RAILWAY STATION TERMINAL

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the study

Transportation implies the movement of people, goods, services and information by specific modes, some of which are roads, railways, airlines, and shipping lines (Fadare and Omole, 1991a). These modes have been studied widely all over the world by researchers in varying disciplines. While all modes of transport are important in national development, the main focus of this paper is the rail transportation in Lagos metropolis. The importance of well-organized public transport is acknowledged in both developed and developing countries because, public transport systems are more efficient means of transporting large numbers of people between and within settlements than the flexible private cars (Adeniji, 1983, 1987; TSU, 2002; Daramola, 2004). The significant contribution of public transport to travel in urban areas cannot be overemphasized and incidentally there has been a diffusion of urban centers over the years   in   several   parts   of   Nigeria,   while   the    rate of urbanisation and the rate of urban growth have also been persistently high. Average annual growth rate in urban areas is about 4.7% as against the national growth rate of 2.8% (World Bank, 2006a, b). 

In Nigeria, the road transport sub sector plays a dominant role in the internal movement of passengers and goods accounting for over 95% of overland movement of passengers and freight (NISER, 2003). As many as 47% of Nigerians now live in urban areas (World Bank, 2006b) while up to 70% of urban residents make their trips using public transport (Oyesiku, 2002). The issues of public transport provision, which have been compounded by phenomenon of urban sprawl, have not been appreciably addressed at the level of policy while some of the issues addressed in the policy document have not been implemented.

The Nigerian Railway Corporation was to manage and operate the railway undertakings and provide all necessary facilities for carriage of passengers and goods. The social duties of the corporation seem to out weight the economic (Iwayemi, 1987). This is due to many unprofitable services especially passengers’ services it renders   to   the  society.  In any  case,  the  passengers’  services have been very important as a social service in the operations of the Nigerian Railway Corporation. 
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RAILWAY STATION TERMINAL

ASSESSMENT OF CAUSES EFFECTS PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF FLOOD DISASTER IN ISABO ABEOKUTA AREA OF OGUN STATE.DOCX

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to study

The complexity of anthropogenic activities of man without adequate attention to geological structure of most cities of developed and developing nations has undoubtedly contributed to reoccurrence of disaster and consequently poses threat to environmental sustainability in most of these nations (Oludare et al., 2018). This irrefutably has led or accumulated to unresolved challenges. Among the unresolved challenges being faced are vicious flood incidences experienced in the last four decades. The occurrence is stern in third world countries where there is intensity in land use, haphazard development, and unprecedented urbanization among others. According to Adeyinka et al. (2008, p. 1) “Most of these cities are also characterized by uncontrolled development , substandard and inadequate housing, poor infrastructure provision and development, poor planning process and administration, weak urban governance, poor land use structure resulting to slum…’’. These plethora of problems are bedeviling cities of third world countries and Nigeria in particular.

Consequently, there has been unprecedented occurrence of floods and its associated negativities in most of the urban centers of developing countries (Montoya Morales, 2002). For instance, in Nigeria, reports have shown that devastating flood disaster had occurred in Ibadan (1985, 1987, 1990, and 2011), Osogbo (1992, 1996, 2002, and 2010), Yobe (2000), Akure (1996, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) and the coastal cities of Lagos, Ogun, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Uyo, Warri among others (Olaniran, 1983). This claimed many lives and properties worth millions of Naira. 
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ASSESSMENT OF CAUSES EFFECTS PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF FLOOD DISASTER IN ISABO ABEOKUTA AREA OF OGUN STATE.DOCX

AN INSIGHT ON THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A POWER LINE VANDALISM MONITORING SYSTEM USING ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This project gives the insight on the design and construction of a transmission power line vandalism detector system. Vandalism means destructive action. It is a hateful and deliberate defacement/destruction of somebody else’s property or national assets like thehigh-voltage transmission power lines, transmission towers and distribution transformers, etc.The high-voltage transmission power lines strung from support towers form the backbone of the nation’s electric power grid. Many of those 158,000 miles of lines, supported by nearly 800,000 towers, run through isolated areas as they deliver electricity from generating plants to cities. These high-voltage transmission power lines around the world are vulnerable to terrorism, vandalism, physical deterioration and extreme weather. Every year in Nigeria bad citizens vandalize the power line, towers, transformers, generators and other power transmission/distribution facilities. This causes frequent power failure and power surge that seriously affects over 50 million business firms and manufacturing industries in the country. These companies depend on electricity power supply from the power line for their productions. If the power line is vandalized, some of their machines cannot be powered on a generator then income, investments and commodities worth billions of Naira will be lost. If electricity is available during the power line vandalism incident, the lives and properties of the people within the area can be affected as a result of electric shocks, power surge and fire outbreak, etc. Vandalism is now largely driven by the soaring values of copper and aluminum in the international metals market due to increased world market demand fueled by China and India’s growth in industrialization. Consequently, the vandals now operate in wellorganized syndicates complete with offices and hierarchy and accumulate large volumes of stolen materials which they eventually consign for export as scrap. Transformer oil, copper and aluminum are the main targets of these vandals. The uses of the stolen transformer oil are:

  • Mixed with diesel and sold as fuel,
  • Used as fuel for industrial furnaces and as cooling for welding sets,
  • Mixed with vegetable oil and sold as cooking oil.
  • Used as a cosmetic and treatment for wounds.
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AN INSIGHT ON THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A POWER LINE VANDALISM MONITORING SYSTEM USING ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

AN EVALUATION OF THE INLAND TRANSPORTATION AND ITS EFFECT ON LOGISTICS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1             Background to the Study

Transportation encompasses the movement of people, goods and services from one point of origin to destination (Filani, 1993). Transportation is indispensable to modern economic development especially in a developing country like Nigeria. It plays a vital role in shaping the economy of any nation (or region) because modern industries and commercial activities rely on proper, well developed and efficient transport system (Anyanwu, Oaikhena, Oyefusi and Dimowo, 1997). In support of this, Wane (2001), pointed out that transportation is a crucial vector for urban insertion since it gives access to economic activity; facilitate family life, and helps in spinning social networks.

Transport is a central dimension of the national and global production systems that are reshaping the world, making it a topic of universal interest and importance. People move from one place to the other, regularly or occasionally. Goods collected, extracted and manufactured, must be distributed from place to place prior to consumption. People who need services, which are generally provided at a limited number of places, must travel in order to access such services. Transport therefore fulfils a very important function in a society and is one of the most pervasive factors in any economy (Munby in Hoyle and Knowles, 2001).

Transport plays a crucial role in urban growth by linking and providing access for people to essential services such as education, markets, employment, recreation, health care and other key services that induce growth of towns, cities and metropolis. Enhanced mobility for the poor and vulnerable groupsespecially in cities of the developing world, is

one of the most important preconditions for achieving Millennium Development Goals. Those cities with transport modes in an integrated system are more likely to evolve and prosper as centers for trade, commerce, industry, education, tourism and services (Buis, 2009). The rate of growth of urban centers has called for the need for movement of people, goods, services and information. In order to sustain the growth of urban centers, efficient transportation system is required (Button, 1991). However, the rate of growth of urban centers is related to the rate of movement of people, goods and services, using different means of transportation (Hoyle and Knowles, 1998).
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AN EVALUATION OF THE INLAND TRANSPORTATION AND ITS EFFECT ON LOGISTICS IN NIGERIA

THE EXISTING CRIME GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TRACKING SYSTEM RECORDS OF THE CASE STUDY CRIMINAL INVESTIGATING DEPARTMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Man by nature is social, gregarious and cannot live in isolation. To maintain peace and harmony in the society, man has to fashion out conduct and some laws to govern the conduct of members of the society. When people appreciate these codes of conduct and laws, protection of lives and properties are guaranteed.

Generally tracking is the observing of persons or objects on the move and supplying a timely ordered sequence of respective location data to a model e.g. capable to serve for depicting the motion on a display capability.

The traditional and age-old system of intelligence and criminal record maintenance has failed to live up to the requirements of the existing crime scenario. Manual processes neither provide accurate, reliable and comprehensive data round the clock nor does it help in trend prediction and decision support. It also results in lower productivity and ineffective utilization of manpower. The solution to this ever-increasing problem lies in the effective use of Information Technology. Crime Tracking Information System uses computer-generated records as an interface for integrating and accessing massive amounts of location-based information.

Crime tracking system allows police personnel to plan effectively for emergency response, determine mitigation priorities, analyses historical events, and predict future events. Crime tracking system helps identify potential suspects to increase investigators suspect base when no leads are evident. The ability to access and process information quickly while displaying it in a spatial and visual medium allows agencies to allocate resources quickly and more effectively. In the ‗mission-critical‘ nature of law enforcement, information about the location of a crime, incident, suspect, or victim is often crucial to determine the manner and size of the response. Crime tracking software helps co-ordinate vast amounts of location-based data from multiple sources. It enables the user to layer the data and view the data most critical to the particular issue or mission.
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THE EXISTING CRIME GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TRACKING SYSTEM RECORDS OF THE CASE STUDY CRIMINAL INVESTIGATING DEPARTMENT

AN ASSESSMENT OF FARMERS’ ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN PARTS OF YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Information is not only the basic of human existence. It is also the life wire for running of any organization. This is consequent upon the fact that decisions are based on information for effective decision-making and effective execution of those decisions, there must be constant information flow. Data gathered must be transmitted to the end –users after it had been processed. Information receipt processing, storage, dissemination, etc. may be instant; otherwise valuable business opportunities might be lost. That is what Information Technology (IT) seeks to do in business administration and management.

The development of information technology has come a long way. The first writing in the world of was invented by Egyptians priests around four thousand B.C. At first, the writing was a series of whole picture, which were drawn to tell a story. This took a long time and later on the priests learned to draw parts of pictures to represent the whole. Much later on still, the pictures were drawn not to represent objects, but to represent sounds. Thus the picture of a house was drawn not to represent the actual building, but the sound “Haus”. Gradually, the method of writing was improved upon until one letter was used to represent one sound. This is how the first alphabet was made. The priests wrote with a reed pen and made ink by mixing soot and gum with water.

But the scope of the writing called the HIEROGLYPHICS was restricted to priests; hence it was called SACRED writing. The writing was used to record important religious ceremonies, medical facts and records of kings and nobles. The most important writings were recorded or carved on stones while the less important records were kept on thin stripes from a reed known as PAPYRUS, a plant that grew on the banks of the River Nile. The modern word “paper” came from papyrus.

Other ancient ways of writing include the SUMMERIAN CUNELFORM, ANTHENIAN OSTRAKON, JEWISH SCROLL or parchment, which was writing on animal skin. The Bible recorded in Exodus 3`: 18, “And the lord gave Moses, when he, (God) had made as an end of speaking with him upon the mount Sinai, the two tables of stone written with the finger of God”. An Assyrian king named Assurbanipal was said to have about twenty thousand clay tablets in his private library.

For their information dissemination, the ancient world employed a number of ways. The Greek used runners. The marathon race today is in honor of an Athenian runner who not only ran all the way from Athens to Sparta to call the Spartans to the battle field, but also after the Persians had been defeated at a place called marathon, ran a further 35 kilometers to Athens to report the victory, after which he fell down dead after announcing the victory.

The old-talking drums, gongs, etc. were also used to send out information. In emergency situations, a section of the forest could be set on fire to warn people of impending or sudden enemy attack. All those various means of receiving, storing and sending information in the ancient times have been replaced by the vast array of machines in the modern world. This is what is called information technology, which refers to a host of equipment and materials, essentially computer-based that are used in the modern world for information receipt, processing, storage and dissemination.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF FARMERS’ ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN PARTS OF YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

UPGRADE OF TRADITIONAL PROCESSING METHODS OF “DADDAWA” AND “OGIRI”

UPGRADE OF TRADITIONAL PROCESSING METHODS OF “DADDAWA” AND “OGIRI”

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

Condiments are spices, herbs, flavouring agents, chemicals, sauces and other materials or blends of flavouring food spices and seasonings, some of which may have been delivered by fermentation, enzymatic action, roasting or heating(Achi, 2005). They contribute distinct taste or character to foods, change or enhance specific flavour(s) of foods, and modify the appearance of foods by adding colour. Most food condiments are strong smelling, sharp tasting substances usually used to improve or adjust the flavour of foods (Achi, 2005; Odebumi et al., 2009; Emijiagha, 2009; Oyewole and Isah, 2012; Ojimelukwe, et al, 2011).

Most traditional condiments in use in Nigeria are fermented legumes and oil seeds. These include melon seed (Citrullus vulgaris), fluted pumpkin, castor oil seed, cotton seed, African yam bean, Prosopis africana seeds (Achi, 2005). Significant contributions have been made in microbiology and biochemistry in fermentation processes of legumes and oils seeds leading to the production of fermented condiments such as “iru”, from African locust bean (Odunfa 1986), “ogiri” from melon seed (Barber & Achinewhu 1992), “soumbala” from African locust bean seed, (Ouoba et al. 2003) and “daddawa” from soybean (Omafuvbe et al. 2000). Fermented locust bean is a well-known condiment with characteristic ammoniacal odour and flavour which enhances the taste of traditional soups and sauces especially those used as a compliments to starchy foods. It is also generally added to soups as low cost meat substitute by low income families in parts of Nigeria (Odebunmi et al., 2009).

 

Lack of appropriate technologies and comprehensive understanding of the fermentation procedure involved in the production of the condiments have made the up-grading of the village-art method impossible, urbanisation, and population growth have also made these condiments to be in short supply. The resultant effect is introduction of foreign technology which has changed the Nigeria food culture into a mixed grill of both foreign and local dishes (Ojo, 1991) Many researchers have reported on the microbial load, isolation of microorganisms associated with fermentation, sensory evaluation, chemical composition, nutritional evaluation and starter culture development of traditional fermented foods (Aderibigbe and Odunfa, 1990; Odibo et al., 1992; Ouoba et al., 1993; Iwuoha and Eke, 1996; Suberu and Akinyaju, 1996; Wokoma and Aziagbe, 2001; Holzapfel, 2002; Omefuvbe et al., 2002;Naiba, 2003; Achi, 2005; Yahaya, 2006; Adenike et al., 2007; David and Aderibigbe, 2010).

In Nigeria, the raw materials for production of fermented condiments vary from one region to another. In Southeast and some parts of Southwest Nigeria “Ogiri” is either made from castor oil seeds, crabs or varieties of melon seeds (Achi et al., 2007; Enujiugha, 2009; David and Aderibigbe, 2010). “Ogiri” is also produced in Sierra-Leone from sesame seeds. The production processes are the same as for Nigeria. In Southwest Nigeria, it is known as “Iru” and it is produced from locust bean (Odunfa, 1981a). In central Nigeria, it is known as “Okpehi” and is produced from Prosopis africana (Achi et al., 1992; Odibo et al., 1989; Sanni, 1991). Similarly in northern Nigeria, it is called “daddawa‟” African locust beans product. (Odunfa, 1981a; Barimalaa et al., 1989).

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UPGRADE OF TRADITIONAL PROCESSING METHODS OF “DADDAWA” AND “OGIRI”

THE EFFECTS OF VANILLIN AS CARRIER IN THE DYEING OF POLYESTER FABRIC

THE EFFECTS OF VANILLIN AS CARRIER IN THE DYEING OF POLYESTER FABRIC

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION

In 2009, global production of polyester fibres reached 31.9million tonnes; about 45% ofworldwide fibre production (Oerlikon,2010). Polyester (polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) fibres havea growing importance, and are mainly used in clothing, geotextileand automotive industries. PET has excellent tensile strength andchemical resistance. However as PET is hydrophobic and has nochemically active groups, its dyeing in aqueous conditions is quitedifficult. Dyeing is achieved with disperse dyes having good diffusivityand solubility in PET fibre. Moreover, the highly crystallinestructure of PET fibre slows down the rate of dye diffusion into thefibre(Trotman, 1970).Dyeing of polyester fabrics can be achieved using three differentmethods depending on the quantity of fabrics to be dyed (Dupont,2002).

Thermosol process used for continuous dyeing of thousands of metres of polyester fabrics, is carried out by impregnation of the PET fabric in the dye bathfollowed by squeezing of excess dye bath and then subsequent dried(100-140°C) before dye fixation (at 200-225°C during 12-25sec.). This technique is however restricted to disperse dyes thatcan sublimate and penetrate inside the PET fibre in gaseous state.Thus, only a limited amount of colour shades can be obtained.When special shades are needed, dyeing of polyester fabricswith disperse dyes is achieved usingexhaustion method (deepdyeing)(Dupont,2002). The fabric to be dyed is immersed in the dye bath forlonger period (about 1hr.) under high temperature and pressure,under agitation, with or without addition of a carrier to allow dyediffusion inside the polyester fibre.

Exhaustion method is used fordyeing of smaller quantities of polyester fabrics or for dyeing ofpolyester textiles in the form of fibres, yarns or knitted fabrics. Twoexhaust dyeing methods are used: Dyeing under atmosphericconditions (below 100°C) with the aid of carriers and dyeingunder high-temperature and pressure conditions (125-135°C) without carrier. Thelast method is the most commonly applied but it requires highenergy consumption because of high temperature conditions.Carriers are used for dyeing of PET fibres in order to improveadsorption and accelerate diffusion of disperse dyes into the fibre atlow temperature and pressure conditions. Nevertheless, most carriers are toxic e.g. phenol, naphthalene, dicloro benzene, etc., to humans and aquatic organisms (Murray andMortimer,1971).

During dyeingand rinsing, a large amount of carriers is released into wastewater,but part remains entrapped in the fibre(Vigo,1994) andis likely to be emitted into air during drying, thermofixation andlater use (e.g. ironing).Chemical carriers include: phenolics, chlorinated aromatics,aromatic hydrocarbons and ether(Vigo, 1994). Some carriers aresaid to be “hydrophobic” and some are “hydrophilic”, and their mode ofaction differ accordingly. Hydrophobic carriers are more effectivethan hydrophilic ones (Burkinshaw,1995). In textile industry, hydrophobiccarriers such as dichloro and trichloro-benzene arealready substituted by hydrophilic carriers such as benzoic acid (Vigo,1994).

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THE EFFECTS OF VANILLIN AS CARRIER IN THE DYEING OF POLYESTER FABRIC

SPATIO-TEMPORAL PATTERN OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

SPATIO-TEMPORAL PATTERN OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The role of transport in our daily activities cannot be overemphasized and without it, the necessities of life would be difficult to achieve. As wonderful as the role of transport may be in our daily activities, it has been noted to possess myriads of negative effects (Abdul and Ansa, 2012). Ogunsanya (1991) posited that despite the undisputed roles and impact of road transport in the efficient functioning of a society, one of the unavoidable negative consequences is accident occurrence. The high incidence of road accident tends to easily erode the positive effect of road transport in the nation‟s economy. This is why transport is described as the “maker and breaker” of the cities. Ogunsanya (2002) confirmed how transport has built cities over the year in some urban areas in Nigeria and how it has gradually destroyed them. Road traffic accidents have become common in everyday urban life.

According to Rune and Truls (2004) road traffic accident is any vehicular accident occurring on a public highway which includes collisions between vehicles and vehicles, vehicles and animals, vehicles and pedestrians or vehicle and fixed obstacles. Similarly, Astrom, Kent and Jovi (2006) posited that road traffic accident is a collision or similar incident involving a moving vehicle, resulting in property damage, personal injury or death. Agbonkhese, et al. (2013) were of the view that road traffic injuries are the leading cause of death among young people aged 15–29 years and that 91% of the world’s fatalities on the roads occur in low-income and middle-income countries. Accidents may be fatal, resulting in deaths of the road users, passengers, drivers or pedestrians, or minor when it is not severe enough as to cause substantial hardship (Sarin, 1998).

Among all accidents, road traffic accidents claim the largest toll of human life and tend to be the most serious problem world over (Kual et al., 2005). Worldwide, the number of people killed in Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) each year is estimated at almost 1.2 million while the number of people injured could be as high as 50 million (WHO, 2004). Kopits (2005) posited that currently motor vehicle accidents rank 9th in order of disease burden and are projected to rank 3rd in the year 2020. In Africa, it has been estimated that 59,000 people lost their lives in road crashes in 1990 and this figure will be 144,000 people by 2020 (Kopits, 2005).

According to data from the Nigerian Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC), Nigeria has the highest rate of death from motor accidents in Africa; leading 43 other nations in the number of deaths per 10,000 vehicles crashes (Obinna, 2007). The number of reported cases of fatal road traffic accidents in Nigeria has shown an increasing trend from 12,212 cases of accidents in 1995 to 13,913 in 1996 and 15,418 in 2004, indicating an increase of 13.9% in fatal road accidents from 1995 to 1996 (Central Bank of Nigeria, 1997). According to the FRSC Annual Abstract of Statistics (2008), between 2003 and 2007, a total of 225,891 accident cases were reported by the Nigeria Police Force, out of which 29,490 were fatal, 39,065 were severe cases, and 23,380 were minor cases. This trend of road traffic accident is however on the increase due to rapid increase in vehicular movement on Nigeria roads.

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SPATIO-TEMPORAL PATTERN OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION MASTS AND THEIR EFFECTS IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION MASTS AND THEIR EFFECTS IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The need for functional telecommunication services through the use of mobile phones has increased significantly in recent years. The optimal socioeconomic functioning of any nation is greatly dependent on communication that corresponds to its scale of development. Thus, the world is rapidly moving towards an economic system that heavily depends on continuous and widespread availability and dissemination of information, as such, Nigeria as a nation is not left out (Akwule, 2009). The growing population in urban areas and serious transportation problems justify the necessity for effective communication system like the Global System for mobile (GSM) Telecommunication; the use of which started around 2001 in Nigeria. The service providers will maximize their profit and productivity when a large population within a relatively small space can pay for their services. Today services like mobile television, electronic payment, mobile tracking services, cheaper international calls, internet banking and mobile banking among others occasioned by mobile telecommunication are common place in the country. GSM has become a vital and indispensable tool for transmitting and exchanging information for a modern man (Ajala, 2005).

Telecommunication has been defined as a technology concerned with communicating from a distance. Telecommunication masts tower consist of a body structure of steel beams and materials with a concrete base of an approximate height of between 25 to 55meters. Antennae, transmitter and receivers are mounted on the body of the structure. These antennae receive high frequency radio waves from cell phones. The range of these antennas varies from distances as short as 1.5 to 2.4km to distances as long as 48 to 56km. A power source is provided with other accessories, all fenced either by block wall or steel poles and wire depending on the service providers. The area covered by each mast location is approximately 144m2 (Hart, Jackson, Akpe and Moka, 2012).

Wireless digital telecommunications such as the internet and information communication technology has revolutionized the world and the impact of information technology (IT) has been felt in all economic and social activities in every conceivable manner. The convergence of all forms of communication on the digital playfield is opening up immense new possibilities for achieving speed, versatility and space-time independence. The use and deployment of cellular phones and other wireless communication facilities around the world is phenomenal as it has not only reduced the world into a global village but more importantly into a global household. What was once solely a business tool; wireless phones are now a mass market consumer device contributing positively to the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) of various countries and providing job opportunities to millions of youths, professionals and even petty traders (Otubu, 2012).

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SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION MASTS AND THEIR EFFECTS IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SITE SUITABILITY FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SITE SUITABILITY FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Locally available fresh water which is colourless, tasteless and odourless liquid, that is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen (WHO, 2006) can easily be contaminated when mixed with wastewater, this call for proper management of wastewater before discharge. Wastewater management system is one of the most important means of protecting public health and environment, due to the fact that, unmanaged wastewater can widely impact negatively on the environment and public health. A wastewater is water which carries waste in suspension or solution usually originates from industrial, municipal, agricultural and commercial areas and drains mainly through drainage system.

Effluents entering water bodies carries pathogenic organisms that transmit diseases such as typhoid, cholera and skin infections to human beings and other animals which consequently lead to untold suffering and loss of life. Side effects of wastewater does not end at causing diseases to human and animals, but it affects the phenology and vigour of farm products and other plants. The use of wastewater for irrigation purpose is a common practice in many developing countries such as India, Pakistan, Egypt, Sudan as well as Nigeria. Chen, Wang, and Huang (2004) observed that crops produced with wastewater especially from coal industry are highly affected by aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). They further argued that, the levels of persisted organic pollutants (POPs) in the water and a soil of irrigated land in India for example, is influenced by sewage sludge. In Kano metropolis, the practice of using wastewater has been on the increase especially in irrigation activities.

The term „treatment‟ of wastewater implies the use of chemical, physical or biological agents to remove pollutants and organic matter from wastewater; while wastewater treatment plant comprises the site, physical infrastructure and the process involved (FSC, 2003).

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SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SITE SUITABILITY FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN KANO METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN COCOA PRODUCTION ON FARMERS LIVELIHOOD IN EMURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EKITI STATE NIGERIA

EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN COCOA PRODUCTION ON FARMERS LIVELIHOOD IN EMURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EKITI STATE NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

Nigeria is one of the countries in Africa that has highly diversified agro-ecological conditions, which makes the production of a wide range of agricultural products possible. Agriculture is a potentially viable sector of the country‟s economy, particularly in terms of its employment generation as well as its contribution to Nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) through export. The contribution of agriculture to the overall economic growth has declined from 70 per cent at independence to about 25 per cent in the mid-1970s (the oil boom period). In spite of this sharp decline, agricultural sector accounts for about 80 per cent of the active labour force (Central Bank of Nigeria, 2007). Abayomi (2006) noted that agriculture is capable of increasing not only per capita income; reduce spatial inequalities between rural and urban areas, but also to reduce the unprecedented mobility of rural-urban migration.

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a major economic tree crop in Nigeria because it provides jobs and income to the farmers, raw materials for the industry and foreign exchange for the country. Between 1950 and 1960, cocoa was the highest source of foreign exchange in the country (Oyedele, 2007). The discovery of oil in 1970, coupled with other socio-economic factors such as Household size, Farm size, management system and input cost, led to the relegation of cocoa to the second position in terms of foreign exchange earnings for the country. Since then, oil sector is the pivot of Nigerian economy with attendant poverty, unemployment and weak industrial base particularly in the agriculture sector. Economic diversification is a panacea to the socio-economic problems in Nigeria. In order to diversify the Nigerian economy, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) decided to rejuvenate cocoa industry with emphasis on increased production among other things. As a result, some interventions were introduced into cocoa industry with the aim of meeting the needs of the expanding industrial sector, increasing foreign exchange, enhancing job creation and farmers‟ income (FGN, 2006).

Nigeria is an important player in the cocoa sector and as such, the Nigeria output has effects on the international aggregate output and price level. Cocoa production in Nigeria is done in the South West of the country especially in Ondo state and some are seen in the South -South zone especially in Akwa-Ibom state.

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EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN COCOA PRODUCTION ON FARMERS LIVELIHOOD IN EMURE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EKITI STATE NIGERIA

MUNICIPALSOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN KADUNA NORTH LOCALGOVERNMENTAREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

MUNICIPALSOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN KADUNA NORTH LOCALGOVERNMENTAREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Generally wastes are substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provision of national law (Akos, 2009). Waste are materials that are not prime products produced for the markets for which their initial use has no further use in terms of purpose production, transformation or consumption but ready for disposal (Adedibu, 1983). Waste are generated during extraction, processing of materials into final products and other human activities which can later be recycled ,reused or reduced at the point of generation or elsewhere (Aniko, 2009).

Okecha,(2000) defined waste as matter discarded as worthless, defective or of no further value and is most often derived from places of human or animal habitation, or through a manufacturing process. It is an acknowledged undesirable by product of human settlements and economic, industrial and social development, which has traditionally been collected as domestic or industrial wastes for incineration or disposal in land, water or air (Babatunde, 2009).

Waste was an early problem of mankind and a growing one that is of major concern to every caring nation. Waste disposed on the ground turns to compost in order to improve soil fertility.Solid waste management(SWM)is now a major environmental issue that can be likened “to monster” staring the authorities on the face.Solid waste can be classified on the basis of their sources, environmental risks factors, utility and physical properties, it could be municipal waste or agricultural waste. Kaduna north is no exception as it also grapples with heap of waste waiting for evacuation in most streets,Okecha, 2000,Solid waste could be non-liquid or non-gaseous and consist of organic (biodegradables) and non- organic (non biodegradables) such as metals, plastics, bottles, and broken glasses.

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are generally waste from household, businesses and institutions, demolition and industrial waste. Agricultural waste are always from the agriculture sector. It has been found out that in most Nigerian cities and villages, chickens, goats, sheep, pigs, and other non-pet domesticated animals are usually sighted in high populated and commercial areas.With rising urbanization and change in lifestyles and food, the amount of solid waste generated has been increasing rapidly and composition also changing. Industrialization, human activities and economic level of different sectors are relative to the type of waste generated.(Adeyemi, 2001).The composition of municipal solid waste may be broadly categorized into recyclables, inert waste, composite waste, domestic and hazardous waste and householdwaste produced from daily consumption.

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MUNICIPALSOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES IN KADUNA NORTH LOCALGOVERNMENTAREA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN SOKOTO METROPOLIS, SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA

LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN SOKOTO METROPOLIS, SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.2         BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The evaluation of suitability of land areas for a variety of land use for development purposes solely rely on terrain information. Studies have shown that there are only a few landscapes remaining on earth that are still in their natural state (Gardner and Kloptak, 2001). The earth surface is being continuously altered in some manners due to anthropogenic activities and man‘s influence on the fragile, yet interconnected resource base. This has had a profound effect on the natural environment, thus resulting into an observable change pattern in the land use and land cover over time (UN-Habitat, 2004).

Urban centers in less developed countries like Nigeria have witnessed tremendous changes in terms of population growth and aerial expansion. In the absence of proper urban management practices, uncontrolled and rapid increase in population pose enormous challenges to governments in providing adequate shelter to the millions of homeless and poor in urban areas. Urban growth due to in-migration has led to increase in population density. The migration of people from rural to urban areas for better job opportunities, better standard of living and higher level of education is expected to continue in coming future. This will lead to shortage of facilities and increasing demand of land for residential purposes (UN-Habitat, 2004).

In the last 200 years, the Earth‘s urban population has increased by over 100 times while the total population has increased only six times (Jain and Subbaiah, 2007).

According to United Nation’s Population Division report, about 38 percent of the earth’s population was living in urban areas and by 2025 this proportion is expected to rise to 61 percent. This implies that about 5 billion people out of a total world population of 8 billion will be living in urban areas (WRI 2010). This rapid increase in urban population accompanied by fast transforming urban economy lead to an ever-increasing load on the urban environment in terms of unplanned sprawl, inadequate housing facilities, traffic congestion, insufficient drainage, and lack of sewerage and other facilities (Liu, 1998).

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LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN SOKOTO METROPOLIS, SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA

ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY TRANSFORMERS IN JIMETA, YOLA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY TRANSFORMERS IN JIMETA, YOLA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT

In Nigeria, challenges of power sector include among others, insufficient power generation and inadequate or lack of quality apparatuses for efficient transmission and distribution of electric power to consumers. Jimeta, being one of the major cities in Adamawa State, has experienced increase in population and spatial expansion in recent years. This is partly due to the influx of the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) from the northern and parts of the central regions of the State as a result of the protracting Boko Haram insurgency. This has put pressure on the available social amenities including electricity thereby making power distribution facilities, such as transformers, spatially inadequate, resulting in unequal power distribution and overloads.

The aim of this study was analyze the spatial distribution of electricity transformers in Jimeta, Yola-North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The study used data acquired with Hand-held GPS receiver, records of Yola Electricity Distribution Company (YEDC) and population census data, and mapped out the spatial distribution of electricity transformers in Jimeta using ArcGIS10.3 software. It further established the spatial pattern of point locations of transformers; created a geodatabase for all the transformers; assessed the level of compliance to the standards for transformer siting and also examined the extent to which population influenced their locations. Nearest Neighbour Analysis (NNA) was carried out to determine the pattern of distribution of transformer point locations. Projected population of the study area was used to produce a population density map over point locations of the transformers were overlaid. Buffer analysis in ArcGIS10.3 software was carried out to identify the location of transformers that violated the 10m setback standard of the NERC (2016).

The results showed that Jimeta had a total of 324 transformers distributed across the city in various capacities ranging from 25kVA to 1000kVA. About 0.93% of the transformers are 25kVA at the lower extreme while, 200kVA transformer accounted for 34.87% which was the highest. Public transformers distributed mostly across residential and large commercial centers accounted for 45.67% while, dedicated transformers installed for private individuals and organizations accounted for 54.33%. The Nearest Neighbourhood Analysis result generated showed clustered points at 0.01% significance level with 0.010787 ratio. Population density showed a strong influence on the distribution of transformers with 62.04% of the transformers located in the densely populated areas of the city.

A total of 11 transformers (3.4%) negate the 10m safety clearance from major roads, while 31 transformers accounting for 9.6% violated the American National Standards Institute/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ANSI/IEEE) standards of 25 years in service. The study recommends that, distribution transformers should also be located in the newly built up areas of the city so as to boost electricity supply and to encourage commercial and industrial activities in such quarters. The government and the YEDC should replace those transformers that are over 25 years and in order to avoid deterioration of insulated materials, breakdown, fire disasters and power outages.

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ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICITY TRANSFORMERS IN JIMETA, YOLA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANALYSIS OF REPORTED TYPHOID FEVER CASES AMONG STUDENTS OF AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, SAMARU CAMPUS ZARIA, NIGERIA

ANALYSIS OF REPORTED TYPHOID FEVER CASES AMONG STUDENTS OF AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, SAMARU CAMPUS ZARIA, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

A disease is a particular abnormal, pathological condition that affects part or all of an organism (Olson, 2002). It is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by factors originally from an external source, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases (McWhinney, 1987). In humans, “disease” is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviours, and typical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories (Emson, 1987). Diseases usually affect people not only physically, but also emotionally, as contracting and living with a disease can alter one’s perspective on life, and one’s personality (Hanne and Hawken, 2007).

Typhoid fever also known as enteric fever, it is a potentially fatal multisystem illness caused primarily by SalmonellaTyphi(S. Typhi), which is an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Itremains a major public health problem in developing countries, where access toclean water and standards of sanitation and hygiene are inadequate.S typhi has been a major human pathogen for thousands of years, thriving in conditions of poor sanitation, crowding, and social chaos. The name S typhi is derived from the ancient Greek typhos, an ethereal smoke or cloud that was believed to cause disease and madness. In the advanced stages of typhoid fever, the patient’s level of consciousness could be truly clouded. Although antibiotics have remarkably reduced the frequency of typhoid fever in the developed world, yet it remains endemic in developing countries(Fenwick, 2006).

Typhoid fever is widely recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries. It is characterized by acute fever, headache, abdominal pain, impatience and leukopenia. The etiological agent of typhoid fever is Salmonella entericasub-spentericaserotype Typhi (Abu Oshomole and Adeyemi, 2011).Humans are the only natural host and reservoir for S. Typhi, which can survive several months in soil or water (Ibekweet al., 2008).

The infection is transmitted by ingestion of food or water contaminated by faecal or urinary carriers excreting the bacterium. Transmission dynamics of typhoid fever is beyond an association between declining incidence with improvements in sanitation and risk factors.This is identified through classical epidemiological techniques, particularly case-control studies. Individual level risk factors are, among others, contaminated water and food, community-level risk factors include population density, temperature, rainfall and proximity to water sources (Ismail, 2006).

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ANALYSIS OF REPORTED TYPHOID FEVER CASES AMONG STUDENTS OF AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, SAMARU CAMPUS ZARIA, NIGERIA

ANALYSIS OF HEALTH CARE FACILITIES AND HUMAN RESOURCES IN KAURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ANALYSIS OF HEALTH CARE FACILITIES AND HUMAN RESOURCES IN KAURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (Jiva, 2013). Many people do not realize the importance of good health, and even if they do, they may still disregard it. Sound health is a fundamental requirement for living a socially and economically productive life. Poor health inflicts great hardships on households, including debilitation, substantial monetary expenditures, loss of labor and sometimes death (Titus, Adebisola and Adeniji, 2015). The necessity of good health is not limited to a particular set of people, bringing good health care systems and information closer to the people is important.

A health system is referred to as the organization of people, institutions and resources to deliver health care services that will meet the health needs of a target population. It is also the prevention, treatment of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through the services offered by the medical and allied health professional. In another, perspective health care is also considered as the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings. Health care is delivered by practitioners in allied health, dentistry, midwifery-obstetrics, medicine, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, psychology and other care providers. It refers to the work done in providing primary, secondary, and tertiary care, as well as in public health (Medical Dictionary, 2007; PATH 2, 2014; WHO, 2010).

Busu (2009) explained that health care systems are designed to meet the health care need of target population, stressing that there is a wide variety of health care systems around the world. In some countries, the health care system has evolved and has not been planned, whereas in others a concerted effort has been made by governments, trade unions, charities, religious or other coordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the population they serve.

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ANALYSIS OF HEALTH CARE FACILITIES AND HUMAN RESOURCES IN KAURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

AN ASSESSMENT OF FARMERS’ ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN PARTS OF YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

AN ASSESSMENT OF FARMERS’ ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN PARTS OF YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Background to the Study

The global climate has changed rapidly with a global mean temperature increase of 0.70C within the last century (Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). However, the rate of change is significantly different among regions. This is primarily due to the varied types of land resources with different surface albedos, evapotranspiration and carbon cycle affecting the climate in different ways (Meissner, Weaver, Matthew and Cox, 2003; Synder, Delire and Foley, 2004). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) in the fourth assessment report, climate change is a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by the changes in the mean of temperature, precipitation and wind pattern, and that persists for an extended period typically decades or longer. Climate change is therefore the statistically significant deviation or shift from the average weather conditions of climatic elements. The change could be limited to a specific region or may occur across the globe.

Climate Change is defined in the Article 1 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC: 1992), as ―a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climatic variability observed over comparable time periods‖. Climate Change is principally caused by the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere from energy production and consumption. The energy sector is responsible for 84% of global CO2 emissions and 64% of the world‘s greenhouse-gas emissions (International Energy Agency, 2009). The greenhouse gases include Carbon dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Hydrochloroflourocarbons (HCFCs), and Carbon Monoxide (CO). Most of the outgoing heat is absorbed by these greenhouse gas molecules and re-emitted in all directions, warming the surface of the earth and the lower atmosphere causing global warming. Global warming according to De Chavez and Tauli-Corpus (2008) is the average increase in the earth‘s surface temperature and ocean as compared to previous centuries.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) fourth assessment report predicted that Africa is highly vulnerable to the various manifestations of climate change and had affirmed that reservations about climate change are inappropriate considering apparent evidences from scientific observations of increase in global average air and ocean temperatures. Ayoade, (1995); Olaniran, (2002) affirmed that the growing climatic variations and the resultant increase in temperature have plunged some localities into experiencing excessive weather conditions in the form of floods, droughts, famine and heat waves, ensuing devastating effects on human existence, agricultural productivity and food security, with many households affected by low economic status.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF FARMERS’ ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN PARTS OF YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

EFFECTS OF SOIL EROSION IN EMERGING URBAN CENTRE OF AFUZE

EFFECTS OF SOIL EROSION IN EMERGING URBAN CENTRE OF AFUZE

 

ABSTRACT
Soil erosion is a means that needs to be controlled in order to forestall its danger in any locality. It is the realization of this fact which made the residents of Afuze to attempt to control this problem of soil erosion in their environment. This study reveals several eorts that have been made in the past years to control soil erosion, but so far these attempts have not been appraised before now. It was the need to fill this gap which necessitated this project. The project therefore attempted to find out whether past control measures succeeded or failed and the eects of soil in Afuze. A survey was carried out using questionnaire, visual examination was also conducted around Afuze. A hypothesis was tested, from observation and the analysis of the questionnaires, it was obvious that the type of soil found in Afuze has militated against the attempt of controlling soil erosion, the living habits of the people, the haphazard and nature of development as well as the ineective materials used by the construction companies. The result of the hypothesis was negative, as a result of the above, several recommendation were made and these include the fact that the government
should organize a public enlighten campaign to teach the people how to approach the problem of soil erosion

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Soil erosion is a problem that needs to be controlled in order to forestall its danger in any locally, soil is fundamental to all land use and care has to be taken to ensure that it is not misused or destroyed. Most of this soil erosion is caused by the interference of man through human activities and ignorance. Mismanagement in soil use greatly accelerates this erosion process. Soil is one of our most precious resources, the loss of this resources through land degradation process in an urban areas such as soil erosion, is one of the most serious environmental problems we are faced with as a gradual process that occurs when the actions of water wind, and other factors eat away and wear down the land causing the soil to deteriorate or disappear completely. Soil erosion/deterioration and low quality of water due to erosion and run o has oen become a major problem around the world. Soil erosion is one form of soil degradation along with soil compaction, low organic matter, loss of soil structure, poor internal drainage, Salinization, and soil acidity problems. These other forms of soil degradation, serious in themselves, usually contribute to accelerated soil erosion, therefore humans obviously need to be much more knowledgeable about this problem.
Much has been written in academic papers about erosion. Apart from the writings of the academic works, a lot of things have been said concerning erosion problem all over the world, to the extent that erosion is almost becoming a household word. The paper, medium, Internet and in literature books, has written much about erosion, its cause and eect in Nigeria and rest of the world. Erosion attacks human endeavors in various sectors. Its ugly eects can be seen both in rural and urban sectors of not only Nigeria but countries all over the world. In the urban sector, the danger of erosion manifest itself in the form of destruction of peoples property (washed out houses) and the destruction of road and streets. Deep gullies oen
cut o the urban streets thereby denying the residents from motorized access to their houses. The
rural area is not spared from the destruction as most of their crops are oen washed away. Some of the rural settlements have no motor able roads since their roads have been destroyed by erosion. Erosion also removes top soil which contains the plant nutrient thereby leaving the soil impoverished and unproductive. Besides making agricultural soil unproductive, erosion of agricultural land and runo result in the deposition of soil particles in unwanted area’s (sedimentation of roads, creeks, e.t.c) with all its negative consequence for traic Furthermore, the importance of soil erosion control is not restricted to the maintenance of the productive potential and fertility of soil for future generation. It is also an effective means to ensure employment in urban and rural areas and reduce urban and rural exodus. Efficient erosion control is
therefore very advantageous from the ecological and social perspectives, besides being highly significant from an economic point of view. Therefore the study of such a phenomenon as harmful as this deserves attention. Any expansion on its study is not a waste of time.

 

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EFFECTS OF SOIL EROSION IN EMERGING URBAN CENTRE OF AFUZE

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS ON RAINFALL PATTERN IN CALABAR MUNICIPALITY FROM 2002-2014 A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN METEOLOGICAL CENTRE CALABAR

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS ON RAINFALL PATTERN IN CALABAR MUNICIPALITY FROM 2002-2014 A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN METEOLOGICAL CENTRE CALABAR

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the study
Nigeria’s population and economic development are linked to climate sensitive activities including rainfall. An understanding of current and historical rainfall trends and variation is inevitable to the country’s future economic and tourism development. Rainfall is the most important natural factor that goes a long way in determining a lot of things especially agricultural production in Nigeria, especially in the southern part of Nigeria. The changes and variability associated with rainfall and the pattern of extreme high or low precipitation are very important for agriculture as well as the economic development of the state. It is a well-known fact that the pattern of rainfall is changing on both the global and the regional scales due to global warming (Hulme et al, 1998, Kayano, 2008). As the moves to encourage the agricultural sector in other toavoid food scarcity continues to gain ground and acceptability, information on rainfall variability is of essence for the design of water supply and supplemental agricultural irrigation schemes and the evaluation of alternative cropping and of soil water management plans. Much as long rainfall records are mostly available in many countries, little use is made of this information because of the unpredicted nature of the records.(Mina and Sayedul, 2012).
It is important to state that rainfall of Nigeria and West Africa in generally is influenced by the dynamics of continental air mass and maritime air mass which meet along a slanting surface called Inter-Tropical Discontinuity (ITD) (Odekunle, 2004). Varying degrees of convective activity and precipitation takes place
at the south of ITD while little or no cloud development or precipitation occur in the northern part of ITD (Ilesanmi, 1972).

1.2. Statement of the general problem
The current pattern of rainfall in Cross River State has been a source of concern to the inhabitants, especially those who rely on it for their economic and tourist activities. Therefore, it is on this basis that this study seeks to examine the trend of rainfall in Calabar state with the view to ascertain the feasibility of
government’s eort towards improved agriculture; to enhance food security in the state.

1.3. Significance of the study
This study would be of help to tourists in planning the time of their visits. This study would equally be of help to the policy makers of Cross River state, agriculturists and researchers who are interested in the rainfall pattern of Cross River state.

1.4. Objectives of the study
To study the pattern of rainfall in calabar municipality.
To know if rainfall pattern aects  tourism and economic development.

1.5. Scope of the study
This study is limited to the time series analysis on rainfall pattern in Calabar municipality from 2002-2014

1.6. Research hypothesis
H0: Rainfall pattern does not aect the tourism and economic development of Calabar
H1: Rainfall pattern aects the tourism and economic development of Calabar

 

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TIME SERIES ANALYSIS ON RAINFALL PATTERN IN CALABAR MUNICIPALITY FROM 2002-2014 A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN METEOLOGICAL CENTRE CALABAR