THE ROLES OF GIS ON THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF DISTRIBUTION OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES

THE ROLES OF GIS ON THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF DISTRIBUTION OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of Study
Events, assets and facilities are all location bound. For centuries, maps have been the major source for depicting land related information. The management of resources for sustainable development has spurred new ways and technology for planning and development. Geographic Information System, a
computerized tool that consists of (computerized) map, a database of descriptive information (attributes), and a set of software that performs complex spatial operations, is one of the new technologies available for management of resources. Using GIS, management and allocation of resources through the effective use of shared data can provide a better service through efficient and effective decision-making. The inclusion of photographs, video and sound can improve the GIS performance turning it to a more realistic tool for spatial analysis. Education is the bedrock of the development of any nation;it is one of the most important factors in Nigeria’s quest to become one of the largest economies by the year 2020. However, with the recent state of education in Nigeria, measures need to be taken to overhaul the system in order for it to serve as a reliable and efficient vehicle for the attainment of the vision. Primary education is a program of public education followed immediately by secondary or college schooling. It begins generally at the age of six and continues for five to six years. According to Encarta (2009) public school is an elementary or secondary school controlled and maintained by civil authority, acting through official board expending public money, and open to all local children. Public schools include grade or grammar schools, junior and senior high school, and vocational schools. Private school is program of instruction that is created and controlled, operated, and principally financed by private individuals and groups rather than by government. Unlike public elementary and secondary schools, which are free, nearly all private schools charge some form of tuition. Many definitions exist for GIS; some of these definitions seem to restrict GIS to a particular application. Meanwhile, Worboys, (1995), defines Geographic Information System (GIS) as “a computer-based information system that enables capture, modeling, manipulation, retrieval, analysis and presentation of geographically referenced data”.

First, GIS are related to other database applications, but with an important deference – information is linked to a spatial reference. Other databases may contain locational information (such as street addresses, codes etc.), but a GIS database uses geo-references as the primary means of storing and accessing information

Second, GIS integrates technology. Whereas other technologies might be used only to analyze aerial photographs and satellite images, to create statistical
models, or to dra maps, these capabilities are all oered together in GIS.

Third, GIS, with its array of functions, should be viewed as a process rather than as merely soware
or hardware GIS for making decisions. The way in which
data is entered, stored, and analyzed within a GIS must determine way information will be used for a specific research or decision making task. To see GIS as merely soware or hardware system is to miss the crucial role it can play in a comprehensive decision making process. This project intends to establish the importance of GIS in accurate decision making for the eective management of educational facilities. GIS for the management of educational facilities in public primary schools in Uvwie local government area of Delta state Nigeria is studied. It is demonstrated in this paper that GIS is a very important tool in the management of educational facilities. This project is highly significant in Nigeria and many other third world countries where management of educational facilities are done manually and therefore slow and inaccurate. A GIS database for public primary schools in Uvwie and environs will be of great importance to the state government as well as the cooperation of all Nigerians, non- governmental organization and
private sector in achieving objectives of education.
It is extremely important to access the facilities through the use of a GIS database. With this database there is a potential to improve eiciency of schools through the planning and management of resources and the display of geographic knowledge. Analysis from the database can be carried out in several significant ways.
A GIS database created can assist the present government in proper distribution of schools, improve the existing infrastructure and provide additional infrastructure for planning and management of educational resources. The research will enable us to know the spatial and temporal distribution of public primary schools in the study area. In the last part of this project are some recommendations and conclusion.

 

 

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THE ROLES OF GIS ON THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF DISTRIBUTION OF EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES

FUNCTIONS OF THE MINE INSPECTORATE; CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL MINISTRY OF MINES AND STEEL DEVELOPMENT IN LAGOS STATE)

FUNCTIONS OF THE MINE INSPECTORATE; CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL MINISTRY OF MINES AND STEEL DEVELOPMENT IN LAGOS STATE)

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Mining in Nigeria has been in existence for over 2,400 years with first mining taking place in the form of craer mining as experienced by the people in the course of seeking for natural resources within their community to satisfy their social and economic needs. This was the issue with the very old and dateless
civilizations as seen in the Nok Culture (340 BC), the Igbo Ukwu bronze civilization (705 AD) Ife and Benin Bronze works flourished between 1163–1200 AD and 1630–1648 AD, as follows, using basic clays, base metals and gold and numerous others. Mine work is naturally dangerous and, with poor health and safety conditions and overcrowding in mine hostels, it also supported and contributed to a growing tuberculosis disease, specifically among mineworkers in the gold mining sector. Irrespective of the fact that there have been tremendous growth and improvements in the health and safety conditions at Nigeria’s mines, the Department of Mineral Resources is to a great extent concerned that deaths as a result of disasters, injuries and occupational diseases still occur in the sector.
The Mining Inspector is an authority for challenges that has to do with the Minerals Act. The Mining Inspector is chief of the Mining Inspectorate and is selected and chosen by the Government. The Mining Inspector’s duty is to carefully examine the applications and issue permits needed for exploration and
exploitation of mineral deposits and to supervise compliance with the law. The Mining Inspectorate on the other hand makes sure the needed information is made available to prospectors and mineral companies, landowners, the general public, county administrative boards and municipalities. The efficiency
and productivity of a Mines Inspectorate will be to a large extent dependent on a variety of practical matters: where and how it chooses to deploy its scarce resources; how it desires, seeks to manage and maintain its independence and hide from capture by respective stakeholders; how it communicates with trade unions and worker representatives and seeks to utilize their capacities; how it maintains and manages its skills base and how it makes sure that it has the capacity and ability to accomplish increasingly complex regulatory tasks. Mining by definition is an industry with many sides and a complex chain of activities, operations, process intensive and strongly aected by external factors starting from weather to commodities prices. Over and above these built-in issues, we would like to point out other key issues that are now the talk of the day within the mining industry. These issues comprise attracting new skilled workers, water management, regulations, and grade & quality decline.
According to a recent SME (Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration) study “Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Mining Industry”, in 2019 the industry will need almost 80,000 extra replacement workers due to retirement. In other to attract new professionals to the industry and encourage young students to chase an education in mining entails a contemporary method from diverse fields and partnerships ranging from technical teams, human resources, public relations, schools, suppliers, and R&D. In the end, major goal for this industry is to introduce itself as an attractive and exciting industry for career growth and enhancement.
Water is oen times a challenge in the mining industry. Water has always been very important for the mining industry and its relevance is increasing very fast. Mining companies have an attractive track record for delivering consistent growth in safety and risk governance standards. There is no doubt that the professionalism and expertise that exist within the industry will continue to make sure that any new and emerging risk challenges are dealt with in an equally determined fashion.

 

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FUNCTIONS OF THE MINE INSPECTORATE; CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL MINISTRY OF MINES AND STEEL DEVELOPMENT IN LAGOS STATE)

 

THE SUBSURFACE MAPS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN THE OIL INDUSTRY

THE SUBSURFACE MAPS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN THE OIL INDUSTRY

 

ABSTRACT
Seismic interpretation data and applications are the key element of a rapid technological evolution in the remote sensing of the subsurface maps that has resulted in geoscientists movement from data poor to data rich Stewart, S. A. 1999. The proliferation of subsurface data has profoundity the productivity of oil exploration of industry within last two decade. This is radically impro aeved of the ability to predict what lies beneath the earth surface, exploration and production. Log in construction maps (well) are the supplemented by 2-D data (seismic section and maps) in the 1950s and by 3-D seismic data from the 1970s onwards Davies R. I., Bell B. R. and shoulders S. (2002). However, the evolution of the point are the essentially dealt with a seismic constructions maps without the used of fourth dimension-time and the advent of a recent recorded change in the subsurface due to hydrocarbon extraction overtime. Today, exploration involves the extraction of more geological information from the seismic signals than ever before (Leadholm et al 1985).

 

 

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RESISTIVITY METHODS USED IN HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL DISCONTINUITIES IN THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GROUND WATER DETECTION

RESISTIVITY METHODS USED IN HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL DISCONTINUITIES IN THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GROUND WATER DETECTION

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
The resistivity method is used in the study of the horizontal and vertical discontinuities in the electrical properties of the ground and also in the detection of three dimensional bodies of anomalous electrical conductivity. In the study of ground water movement in obubra area, the the resistivity method commonly
employed are the electrical resistivity method. Electrical resistivity method is one of the most useful techniques in groundwater geophysical exploration, because the resistivity of rocks is sensitive to its ionic content (Alile, et al., 2011). The method allows a quantitative result to be obtained by using a controlled
source of specific dimensions. Records show that the depths of aquifers dier from place to place because of variation in geo-thermal and geo-structural occurrence (Okwueze, 1996). Therefore, the need to study the area for groundwater potential especially in terms of determining the flow direction is a prerequisite for portable ground water exploration and exploitation in this area.

Location And Geology Of The Area
The study area lies between latitudes 50 15′ and 60 15′N and longitudes 70 45′ and 80 45′E. It is located within the sub-equatorial climatic region of Nigeria with a total annual rainfall of more than 300 to 400cm. Temperature ranged from 250C to 280C. The area experiences two seasons, these are the wet season
which lasts from April to September with a peak in June and July while the dry seasons lasts from October to March (Iloeje,1991). The study area is underlain by two major lithologic units: Crystalline basement and Cretaceous sediments. The crystalline basement rocks occupy the extreme south of the study area. Also, there are intermediate rocks scatteredin patches around Obubra, Iyamayong, Iyamitet, Ikom, Nkpani and Usumutong. The Cretaceous sediments cover about 90% of the study area. Asu River Group is the basal and oldest recorded sediment in the study area. It is dominated by bluish gray/black to olivine brown shale and sandy shale, fine – grained micaceouscalcareous sandstone and siltstone with limestone lenses. The shale is
oen carbonaceous and pyritic which indicates that the sediments were deposited under a poorly oxygenated shallow water environment of restricted circulation, an indication of low energy environment (Petters et al., 1987). In general, Southern Obubra lies within the Cross River plain and the clastic beds in the study area can be ascribed to the Ezillo Formation. The Ezillo Formation comprises mostly dark gray shales with fine sandstone and siltstone intercalations in the lower part, and an upper unit that is highly bioturbated, fine medium sandstone, similar to the sandstone of the Amaseri Formation. The Ezillo Formation between Appiapum and Ikom was deposited in a deltaic coastal plain, in brackish marshes and inter-distributary bays (Barth, et al., 1995). A major river (Cross River) exists in the study area into which minor streams empty their loads. The elevation of the study area ranged from 14 to 170m above sea level. The relief is characterized by undulations running at undefined direction and variably demarcating the very lowland areas from moderate relief landmarks. The occurrence of the low plains is occasionally broken by inselbergs of granite and basalts in the southern portion of the study area. In the sediment filled portions, the low plains are occasionally broken by flat -topped hills of sandstone ridges and igneous intrusive with highly ferroginized sandstones with gravels resulting from uplis. The area is drained by the Cross River with major tributaries like, Udip, Ukong, Lakpoi, Okwo, and Okpon rivers. These rivers form a network of dendritic drainage system.

Aim Of The Study
The general aim of this study is to rely on the application of resistivity method to determine and model the direction of underground water as well as the hydrogeological pattern around Obubra area of Cross River State, Nigeria.

Literature Review Of The Area
basement provinces groundwater occurrence depend exclusively on discontinuities like fractures, joints, fissures, and weathered litho – zones. The fissures of crystalline rocks are limited to shallow depths, and water movement is lateral in the direction of the gradient downwards to the drainage area. Fracturing
and fissuring is a common phenomenon in basalts because of the tectonic chilling eects on them, which develops fractures. About60% of ground water is habited in weathered – fresh bedrock transition with aquifer yields of 0.2 – 3.5 l/sec.(CRBDA, 1982). According to Petters (1989) recharge to the weathered
zones and joints system is greatly retarding significantly lateritic cover areas. This is attributed to the high content of the impermeable clay in the laterite. CRBDA (1982) put the yield for this province (weathered zones) at 84.4 – 345.6 m3/day. Static water level (SWL)is between 4.6 – 19.8 m in Obubra and 12.2 –
21.4 m for part of Ikom in the study area. Boreholes depths range between 25 – 47m in the study area. Shale – sandstone or shale/siltstone province is the largest hydro- geological province in the study area, occupying about 70% of the study area. This area cuts across locations like Obubra,Apiapum, Nko, Ekori, Ugep, Ochom, and Agara Ekureku. It constitutes the geologic Asu River Groupand Eze – Aku formation. These sediments are slightly folded, tilted and at times broken by faults. Fractures, fissures and joints commonly occur in sandstones and sandstone ailiated sediments, but are commonly restricted to shallow
depths of 20 – 50 m. Permeability of the study area is influenced by the nature and texture of the sediment type, constituting the study area. For example permeability is moderate in porous, fissured and fractured sandstone/Shale but very low in impervious shale and siltstones. (www.ccse. net.org/ Journal of
Geography and Geology Vol. 4, No. 3; 2012). Shale/siltstones province record very low aquifer yield of 0.05 – 0.5 l/sec, while some sub area like siltstone/limestone record up to 2.02 l/sec (CRBDA, 1982)

 

 

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RESISTIVITY METHODS USED IN HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL DISCONTINUITIES IN THE ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GROUND WATER DETECTION

 

HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENT OF AKPABUYO STREAM, CROSS RIVER BASIN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENT OF AKPABUYO STREAM, CROSS RIVER BASIN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Heavy metals pollution of aquatic ecosystem is becoming a potential global problem, pollution typically refers to chemicals or other substance in concentration greater than it would occur under natural conditions. Water pollution is the introduction by man of substances into the aquatic environment
resulting from deleterious eect as harm to human health (FAO 1990).The presence of increased level of heavy metals in the aquatic environment has been of much concern for the past decades due to adverse eect
of some metals on living organisms in food chains leading to man. Pollutants are the cause of major
water quality degradation around the world. Several toxic metals which are important to the environment and human health have been detected in aquatic media. These toxic metals include the non-essential meals and are no importance to humans (Borgman and Norwood 2002).
Trace amount of heavy metals are always present in fresh water from terrigenous sources such as weathering of rocks resulting into geo-chemical recycling of heavy metal elements in these ecosystem. Trace elements may be immobilised within the stream sediments and could be involved in absorption,
co-precipitation and complex formation. Sometimes they are co-adsorbed with other elements as oxides, hydroxides of Fe, Mn, or may occur in particulate form.
Heavy metal may enter into aquatic ecosystem from anthropogenic sources, such as industrial wastewater discharge, sewage wastewater, fossil fuel combustion, and atmospheric deposition. Trace element in stream sediment compartment can be used to reveal the history and intensity of local and regional pollution. In this work, the of stream sediment contamination was assess using geo-accumulation index.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of the current study area are:
1. To assess the extent and degree of metals, and the origin of these metals, using the geo-accumulation index of the metals.
2. To determine the total content of heavy metals in surface sediments of Akpabuyo.
3. To estimate the anthropogenic input and to assess the pollution status on the area.

1.3 STUDY AREA
The study area which is located in Akpabuyo, Cross River State lies between longitudes 80 22I 30II E – 80 30I 0II E and latitude 40 52I 30II N – 40 57I 30II N (fig With an area of 126,4032 Square Km. Although many stream samples where collected but few was selscted for the heavy metal analysis. The various
Locations in Akpabuyo which sediment samples were collected and used to carry out the analysis are Esuk Mbat stream(L1), Esuk Ekpo Eyo Stream(L2), Ikot Akwa Stream(L3), Dan Archibong Stream(L4), Itu Stream(L5), Ikot Ndarake Stream(L6), Asioha Stream(L7), Ikot Ekpo Ene Stream(L8), Ekpene Ikot Imo
Stream(L9), Ikot Nakanda(L10), and their following coordinate shown respectively (table 1.3) . It originate from a hilly region and flows through several villages and farmland

 

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HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION IN SEDIMENT OF AKPABUYO STREAM, CROSS RIVER BASIN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

GEOLOGY OF WESTERN AKING AND ITS ENVIRONS AND HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION IN SURFACE WATER STREAM SEDIMENT, AKING-WEST,SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

GEOLOGY OF WESTERN AKING AND ITS ENVIRONS AND HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION IN SURFACE WATER STREAM SEDIMENT, AKING-WEST,SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
The study area is situated in Akampka Local Government Area of cross river state (figure 1) and the area forms part of the Oban Massif which constitutes the basement complex of south eastern Nigeria (fig2)the area lies between latitude 050 221N and 050 261N and longitude 0080 361E and 0080 381E greenwich
and covers about 72km2 The study area consist of such Mappable units of the amphibolitesfacies rocks and they include gneisses, amphibolites intruded by quartz veins, Pegmatites veins and dolerite (Rahman et al, 1981, Ekwueme, 1990) The Oban massif is surrounded in the North by the Mamfe Embayment, in the west by the Benue trough, in the south by the Calabar flank and extending into the Cameroon in the East. The Oban Massif is overlain by cretaceous tertiary sediments of the CalabarFlank (Ekwueme, 1990)

LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY
The study area is restricted toAking-Westand its environs and covers an area of land consisting of three main settlements namely, Osomba, Mankorand Aking,all in Akamkpa L.G.A of cross river state.
The study area is accessible through the major road (the Calabar-EkangRoad) which extends to the Cameroonborder. Several other minor roads facilitate accessibility into various locations within the study area.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The Nigerian basement complex which includes Oban massif in the southern part of Nigeria where the study area is located shows the least investigated and therefore presented as an undierentiated basement complex in the geological map of the region (geological survey Nigeria sheet 50). Oyawoye (1964) recognized three subdivisions in the Nigeria Basement.
1. Ancient Metasediments
2. Gneisses, Migmatites, Older Granite
3. Younger Metasediments Rahman, (1976) also recognized four major Petrologicalunits in the Basement Complex of Nigeria as follows:
1. Migmatic – gneiss – quartzite complex (Esurnean,2000ma )
2. Meta-igneous rocks
3. Slightly magmatized to non-magmatizedparaschist
4. Older granite and diorites Rahman Et al (1981) also reveals from preliminary studies of the west and north western part of the Oban Massif the following Major lithologic Rock Units recognized:
1. unmetamorphoseddolorite to meso-diorite intrusive
2. magmatitic and sheared gneissic rocks paraschist,phyllites,quartzites and metaconglomerates, amphibolites and metadiorite, aplites and foliated pegmatites.
3. Older granite intrusive series comprising granodioritemetadiorite, mellitus to granitic rocks, weakly foliated to unfoliatedpegmatites, aplites and quartz veins. Nigeria lies in the Pan-African belt which has been assigned an age of 450-750Ma though Cohen et al (1984)suggested 450-1100matheoccurrence of Bauchite–Charnokiteintrusive at Akor along Calabar-Ekang Road.The rocks here exhibit striking similarity in terms of mineralogy and petrography with those that have been reported in the northern part of Nigeria. This striking similarities, the Lithologicand Lithotectonicsetting between the basement of Oban massif and
those in the Northern part of Nigeria suggest that the metamorphic evens tectonism, magmatism and metasomatism which the basement rocks were subjected to were the same (Rahmanet al, 1980).
Ekwueme and Onyeagocha, (1986) showed two classes of metamorphic rocks in the age of the rocks in Uwetarea (Oban Massif) that extends to the study area, these are older and younger metasediments.
1. The older metasedimentary series were deposited 2,500ma age, and are made up of gneiss and migmatites of low grade metamorphism that ranges from middle green schist to uppermost amphibolitesfacies grade(products of barrovian type of regional metamorphism) which some authors refer to as gneiss migmatites – quartzite complex.
2. The younger metasediments are low grade metasediment deposited some 1000-800ma referred to as the newer sedimentary series that comprises of the pelites and semi-peleles.
This age relationship between metasedimentarysequence and the occurrence of garnet, staurolite, hornblende, biotite and fayatite conforms with the view of Rahman, (1986)
Whole rock rubidium – strontium has been used by Ekwueme Et al, (1988) on the basis of geochronology to obtain ages of 527±16ma and 676±26ma for gneisses and schist in parts of Oban massif respectively. The dataof 676±26ma represents the main phase of Pan – African orogeny in the area whereas527±16Ma depicts retrogression, may be during the warring stages of the same orogeny. The age data above are used to correlate other similar rocks elsewhere in Nigeria.

 

 

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GEOLOGY OF WESTERN AKING AND ITS ENVIRONS AND HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION IN SURFACE WATER STREAM SEDIMENT, AKING-WEST,SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA