rainfall decline (61%) has occurred in autumn (March–May) in southeastern Australia. A similar rainfall decline occurred in the southwest of Western Australia around 1970 that has many common features with the southeastern Australia decline. However, in the regional level Nicholson (2000) observed that one of the most important contrasts in rainfall is the multi-decadal persistence of anomalies over northern Africa. Nicholson and Grist (2001) had identified several changes in the general atmospheric circulation that have accompanied the shift to drier conditions in West African Sahel. Rotstayn and Lohmann (2002) showed a prominent feature is the drying of the Sahel in North Africa and suggest that the indirect effects of anthropogenic sulfate may have contributed to the Sahelian drying trend (Akinremi et al 2001).

Rainfall variability on the other hand is the degree to which rainfall amounts vary across an area or through time. Variability of rainfall can be used to characterize the climate of a region. Rainfall in Nigeria is subjected to wide variability both in time and space. This variability has assumed a more pronounced dimension as a result of climate change. According to Chidozie et al, rainfall variability increases from the northwest to the southwest, while between-year (yearly) rainfall variability increases from the north central to the southeast. This study further confirms that rainfall variability over time follows a spatial trend within a certain arbitrary boundary (Laux et al, 2010, Mudita et al 2008).

The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts. If enough moisture and upward motion is present, precipitation falls from convective clouds (those with strong upward vertical motion) such as cumulonimbus (thunder clouds) which can organize into narrow rain bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation which forces moist air to condense and fall out as rainfall along the sides of the mountains. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climate can exist due to the dry air caused by downslope flow which causes heating and drying of the air mass. The movement of the monsoon trough or inter-tropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes (Laux et al, 2010, Mudita et al 2008). The urban heat island effect leads to increased rainfall, both in amounts and intensity, downwind of cities. Global warming is also causing changes in the precipitation pattern globally, including wetter conditions across Eastern North America and drier conditions in the tropics.

Rainfall characteristics in Nigeria have been examined for dominant trend notably by Olaniran (1990, 1992) and by Olaniran and summer (1989, 1990). They showed that there has been a progressive early retreat of rainfall over the whole country, and consistent with this pattern, they reported a significant decline of rainfall frequency in September and October which, respectively coincide with the end of the rainy season in the northern and central parts of the country. The pattern of rainfall in northern Nigeria is highly variable in spatial and temporal dimensions with inter-annual variability of between 15 and 20% (Oladipo, 1993). As a result of the large inter-annual variability of rainfall, it often results in climate hazards, especially floods and severe and droughts with their devastating effects on food production and associated calamities and sufferings (Oladipo, 1993; Okorie, 2003; Adejuwon, 2004). Rainfall is one of the key climatic resources of Nigeria. Crops and animals derived their water resources largely from rainfall. It is considered as the main determinant of the types of crops that can be grown in the area and also the period of cultivation of such crops and the farming systems that can be practiced.

1.2       THE STATEMENT PROBLEM

            Variations in rainfall trends are still burning issues in the research frontiers. Global warming and climate change have been identified as the major factors influencing rainfall trend and variability. Climate change in particular constitute a major menace to rainfall patterns which will directly or indirectly affects the ecosystems. According to the Department of Ecology 2015, state of Washington, climate change leads to rising levels of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere have warmed the Earth and are causing wide-ranging impacts, including rising sea levels; melting snow and ice; more extreme heat events, fires and drought; and more extreme storms, rainfall and floods.

Furthermore, scientists project that variation in rainfall trends will continue to accelerate, posing significant risks to human health, our forests, agriculture, freshwater supplies, coastlines, and other natural resources that are vital to a country’s economy, environment, and quality of life. This is because so many system are tied to climate, a change in climate can affect many related aspects of where and how people, plants and animals live, such as food production, availability and use of water, and health risks. In addition, a change in the usual timing of rains or temperatures can affect when plants bloom and set fruit, when insects hatch or when streams are their fullest. This can affect historically synchronized pollination of crops, food for migrating birds, spawning of fish, water supplies for drinking and irrigation, forest health, and more (Todd et al 2001; Dominic et al 2004; Adams & Faure 1997).

1.3       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

            Climate change and global warming has increased at an alarming rate as a result of anthropogenic factors such as urbanization. Therefore study is relevant because it will assist researchers to understand the future consequences of rainfall variation due to climate change. This is because climate change has been linked to the climate, which in turn would affect where and how people make a living, how the flora and fauna species would thrive, how food would be produced which would be influenced by availability of water. Studies has shown that both plant and animal require a specific amount of water for their existence, excess or inadequate supply of water could lead to their demise. Carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere at an accelerated rate and also the depletion of the ozone layer which has caused the earth’s surface to be heated up.

1.4       AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in rainfall over Ibadan from 1982 to 2011. The specific objectives include:

  1. To determine the monthly variation in rainfall from 1982 to 2011
  2. To determine the annual variation in rainfall variation from 1982 to 2011.
  3. To determine the biannual variation in rainfall from 1982 to 2011.
  4. To predict the rainfall in Ibadan for the next 30 years.

1.5       HYPOTHESIS

        i.            There is a significant difference in monthly rainfall trends from 1982 to 2011.

      ii.            There is a significant variation in annual rainfall trends from 1982 to 2011.

    iii.            There is a significant difference in biannual rainfall trends from 1982 to 2011.

    iv.            There is an increase in the annual rainfall for the next 30 years.

1.6       STUDY AREA

1.6.1    Location

            The city of Ibadan is located approximately on longitude 30 541 East of the Greenwich meridian and latitude 70 231 North of the Equator at a distance some 145kilometres North East of Lagos (Figure 1). Ibadan is directly connected to many towns in Nigeria by a system of roads, railways and air routes. The physical setting of the city consists of ridges of hills that run approximately in northwest – southeast direction. The largest of these ridges lies in the central part of the city and contains such peaks as Mapo, Mokola and Aremo. These hills range in elevation from 160 to 275 meters above sea level and thus affords the vistor a panoramic view of the city.

Figure 1: Study Area: Ibadan, Oyo State. 

1.6.2    Climate          

            Ibadan has a tropical wet and dry climate, with a lengthy wet season and relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year. Ibadan’s wet season runs from March through October, though August sees somewhat of a lull in precipitation. This lull nearly divides the wet season into two different wet seasons. The remaining months form the city’s dry season. Like a good portion of West Africa, Ibadan experiences the Harmattan between the months of November and February. The tropical rainfall regime experienced in Ibadan is bi-modal, convectional and follows the apparent movement of the sun while both length of rainy season and the yearly total rainfall, decreases with increasing distance from the equator. August is the coldest month and coinciding with the August break while in December-January, the months are noted for the dusty and cold harmattan winds conveyed from the Sahara by the north- east trade winds.

RAINFALL TRENDS AND VARABILITY IN IBADAN, OYO STATE (1984 -2014)

THE EFFECTS OF ADRA’S MANGO PROJECT ON LIVELIHOODS IN THE YILO KROBO DISTRICT

ABSTRACT

This work examines the Nigeria’s foreign debt profile, in relation to the debt management plans adopted to manage Nigeria’s increasing debt stock. The theory of dependency is used as a framework of analysis .This views the foreign debt problem as arising from the peripheral nature in the world capitalist economy which Nigeria belongs, including the structures of the international capitalist economy, that ensures the periphery depend on the core for everything including finance, technology et cetera. Data were gathered through qualitative method of data collection from secondary sources like books, journals, government publications and so on. To ensure that data from the secondary sources were given qualitative interpretation and analysis, we applied qualitative descriptive method of data analysis. Through the historical research design we were able to observe and carefully analyzed the Nigeria’s debt management strategies and relate it to the present and future nature of Nigeria’s foreign debt. We find out that Nigeria debt looked sustainable in relation to the GDP, since Nigeria exited from the Paris club debt which returned the country’s debt to sustainable levels. We equally submit that some of the management strategies Nigeria adopted reduced the country’s total debt stock. Finally, we draw our recommendations based on the findings of our research work, which was vividly summarized in our conclusion.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Introduction

The issues of foreign debt have enveloped the whole of African states; and are of external and internal in nature. Internally, the high importation rate, African huge dependence on foreign aids, high rate of corruption by the government official induces borrowing of loan. Externally, the global economic crisis, the changing on prices of oil in the international market, and so on, initiated debt in Africa states.

Nigerian foreign indebtedness started during the Gen. Obasanjo regime in 1977. The government first set to borrow N600 million (1 billion Us dollar) which was followed with another huge borrowing of N734 million (1.456 billion us dollar) in 1978. Thereafter, there were borrowings by both the federal and state governments which later aggravated the Nigerian debt problem (www.centralbank. org/paymentstem/externaldebt.htm). By 2005 Nigeria external debt stood at N35 billion and its domestic burden stood at N1.87 trillion (Fasan, 2006; Usman, 2007.1-2) servicing of this debt and interest payment on the loan took over 40 billion naira.

Nations embark on borrowing in order to stimulate development that would better the conditions of its citizenry. This was showed in the aftermath of the Second World War that devastated Europe. Germany embarked on reconstruction and rehabilitation through external borrowing under the umbrella of the Marshal plan. Seemingly after the colonial rule countries needed external credits to develop their countries as well as the socio-economic needs of citizenry.

The heavy reliance on external credits for development in the newly independent African countries turn out to be the albatross that trapped most African

countries which Nigeria is among from developing and unable to repay the debt, and got trapped in debt crisis which effected their socio-economic development, foreign policy interest and the nation’s relation in international system. These were occasioned by the unfavourable terms usually attached to these loans, mismanagement and policy inconsistency.

The African debt reached its peak in the early 1980s, when the economic misfortunes of the continent started to rear its ugly head. Prescriptions to revive African economy were offered by IMF which includes deregulations, privatization and liberalization (Obaseki and Bello, 1995). The servicing of these debts became a big problem. The Obasanjo administration in 1999 was faced with this excruciating debt burden and servicing that gulp up to $2 billion annually. This huge debt burden which the Obasanjo administration inherited prompted it to canvass for debt relief/cancellation; that yielded good result in the Paris Club cancellation of $30 billion about 60 percent of total debt owed by Nigeria in 2006 and 2007 (Omemma, 2008). With the annual debt services payments failing from $1.8 billion, it was thought that annual earnings would be directed at enhancing investments in national development and economic growth. Four years after this great achievement, the figures from the Debt Management Office (DMO) shows that Nigeria’s external debt as at last August, 2010 stood at $3.95 billion. Both domestic and external debt portfolio was put at $27.36 billion or $4.104 trillion, representing 13.8 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) (The Daily Sun, 2010). Thus, the main focus of this study is to critically examine the Nigerian debt profile as regard to the management strategies adopted by Nigeria within the period under study.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Nigeria owed about $28 billion from 1980 to date; out of which $4.8 billion was incurred during the import licensing period. Similarly, the Federal Government owed the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) about N596 billion (about 60 percent of the domestic debt) the financial system about N386 billion and the non-banking sector, additional N6 billion. These sums represent about 10 percent and are larger than the budget allocation for health and education sectors (Debt Management Office, 2003).

In 1999 when the Obasanjo regime came into office, Nigeria owed N537.5 billion domestic debt and N633.1 billion external public debt. The debt problem started from the jumbo external loans and the flippant domestic loan which the regime took in 1978, even when such loans were not needed by Nigeria. Succeeding regimes wallowed in spurious domestic and external borrowings that by the end of 2005, the outstanding domestic debt stood at N1, 525.9 billion, and the external debt increased to $35.95 billion.

This was the situation the country found itself at the inception of the Obasanjo’s regime in 1999. The regime canvassed chiefly for debt cancellation or relief, since $2 billion was used annually to service these external debts. The country had expended over $31 billion on debt repayments.

Seemly, it was uplifting to know that Nigeria was almost free from debt even though all the indices of growth were almost absent, and inflation did not significantly reduce. The little gain we got from the debt reprieve could not be managed adequately to foster economic development in Nigeria. Instead of the Debt Management Office Central Bank and Federal Government to carefully manage the debts; it appears that

the federal government is interested in contacting more debts for the country. This was just as the warming from the former Finance Minister, Okonjo-Iweala who played a major role in the country’s 2005 Paris Club debt relief deal, at the 2010 World Bank/International Monetary Fund Annual Meetings in Washington D.C. She warned that Nigeria should stop the accumulation of domestic debt, to prevent unfavorable consequences such as clouding out private sector.

The main concern of this study can be stated specifically in form of the following research questions.

1.     Is debt profile from 1999-2007 sustainable in relation to Nigeria’s GDP?

2.     Did Nigeria’s debt profile undermine her development initiatives?

3       Is the debt management plan adopted by the Nigerian government effective in managing her foreign debt?

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The broad objective of this study is to critically assess the Nigeria’s foreign debt profile (1999-2007) and its management plans. However, its specific objectives are:

1.     To determine whether debt profile from 1999-2007 sustainable in relation to Nigeria’s GDP.

2.     To find out if Nigeria’s debt profile undermine her development initiatives.

3.     To ascertain whether debt management plans adopted by Nigerian government is effective in managing her foreign debt.

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This research is of both theoretical and practical significance to the students, policy makers, the Debt Management Office (DMO), economists as well as the general public. Theoretically, this research work seeks to fill a gap in existing literature relating to Nigeria’s foreign debt profile and management strategies.

Practically, this study attempts to provide vital information for future academic research bordering on the topic and other related issues/topics. The findings of this study will be relevance to policy makers, diplomatic personnel engaged in negotiating debt on behalf of Nigeria, as well as the Debt Management Office that is saddled with the responsibility of prudently managing Nigeria’s debt in order to achieve the nation’s objectives as regards to debt management.

1.5       LITERATURE REVIEW

In this section of the study, we aimed at conducting a careful review of relevant and related literature focusing on the research questions with a view to identify a gap in the related literature.

Debt Profile and Nigeria’s GDP

Foreign debt (external debt) is that part of the total debt in a country that is owed to creditors outside the country. The debtor can be the government, corporations, or private households. The debt includes money owed to private commercial banks, other governments or international financial institutions such as the IMF and World Bank (Wikipedia, 2010).

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) in its definition sees foreign debt as the gross external debt at any given time; the outstanding amount of those actual

6

current and not contingent liabilities that require payments of principal and/or interest by the future and that are owed to non-residents of an economy. In this definition however, IMF defines the key elements as follows:

(a)           Outstanding and Actual Current Liabilities: For this purpose, the decisive consideration is whether a creditor owes a claim on the debt. Debt liabilities here include arrears of both principal and interest.

(b)          Principal and Interest: When this is paid periodically as commonly occurs, it is known as an interest payment. Every other payment of economic value by the debtor to the creditor that reduces the principal amount outstanding is known as principal payment. This definition of external debt does not distinguish between if the payments that are needed are principal or interest or both. The definition does not equally indicate particularly that the timing of the future payments of principal or interest need be known for a liability to be grouped as debt. IMF still went further to assert.

THE EFFECTS OF ADRA’S MANGO PROJECT ON LIVELIHOODS IN THE YILO KROBO DISTRICT

CULTURE CONTACT AND CONFLICT A SURVEY OF THINGS FALL APART NO LONGER AT EASE AND ONE OTHER STORY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the study

The theme of clash of culture in Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (1958) is not new as several scholars have written severally on the topic, what is however new is the treatment of Masculinity and how it affects or contributes to Culture clash in the text. The research reviews the discourse of masculinity and culture clash by gendering the two societies in focus – western culture and African Traditional culture to ascertain which is masculine and which is feminine. It looks at the traits and qualities of these two societies and compares these traits from the lens of traditional gender roles. The study x-rays culture and masculinity as a cultural and social reality visible and permissible in Igbo land of Nigeria before and during the colonial era of the Europeans as reflected in Chinua Achebe‟s novel Things Fall Apart (1958). The study of the novel, some critics believe, is the study of the society from which it emerges (Gikandi, 1987). The relationship between literature and society is a symbiotic one, and that was why Plato, several decades ago in his work, The Republic (about 370 B.C.) noted that literature is an aspect of knowledge, potent enough to influence the society. Though the subject of literature is infinite, the literary artists often represent situations that reflect our world and this is why even where “themes of literature” are derived from myth, culture, history or from contemporary situations, or even from pure inventions, such works remain „constructed from the constant materials of real experience‟ (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1046). The main purpose of this thesis is the analysis of Chinua Achebe’s books Things Fall Apart and No Longer at Ease and the way the author shows British colonization of Nigeria and the impact it had on Nigerian culture and people. The reason why these books have been chosen for analysis is that the main characters come from the same village and the same family. The main hero in No Longer at Ease is a direct descendant of the family of Ogbuefi Okonkwo, main characters in Things Fall Apart. In the first book, a reader follows the story of the mentioned Okonwko and his family and the village they live in, their religion, customs, culture and so on, with the coming of British colonizers at the end of the book. In the second book, there is a story of a younger generation of the Okonkwo family and villagers and there is also described the change of the way the Igbo people perceive the British colonizers and how the colonizers and the new system they had established changed the Igbos themselves. Nevertheless, Things Fall Apart is considered to be more important because it sets the story and analyses the Igbo society and subsequent clash with western society. For the purposes of the thesis, the first book is much more important because it shows the traditional and pure Igbo society before the coming of British missionaries – it is important for the analysis of how much the British colonial system influenced the pure Igbo society. In the first book, the characters are better described and the author goes much deeper and gives his readers more in-depth view on the British colonization and the way the Igbo people perceived it. The immediate moment of British coming and their initial changes which are described in detail in the book Things Fall Apart are for the purpose if the thesis crucial. The second book, No Longer at Ease, shows how much the Igbo village changed due to the colonial influence and how the village people dealt with the cultural and religion clashes. Nevertheless, for the purposes of the thesis, the second book serves as a completion in order to get a more complex picture of the culture and religion clash and the way the Igbo people dealt with it. Because of this reason, the analysis of Things Fall Apart will cover a bigger part of the thesis than No Longer at Ease.

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In a contemporary world faced with the challenges of globalization one witnesses distinct cultures being forced from the outside to turn gradually into a transnational, global culture. But paradoxically, rather than necessitating to depend less on cultural difference and identities, rather than succumbing to global Sameness, previously distinct cultures suffer an anxiety about the perceived loss of identity, thus requiring the continuing construction and maintenance of identity and authenticities in order to continue to be able to assert their “selves”. In this context the pursuit of a genuine identity becomes a complicated undertaking, it is in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate culture contact and conflict

1.3      OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to assess culture contact and conflict, with emphasis on a critical survey of things fall apart, but to complete the study, the researcher intend to achieve the following objective:

i)             To ascertain the impact of western education on Igbo culture

ii)           To investigate the role of Chinnu Achebe’s things fall apart on the popularity of Igbo race

iii)          To ascertain the relationship between culture and religion

iv)         To proffer suggested solution to the identified problem

1.4      RESEARCH QUESTION

To aid the successful completion of the study, the following research questions were formulated by the researcher

i)             Is there any impact of westernization on the culture of the Igbos as stated in things fall apart?

ii)           What is the impact of things fall apart on the culture of the Igbos?

iii)          Is there any relationship between culture and religion?

1.5      SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

it is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of importance of great importance to the department of linguistic as the study will add to available literature in the field, the study will also be helpful to student of literature as the study seek to expose the intricacy of westernization during the colonial period. Finally the findings of this study will also be immense benefit to government, academia, scholars, researchers and the general public.

The study will also be useful to researcher who intends to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point.

1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers culture contact and conflict, a survey of things fall apart. But in the cause of the study there were some factors that limited the scope of the study;

a)     AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material      available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

b)     TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider         coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities        and examinations with the study.

c)     FINANCE: The finance available for the research work does not     allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the        researcher has other academic bills to cover.

1.7 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION

To begin with, ethnicity is conceptualized as “the employment or mobilization of ethnic identity and difference to gain advantage in situations of competition, conflict or cooperation” (Osaghae, 1995). This definition is preferred because it identifies two issues that are central to discussions on ethnicity. The first is that ethnicity is neither natural nor accidental, but is the product of a conscious effort by social actors. The second is that ethnicity is not only manifest in conflictive or competitive relations but also in the contexts of cooperation. A corollary to the second point is that ethnic conflict manifests itself in various forms, including voting, community service and violence. Thus, it needs not always have negative consequences. Ethnicity also encompasses the behaviour of ethnic groups. Ethnic groups are groups with ascribed membership, usually but not always based on claims or myths of common history, ancestry, language, race, religion, culture and territory. While all these variables need not be present before a group is so defined, the important thing is that such a group is classified or categorised as having a common identity that distinguishes it from others. It is this classification by powerful agencies such as state, religious institutions and the intelligentsia such as local ethnic historians that objectifies the ethnic group, often setting in motion processes of selfidentification or affirmation and recognition by others (Ukiwo, 2005). Thus, ethnicity is not so much a matter of “shared traits or cultural commonalities”, but the result of the interplay between external categorization and selfidentification (Brubaker et al, 2004). Most analysts agree on the basic constitutive elements of ethnic groups but disagree on how and why they were formed, why ethnicity occurs, why it occasionally results in violent conflicts and what should be done to prevent its perverse manifestations. Also, in most cases, members of ethnic minority groups are faced with structural forms of discrimination and exclusion. Despite all these negative trends and events, however, it is not the case that the increase in ethnic diversity can be considered as a fundamental challenge for the stability and cohesion of a society. Next is cultural diversity. This is the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole (Wikipedia, 2007). Culture itself is usually defined in two ways: a narrow definition, which focuses on cultural products and expressions, such as traditional dance, theatre, sculptures or buildings, and a broader definition, which views culture as “the way we live”. The latter, which is applied in this paper, is allinclusive of human endeavour. Within this broad definition, military action would even be culturally-embedded. Culture is a constructed phenomenon, created through the human endeavours to transform nature and the environment in order to sustain and enrich life. As human beings are social beings, culture becomes established through particular ways of living. Culture is transferred through human interaction, from trans-generational ones (e.g. through family and ethnic group) to inter-group ones (cultural interaction). In this transferal process, culture is often adapted to new circumstances or restructured, e.g. to address new beliefs, opportunities, a crisis or a threat. As a construct, culture is continuously re-affirmed and/or redefined. The broad definition of culture tends to dominate current debates, particularly where the concept is linked with democratization processes. The result is that culture and cultural diversity have become vague terms, to be interpreted within specific contexts in order to make them useful. This need and potential for re-interpretation make the concepts vulnerable to misuse within conflict situations. Leaders interpret the concepts through their own specific historical and political perspective on relationship between competing groups. One typical use of culture in mobilization of support is in its combination with the concept of human “identity”. Cultural identity then defines people’s cultural bonding, the group to which they belong. Within mobilization tactics, cultural identity is usually portrayed as a fixed characteristic, which must be defended against “others” who are generally viewed as competing for the same resources, power or status (Kaufman, 2006). National governments tend to emphasize national identity to increase social cohesion, national consciousness and nation building. The challenge then is to make diverse cultural identities an integral part of the national one. This is particularly important in a country like Nigeria which has about 370 different ethnic groups (Alubo, 2006). Cultural identity implies freedom of association with groups, communities and ideologies which can go beyond national boundaries. People can and do have multiple identities that are complementary, e.g. ethnic, social, gender, religious, work. Research has highlighted that cultural identity and national identity can coexist. In fact, success stories of peaceful societies world-wide highlight the positive results of this coexistence. Acceptance of cultural identity within national identity prevents stifling of social relationships and promotes dynamic interactions, creativity, critical thinking and acceptance of history as a shared legacy and the future as shared aspirations (Edewor, 1993; Elbadawi and Sambanis, 2002). Suppression of cultural identity by national governments or inequity in recognition can lead to resistance, conflict and civil war. Recognition of cultural identities through proportional representation in institutional arrangements easily entrenches cultural identities and does not motivate for national integration. This may increase tensions, rather than resolve them (Kotze, 2002). This brings us to the issue of federalism. As we understand it, this is a form of government in which the component units of a political organization participate in sharing powers and functions in a cooperative manner

CULTURE CONTACT AND CONFLICT A SURVEY OF THINGS FALL APARTNO LONGER AT EASE AND ONE OTHER STORY

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF KAGORO/TSONJE RIPARIAN FOREST, KADUNA STATE

Abstract

The current ecological status of the Kagoro/Tsonje riparian forest was assessed and information was gathered on the flora and bird fauna, water quality parameters and soil status. Other data collections were phytoplankton types and population. Physiocochemical properties of the soil were tested .Modified Whittakker plots were used to evaluate woody species for density, diversity and similarity measure. One metre by one metre quadrats were used to evaluate herbaceous plants for same parameters in addition to dry matter determination. Density and diversity of algal groups in the water were determined using methods described by APHA., while physicochemical parameters of water were tested instrumentally and by laboratory procedures. Results showed that the population of the woody plants in this riparian forest had declined within the period of one year of study. The forest had a woody population of 336 plants in the encroached area per hectare and 97 woody plants in the farmed area per hectare before the farming season. After the farming season, the population of woody plants decreased to 121 and 31 respectively. As a result of the disturbances of the forest, the important Avian species Vannellus supercilliosus, Chrysococyx flavigularis, Cassypha natalensis and Camphephage quiscalina which made the forest to be known for its ornithological importance were not sighted at the time this study was undertaken. The result of the water analysis showed abundance of phytoplakton and Baccillariophyta as the highest algal division at all seasons. The population of this division in the wet season was higher than the dry season [119 and 36] respectively. This trend was similar for Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Euglenophyta. Soil particle size of the riparian forest showed a non significant (P> 0.05) difference between farmed and encroached forest segments indicating the variability of soils in a riparian area. The organic carbon content also showed a significant (P < 0.05) difference.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

The Kagoro forest comprises of four forest reserves and areas of communal land near Kagoro in Southern Kaduna State of Nigeria. It is located between Jama’a

and Kaura Local Government on latitude 9031`542“ and 9033`509“ N and

longitude 8022`.244“ and 8022`262“ E. The reserves are situated in the Kagoro Hills, ( a western extension of the Jos Plateau) which rises to over 1,300m and dominates the landscape ( Birdlife, 2008,Ezealor, 2002). The area is about 1754 acres (approximately 710 hectares) and is drained by numerous steams which empty into the Sanga River (Benjaminson, 1971, Ezealor, 2002). The vegetation of the forest is a moist type and occurs mainly in river and stream valleys. As a result of the relatively higher annual average rainfall of 1556mm of this area, forest outliers also occur outside of the riparian formations.

The riparian vegetation created by these numerous streams is important to the environment, biodiversity conservation and obviously the people of Kagoro for the following reasons:

It sustains the stream environment, enhances the hydrologic cycle, purifies the atmosphere of some pollutants, and creates conducive habitats of diverse types

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Fig. 1: Map Showing Kagoro/Tsonje Forest

for increased flora and wild stock interaction (Austin, 2008). It creates a microclimatic effect distinct from surrounding areas. This particular importance may have accounted for the Kagoro/Tsonje forest being the only known site of habitation within Nigeria for the purple-throated Cuckoo-Shrike Camphephage quiscalina (Abalaka, 2008). It is also one of the two localities where the Red-

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capped Robin-chat Cassypha natalensis and the Yellow-throated Cuckoo Chrysococyx flavigularis have been recorded. Another important bird species recorded as associated with vegetation was Brown chested wattled plover Vanellus supercilliosus (Abalaka, 2008, Birdlife, 2008, Ezealor, 2002). The higher rainfall averages over the Kagoro region made the Kagoro forest a close similitude of the moist lowland forest. It was physiognomically an extra zonal formation of the moist lowland forest in the guinea savanna region. The diverse habitats possible in that ecosystem coupled with adjacent moist deciduous forests of guinea vegetation presented a possibility of high density and diversity of fauna and flora.

Due to the intensive farming activities of the people of this region, woodlands have become restricted to ridge mountain tops as previously forested parts have been cleared for agriculture. The patches of Forest in this area typify the ecological phenomenon called forest fragmentation which is tending towards decimation.

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF KAGORO/TSONJE RIPARIAN FOREST, KADUNA STATE

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PERCEPTION OF LOCAL FARMERS ON CLIMATE CHANGE

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.1 Introduction

Climate change is one of the greatest contemporary environmental challenges and is global in dimension.  The rising incidences of extreme climatic events associated with climate change are giving the greatest of the concerns. Even for skeptics,  events such as prolonged dry seasons, long rainfall durations and excessively long Harmattan periods are worrying.  More and more people are getting to ask about what can be done to minimize the impact of the change. 

  The Inter-government Panel on climate change (IPPC, 2007) defined climate change as statistically significant variations in climate that persist for an extended period, typically decades or longer. It includes shifts in the frequency and magnitude of sporadic weather events as well as the slow continuous rise in global mean surface temperature.

Climate change is a change in climate that is attributable directly or indirectly to human activities. It affects the atmospheric conditions of the earth thereby leading to global warming. According to Raymond and Victoria (2008), climate change has the potential to affect all natural systems thereby becoming a threat to human development and survival socially, politically and economically. Interest in this issue has motivated a substantial body of research on climate cha- nge and agriculture over the past decade (Fischer, et al., 2002; Darwin, 2004; Lobell, et al., 2008; Nelson, et al. 2009). Climate change is expected to influence crop production, hydrologic balances, input supplies and other components of agricultural systems. However, the changes occur due to variation in different climatic parameters such as cloud cover, precipitation, temperature and increase in Green House Gases (GHG’s) emission through human activities. Adverse impacts of climate change in Nigeria include frequent drought, increased rural-urban migration, increased biodiversity loss, depletion of wild and other natural resource base, changes in vegetation types, increased health risk and the spread of infectious diseases and changing livelihood systems (Abaje and Giwa, 2007; Hassan and Nhemachena, 2008).

Of Nigeria’s 923,768km2 land size, 34% is occupied by crops, 23% by grassland and 16% by forests, approximately 13% is rivers, lakes and reservoirs, and the remaining 14% fall under other uses according to Ajayi (2009). Also, small scale farm holdings predominate in Nigeria, accounting for about 94% of the agricultural output (Ajayi, 2009). Agriculture employs over 70% of the population, contributes about 41% of GDP, accounts for 5% total export and provides 88% of non-oil earnings. Besides, almost all sectors of agriculture which are crop production, livestock farming, pastoralism, fishery etc. depend on climate whose variability have meant that local farmers who implement their regular annual farm business plans risk total failure due to climate change effects (Ozor et al, 2010). The conditions emanating from climate change are bound to compromise agricultural productions (crop, livestock, forest and fishery resources), nutritional and health statuses, trading in agricultural commodities, human settlements especially of agricultural communities, tourism and recreation among others (Tologbonse, et al. 2010) Nigeria like all the countries of sub-Saharan Africa is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change (IPCC, 2007). Despite the fact that efforts have been made towards fighting climate change from scientific views, research and policies directed towards indigenous knowledge and perception are highly needed. Understanding of local perception is useful in assessing the true implications of changing climate. Therefore there is the need to gain as much information as possible, and learn the positions of rural farmers and their needs, about what they know about climate change, in order to offer adaptation practices that meet these needs.

Climate change is a major challenge to agricultural development in Africa and the world at large. Ziervogel, et al. 2006 noted that climate change, which is attributable to natural climate cycle and human activities, has adversely affected agricultural productivity in Africa, making Agriculture one of the sectors most vulnerable to climate change impact in Africa, as observed by Falaki et al 2013, the impact of climate is more where agriculture is rain fed and essential for the daily existence such in Nigeria.Zoellick 2009 stated that, as the planet warms, rainfall patterns shift, and extreme events such as drought, floods and forest fires become more frequent. This results in poor and unpredictable yields, thereby making farmers more vulnerable, particularly in Africa (UNFCCC, 2007). Across Nigeria, millions of people are already experiencing changing seasonal patterns of rainfall and increased heat. Climate therefore determines to a large extent availability of water which impacts health and ultimately the level of poverty among Nigerians. Agriculture places heavy burden on the environment in the process of providing humanity with food and fiber while climate is the primary determinant of agricultural productivity. Given the fundamental role of agriculture in human welfare, concern has been expressed by federal agencies and others regarding the potential effects of climate change on agricultural productivity.                                                                                                  

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Climate change is a serious challenge to socio economic developments even in the developed countries of the world. In Nigeria and other parts of Africa, agriculture occupies a critical position particularly in food production and generation of employment. A significant proportion of actors in the agricultural sectors are however, likely to have little or no idea about climate change because of their level of awareness Thus although they suffer more of the impact of climate change, they probably do not know the depth of what is happening to the system. There is therefore a need to gain an understanding of farmers’ perception of climate change so that they can be appropriately targeted in climate change response actions. 

Human perception of environmental issues have been broadly categorized as cognitive (related to knowledge and understanding), affective (related to feelings, attitudes and emotions), behavioural (related to changes in behaviour of the viewer) and physiological (biological or physical effects on the observer’s body) Zube, et al, 1982.

However, perception decides over resource allocation, without perceiving the risk adequately all other determents seem meaningless. The effects of climate change leads to land degradation which reduces the quality and productivity and manifest throughout the country while in the southern part of Nigeria, the problem is coastal erosion and flooding, in the Sahelian zone of north, the most pronounced climate changed related reforms of land degradation are wind erosion and related sand dune formation, drought and desertification, sheet erosion which results to the complete removal of arable land is Nigeria’s biggest threat to agriculture especially in the sandy soils regions of south-eastern Nigeria.

Perception determines the social mental picture of climate change. But a number of other variables like socio-demographic and socio-economic factors or ideological orientations, awareness level, information source influence perception and the mental picture of climate change (Sjoberg, 1995; Stedman, 2004). But the extent to which these factors influence perception of climate change particularly among local farmers have not received adequate attention in the literature and thus remains a subject of research focus.

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE PERCEPTION OF LOCAL FARMERS ON CLIMATE CHANGE