This research work presents findings of the extent and distributions of saline zone and the hydrochemical characteristics of the groundwater of Awe, Keana and Giza areas in the Middle Benue Trough of Nigeria. Static water levels(swl) of hand dug wells were measured andthe results used to generate hydraulic head data and hydraulichead map. The static water levels range from 1.0m to 13.5m at Awe, 1.0m to 4.5m at Keana and 2.2m to 9.2m at Giza. The hydraulic head maps for the three areas show different patterns/directions of groundwater flow for each area. Geophysical investigations, mainly vertical electrical sounding (VES) using Schlumberger electrode configuration array were performed at 47 locations spread across the entire study areas. Results of the VES revealed that the studyareas are characterized by3, 4 and 5geo-electrical layers with 9 different curve type signatures. Also, results of the VES show that Awe area has the highest occurrence of saline zone, followed by Keana and Giza respectively. Multi-layer saline zones were observed only at Awe. Thirty (30) groundwater samples (10 each from the 3 areas) were analyzed for physiochemical parameters (rare earth elements, heavy metals, major cations and major anions).Results of hydrochemical analysis revealed five (5) hydrochemical facies namely,Ca-HCO3, NaCl, NaHCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl facies. Principal component analysis of the hydrochemical data revealed that the groundwater chemistry of the areas is controlled by the mineralization of the host rocks, weathering of galena, uranite, felsdspathic minerals and dissolution of limestone and dolomite. The spatial distribution pattern of the rare earth elements of groundwater of the study areas showed a strong positive correlation exists between brine and the elements. Uranium, however, showed a district distribution pattern which may indicate a distinct source from the other elements. Of the three areas studied, Keana has the most potable water supply.  Awe and Giza groundwater have chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and lead (Pb) contaminations.It was observed that the groundwater quality of the study areas is not only salinity dependent, but also influenced by anthropogenic activities such agricultural wastes and domestic waste released into the environment.Based on the irrigation water quality indexes employed, groundwater of the areasrange from unsuitable to suitable for irrigation purposes.




The Benue Trough of Nigeria is one of the most prominent geologic features in West Africa. It extends over a length of 800km trending NNE-SSW from the Niger Delta to the south-west of Lake Chad basin and ranges in width from 130 to 250 km (Figure 1.1).  Due to the large regional extent, studies in the Trough are often divided geographically (though arbitrarily) into upper, middle and lower regions (the approximate boundaries of these regions are given in Figure 1.1. No concrete line of subdivision can be drawn to demarcate the individual regions, but major localities (towns/settlements) that constitute the depocenters of the different regions have been well documented (Obaje et al., 1999). The depocenters of the Lower Benue Trough comprise mainly the areas around Nkalagu and Abakaliki, while those of Middle Benue Trough comprise the areas around Makurdi through Yandev, Lafia, Obi, Awe, Keana, Giza, Jangwa to Wukari. In the Upper Benue Trough, the depocenters comprise Pindiga, Gombe, Nafada, Ashaka (in the Gongolaarm) and Bambam, Tula, Jessu, Lakun and Numan in the Yola arm.  

The origin of the Trough (which is still controversial in details) has long been associated with the breakup of Gondwana – the separation of Africa from South America and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. 

Occurrences of saline groundwaters as springs, ponds or in dug wells and boreholes are common in parts of the Trough. Prominent outcrops (which commonly support local salt industries) are found in the Lower Benue Trough and Middle Benue Trough (Figure 1.2). Brine is saline or salty water, particularly a highly concentrated solution of common salt (sodium chloride). It occursnaturallyas an underground salt lake and is one of the commercially important sources of common salt in the world (Leford and Jacoby, 1983).  Thesaline groundwaters in the Lower and Middle Benue Trough are frequently associated with tectonic elements such as intrusive and mineralized veins (Uma, 1998).

The presence of brine constitutes a serious hydrogeological problem on groundwater and as noted by Adeoti et al. (2010), saltwater intrusion into aquifers has become a major concern in most of the areas around brine fields as it constitutes the commonest of all the pollutants in freshwater.Therefore, understanding the point of saline intrusion is essential for the management of groundwater in such areas.Awe, Keana and Giza brine fields in Awe and Keana Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Nasarawa State are some of the brine fields located within the Middle Benue Trough.




Ama-Ekpu Edda lies within the Afikpo-Basin, a sedimentary basin set up during the late cretaceous period following the santonian uplift in the southern Benue trough. From the the field study, the Local stratigraphy shows that the lithologic succession consists of black to dark grey shales and sandstone ridges.  The sandstones ridge consist of fine to coarse grain that is finining upward.  Palynological analysis from the shale samples collected from the surface outcrops in the area yielded a total of 210 palynomorphs, made of 9 pollen species, 5 spore species. The abundance of the pollen species of Longaperites sp, Monosulcites sp, and monocolpites margiriatus, the spore species of cyathides minor, Laerigatosporites sp, along with the dinoflagellate cysts species of leoisphaerida sp, Andallusiclla sp, and senegalium sp, and especially a high abundance of the foraminifera species Bolivina Anambra, suggest a nearly late Campanian to Early  Maastrichtian age for the sediments. Based on the distribution of the palynomorph species recovered from the shale samples, the study area has been interpreted as an open marginal marine to estuarine environment at the time of sediment deposition occurring during a period of marine incursion. Hydrogeological investigation of the surface water collected at  ufueseni River shows the presence of coliform which probably results from feacal deposits washed down the river through erosion.

Keywords: Shale, Biostratigraphy, Palynology, Palynomorphs.



Background to the study

The study area Ama-ekpu Edda and its environs comprises of villages in Afikpo South Local Government of Ebonyi State. Communities within the studied area include; Achara, Amancho, Amangwu, Asaga, Amoba, Okpocha, Ekoli, Ebunwana, Ugwufiere, Ufueseni, Owutu, Ekeje, Letu, and Nguzu-Edda. This project work tends to evaluate the fundamental factors influencing the properties of cohesive soils within the study. These cohesive soils were largely found in Ama-ekpu Edda and nearby villages around. The study area, Ama-ekpu Edda, lies entirely in the Afikpo Sub-Basin, a depression set up subsequently with the Anambra Basin after the epierogenic event which folded and uplifted the Albian-Cenomanian sediments into the Abakiliki Anticlinorium. The Afikpo Sub-Basin is a coeval basin with the Anambra basin, both lying unconformably on the Santonian sediments of the Benue Trough, even though recent studies have revealed that pre-Santonian sediments occur within the basin. Sediments making up this basin include those deposited in the second depositional cycle from the Campanian to Maastrichtian. The study area is underlain entirely by the Nkporo formation, the basal lithostratigraphic unit of the Afikpo Sub-Basin. This formation as observed in the study area comprises of grey to black coloured fine-medium sandstone lenses. The shale underlying the study area has high organic content and gypsum. The gypsum occurring in the sediments are diagenetic minerals occurring as scattered streaks in the beds. It has been acclaimed for its highly fossiliferous nature of the shale, this work incorporates data from both palynological biostratigraphy and the more conventional foraminifera biostratigraphy, as tools in acquiring the age and depositional history of the sediments, providing thus, unbiased information. The lithological and microfaunal association of the Nkporo formation suggests a restricted shallow marine environment. A normal marine origin has however been suggested for the Asaga-Amangwu shale based on palynological evidences as obtained from palynological analysis, as well as a marginal to marine for the Nkporo formation, assigned a Maastrichtian age for the sediments of this formation based on mollusces and fish teeth from Asaga-Amangwu and Nkporo village suggesting an early Maastrichtian age for the sediments following an integrated study of foraminifera and palynomorphs; whereas, a late Campanian age was assigned to these sediments in from palynological analysis alone. While much of these works were obtained from regional studies, this work studies particularly the microfaunal association of the study area.

1.1 Aims and Objectives

  • To make a detailed description of the different rock types encountered.
  • To study the Geology and fossil analysis of Ama-ekpu Edda and use it to determine the age relationship between the lithologies encountered in the environment of deposition.
  • To make a detailed study of the economic minerals potential of the area.
  • To discuss the geology of the area, the lithofacies units, interpret and analyze the fossil assemblage encountered in the study area, and interpret the depositional environment.
  • Constructing a geologic map of the study area.

1.1.2Significance of the Study

Why we went to the field is to add or support the knowledge to the existing knowledge of the area.

3. Location, Extent and Accessibilty

The study area Ama-Ekpu Edda is located at Afikpo south local Government Area of Ebonyi state in south Eastern Nigeria. The extent of study or mapped area is bounded on the North and south by latitudes 5º50’N and 5º55’N of the equator and on west and east by longitudes 7º50’E and 7º55’E of the Greenwich Meridian respectively Fig.1 is the accessibility map of the study area.




Cretaceous sediments outcropped extensively in the Afikpo sedimentary basins. Detailed geological mapping of Ozizza and environs was undertaken in order to give a detail descriptions of the lithological features, stratigraphic relationships and contacts, sedimentary structures, and their paleontological contents. Sieve analysis, hydrological and palynological analyses of selected outcrop samples were carried out in order to reconstruct the depositional history of the sediments in the area and their provenance, assess the age of sediments and establish their paleoenvironments of deposition, and evaluate the hydrocarbon source rock potential and the degree of thermal maturation. Two main lithological units were encountered, which include sandstone and shale. Result from thesieve analysis indicates that the sandstones in the study areawere mostly deposited in a beach and fluvial settings. Physicochemical results from heavy metals analysis indicated significant concentration of sodium (Na) in the water samples. Results from the palynological investigation revealed a Late Campanian to Earliest Maastrichtian for the sediments, with the following index sporomorphs assemblage:Cingulatisporites ornatus, Zlivisporis blanensis, Distaverrusporites simplex, Longapertites marginatus, Constructipollenites ineffectus, Monocolpites marginatus, Echitriporites trianguliformis,, Buttinia andreevi, and Retidiporites magdalenensis. Environmentally significant palynomorphs indicated that the sediments in the study area were depositedin a marginal marine/ nearshore brackishwater environments of deposition, with minor marine influence. Kerogen analysis shows that all the sediments were mostly dominated by phytoclasts followed by opaque debris and AOM, giving rise to mostly type III kerogen, which are generally immature but have potential to generate gas.




The study area is located along Afikpo-Okigwe axis and bounded by latitudes 5° 51IN and 6°03IN and longitudes 007º51IE and 8° 06E (Fig. 1), and with an area extent of about 74 sqkm (Fig. 1). The study area is bounded on the north by Afikpo, on the south by Eberiba and on the west by Amasiri town.It covers area such as, Anofia Nkanu, Amangbala and Ebom in Ebonyi State, South Eastern Nigeria. Access to the area is through the roughly east-west Afikpo-Okigwe road, which connects the Okposi-Amaseri-Amoso road at Amasiri. On the outskirts of Afikpo town, this road connects with the Northbound Abakaliki road passing through Akpoha and Abomege. The eastern side of the study area is accessible through the Abomege-Ugep road, which passes through the Cross River at Itigidi to Ugep and Calabar towards the southern part of the study area. Other minor roads link the smaller interior villages from these major roads.  The major roads are tarred while the minor roads are untarred and may not be accessible during the rainy season.    



The study area experiences two seasons, the rainy and dry seasons. There is however, a short break of one to three times, usually referred to as “August break”. The hottest months are usually between October and March.

Rainfall in this area is evenly distributed and is high, about 190 cm per annum, and 95 % of this takes place between the months of April and October (Ibe and Okeke, 1974). The rate of evaporation from the open surface water as estimated by Mirenenko (1966) is 2cm per annum.

Fig. 1: Location and accessibility map showing the drainage system of study area.

The mapped area falls within the zone of 27o-30o of annual temperature. The climate of this area is classified as a tropical wet and dry savannah




The Main objective of this work is to study the geology and carry out the facies analysis of the Cretaceous Sediments of AFikpo at Ebonyi state and produce a geologic map of the study area. The work was done in the field making observations, taking measurements using the GPS, Compass, hammer etc, and taking down recordings, Laboratory analysis were also carried out on the samples from the field, Bivariate And Univariate analysis were done on the samples. The results from this analysis helped us decipher the facies found in the area which includes; Mudstone facies, Sandstone Facies which include; laminated Sandstone Facies, Biourturbated Sandstone Facies, Massive Sandstone Facies, Meandering River Sandstone Facies and Environments of depositions which incudes; possible dominant Marine Environment, Fluvial, Beach Environment. From the study this has pointed out that this area is dominantly a Marine, Beach, and from previous works carried out fluvial Environment. From previous works carried out I agree to the that fact that the area is a Marine, and Fluvial Environment and I want to also decipher from the result of the Bivariate analysis carried out that it is a possible predominantly Beach Environment, and from observations of field structures such as Biogenic structures e.g. skolithos that it is a predominant Marine environment

CHAPTER ONE (Introduction)

1.1 Background Information

Geology is an applied course that has been designed to enlighten and expose students to the procedures of practical field geologic mapping. This involves the study and practical significances of the study of outcrops on rocks in a study area to deduce important information. Research on the study of sedimentary rocks have shown that sediments, pieces and fragments of sedimentary old and pre-existing rocks have created some features and rock attributes which are especially distinct and useful in the sedimentary terrain. This concept makes up about 80%-90% of mineral products that are being utilized in our day to day living and up building. Product of sedimentary rocks which have been a major commodity which has sustained living economics of major developed or developing nations and detailed study on its further use and maintenance is necessary so as not only to develop new uses but also to preserve products of sedimentary rocks for future generations.Thus the field work at Afikpo provided a better practical understanding of the Geology of the area which involves its Geomorphology, regional/structural Geology, Hydrogeology, Economic Geology, Sedimentary facies of the area.

In the course of this research we would be looking at the facies analysis of the cretaceous sediments of Afikpo,facies deals with the chemical and biological aspects of sedimentary beds of the same geologic age. Sedimentary facies is defined as a mass of rock which can be defined and distinguished from others by its geometry, lithology,sedimentary structures, paleocurrent pattern and fossils. Facies analysis is done to construct a geologic model that describes an ancient sedimentary environment and this agrees with Ly’ells doctrine of uniformitarianism which means that (the presence is the key to the past) i.e. modern equivalences are used as analogs of ancient environment. In industries that exploit earth resources such as fossil fuels, facies analysis is very important in research apart from examination of rock specimens, this kind of analysis may also rely heavily upon the geophysical properties of the rock such as density, radioactive electrical and even magnetic properties of the rocks but for the cause of this research we would be using just examinations of rock specimen, biological and geological structures to analyze our facies.


The major objective of this field work is to:

  • To study the facies of the area using lithological, physical characteristics and laboratory analysis
  • To create a geologic map that gives a detailed structural and lithological description


Afikpo and its environs is in Ebonyi State and is located geographically in the South-eastern part of Nigeria within the co-ordinate of latitude 5053’N and 5055’N, and longitude 7054’E and 7057’N. Afikpo is bounded by Owututu to the South, Abba-Omega to the North, Oso to the West, Nko (Cross River) to the East. Afikpo lies at an elevation of about 170m above sea level.



The primary access was through either the Amasiri-Akaeze road or the Abakiliki-Afikpo express road. Other accesses to the field area mapped are through minor roads and footpaths linking the various towns and communities around the area.


 Geomorphologically, the study area is undulating, composed of alternating highlands and lowlands with some of the low lands being occupied by surface water bodies.

The highlands are mainly the ridges and hills which are made up mainly of sandstone lithology, minor siltstones/mudstones and claystones which serve as cementing material that bind the quartz grains. Shales and then some siltstones usually underlie the lower areas. On a regional scale, Afikpo is a trough or sub-basin but in terms of local topography is commonly undulating.




Ozara Ukwu and its environs (the study Area) is located within the Abakaliki Basin and the Afikpo sub Basin, respectively within the Afikpo Area. Detailed geologic mapping was carried out in other todetermine the various stratigraphic lithologic units, depositional environment, provenance, age and kerogene characterization, respectively using the basic field and laboratory procedures. Based on field observations, two lithostratigraphic units of the Ezeaku Group and Nkporo Group were identified based on the various diagnostic tools such as, dip of beds and microfossil assemblages. The older Ezeaku group sediments is made up of the basal older Unit of the map area consisting of alternative sequence of indurated fissile shale, calcareous rock (limestone?) and medium to coarse grained, poorly sorted, positively to near symmetrical, leptokurtic sandstone lithofacies, respectively, representing the Amasiri sandstone. It is overlain by narrowindurated Amasiri shale and the Ozara Ukwu sandstone facies respectively. The Ozara Ukwu sandstone unit is made alternating sequence of indurated gray shale, and medium to coarse grained, poorly sorted, positively to near symmetrical leptokurtic cross bedded sandstone lithofacies. These sediments of the Ezeaku group are highly indurated, jointed, and highly dipping in the southeast direction with maximum angle of about 500, probably suggesting influence of tectonism that affected the group during the Santonian times. laboratory evidence suggest that depositional environment probably estuarine environment..The younger nkporo shale sediment represented by late campanian in age following results from an outcrop from the map area..This unit represented by dark fissile shale located at the Amangu area. Also, the presence of gastropods (Turittela species)is an indication and confirmation that the sediments were deposited in a marginal marine environment. The paleoenvironmental inference therefore, is that the Amasiri sandstone, the Ozara ukwu sandstons and the nkporo formation were deposited in environments varying from marginal marine to normal marine. Therefore the map area has provided a diagnostic evidence  of the various  depositional environment within the southeastern basins of the Lower Benue Trough.



The area of study is in the northeastern border of Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The scope area of work covers geological mapping and aspects of geology like: lithology,sedimentology, stratigraphy, [biostratigraphy], and geomorphology, production of geological map, structural geology, and environmental analysis of samples collected from the study area. In the Southern Benue Trough, the nature of most of the units and the dense vegetation as a result of a wet tropical climate have hindered field studies and created a missing link in the proper explanation of the depositional and provenance framework of the basin. The Afikpo area offers a unique opportunity to study and understand the depositional and provenance processes in the southern Benue Trough as the highly indurated nature of the sediments allow for an abundance of outcrops that is unmatched anywhere else in the region. The fundamental bjectives of this field work is to give detailed description of the geology of Ozara Ukwu and its environs which can be used in interpretation and delineating the depositional environment, areas of environmental hazards and minerals of economic importance in the study area.


The Benue trough is thought to be as a collection of pull-apart basins, related to transcurrent or strike-slip movement along deep-seated basement shear zones of Pan African origin, reactivated as oceanic transform faults (Benkhelil, 1982 and 1989, Guiraud, 1993).This view is supported by field evidence in the northern Benue Trough where the climate and the nature of the sedimentary units allow for classic geologic study. Geological and geophysical studies have enabled a broad understanding of the geology of the Benue Trough. It was only in the latter part of the 20thcentury that the structural framework, within the Benue Trough was largely resolved. The Ozara Ukwu area offers a unique opportunity to study and understand the depositional processes, and Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Southern Benue Trough. Being highly indurated, the sediments allow for an abundance of outcrops which were studied in details. However, the dense vegetation of the area, which was as a result of wet tropical climate, hindered field studies and created a missing link in the proper explanation of the structural framework of the basin, (Okonkwo, 2014).

 1.1Geographical setting

The study area, Ozara Ukwu and its environs, is located at the northeastern border of Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. It lies within latitude of 05055’N and 05050’N and longitude of 07055’E and 07050’E. Notable towns that situates within the study area include, to the West is Amaseri town, to the south is Amangwu, and Owutu communities, respectively,  etc.

1.1.1       Accessibility

The study area, Ozara Okwu is accessible through road network from Abakaliki–Afikpo road, Afikpo–Okigwe road, Amasiri–Edda road, Unwana road, Ndibe and some outcrops are trekable few meters into the bush and others are along river channels. The main access road to Afikpo area is the Okigwe – Afikpo road and Abakaliki – Afikpo road.




  This work investigates the extent of Arsenic pollution of borehole waters in Onitsha and environs. Fifteen samples of drinking water sourced from boreholes were randomly collected and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and the technique employed is wet oxidation method. The results of Arsenic concentration obtained from the boreholes ranged from 0.00 mg/L (53.33% of boreholes) to 1.099mg/L (46.67% of boreholes). Seven out of the fifteen samples were observed to be concentrated with Arsenic ranging from 0.16mg/L to 1.099mg/L with majority of the concentrations occurring at areas adjacent to River

Niger and Nwangene Lake. The results were found to be above the Maximum

Contamination Level (MCL) of 0.01mg/L set by the World Health Organization (W.H.O, 2011) therefore, the sources were found to be contaminated with abnormal concentration of arsenic and the inhabitants who consume this water without proper treatment are vulnerable to severe health hazards. The high Arsenic concentrations in the study area could be attributed to both natural and anthropogenic processes such as improper discharge of untreated industrial effluents and sewage, urban storm runoff dissolving and leaching organic and inorganic matter into the subsurface ground, undersurface weathering, agro products, automobile workshops and emissions. The discharge of these effluents into water bodies leads to the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fishes consequently, when humans feed on these aquatic organisms it results to serious health issues therefore, there is need for effluents to be treated before being discharged into the environment.




 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water and 97% of the water is saline the quantity and the quality of water is equally important. Subsurface (groundwater) makes about 30.1% of the Earths freshwater as compared to 0.3% surface water and 68.7% Ice caps and Glaciers. Water is referred to as a universal solvent because it can dissolve many types of substances, but human and animal require water that contains fewer impurities. Drinking water comes from ground (subsurface) sources such as ground water and aquifers. It can also be obtained from surface water bodies such as rivers, streams and glacier other sources including rain, hail, snow and sea through desalination, surface water picks up different minerals resulting from the presence of animal or human activities. While for the subsurface water, the contaminants come from leachate, landfills, septic systems and the ambient rocks. Similarly, indiscriminate disposal from agricultural chemicals (Pesticides, Herbicides, Insecticides and Fertilizers) and household cleaning products. The contaminants in ground water take more time to be cleaned because it moves slowly and isn’t exposed to the natural cleansing benefits of air, sunlight and micro-organism.

Generally, the quality of drinking water is determined based on the appearance, taste, colour and odour of the water but all these do not really tell if the water should be free from hazardous compounds as the Geology of an area, its rock types, their weathered products, precipitation from rainfall, urban storm-water runoff and human activities in an environment contributes immensely to the chemistry of subsurface and surface water. Also, the quality of water is a measure of the suitability of the water for a designated use such as; drinking, agriculture, recreation, laundry and industrial usage based on selected physical, chemical and biological characteristics. The N.I.S (Nigerian Industrial standard), S.O.N (StandardOrganization of Nigeria) and W.H.O (World Health Organization) set a maximum contaminant level in drinking water supplied to municipal or population. When a standard or guideline is exceeded in the municipal or community water system, the state is required to take proper action to improve water quality level including treating the water through filtration or aeration blending water from several sources to reduce contaminants including inorganic chemicals such as salts, metals and mineral. These substances occur naturally in geological structures or sometimes caused by mining, industrial and agricultural activities. These chemical can badly affect human health when they are consumed in large amount.

There are two main sources of water supply that are available to man, surface water that includes: rivers, lakes, stream, drainage areas which funnels water toward the holding reservoirs and subsurface or ground water which includes wells, springs and horizontal galleries. The water resources are stressed by a number of factors, including cattle grazing, pollution and rapidly-growing urban areas. Over a billion people lack access to safe portable water supply globally and out of this number, more than 300 million people living in rural areas of SubSaharan Africa are being affected (Bresine, 2007).




A resistivity survey was made in some part of PTI dumpsite in order to determine the quality of the ground water in that area. The survey consisted of 5 electrical soundings which were carried out using the Schlumberger array configuration with a current electrode separation of 126m. The data was interpreted by computer aided iteration techniques using the Resistivity modeling Software Application. The result of the interpretation shows four to five distinct geoelectric layers with resistivity ranging from 112.7Ωm to 426.8Ωm. Difference in apparent resistivity was assumed to be due only to differences in specific conductance of groundwater in the saturated zone. The result of the survey has shown that the aquifer in the study area has not yet being contaminated.




Groundwater is commonly understood to mean water occupying all the voids within a geologic stratum. Groundwater is one of the nation’s most valuable natural resources; it is the source of about 40 percent of the water used for all purposes exclusive of hydropower generation and electric power plant cooling. Surprisingly for a resource that is so widely used and so important to health and to the economy of the country, the occurrence of ground water is not only poorly understood but is also, in fact , the subject of many widespread misconceptions. Common misconception includes the belief that ground water occurs in underground rivers resembling surface streams whose presence can be detected by certain individuals. These misconceptions and others have hampered the development and conservations of ground water and have adversely affected the protection of its quality.Groundwater occurs everywhere but sometimes its availability in economic quantity depends solely on the distribution of the subsurface geomaterials that are referred to as the aquifers. This implies that where groundwater is not potentially endowed enough, there may be either complete lack or inadequacy due to increasing industrial and domestic needs.

Pollution occurs when the concentration of various chemical or biological constituents exceed a level at which a negative impact on amenities, the ecosystem, resources and human health can occur. Pollution results primarily from human activities. There are different sources of pollution. When they are chemical or biological constituents creating pollution they are known as contaminants. Contaminants degrade the natural quality of a substance or medium. It can either be organic or inorganic.

Surface resistivity methods have been employed successfully for detecting and mapping ground-water contamination under a variety of conditions. The method is based on the fact that formation resistivity depends on the conductivity of the pore fluid as well as the properties of the porous medium. Under favorable conditions, contrasts in resistivity may be attributed to mineralized groundwater with a higher than normal specific conductance originating at a contamination source. Success with surface resistivity methods depends to a large extent on a good knowledge of subsurface conditions. Conditions favorable for delineating zones of contamination include uniform subsurface conditions, a shallow groundwater table, and good electrical contrast between mineralized and natural water.

One of the primary problems in field investigations of groundwater pollution is locating the contaminant plume. In most cases, the goal is to positively locate the pollutant and its movement by test holes and direct monitoring. In the interest of efficiency the investigative areas should be as focused as possible. In many cases a general knowledge of local hydrogeology allows a reasonable initial estimate of pollutant direction; in other instances even this may be lacking. Drilling of sampling holes on a hit-or-miss basis is both time-consuming and expensive. It can also be destructive to the property involved. Under certain subsurface conditions, surface geoelectrical profiling can quickly and cheaply locate the general location of the plume and identify areas most feasible for sampling and monitoring.

Numerous investigations have established the usefulness of surface electrical resistivity as a tool in the detection of ground water contamination.

1.1 Definition and Causes of groundwater pollution

Pollution has been found to be much more widespread than we had believed only a few years ago. Polluted ground water may pose a serious threat to health. Pollution of ground water refers to any deterioration in quality of the water resulting from the activities of man. Most pollution of ground water results from the disposal of wastes on the land surface, in shallow excavations including septic tanks, use of fertilizers, leak in sewers and pipelines. The magnitude of any pollution problem depends on the size of the area affected and the amount of the pollutant involved, the solubility, toxicity, and density of the pollutant, the mineral composition and the hydraulic characteristics of the soils and rocks through which the pollutant moves, and the effect or potential effect on ground-water use.


Here this study focuses mainly on the impact of Groundwater pollution in a dump site area and how it can be evaluated using resistivity method. But first I will like to discuss briefly about the impact of pollution on Groundwater before giving reasons of using resistivity method on ground water pollution in a dump site.


The aim of this work is to detect, delineate and denominate the extent of contaminant intrusion on ground water in an area, with the following objectives in mind:

To study the geoelectrical properties of the sub surface to depth in other to estimate contamination degree.

To uncover the direction of pollutant flow relative to the ground water flow.

To assess and map the vertical and lateral extent of contaminated groundwater into sub surface and how much ground water area it covered.

To distinguish between polluted and non – polluted zones with respect to the groundwater contamination.


The significance of the above study is important in following ways:

It will provide useful information on the condition of ground water at dump site areas which can serve as a useful tool in environmental impact assessment (EIA), of that area.

Information about water flow direction will assist in the design of efficient and cost-effective monitoring networks and remediation strategies of ground water pollution.

Geoelectric details of the subsurface gotten from this study will give sound knowledge of the sub surface geology including infiltration and percolation process is prerequisite for managing contaminant transport in the saturated or aquifer zone




Field studies were carried out on outcropping sediments exposed in Lokoja and its environs to gain insight into reservoir characteristics and sedimentological characteristics. Sieve analysis and petrographic analysis were carried out on fresh samples of the sediments to determine their statistical parameters, paleodepositinal environment and their reservoir quality. Granulometric analysis of the Filele sands reveals that the sediments are medium to coarse, moderate to poorly sorted, near symmetrical to positively skewed and mainly leptokurtic, While the granulometric analysis of the Mount Patti sands reveals that the sediments are fine to medium, well sorted to moderate sorting, negatively skewed to positively skewed and mesokurtic to leptokurtic. The petrographic analysis of the Filele sands reveals that the sediments consist averagely of 78% Quartz, 17% Feldspar, and 5% Rock fragment, while the Mount Patti sands consist of 90% Quartz, 6% Feldspar, and 4% Rock Fragment. Ternary diagram also reveals that the sediments are mainly sub-arkose. The average mineralogical maturity index (IMM) for the Filele sands is 3.8 indicative of sub-maturity, while the Patti sands with 11.7 maturity index are indicative of mature sands. Using Field evidences and Bivariate plots of skewness versus sorting and mean versus sorting, a fluvial depositional setting was interpreted for the sediments.



Sandstones are sedimentary rocks formed by the cementation of sediment by material cements and they show a great deal of variation in mineral composition, degree of sorting and roundness and they possess quality reservoir characteristics and mineralogy. Sedimentological studies help to determine sediment characteristics of the rocks (sorting, sedimentary structures, grain size, shape, lithology, porosity, texture, maturity etc.). Similarly, petrographic studies are very useful in understanding and interpreting the mineralogical (petrographic) details of rocks – their composition, abundance, and morphology among others. Together, sedimentology and petrography are widely used in the reconstruction of the geological history of rocks – their distances from provenance, paleoenvironmental and conditions of formation and/or deformation, diagenetic processes acting on rocks, tectonic history as well as the stratigraphy.

The need to combine sedimentological and petrographic analyses for paleoenvironmental analyses is borne out of the fact that relying on textural analysis alone may result in gross interpretational errors, especially if diagenetic or disaggregation processes have significantly altered textural properties of such sediments (Wilson and Pittman, 1979).

 The sedimentological investigation of some outcropping sediment in southern Bida basin and its environs employed the field mapping and the laboratory studies approach of the sediments sampled and it was used in deducing the porosity and permeability of the outcropping sediments in the study area.

This study involves the determination of the lithology, mineralogy and textural characteristics of the sandstone facies in order to predict the reservoir quality of the sandstone using Sedimentological and petrographic data as obtained from field evidence of some outcropping sediment of southern Bida basin and its environs.


This study is aimed at investigating the Sedimentological and petrographic attributes of outcropping sediments in Lokoja and its environs.

The objectives of this study include:

i. To determine the lithofacies characteristics of the sediments of the study area;

ii. To ascertain the mineralogical composition of the sediments;

iii. To determine the paleodepositional environment in which the sediments where formed using available sedimentological and petrographic data sets; and

iv. To characterize the reservoir properties of the sediments by inferring the porosity and quantitatively determine the permeability.


The study area is located in Kogi State. It is bounded by latitudes 070 30’ N – 080 30’ N and longitude 006000’E- 0070 00’ E. The area visited include outcrops on road cuts along the Lokoja-Abuja Express Road and include; Filele and Mount Patti.

The study area was accessible by main roads and footpaths. The main is the Lokoja-Abuja express road [(fig. 1)Ojo, 2009].

Figure 1 Geologic map of Southern Bida basin showing (Ojo, 2009).


The River Niger is present in the study area as the main hydrological element. The Niger River runs in an ESE direction in the southern marginal area/part of the basin. Its floodplain is broad and locally up to 20km wide and marked in most areas by a series of elongated ponds running parallel to the river channel. The main tributaries of the River Niger are River Kaduna (wuya) and Gurara which drain the Northern Nigeria Basement Complex.

The area of study has various elevations above sea level as recorded by GPS and shown below:

Filele (169m), Mount Patti (255m) and Agbaja plateau (407m).





1.1 Background of the Study

This study focuses on the environmental impacts of flooding on agricultural activities in Kwale and its environs. Flooding has been a long-term issue which affects the inhabitants of Kwale. In many natural systems, floods play an important role in maintaining key ecosystem functions and biodiversity. They link the river with the land surrounding it, recharge groundwater systems, fill wetlands, increase the connectivity between aquatic habitats, and move both sediment and nutrients around the landscape, and into the marine environment (Apan, et al., 2010). For many species, floods trigger breeding events, migration, and dispersal. These natural systems are resilient to the effects of all but the largest floods. The environmental benefits of flooding can also help the economy through things such as increased fish production, recharge of groundwater resources, and maintenance of recreational environments (Bunn and Arthington, 2002). The environmental resources in Kwale most especially the land and soil resources are greatly threaten by flooding. The Kwale and its environ is covered by beautiful vegetation naturally checking the menace. This flooding menace has destroyed arable land for agricultural purposes which are the major socio-economic activities of the Kwale people. The government in his attempt to curb the situation has constructed a drainage system some meters away from the major road to redirect and channel all the water flowing to the erosion sites into the drainage system which is emptied into the river. Despite all this effort, the situation still remains the same. Areas that have been highly modified by human activity tend to suffer more deleterious effects from flooding. Floods tend to further degrade already degraded systems. Removal of vegetation in and around rivers, increased channel size, dams, levee bank and catchment clearing all work to degrade the hill-slopes, rivers and floodplains, and increase the erosion and transfer of both sediment and nutrients (Douglas, et al., 2005). While cycling of sediments and nutrients is essential to a healthy system, too much sediment and nutrient entering a waterway has negative impacts on downstream water quality. Other negative effects include loss of habitat, dispersal of weed species, the release of pollutants, lower fish production, loss of wetlands function, and loss of recreational areas (Kingsford, 2000). Flooding is one of the environmental problems that have confronted man since immemorial. Flooding is a widespread and age long phenomenon. In Kwale, flooding has created and causes untold hardship such as destruction of building and properties, interruption of socioeconomic development of the area. Jon (2011), defined flooding as a condition, which exist when any overland flow over an urban or rural area, that is sufficient to cause property damage, health hazard, nuisance and the obstruction of the socio-economic activities in the area. He went further the types of flooding to include rivers flood, flash flood, splash flood and flood bondages. Agriculture has changed significantly in terms of the production patterns and structure and a significant trend has been the development towards fewer and larger holdings with more intensified and specialized production. This development has included an increased mechanization and use of fertilizers and pesticides. Biodiversity has been affected negatively both by the physical changes in the landscape and by the changes in the production methods. As the agricultural production has intensified, all levels of biological diversity (genetic, species, and habitats) have declined in farming environments. The more intensive land use corresponds for example to the decrease in the populations of farmland birds.Many of our coastal resources, including fish and other forms of marine production, are dependent on the nutrients supplied from the land during floods. The negative effects of floodwaters on coastal marine environments are mainly due to the introduction of excess sediment and nutrients, and pollutants such as chemicals, heavy metals and debris. These can degrade aquatic habitats, lower water quality, reduce coastal production, and contaminate coastal food resources (Poff, et al., 2003). It is against this background that this study is carried out to examine the environmental impacts of flooding on agricultural activities in Kwale and its environs.

1.2 Statement of Problem

Flooding in key agricultural production areas can lead to widespread damage to crops and fencing and loss of livestock. Crop losses through rain damage, waterlogged soils, and delays in harvesting are further intensified by transport problems due to flooded roads and damaged infrastructure. The flow-on effects of reduced agricultural production can often impact well outside the production area as food prices increase due to shortages in supply (Prosser, et al., 2001). On the other hand, flood events can result in long-term benefits to agricultural production by recharging water resource storages, especially in drier, inland areas, and by rejuvenating soil fertility by silt deposition (Apan, et al., 2010). Damage to public infrastructure affects a far greater proportion of the population than those whose homes or businesses are directly inundated by the flood. In particular, flood damage to roads, rail networks and key transport hubs, such as shipping ports, can have significant impacts on regional and national economies. Short-term downturns in regional tourism are often experienced after a flooding event. While the impact on tourism infrastructure and the time needed to return to full operating capacity may be minimal, images of flood affected areas often lead to cancellations in bookings and a significant reduction in tourist numbers (Apan, et al., 2010). Flooding of urban areas can result in significant damage to private property, including homes and businesses. Losses occur due to damage to both the structure and contents of buildings. Insurance of the structure and its contents against flooding can reduce the impacts of floods on individuals or companies. As most people are well aware, the immediate impacts of flooding include loss of human life, damage to property, destruction of crops, loss of livestock, and deterioration of health conditions owing to waterborne diseases. As communication links and infrastructure such as power plants, roads and bridges are damaged and disrupted, some economic activities may come to a standstill, people are forced to leave their homes and normal life is disrupted (Kingsford, 2000). Similarly, disruption to industry can lead to loss of livelihoods. Damage to infrastructure also causes long-term impacts, such as disruptions to supplies of clean water, wastewater treatment, electricity, transport, communication, education and health care. Loss of livelihoods, reduction in purchasing power and loss of land value in the floodplains can leave communities economically vulnerable. Floods can also traumatise victims and their families for long periods of time. The loss of loved ones has deep impacts, especially on children (Bunn and Arthington, 2002). Displacement from one’s home, loss of property and disruption to business and social affairs can cause continuing stress. For some people the psychological impacts can be long lasting. Floods impact on both individuals and communities, and have social, economic, and environmental consequences. The consequences of floods, both negative and positive, vary greatly depending on the location and extent of flooding, and the vulnerability and value of the natural and constructed environments they affect (Douglas, et al., 2005). This study “environmental impacts of flooding on agricultural activities in Kwale and its environs” is therefore carried out to address the aforementioned problems.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The main of this study is to examine the environmental impacts of flooding on agricultural activities in Kwale and its environs.

The specific objectives of this study includes: .

To examine the environmental impacts of flooding on agricultural activities in the study area; .

To identify the causes of flooding in the area; . To examine the consequent effect of flooding on agricultural activities in the study area;

To identify the various types of farm practices and agricultural productivity in the study area;

To identify the problems of flooding and areas seriously affected by flooding in the study area;.

To suggest mitigation measures to control the problems of flooding in Kwale and its environs.




This study assessed the effect of motorcycle and tricycle (keke) on socio-economic activities in Abraka. The main focus of this study was to examine the socio-economic ef ect of motorcycle and tricycle mode of transportation in Abraka. A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents in Abraka. The result of the first hypothesis indicates that there is a significant relationship between motorcycle use and socio-economic activities at the 0.05 level of confidence. The result of the second hypothesis indicates that there is a significant relationship between keke napep use and socio-economic activities at the 0.05 level of confidence. The result of the third hypothesis reveals that there is a significant dif erence between the socio-economic effect of motorcycle and tricycle at the 0.05 level of confidence. The study recommends that government should create job opportunities and employment for the people so as to reduce the adverse effect of motorcycle and tricycle (keke) on socio-economic activities in Abraka.



1.1 Introduction

Transport is an important element in development and it affords the social, economic and political interaction that most people take for granted (Button and Hensher, 2001). The provision of transport infrastructure has grown extensively across the globe through a range of networks of modes which have undergone technological improvements cutting across the motive power, the tracks and the means that serve as compartment for passengers and goods. Personal mobility is one of democracy’s most valued freedoms and it is, therefore, not surprising that a high proportion of man’s income is devoted to the movement of the goods and transactions (Dawson, 2009). The importance to the socio economic, political and cultural development of any nation is underscored by Munby’s (2008) statement that “there is no escape from transport”. In the past decade, there has seen significant growth in the use of motorcycle and ownership in Nigeria which has significant impacts on the socio-economic facets on the people’s lives (Oni, 2003). Recently, the introduction of the tricycle mode of transportation has not only improved the socio-economic life of the people but has also created employment for the timing unemployed youths especially in the present situation where unemployment has been the other of the day (Jack, 2016). According to Dawson (2009), motorbikes are a means of transport used to move from one place to another. With the policy of liberalisation of public transport by the government of Nigeria in the early 1960s, commercial motorbikes were introduced in Nigerian cities and progressively into rural areas. The introduction and proliferation of these commercial motorbikes in the urban and rural Nigeria has come to influence the mode of life of its population which generally had the habit to move from one village to another by trekking and today uses motorbikes to move from one village to another (Gbujie, 2003). More so, this population that lives on agriculture in the cultivation of cash and food crops in the likes of cocoa, coffee, cocoyam, cassava and plantains; with the production of these products constituting references of wealth and prestige has also drifted in the riding and ownership of commercial motorbikes becoming a ready source of income and a new sign of wealth and prestige amongst the people of Abraka (Akinbode and Ugbomeh, 2006). More so, the activity has introduced new jobs as motorbike spare part retailers and Motorbike mechanics. These changes in perception and activity have come to change the socio-cultural organization of the Abraka society (Akinbode and Ugbomeh, 2006). In many developing countries, motorcycles and tricycles are increasingly becoming the common means of transport especially among low-income urban dwellers (urban poor) and many rural people (Jean-Paul and Theo Notteboom, 2013). The high ownership and use of motorcycle and tricycle in the urban areas in Nigeria especially in Abraka has come with its accompanying challenges like motorcycle and tricycles accidents involving fatalities; environmental and public health concerns from the emissions; non-compliance to motor traffic regulations-for instance helmet use is generally low in Nigeria among others among other things. The high incidence of motorcycle ownership and use has also been contributing significantly in the betterment of many livelihoods of urban residents in Nigeria and at the instance of Abraka (Akinbode and Ugbomeh, 2006). The increasing growth in the number of motorcycles has come to solve the mobility needs of many urban residents in the light of poor and inadequate public transport system, poor road conditions particularly those leading into the peri-urban areas where many people in Abraka reside as a result of urban sprawl. It also comes along with a host of opportunities including employment to motorcycle/tricycles mechanics and motorcycle/tricycles spare parts dealers, local revenue generating sources through taxes/levies on motorcycle owners/riders as well as motorcycle and tricycles registration and licensing (Dinye, 2013). In developing countries, vehicle ownership is low dependency on public transport is high. However the financial conditions and performance of all forms of government-organized public transport ineffective and are in decline (Kumar, 2011). This situation has forced people and the market to develop creative solutions to address daily travel needs-hence a resort to motorcycles and tricycles either for personal mobility in addition public transport. The resort to motorcycles and tricycles as an alternative mode of transport in savaging urban mobility problems of towns in Nigeria has introduced varying dimensions of issues including traffic accidents and safety on the roads, registration issues and the repair and maintenance activities around these motorcycles (Jack, 2016). Various researches (such as Gbujie, 2003; Oni, 2002, 2003; Akinbode and Ugbomeh, 2006; Atubi, 2006; Dinye, 2013) have been conducted on the issues of motorcycle and tricycles traffic accidents, motorcycle/tricycles traffic management in motorcycle and tricycles dependent cities, commercial motorcycle/tricycle operations among others. It is against this background that this study is conducted to assesses the comparative effects of motorcycles (Okada) and tricycle (Keke) on socio-economic activities in Abraka.

1.2 Statement of Research Problem

The problems created by the use of motorcycle and tricycle as the major mode of transport in Nigeria are enormous. Most motorcyclists who ply the road on daily basis do not apply safety rules and regulations. They overtake carelessly without looking carefully if there are vehicles coming from behind (Dinye, 2013). The use of motorcycle and tricycle have resulted to series of road accidents on urban and rural roads, traffic congestion, arm robbery cases, kidnap cases, abduction and other notorious crimes committed by okada and keke riders. This has in turn affected the socio-economic life of the inhabitants in most Nigerian cities, towns, and villages. Another major problem associated with the use of motorcycle and tricycle is that socio-economic activities in Abraka greatly depend on the availability of transport services such as public and commercial vehicles, motorcycle, tricycle and other mode of transport. An increase in the price of transport will in turn lead to inflation in the price of commodities and goods (Charles, 2011). This has been the situation in Abraka for some time now since most dwellers complain of the hike in the price of transportation by transport companies, motorcyclists, tricyclists, and commercial vehicle owners. Motorcycles and tricycles often create traffic problems on urban roads leading to congestion of vehicles, motorcycles, and tricycles at terminal points. This creates a major problem to the inhabitants of such region who rely on the availability of transport services for their socioeconomic activities. Socio-economic activities greatly depend on transport system since transportation is a key factor in the development of any society (Gauthier and Hook, 2005). However, over reliance on motorcycle and tricycle mode of transportation has created urban problems in most Nigerian cities. It has been discovered that there is dealt in literature on the effect of motorcycle and tricycle on socio-economic activities and not much effort has been directed towards the topic. This study will therefore fill the gap that exist in the study and address the problems mentioned in the above paragraphs.

1.3 Aim and Objectives

The aim of this study is to comparatively assess the effect of motorcycle and tricycle (keke) on socio-economic activities in Abraka.

Therefore, the specific objectives are to;

i. examine the socio-economic effect of motorcycle and tricycle mode of transportation in Abraka;

ii. identify the socio-economic activities in Abraka;

iii. examine the problems associated with the use of motorcycle and tricycle mode of transport in Abraka;

iv. examine the impact of motorcycle and tricycle mode of transportation on the socio-economic development of Abraka region;

v. suggest possible solution(s) to the problems associated with the use of motorcycle and tricycle mode of transport in Abraka.




1.1 Background to the Study

In recent times, small and medium scale business has been a major source of revenue to most urban dwellers in Nigerian cities. World Tourism Organization (2016) has pointed out that hotels are now regarded as one of the best monuments in developed and developing countries of world. First class hotels in Abuja, Lagos, Port-Harcourt, Calabar, Kano, Kaduna, etc now rank one of the best tourist attractions in Africa. This is evidence that hotels and recreational centers serve as tourism centers through the provision of tourism facilities in most Nigerian Cities (Fred, 2017). Awaritefe (2004) opined that environmental perception is one of the psychological processes that occur as a result of the interaction of humans with their environment. Awaritefe (2003) emphasize the significance of positive perceptions by consumers in their selection of holiday resorts. This implies that small scale hotels plays significant role in the development of Oleh. Small scale business such as hotels and recreational centers is necessary as it is imperative to incorporate new business idea in form of entrepreneurship in business which will equip tourists to meet the socio-economic requirement of the world of work. It will empower the young youths and provide job for the timid unemployed youths in Nigeria (Evans, 2016). Through small scale businesses, they can explore the business and economic opportunities around them to become self-employed and create job for other people. Through small scale business, specific skills that are needed for successful entrepreneurship is taught such as the knowledge of the business environment, managerial skills, marketing strategies etc. According to Martins (2017), small scale businesses which is an essential tool for economic development, will take cognizance of the need to provide unemployed youths with the ability and skills to be gainfully employed upon completion of their programme as well as prepare them for setting up their small businesses as entrepreneurs. All these are in tandem with the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies (NEEDS) thrust on value orientation, employment generation and wealth creation. As observed by Elvis (2014), tourism has been of great help to most entrepreneurs who see the need of venturing into small scale businesses such as hotels and recreational centers. The Delta State Ministry of Culture and Tourism Development in 2016 declared Wellington Hotel, Warri, Grand Hotel, Asaba, Delta Plaza, Obiaruku, Home Base Hotel Kwale, and other fancy hotels within the states which meets tourism requirement as tourists sites. In this vein, the World Tourism Organization (WTO) in recent years has approved various hotels such as Chariton Hotel, Abuja and Leki Suit, Lagos as monuments and tourists attractions (Tourism Factbook, 2017). Osuala (2009) predicted that small scale business at grass root level will not only drastically reduce social vices among the youth but will also cater for all interests, the dropouts, the handicapped, the geniuses and other physically-fit persons. Small scale business at grass root entails the strategies as adopted by the tourists, which vary from locations to locations. A hotel which is usually positioned at urban centers and open places will always have more people patronizing it than that located in villages and remote areas that are inaccessible. Okon (2002) confirmed that small scale business strategies include not only the manner of presentation of tourist facilities, but everything that he/she (tourists) does in the way of arranging tourism items within the hotel to tourism activities. According to Obi, (2005) small scale business is much more than opening a business, it involves turning the small business into big business opportunities which eventually become tourist attraction in future. This is in agreement with the tourism approach proposed by Shepherd and Douglas in Agbamu, (2011) and has been touted as an effective path towards developing the entrepreneurial spirit. This approach requires a shift from the traditional small scale businesses to active participation in a real life entrepreneurial environment (Nyanducha, 2006). The approach enables the tourist engage in some activity, reflect upon the activity, derive insight from the analysis and incorporate the result through a change in understanding of what (Sherman, Serbora & Pigman, 2008) calls experiential learning, which is gained through experience. Osuala (2009) opines that small scale business remains a practical experience that empowers the youths for greater challenges of the future, as it will enable the individual to understand how the economic decision he makes will influence his present and future standard of living as he will understand how the labour market functions. Thus, entrepreneurship in business at grass root is supposed to be dynamic, practice-oriented and activity based through the application of different teaching strategies. According to Fred (2017), assessing the challenges of small scale hotels in Nigeria would help highlight the challenges confronting small scale hotels in Nigeria with a view to tackling such challenges so that investors can be confident enough to invest in the Nigerian economy which would at the long run help in the socio-economic development of Nigeria.

Studies have shown that people have neglected small scale business and business environment have not been friendly for people who do not have the required capital to sustain the business especially the establishment of hotels and recreational centers which requires huge capital and finance. It is against this background that this study is carried out to assess the challenges of small scale hotels in Oleh, Delta State.

1.2 Statement of the Problems

The major problem associated with small scale businesses is the sustainability of the business. Majority of the hotels in Oleh lack the required hotel facilities needed to make tourists and others comfortable (Evans, 2016). The establishment of hotels requires huge capital and adequate funding. Most hotels managers in Oleh lack the required managerial skill to run the business and the knowledge in making the hotel a tourist attraction sites (Fred, 2017). Awaritefe (2017) in his inaugural lecture highlighted the problems facing Nigerian development and tourism sectors. He opined that most travelers often find it difficult to patronize hotels and recreational centers due to lack of facilities. Another major problem facing the development of hotels in Oleh is the negligence of hotel owners who see hotel business as profit making rather than tourism venture. Tourism is best effective if hotels are developed and provided with the tourism items needed so as to make tourists who wish to lodge after the see-sighting such as the case of Obudu Cattle Ranch and Tinapa, Calabar, Cross River State. It has been observed that small scale businesses have not yielded much profit as expected. This often discourages businessmen/women who wish to venture into hotel business since they see it as seasonal business. Resource are therefore diverted to other sectors thereby causing serious setback in tourism since hotels when developed to world standard are major sources of tourist attraction in developed and developing world. Most hotels which are located in flooded areas and difficult terrain face usually have low patronage since most tourists prefer accessible areas than inaccessible routes. These problems have hindered the development of hotels in Delta State at large. This study is therefore carried out to address the aforementioned problems.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to assess the challenges of small scale hotels in Oleh, Delta State.

The study will achieve the following objectives;

1. identify the challenges facing small scale hotels in Oleh, Delta State;

2. examine the factors responsible for slow growth of small scale hotels in the study area;

3. examine the factors that can enhance the growth of small scale hotels in Oleh, Delta State;

4. to suggest possible solutions to the development of small scale hotel in Oleh, Delta State.





Ogudu area is located in Ife-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria, within latitude 7022.25’N and 7025’N, and longitude 4037.5’E and 4040.25’E covering a total area of 25 square kilometers. The terrain falls within the Ife-Ilesha schist belt, which is an integral part of the Nigerian Basement Complex. The Nigerian Basement Complex is part of the late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic mobile belt east of the West African craton. This basement complex comprises Archean and Proterozoic rocks and available geochronological data indicates that this basement is polycyclic and bears the imprint of three thermotectonic events; Liberian (ca. 2700 Ma), Eburnean (ca. 2000 Ma), and Pan-African (ca. 600Ma) orogenic events (Grant, 1970; Oversby,1975; Van Breemen et al., 1977; Fitches et al., 1985; Rahaman, 1988; Dada et al., 1994). The need for a detailed geology of this area forms the main objective of this field mapping. 
Lithologies were studied and observed structures were documented in this reported, geometrical analysis of structural fabrics in macro-, meso- and microscale are well documented. Field observations on the various rocks in the study area have shown that the degree of deformation is not equal and are characterized by varying fabrics, grain sizes, structural styles, mineralogy, etc. This independent mapping therefore aims at examining the outcrop scale structures, microstructural and mineralogical features of the various rocks in the study in order to gain understanding of the geology of the basement complex rock.        


The aim of this study is to produce the geological map of the study area with the following specific objectives: 
1.      To map all the lithological units; 
2.      to examine and report all the structural features and fabrics; 


Ogudu area is located in Ife East Local Government Area of Osun State within the Ife-Ilesha Schist belt in Southwestern Nigeria. Accessibility is poor, most of the routes (mostly footpath) shown on the available topographical map have been covered with vegetation due to abandonment of settlement and/or farmstead. 

1.3         TOPOGRAPHY

The topography of the study area is randomly an undulating feature. The eastern part of the study area has a higher elevation. The upper part of the study area has elevation between 1300 and 1995 feets above sea level. Generally the region is characterized by elevations between 1000 feets and 1400 feets above the sea levels. 


The climate of the area fall under the equatorial climate belt of southwestern Nigeria and the weather condition has a comparatively high temperature throughout the year and high rainfall characteristic of a rain forest belt. 

1.5         DRAINAGE

The drainage system is dendritic. The stream channel are generally structurally and stratigraphically controlled with the rivers flowing southwards except in tributaries where they flow in W-E and E-W direction to join the main rivers flowing south.





Engineering geology is the application of geologic science to engineering practice for the purpose of assuring that the geologic factors affecting location, design, construction operation such as road construction building construction, dam and bridge construction and it maintenance are recognized and are adequately provided for (Ige, 2011).      
Soil can be defined as the upper layer of the ground made up of unconsolidated material produced due to weathering agencies which acted on the rocks. It can also be referred to as ‘’TERRAFIRMA’’ meaning solid ground; a good base for road, building and all kind of structures project (Gidigasu, 1972).         
The engineering approach to this research project will focus on the characteristics of soils as construction materials and their suitability to withstand loads applied by structures of various types. A good understanding of the engineering geological properties of the soil around Akungba-IKare Akoko area of Ondo State, Southwestern part of Nigeria will aid quality construction project.        Soil samples responded differently to various geotechnical tests or engineering tests they are subjected to and this will give an insight to the suitability of the soil. Lack of information would affect the suitability and performances of any engineering structure. This Research project work will deals with the geological investigation on some soil around Akungba- Ikare Akoko area in order to determine their usefulness for construction material.     

1.1            Location and the extend of the study area

The area of study, Akungba-Ikare Akoko road is located in the northern part of Ondo State. The area lies between latitudes 070.27’N and 070.31’N   and longitudes 0050.43’E and 0050.47’E Greenwich Meridian (figure 1.1 and figure 1.2). Akungba-ikare Akoko area is moderately populated and it is surrounded by settlement such as Ogbagi, Iwaro Oka, Ugbe Akoko.

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Research project work.

The aim of this geologic study is to determine the engineering geological properties of some soil developed over the metamorphic rock in the study area, thereby accessing its strength, stability and suitability for the purpose engineering constructions.


(1) To determine the nature, and the strength of the geological material based on the component of construction materials 
(2) It will provide some relevant information about the engineering properties of soil in the study area. 
(3) To determine the suitability of the soil for construction purposes.  

1.3            Previous work/ Literature Review

Many research works had been carried out in the past on the engineering properties of subgrade soils in some parts of Ondo state and other parts of the country by different researchers, but the engineering geological investigation of some soils over metamorphic complex along Akungba-Ikare Akoko is the first of its kind in this area. Notable among these works are the works of Adeyemi 2000, Jegede 1998 and Gidigasu 1997. Most of these workers attributed pavement failure to poor subgrade material /fill soils.        
The reports of selected works are presented below: Adeyemi, (2000) worked on geotechnical basis for failure of some sections along the Lagos- Ibadan expressway of southwestern Nigeria. They made comparison between the stable and unstable portions of the road and concluded that significant differences need not to have existed between the geotechnical properties of soil below the stable and the unstable sections of the road before such parameters can serve as basis for predicting the stability of flexible expressway pavements in the tropics. Jegede (1994) worked on the pavement failure at a section along Ikere-Igbara-Odo road in Ekiti state of Nigeria. He found out that the California Bearing Ratio of the soil ranges around 50% which showed poor soil physical properties lack of drainage facilities combines with the excess fine soil grade ranging between 20-40% was responsible for the failure along the area.           
Jegede (1998) investigated failure over Talc-Tremolite-schist terrain of Ife-Ilesha expressway in Osun state and concluded that since the subgrade and the burrowed materials are schist derived, they contain talc and hydromica, which make it impossible for field compaction. The engineering geological properties of sub-grade soil of the proposed Ilawe-Ekiti high way Southwestern Nigeria was carried out by Jegede (1998), the result obtained showed that the natural  moisture content range from 2.0% to 2.8%. The liquid limit range from 36.0 to 43.0% linear shrinkage range from 2.1% to 2.60% specific gravity range from 2.66 to 2.74. The compaction of the soil indicate dry densities from 1910kg/m^3 to 2,050kg/m^3 at optimum moisture content of 15% to 18.2%. These data obtained shows that the soil is good for road construction work as sub grade and sub base material.          
The engineering geological assessment of soil from southwestern Nigeria as seal in sanitary land fill carried out by 0.01GE. the result showed that the specific gravity ranges from 2.50 to 2.77 while the percentage of the fines ranges from 23 to 75% liquid limit values range from 27.7 to 62.5% while plasticity indices values ranges from 20.8 to 41.2%. The highest permeability value of 1.4 x 10^-8m/s is also obtained all soil investigated. The soil tested can be considered suitable for sanitary landfills.        





The word petrology by its definition is the branch of geology which deals with the study of rocks and the conditions under which they were formed. The field of petrology utilizes the classical principles of basic and optical mineralogy and petrography in the study of both the composition and textural properties of the rocks which aids the description of the conditions under which the rocks were formed. The studied area, Ife south, Osun state is located in the transition zone between the crystalline and non crystalline rocks in southwestern Nigeria. It covers and average area of about 12.5km2. the area is found within the Nigerian basement complex, it is underlain by the gneiss-diorite complex whose rock units were found to include; migmatite gneiss, granitic gneiss, diorite, granite and porphyritic granite. 


The project was carried to achieve the following objectives; 
·        To determine the local geology of the mapped area. 
·        To produce a detailed geological map of the area. 
·        To enhance the success of these project objectives, fresh samples were collected from the field on available outcrops, measurements of strike and dip values were taken accordingly and thin sections prepared from the different rock types encountered.   


The study area covers a sectioned plot, south of area IV, located in Ife south local government, south of Osun state. Osun state is located in the western part of Nigeria, about 40km from Ile-Ife and 37km from Akure and is a part of the basement complex of southwestern Nigeria. The study area approximately lies between lat 707.5’ and 7010’N and long 4032.5’ and 4032’ E, with an estimated area of 12.5km2. Geological mapping was carried out at Okusu area and its neighboring villages which are; Okusu Aloro, Ago Nathaniel, Odesan, Amulasaliu and Amula odunlade to know the different rock types in the area. 


The studied area is located between lat 707.5’ and 7010’N and long 4032.5’ and 4032’ E which lies n the southwestern part of Nigeria. The major villages are Okusualoro, Okusu area, ago Nathaniel, Odesan, Amulasaliu and Amulaodunlade and it covers area of about 12.5km2. Accessibility is poor, most of the routes (mostly footpath) shown on the available topograpghical map has been covered with vegetation due to abandonments of settlement and or farmstead. 


The mapped area is characterized by both high and lowland relief which is generally classified as rolling topography characterized by hills, valleys and gently undulating plains with occasional hills. The area has a rugged topography; some hills are high while others are low lying. In general, the local topographic inequality can be accounted for primarily by the differential weathering induced by geological factors such as litholigical differences, the general structural attitude and varying degrees of jointing. The topography of the studied area rises up to about 500 meters and 450 meters above the mean sea level in some places with the highest hill occurring in the northern part of the mapped area. The topography of the area coupled with its climatic condition has imparted greatly in the weathering of the rocks reducing most of the gneisses to clayey material and schist to clayey materials leaving the quartz veins and a lot of pegmatite veins exposed due to the low resistance of gneisses and schist to weathering.   


The studied area is characterized by dendritic drainage pattern because of the ruggedness of the topography and the differential resistance of the lithological units of the geology of the area, it is made up of hills and valleys impacting a dendritic patterm of drainage system . However because of the even distributions of the river system, forming the dendrtic pattern of drainage system and the climatic conditions of the area, the vegetation is ever green with tall trees and shrubs. The mapped area falls within the guinea coca trees and characterized by the presence of tall grasses, tall trees with broad leaves. The tress are scattered and deciduous (they shed their leaves during the dry season). The soil type mostly encountered in the mapped area includes the lateritic sol having a reddish colour due to the presence of iron. The soil is sticky when wet and hard when dry. This soil type impart on the occupation and the type of crops grown in the area which is extensively tubers like yam, cassava, cocoyam and tree crops like cocoa trees and plantain due to the accumulation of nutrients in the B-horizon. The soil type contains iron and aluminium compounds. 





Geological field mapping exercise is the preliminary study usually carried out to understand the geology of an area. A geological map identifies and shows the distribution of various rock types in area. Geological mapping is essential for both the economic, academic and financial growth of a nation. Geological field mapping is a very important exercise in the field of geology and geosciences generally, its an exercise carried out to collect information about the different rock lithologies in an area, structures exhibited in them, type of rock, mode of occurrence, texture, colour and mineralogy. 
Samples are also analyzed to determine the petrology which helps to confirm the rock name and origin as well as general age of emplacement and metamorphism in the case of metamorphic rock. The research methodology used, materials employed, observations, results and conclusions are discussed in this report. This report also includes the list of different rocks found, their economic importance, mineralization and petrography. The field mapping and petrographic study of the rock sample was done to delineate the different rock type present in the area and to integrate the previous works on the geology of the area in order to delineate the mineralization zones. 


The aim of this work is to thoroughly understand and establish the geologic history and events that led to the formation of the present geology of the area. The objectives of this study are; 
1.      To produce an accurate geological map of the area. 
2.      To carry out petrographic analysis of the rocks encountered. 
3.      To identify the different rock lithologies present in the study area. 
4.      To understand and establish the geologic history of the study area 
5.      To analyze structural data acquired and their relevance to the current geology of the study area. 
6.      To generally analyze the economic value of the rock lithologies found in the area. 


The study area covers Bolorunduro community and its environs. Plot 20B of the master sheet. Ife north local government Osun state , Nigeria. The area lies approximately between latitude 7015’n and 7012.5’N and longitude 4037.5’E and 40 40’E, covering an estimated area of 25km2. The study area is located in Atakumasa local government area of osun state n southwestern Nigeria. The important settlements are Bolorunduro, Egbejoda, baba Ibadan, Abusoro, kajola, Onikanga. 


Traversing the study area was fairly easy due to the presence of minor roads and footpaths and with the assistance of the villagers, who help to locate the existing outcrops in an initially inaccessible area, stream channels were also used as traverse, communities and hamlets are interconnected by footpaths. Accessibility by these footpaths is fair and further enhanced by the extensive cocoa plantations which have well worn footpaths. The topography of the study area is uneven and characterized by ridges, hills and valleys. The uneven topography is caused by the crystalline nature of the rocks found in the area which make them resistant to weathering 


The study area falls within the tropical humid climate region where the wet and dry seasons are noticed prominently in the area. Just like any other parts of the south western region of Nigeria. The dry season is between November and February while the wet season is mostly between April and October. The mean minimum temperature observed is 36.20c (Iloeje 1972).the mean annual rainfall is between 1100mm and 1500mm. The vegetation of the area is similar to that of the tropical rainforest where there are high trees and shrubs, the vegetation here is characterized by the presence of thick tropical evergreen forest.  





The total amount of water in the earth is virtually constant but it’s distribution over time and space varies to a great extent. Wherever people live, they must have a clean and continuous supply of water as a primary requirement of human beings. The assessment of quality, supply and renewal of water is a well known problem, but it is becoming critical with the growth of population and rapid industrialization in Nigeria. The rising population in Nigeria of about 180 million requires knowledge of proper waste disposal. Wastes are dumped recklessly with little environmental regards in major cities of many states in Nigeria including Kwara state. Increase in population, changes or improvement in wages, massive expansion of the urban areas and the changing lifestyle or better standard of living, as well as improvement in technology in Nigeria has encouraged solid waste generation (UNICEF 2001). Although solid waste is an asset when properly managed. Its volume has continued to increase tremendously in recent times. 
In Nigeria, much has been, and is being, invested on municipal solid waste management in cities. Little progress has been made because of severe financial, technological and institutional constraints within the public and the private sectors. There is erratic growth of housing units in the inner core of urban cities (Ojeshina, 1999; Omishakin and Sridhar; 1985). Waste can be defined as any material lacking direct value to the producer and so must be disposed off. Similarly, waste is any material that is thrown away as unwanted material (UNICEF 2006). The trend of uncontrolled and haphazard construction of groundwater facilities particularly shallow wells in the residential area with refuse sites is of great health concern, as this may contribute significantly to adverse impact of the aquifer as a result of overdependence and over abstraction with attendant negative effects. The term ”solid waste” means any garbage, refuse, or sludge from a waste treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semisolid, industries mining etc. Solid waste can however be classified into different types, depending on their source; household waste is generally classified as municipal waste; industrial waste as hazardous waste, and biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste. 


According to (Marshal, 1995), open dumpsites are a major problem to the environment, especially on the air that the people inhale. Dumpsites emit obnoxious odours and smoke that cause illness to people living in, around, or closer to them. Dumpsites maybe a source of airborne chemical contamination via off site migration of gases and the particles and chemicals adhering to dust, especially during the period of active operation of the site. Contamination of soil and groundwater may lead to direct contact or pollution of indoor air, for example in the case of volatile organic chemicals into basements of nearby residents and in the case of consumption of home grown vegetables as well and volatile organic chemicals have been detected in odored air of homes nearby Attempts by Nigeria government, groups and individual to check these problems include composting, open burning and refuse dumping in rivers. These attempts had severally failed because of their inadequacies (Ige, 2003 and Asiwaju-Bello, 2004).  
The general belief that wastes are sometimes hazardous to health cannot be overemphasized. According to (Porteous , 1985), “Hazardous waste can cause and has caused pollution, damage to health and even death”. The environmental problem posed by solid wastes ranges from health hazard, soil and water pollution, repulsive sight, offensive odour and occupancy to increase in ambient temperature levels. These are most experienced where the waste are not properly disposed off or managed. The resultant effect of these is the degradation of our environmental quality. Wastes are dumped in water dumping bodies across the major cities in Kwara state. Also the municipal wastes are collected and burnt in the open space in Oke Sunna and Iya Kororo dumpsite while untreated waste are allow to run through the water bodies in Ipata to large river e.g Asa .The practice of burning and streaming discharge of industrial waste, destroy the organic component, oxidizing metal, thereby enriching the ashes left behind in metal. The leachates from these dump site percolate the soil and pollute the aquifer in the surrounding areas thereby affecting the water qualities. The realization of the polluting effects of landfill leachates on the environment has prompted several studies. These include studies on domestic wastes (Sridhar et al, 1985), leachate quality (Aluko et al, 2000), as well as underground water quality (Loizidou and Kapetanios, 1993).  

1.2.1    AIMS

To evaluate the pollution potential due to toxic  metals from  dumpsite and  impact on the quality of groundwater in selected areas . 


This project examines spatial variation in solid waste composition and management in Ilorin Metropolis and these objectives include: 
  To assess the water quality of the study area. 
  To determine the extent of ground water pollution in the study area. 
  To determine effect of water pollution if any.  


Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials. Olorunfemi and Odiata (1998) reported that lack of solid waste data in Ilorin is the most conspicuous and probably most important problems militating against the successful management of solid waste effectively by the Nigerian Waste Management Authorities.  The city of Ilorin falls into southwestern and North central on geological and political classifications respectively. It is the capital town of Kwara State, Nigeria, with a population estimate of 2,185,494 people (NPC, 2007) which is responsible for the generation of waste often deposited in open spaces, river banks, road side etc. thereby degrading the quality of the environment, Ilorin comprises of three Local Government Areas namely: Ilorin West, Ilorin  Ilorin South and Ilorin east which is the study area.  The study area (Ipata-Oke Sunna and its environ) is located within latitude 80 29.400’’ N and 80 30.500’’ N and longitude 40  33.00’’  E and 40  34.500’’E. 
The approximate area extent of the Ipata slaughter house is 1.5.0x102m2 while the dumpsite in Oke Sunna has an approximated area extent of 2.5 x102 m2 and that of Iya- Kororo dump site has an approximated area extent of about 2.3 x102 m2. The inhabitants of these areas are mostly traders. Geologically, the area lies on the Precambrian Basement complex of southwestern Nigeria and is underlain by rock of metamorphic and igneous type. However, migmatite predominantly underlies the waste dump site and characterized by weathered regolith which vary in thickness from place to place. The hydrologic setting of the area studied is typical of what is obtained in other Basement complex area  where the availability of water is a function of the presence of thick-little clay overburden material and presence of water filled joints, fracture or faults within the fresh Basement rocks, these makes it a good ground for a study of this nature.   In Ipata – Oke sunna and its environ, animal waste are allowed to run directly into Asa river, and mountain of refuse in Oke sunna are left uncleared and unmanaged. There are 21 dumpsites in Ilorin 108 roro bin but none was found in Ipata-Oke Sunna and its environ. Lack or inadequate waste disposal situation is manifestation of improper waste disposal scheme within easy reach of the communities and the industries in these areas.   


According to Ifabiyi (1999), the climate of the city of Ilorin is tropical continental with high temperature throughout the year. It is characterized by wet and dry seasons. Ilorin falls within derived savannah vegetation, covered with the existence of dry lowland rain forest vegetation cover. The wet season is between March and October while the dry season is between the months of November and February. The total annual rainfall in the boundary of the state in the north ranges from 800mm to 1,200mm, in the northwestern parts of the state we have 950mm to 1,300mm while in the southeast is 1,000 mm to 1,500mm.
Kwara state has several rivers which include: river Asa, Awon river, Oshin and Moro in the central state with a mean temperature of 300C to 350C while humidity is relatively moderately high. The amount of rainfall in the southern part is relatively higher than what is experienced in the northern part of the studied area. The vegetation is mainly in between the deciduous woodland of southern Nigeria and the dry savannah of Nigeria. These are essentially made up of grass cover, shrubs and medium sized trees or the guinea savannah type (Olaniran, 1982 and Ileoje, 1985). The vegetation of Ilorin is composed of species of plants such as locust bean trees, shear butter trees, elephant grasses, shrubs and herbaceous plants among others are common in this area. The vegetation of the study area has partial rain forest but most parts of the areas are savannah-like with tall grasses and scattered trees. During the rainy season the forest and the bushes are green in colour and difficult to access mostly the eastern part close to Asa river. This case is quiet different during the dry season when the bushes are brown in colour and sparse of grasses. 





Barytes is an orthorhombic mineral with chemical composition BaSO4. It possesses one perfect cleavage and two good cleavages, as do the isostructural minerals. The mineral has a specific gravity of approximately 4.5, and it is relatively soft, approximately 3 on Mohs scale. The colour ranges from white to yellowish, grey, pale blue or brown and a thin section is colourless. Barytes (BaSO4) are heavy spar, inert and stable. These properties make them valuable. Barytes, formerly used chiefly as filer and adulterant, is now used in glass and paints industries and the oil well drilling industries which consume 80 percent the world production. Barytes group minerals include the sulphates (SO42_) of barium (barites or barite), strontium (Celestine) and lead (anglesite). The structure of barite has sulphate group lying on a reflection plane, two oxygen of the sulphate group lie within this plane, and two oxygen and minor images across it. Each barium atom is coordinated by twelve oxygen atoms and seven separate sulphate groups. Baryte, the most common barium mineral, is abundant in moderate to low-temperature sulphide veins, being associated with fluorite. It occurs mainly as gauge minerals in metalliferous hydrothermal veins and as veins or cavity filling concretion in limestones, sandstone, shale and clay (Dunham 1984). 


The origin of barite according to Hatch wells (1971) can be supported by the following model:                                                        
I.      Anatexis                                                     
II.     Differentiation of basaltic magma from the upper and lower crustal rock by fusion.                                                  
III.    Carbonitic origin. 
Anatexis ; this is the partial melting and recrystallization of pre existing rocks which is attained as high temperature, low pressure and shallow depth (Hatch wells, 1971). The melt composition depends on phase relationships in the solid and the temperature and pressure conditions of melting. (Hatch wells, 1971). Differentiation of basaltic magma derived from the upper mantle and lower crustal rock by fusion olivine crystallizes out of the melt due to reduction in temperature.
STAGE 1; this is the early stage during which Mg/ Fe rich mineral like Olivine crystallize out of the melt, due to reduction in temperature. 
STAGE 2; this is the intermediate stage when the rock forming minerals crystallize out of the melt. 
STAGE 3; this is the late stage of crystallization during which the residual magma rich in water and volatiles crystallize out. The product of this stage is usually pegmatite rocks in which barite minerals are associated with. Also in this series minerals higher above, crystallize out of the melt before the ones below and the earlier formed minerals may react with magma to form mineral lower in reaction series. Iv carbonitic origin; this is divided into 3 main types; 
a)      Late barite replacement carbonites which are commonly ankeritic, sideritic or maganiferous and also contain fluorite and have contained fluorite and may have RE-Th species. 
b)      Veins and replacement bodies outside the complex, usually in unaltered wall rock, barites alone, barite plus fluorite or quartz or carbonates. 
c)      Residual barites accumulation and supergene barites developed by weathering of carbonitic complexes.


Specimen of barites are generally nearly pure BaSO4. Barium (Ba) can be replaced by strontium (Sr) in a continuous solid solution series from barites to Celestine. Members of this series with a preponderance of Ba, molecule are called strontibarytes and these near the Sr end are called baryto-celestine (Heinrich and Vian, 1996). Appreciable replacement of Ba by Pb or by Ca is uncommon and it has been shown that at room temperature only about 6% CaSO4 can enter into solid solution in barites structure. The solubility of barite in water is very slight but it is increased by heating and by the presence of chlorides. When gently heated some crystal of barite deprecipate giving of H2S (Dunham, 1984).


The area studied is within the Guma Local Government of Benue state between latitude 07035’06’’ and 08012’56’’N and longitude 23’02’’ and 009007’52’’E, within the lower part of the middle Benue trough that contains cretaceous sediments.


The climate is tropical with seasonal variations classified as wet and dry seasons, the middle Benue has a more prolonged wet season within early march to mid October while dry season is between late October and early march. The wet season fluctuated more but generally lies between late April to early October while dry season lies between early October and late April at upper Benue Temperatures are generally high between March and April and October to early February. However in some years when harmatan is severe the dry season last longer 


The middle Benue is generally characterized by a gently undulating topography which is punctuated by few hills. As one ascends the Benue trough through the middle to upper part of the trough the topography becomes rough. At the upper Benue, relief is exaggerated by hills like the lamudes and ligri, which rise up to 600m above the sea level. 


The vegetation of the middle Benue is of the guinea savannah and is made up the shrubs, tall grasses, scattered coconut and palm trees and a lot of mango and citrus trees 


The Benue trough is drained by river and it tributaries meandering from north to south. Most of the river channels dry up during the dry season. The pattern is generally dendritics in the area studied. 


The Benue trough is defined as an intercontinental cretaceous basin about 1000km in length stretching in a NE-SW direction and resting unconformable upon the Precambrian basement (Barber, 1957). It is commonly subdivided into three main domains corresponding to both geological and geomorphological portion. 
·         The upper Benue trough is the northeastern Y-shaped part of the basin and can  be sub divided into three domain, the Yola-Garua branch trending WNW-ESE, the Gongola branch and the Muri-Larnide domain trending NSS’’E 
·         The lower Benue rough shifted south west includes two main structural units, the N 600E trending Abakaliki antclinorium flanked by the Anambra syncline trending N300E 
·         The middle Benue trough is the linear part of the basin





1.1   General Introduction

Field mapping is an indispensable exercise in geology because geology is a field oriented discipline. It is in this basis that this work was carried out and a report presented on the geology of Ilaka. This field project is an exercise in accordance to the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of bachelor of sciences. Geologic mapping exercise was carried out on Ilaka and its environ, to determine and understand the geology of the area. Nigeria lies approximately between latitude 4N and 15N and 3E and 14E, within the pan African mobile belt in between the west African and Congo Cratons in the region of late Precambrian to early Paleozoic orogenesis. The basement complex is made up of Precambrian rocks and consists of schist belts folded in them. 
Previous works have been carried out on the basement complex of Nigeria and it has bed shown that this is the most abundant lithology in Nigeria (Rahaman, 1988; Dada, 2006;Odeyemi, 1977) of which the study area (Ilaka-Ife) is not exempted. Geological mapping of rocks around Ilaka-Ife area was carried out to map out the different lithology in the area through detailed examination of the various rocks both in filed and laboratory studies by examining and mineral behavior relationship, micro and mega structure and their textural properties. The main lithologic units in the study area include; granite .gneiss which are massive and quartzite which occur at the south eastern upward to the north eastern parts of the plot. Although considerable work has been done in this study area by Odeyemi (1977), Oyawoye (1964) but new ideas about this area are required to improve and integrate the information about the rocks in this area and to achieve this aim, field work was embarked upon and detailed geologic mapping was done and documented with collections of samples for further analysis to be carried out in the laboratory. 

1.2   AIM

The aim of this geological mapping exercise in the area is to produce a detailed geological map 


The project was carried out in order to achieve the following objectives 
·         To determine the rock types underlying Ilaka environs. 
·         To produce a detailed geological map showing the boundaries between the rock types 
·         To carry out petrographic analysis on the rocks encountered.     


The plot covered by this study lies approximately between 4052.5’ and 4035’E and equally lies between latitude 7010’ and 7012.5’N. The size of the plot is 5km, the plot of study (Ilaka) is about 35km from Akure and it is situated west ward of Akure.


The area studied is typically characterized by a combination of highland and lowland terrain. With reference to the topographic map, the northwestern, North central, northeastern and south central parts of the study area are characterized as lowland environment with the contour lines that are well spread. The relief of the area is relatively rugged, the highest point on the plot is about 1200m. The granite gneiss from the highland. The trend of the ridges is more or less north-south which conform to most other ridges in the southwest, therefore, the characteristics features of the study area are the undulating relief type. 


The climate condition of Ilaka plot 12B falls within the tropical humid climate region where the wet and dry seasons are noticed prominently in the area. The prevailing seasons the dry (November- February) while the rainy (April-October). The mean minimum temperature observed ranges from 200c in January to 230c in February, while the mean maximum for the hottest month August is 260c. The vegetation of this area is dense vegetation with thick bushes and tall trees that cannot be easily accessible during the peak of the rainy season 

1.4.3   DRAINAGE

The drainage system of the study includes the streams and rivers using the topographic map as a guide, a major river (Owena river) which flows roughly across the plot from north-south. The numerous tributaries all originates from the hilly areas and they flow north to south to connect with the major river the flow pattern of the drainage is dendritic. The drainage pattern shows the resistance of the underlying basement rock and their structural features, and also tells about the fracturing pattern of the rock since fractures goes along way to impact on development of stream or rivers, the drainage pattern of the mapped area is largely dependent on the topography of the area. The study area is drained by a number of streams and channels which are tributaries of the Owena river. 





The Precambrian basement complex of Nigeria as an integral part of the west African craton  is known to have been subjected to various episode of deformation. These activities reflect in the presence of geological structures like folds, foliations and fractures of varying magnitudes. Remote sensing can be applied in the study of regional structures particularly those that extend over hundreds of kilometers. One of such mega structures is the Ife Wara-Zungeru fault which extends in the western and northern parts if Nigeria. The magnitude of the fault and its extent over a complex litho-structural terrain make the area a good subject of study. 


The following are the objectives for carrying out this study;  
a)     To identify and analyse lineaments over the study area. 
b)     To establish the continuity of the lineaments on the southern and northern parts of the Nupe basin. 
c)     To compare the effectiveness of different remotely sensed images in detecting and interpreting lineaments. 
d)     T o evolve a model on the tectonic evolution of the Ifewara-Zungeru megalineament.                   


The area of study lies on the western half of Nigeria bounded by longitudes 4030’E to 7030’E, and latitudes 7000’N to 11000’N. An area bounded by longitudes 6000’E to 7030’E and latitudes 10000’N to 11000’ was included to investigate the continuity or otherwise of the fracture zone. The study area is underlain by Precambrian basement complex rocks and a part of the cretaceous Nupe Basin. Prominent in the area are the Idanre hills and Efon ridges which extend northwards to Oke Onigbin ridges and Kisheriki hills in north central Nigeria. These hills serve as catchment and sources for the rivers that drain the area. The Osun, Owena, Ogbese and Ose rivers flow southwards into the atlantic ocean while the Asa, Oyi and Oro rivers flow northwards into the river Niger. Rivers Koriga and Sarkin Pawa drain into the Kaduna river which in turn empties into the river Niger. The study area is covered by various vegetation types ranging from rain forest in the south, through Guinea savanna to sudan savanna characterized by grassland with scattered shrubs in the north. A few forest reserves dot some parts of the southern area. Some major towns in the study area include Akure, Ibadan, ilesa, Ilorin, jebba, Kaduna, minna, mokwa, osogbo and zunger. 


Although the basement complex rocks in the western half of Nigeria have been studied through geological mapping very little work has been done using remote sensing. The schist belts in particular have received a lot of attention apparently due to its complex nature and mineralization. It has been known to consist of low to medium grade schists, metaconglomerate, quartzites, calc silicate gneises, banded-iron formation, amphibolites and other meta-igneous rocks ( Truswell and Cope, 1963; McCurry, 1976; Rahaman, 1973, 1976; Turner, 1983; Odeyemi, 1976,1977,1988,1988;Adekoya, 1993). In addition, prominent workers have studied other parts of the basement complex (Hubbard, 1975; Odeyemi, 1981; Fitches et al., 1985; Braide, 1992; Okonkwo, 1992). The geology and structural disposition of rocks in the Ilesha schist belt have been earlier studied and various evolution models have been suggested ( Elueze; 1977; Odeyemi, 1981; Ajibade, 1976; 1982; Turner, 1983; Ajibade et al, 1986; Ananaba and Ajakaiye, 1987). For example, Hubbard (1975) first recognized a major NNE-SSW trending Ifewara fault that separates the rocks of Ilesha schist belt into two structural units with contrasting lithologies. Geophysical methods have also been employed in the study of this area. Ako et al, (1978) first established a lithostructural break among the rock units, but ascribed it to silicification which itself is indicative of healing along a fault zone. 
Olasehinde et al. (1990) studied aeromagnetic anomalies and their correlation with some lineaments in the basement complex of Nigeria. Folami (1992) also carried out aeromagnetics mapping over a part of the Ilesha schist belt. Results of the study show the presence of a continuous structure which trend and location agree with the Ifewara fault earlier recognized by hubbard (1975). Idornigie and Olorunfemi (1992) carried out geoelectrical survey which indicates a high degree of the Nupe Basin. Also, two sets of fault trending along the NW-SE and NE-SW directions were recognized. A regional aeromagnetic mapping of crustal lineaments was carried out by Ananaba (1991) in an attempt to assess the possible risks of dam failure in Nigeria. A lineament study of northern Nigeria using landsat images was carried out by Ananaba and Ajakaiye (1987) to correlate lineament density with mineral occurrences, results of the study suggest that primary mineralization in Nigeria is tectonically controlled. 


None of the previous works in the study area was aimed at establishing the regional continuity of any particular structural feature by combining satellite-based and aircraft-based data sources for a study. Therefore this effort is focused at studying the Ifewara-Zungeru megalineament through a combination of many remote sensing techniques. Such a study would provide more information on the Precambrian evolution, tectonics as well as mineral and energy resources within the study area. In addition, the results can be useful in mineral exploration since the presence and types of minerals depends on geologic antecedents along the megalinear. This is the reason for choosing this trend of study.   

AJIBADE, A.C. 1976. Provisional classification and correlation of the schist belts of northwestern Nigeria. In; C.A. Kogbe(ed.), Geology of Nigeria, Elizabethan Publishing Co., Lagos, pp. 85-90 





Niger delta is one of the sedimentary basins in Nigeria. It is a pericratonic basin found at the margin of craton and therefore regarded as open ended basin. The inception of the delta started in the early cretaceous time and since that period, it has been the scene of at least three depositional cycles (Evamy, et al. 1978) The development of the delta has been dependent on the balance between the rate of sedimentation and the rate of subsidence. This balance and the resulting sedimentary pattern appear to have been influenced by the structural configuration and tectonics of the basement rocks. The barrier bars and fluviate sediments may precede the transgressive episodes which terminate the cycles. Details of the surface geology of the area have been published by the geological survey of Nigeria. The Formation Nomenclature has been improved and defined by Reyment (1957). It suffices to note that the tertiary Niger delta covers an area of about 75,000km2 and is composed of an overall regressive clastic sequence which amounts to a maximum thickness of 9,000 t0 12,000 meters (Evamy, et al, 1978). 
Precisely Niger delta originated as a result of RRR triple joint development in the early cretaceous period (Burke et al 1975).  The geologic history of the Niger delta has been dependent/controlled by three major tectonic phases. Two arms of the RRR-tripple generation spread continuously bringing the continent of Africa and south America to their present position. The third arm closed before the end of cretaceous after spreading for 30,000,000 years from Benue Abakaliki trough. The Formation within the Niger Delta includes Benin, Agbada and Akata Formations. Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs including pollen, spores, orbicules, dinoflagellate cysts, acritachs, chitonozoans and scoledonts together with the particular organic matter (pom) and sediments palynology does not include diatoms. Foraminiferas or other organisms with silicaceous or calcareous exoskeletons. Palynology is an interdisciplinary science and is a branch of earth science (geology or geological science) and biological science (biology), particular plant science (botany). Stratigraphical palynology is a branch of micropaleontology and paleontology and paleobotany which studies fossil palynomorphs from the Precambrian to the Holocene. 
The earliest reported observations of pollen under a microscope are likely to have been in the 1640s by the English botanist Nehimiah grew who successfully predicted that pollen was required for successful reproduction in plants. The earliest quantitative analysis of pollen was published by Lennant Van Post who laid out the foundation of modern pollen analysis in his Kristiania lecture of 1916. Pollen analysis was initially confined to Nordic countries because many early publications were in Nordic languages. This isolation ended with the publication of Gunnar Erdtmans thesis of 1921 when pollen analysis became widespread throughout Europe and North America for use in studies of quartenary vegetation and climate change. The term palynology was introduced by Hyde and Williams in 1944 following correspondence with the Swedish geologist Antevs, in the page of the pollen analysis circular (one of the first journals devoted to pollen analysis produced by Paul Sears in North America). Hyde and Williams chose palynology on the basis of the greeks words (paluno) meaning to sprinkle and pale meaning dust (and thus similar to the latin word pollen). Palynomorphs are broadly defined as organic walled microfossils between 5 and 500 micrometers in size. 
They are extracted from rocks and sediment core both physically, by wet sieving often after ultrasonic treatment and chemically by using chemical digestion to remove the non-organic fraction. Palynology is used for a diverse range of applications that are related to many scientific disciplines such as pharmaco-palynology, paleo-botany, forensic-palynolgy, paleo-climate, paleoenvironment, archeology and anthropology, micropalynology and paleontology. Biostratigraphic and geochronologic geologists use palynological studies in biostratigraphy to correlate strata and determine the relative age of a given bed, horizon, Formation or stratigraphical sequence, paleocology and climate change. Palynology can be used to reconstruct past vegetation (land plants) and marine and freshwater phytoplankton communities, end to infer past environmental (paleoenvironmental) and paleoclimatic conditions. Organic palynofacies studies examine the preservation of the particulate organic matter and palynomorphs. 


The Niger Delta occurs at the southern end of Nigeria boardening the atlantic ocean. It extends from the Calabar flank and Abakaliki trough in the eastern Nigeria to the Benin flank in mid western part of Nigeria and opens to the atlantic ocean in the south. It extends from a bout longitude 50-90E and latitude 3030N 6O20’N. it is separated from Dahomey basin in the west by the Okitipupa ridge. It is bounded in the north by the Anambra basin, in the east by the basement Oban massif. The Calabar flank lies at the Eastern part of the delta Calabar flank whose cretaceous rocks show a predominance of marine facies is traced to marine transgression in Cenomanian. These cretaceous trangression led to subsequent development of the stratigraphy of different sedimentary basins. After the first two main tectonic phases that took place in the Abakaliki-Benue trough and the Anambra basin (Albian to lower Campanian), a third phase connected at the end of Eocene. Major part of the areas in the eastern section of the delta downdip (the Abakaliki plunge and the Calabar flank) recorded constant erosional or non depositional periods in the middle or upper Eocene, whereas Anambra basin witnessed deltaic sediments. However, the NE-SW and NW-SE trending faults controlled the positive movement of blocks and brought about subsidence of the Oligocene and younger Niger Delta basin along the NW-SE fault trend. The fault also controlled the sedimentation. Maastrtchtian sediments encountered in coastal boreholes on the Benin and Calabar flanks are all of marine origin. They are similar to Nkporo shale while absence of coal-bearing beds in Benin and Calabar flanks was due to erosion or non-deposition. 


The rocks of the Niger delta have been discussed in numerous studies, including frank and Cordy (1967), Short and Stauble (1967), Evamy et al (1978) and others. Short and Stauble (1967) suggested that the major source rocks where shales of the Agbada Formation. However Weber and Daukoru (1976) proposed deep Akata Formation hydrocarbon and migration rates that induced growth faults. Evamy et al (1978) and others have conclude based mainly on maturation studies, that Akata Formation is the main source rock in the eastern part of the delta. The Agbada Formation deposited in the mixed marginal or transitional environment consist of sand and shale ( paralic sequence) which becomes more sorted and sandy upward. This unlike Benin Formation is intensely affected by the syndepostinal deformational structures of the Niger Delta and rich microfaunal assemblage at the base. The oldest unit, the prodelta facies (Akata Formation) is composed mainly of shale. This unit is highly rich in microfaunal assemblage of which the planktonic forms may account over 50%. The geology 9 evolution, tectonic setting, stratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, structure and petroleum geology) of the Niger Delta have been revealed based on the past works petroleum/oil exploration companied like SHELL BP, NAOC and MOBIL.