IMPACT OF NON-TRADITIONAL VARIABLES IN HEALTH CARE RISK ADJUSTMENT: A CASE STUDY OF UTH, UYO, AKWA IBOM

IMPACT OF NON-TRADITIONAL VARIABLES IN HEALTH CARE RISK ADJUSTMENT: A CASE STUDY OF UTH, UYO, AKWA IBOM

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
The business of risk adjustment has come a long way since the publication of the Academy’s “Monograph Number One” with the title, “Health Risk Assessment and Health Risk Adjustment—Crucial Elements in Eective Health Care Reform” in May 1993. Less than ten years later, we had hospital inpatient
diagnosis-based approaches, such as the model used by the Market Stabilization Pool for small group and individual coverage in NYS in conjunction with mandated community rating. The PIP-DCG approach for Medicare + Choice, also inpatient only, soon followed.
Risk adjustment models have included variables such as demographic (i.e. age and gender) and clinical markers based either on ICD-9 diagnosis codes and/or pharmacy codes such as the National Drug Codes (NDCs). Literature points to other variables such as geography, Body Mass Index (BMI), education,
and income that also explain the variation in health care cost – but have hitherto not been included in risk adjustment programs mainly because such variables are not typically found in claim data. If these nontraditional variables explain meaningful variation in cost beyond traditional risk adjustment models – then this may provide incentives for issuers to select certain members. If such incentives lead to selection that aects the financial performance of issuers – then the policy goals of the risk adjustment program will be undermined. Recognizing the importance of fortifying risk adjustment programs against
selection based on nontraditional variables, the Society of Actuaries’ Health Section sponsored an in-depth study into the relationship of nontraditional variables with health costs. This report presents the results of this study. We used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data in this research. Specific details concerning the data and preparation can be found in Section 3.2. This data is unique in that it includes a large number of individual characteristics (from BMI to whether a person has diiculty enjoying hobbies) together with healthcare claim data. There are limitations to the use of MEPS data, and these limitations are discussed further in Section 4. The results of this research demonstrate that it is important to adjust the traditional risk adjustment model in order to recognize nontraditional variables. The report develops a new measure (Loss Ratio Advantage or LRA) to help quantify the potential of a nontraditional variable to aect
a risk adjustment program. With the help of this measure, the report compares the importance of over thirty variables that were systematically narrowed down from a list of over fieen hundred variables describing various characteristics of the general population (i.e. the purchasers of healthcare insurance coverage). The nontraditional variables were broadly categorized into

(1) demographic

(2) economic,

(3) lifestyle,

(4)psychological self-assessment (i.e. how a person feels about their mental health)

(5) physical self-assessment.

 

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IMPACT OF NON-TRADITIONAL VARIABLES IN HEALTH CARE RISK ADJUSTMENT: A CASE STUDY OF UTH, UYO, AKWA IBOM

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS ON THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PATIENTS TREATED FOR MALARIA FEVER (BETWEEN 2001 AND 2010) (A CASE STUDY OF COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH CENTRE OTAN AYEGBAJU OSUN STATE)

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS ON THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PATIENTS TREATED FOR MALARIA FEVER (BETWEEN 2001 AND 2010) (A CASE STUDY OF COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH CENTRE OTAN AYEGBAJU OSUN STATE)

 

ABSTRACT
This project work reveled the rate at which people are infected with malaria the least square method used for analysis showed that people are infected with malaria irrespective of the time and seasons of a successive year,There is no noticeable direction as regarding the number of patient treated for malaria over time. Also, the analysis from autoregressive moving average report shows that both autoregressive and moving average of order four were both appropriate while the report from autocorrelation and countenance does not
indicate any noticeable trend in the number of patients treated for malaria.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
The term time series refers to one the quantitative method used in determination pattern in data collected over time e.g weekly monthly, quarterly or yearly. Time service is the statistic tool or methodology that can be used to transform past experience to predict future event which would enable the researcher or organization to plan.
It gives information about how the particular case of study has been behaving in the past and present and such information can be used in prediction The number of people treated for malaria fever at the otan Ayegbaju management hospital. Comprehensive health centre otan. We are going to seen how change
occur over mouths in each year in the occurrence of the disease in the hospital.As a result of this, we will be able to know certain factor responsible for increase or decrease in the rate of infection of the disease over the period of time. Record of time series data can be made in the following ways:-
1. THROUGH CUMULATIVE FIGURES:- these represent value of input through the quarter. We must always bear in mind the dierent when handling time series data and as certain which particular type we are dealing with in every case.
2. CUMULATIVE TYPE ADDED COMPILATION:- some cases when an added compilation introduced for the cumulative type of data the figure which are related to month of the year and not the total for month. further more the characteristic movement, seasonal variation Irregular variation in the analysis of time series, we have two types of model are generally accepted as good approximation of the true data association among the component of observed data, they are the most commonly assumed relationship between time series and its components. These are additive model and Multiplicative mode. All time series contain at least on of four of its components. These components are:-

  • Long term trend
  • Seasonal variation
  • Cyclical variation
  • Irregular or random variation value

 

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TIME SERIES ANALYSIS ON THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PATIENTS TREATED FOR MALARIA FEVER (BETWEEN 2001 AND 2010) (A CASE STUDY OF COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH CENTRE OTAN AYEGBAJU OSUN STATE)

HALITOSIS AMONG STUDENT IN SHEHU IDRIS COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, MAKARFI, KADUNA STATE

HALITOSIS AMONG STUDENT IN SHEHU IDRIS COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, MAKARFI, KADUNA STATE

 

ABSTRACT
In fact, the aim of this study is to create awareness on the Halitosis among students in SICHST Makarfi Local Government Area, Kaduna State. Halitosis or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odor exhaled in breathing. Halitosis is a condition acting both male and female in
all ages, Halitosis can cause by eating of certain foods, like cooked eggs, garlic, onions, smoking and drinking alcohol, which when absorbed into our blood stream, are transferred to the lungs and exhaled breath will be produced as bad breath, suering from some systemic disease such as liver, kidney, diabetic
mellitus, and digestive track infection whereby gases are blocked from passing the stomach or intestines.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Halitosis or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odor exhaled in breathing (Gage, 2007). Halitosis can be important social problem in which the standard dental treatment and mouth wash that are  recommended provide only temporary relief. The smell is from an oral source due to bacterial activities (Rosemberg, 2002). Oral malodor is primarily the result of microbial metabolism, the mouth is a home of hundreds of bacterial species with various nutritional preferences. The most common location for mouth related halitosis is the tongue. Tongue bacterial produce malordor and fatty acid and count for about 80 to 90 percent of all cases of mouth related bad breath. Large quantities of naturally occurring bacteria are oen found on the dorsum of the tongue, where they are relatively undisturbed by normal activities. This part of the tongue is relatively dry and poorly cleansed and bacterial populations can thrive on remnants of food deposits, dead epithelial cells and post nasal drip. The convoluted microbial structure of the tongue dorsum provides an ideal habitat for anaerobic bacterial, which flourish under a continually – forming tongue coating of food debris, dead cells, post nasal drip and overlying bacteria living and dead when  on the tongue the anaerobic respiration of such bacterial can yield either the putrescent smell of indole, skatole, methyl mercapton, alloymethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide (Tonzentich, 1997).
The organism digest protein, and several fatid substance arise leading to bad breath. Oral malodor from the overgrowth of proteolytic, anerobic gram negative bacterial the creavices of the tongue dorsum can be successfully diagnosed and treated (Lochner et al, 2000).
There are several causes of halitosis although the main one is oral bacterial over 90 million people suer
from chronic halitosis which is medical term for bad breath in most cases halitosis originate from the gums and tongue, caused by bacterial from the decay of food particles, other debris in the mouth and poor
oral hygiene. In most cases (85-90%) bad breath originate in the mouth itself.
The intensity of bad breath during the day, due to eating of certain foods such as garlic, onions, meat, fish, egg, cheese, smoking and alcohol consumption, since the mouth is exposed to less oxygen and is in active during the night, the odor is usually worse upon awakening (morning breath). Bad breath may be transient of ten disappearing following brushing teeth, flushing or rinsing with special mouth wash (Tammy Devenport, 2007). Bad breath may also be persistent (chronic bad breath). Which is a more serious condition affecting some 25 percent of the population in varying degrees. It can negatively act
the individual’s personal, social and business relationship leading to poor self esteem and increased stress. Halitosis is a medical term for bad breath and this is quite serious as a social disorder. Halitosis can cause extremely embarrassing situation in social interaction and relationship at work

 

 

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HALITOSIS AMONG STUDENT IN SHEHU IDRIS COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, MAKARFI, KADUNA STATE

KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The use of drugs dates back into the pre-history of man. Such drugs were used to relieve pain or cure and control diseases (Curew and Dibal, 1999). Drugs as defined by the World Health Organization (1967) is any substance which taken by living organisms may modify the functions of living organism. The National
Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC, 1999), stated that situations of ill-health provide the compelling need for drugs that is in order to modify the functions of the body and restore it to life. However, the major issue with drugs is not in its use for curative purposes but in the abuse and misuse of these drugs especially when these drugs are psychoactive drugs.
The consumption level of hard drugs has risen sharply in Nigeria within the last two decades. Such drugs like heroine, cocaine, cannabis and even alcohol have in recent times become so easily accessible by individuals of much cancer is the high prevalence of the use of these drugs among adolescents.
Adolescents use drugs for several reasons among which are, for experimentation, mere fun and excitement, peer pressure, to get over depression and other psychological problems, etc. However, the use of these drugs among young people has so much eect on individuals, families and the society at large. The problems range from social, psychological, economical and even political problems. This paper therefore seeks to find out the reasons for drug use among secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State and the perception of the eects of these drugs on the health and academic performance of students.
The use of hard drugs including alcohol and cigarette is a major source of health and psychological problems among adults and young people in both developed and developing countries, including Nigeria. It is generally believed that most people who use these substances oen begin at an early age and
may continue throughout life. Adolescent stage is usually viewed as a period of experimentation where young people seek to go beyond the protective shelter of adults thus involving in activities that are oen
detrimental to their health and well-being, such as the use of drugs. Despite hazards and other implications of drug use and use of these substances among young people, this study therefore seeks to find out the factors that contribute to this and proper solution to address these issues.

1.3 Research Questions
1. What substances are commonly abused by students in secondary schools?
2. What factors influence the use of drugs among students in secondary school?
3. Does awareness of health risk associated with hard drugs influence its use by students in secondary schools?
4. Are students aware of the implications of drug use?

 

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KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF DRUG USE AND ABUSE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

EVALUATON OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODAFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

EVALUATION OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

 

ABSTRACT
A study was carried to ascertain the potency of some techniques used in diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Two hundred and five samples (203) were collected from the patients from the university of Nigerian teaching hospital and was analysed using Elisa kit, which has the ability to detect
antibodies and antigens in the patients serum, the Western blots were used as the confirmatory test, to the Elisa test, In case where there is false positive of Elisa test, it is specific and sensitive, Radioastronomy looks for the antigens which are radioactively label. The patients result shows that 154 patients out of the 205 diagnosed were negative and only 51 patients were positive. The Elisa kit were best used because of its sensitivity and specificity. It is very cheap and can be easily seen in the market, unlike the Radioastronomy which are rare and very expensive to be used.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) a condition that slowly destroys the body Immune system and makes the body vulnerable to infections. The virus is typically called Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because it destroys the
Immune system of the individual which is responsible for protecting the individual from disease. The immunodeficiency associated with, HIV infection can be enormous, and it is the major cause of death, due to the dis-function of immune system. The problem with AIDS is , sits neurological dementia complex. HIV
is a lentivirus, a subgroup of retrovirus. The family of virus is known for lafency, persistent viremia, infection of the nervous system and weak hot immune system. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is small ultra-microscopic organism that infect living things and uses them to make copies of itself when one’s
Immune system is damaged by HIV, AIDS take place (Gallants, 1999).
HIV was first recognized in 1981 in Homosexual men in New York city. In the united states the HIV is now known to have originated from chimpanzees, transmission from chimps to human. Initially, there was wild speculation about what might be the cause of AIDs, but in 1982, the centre for disease control
had convincing epidermological evidence that AIDS was caused by a new infectious agents. Dulbecco et-al (1983, located small quantities of the new virus named Lymphademopalty virus (LAN) but enough to be used an antigenina blood test which showed that AIDS patients were infected with the virus. WHO, (19097), responded that the number of patients living with AIDS has escaculated, a figure of 9000 was confirmed by may 1997. In African AIDs was first responded in 1982. In Nigerian it was first responded in 1986, among commercial sex workers in Lagos and calabar. In 2003 the seroprevalence has been on the increase, despite the comprehensive and successful prevention eort in many part of the would, 4. 1 million new HIV infection was expected to have occurs In 2003 alone, which could have been contributed by an estimated 9,020 to 10,000 infection per day. Currently, the health problem in Nigerian considering reports from various hospitals particularly, the tertiary hospitals, place AIDS infections in Nigerian at a very serious state. the potential and propensity for widespread is enormous and the debilitating and negative eect n the economy, the population category affected the working class and the dependents which constitute the penultimate individuals to the working class. HIV infections in this direction and orientation should be healed as a national emergency in Nigeria.
Meanwhile, Dr. Robert Gallo’s laboratory begin recovering a virus from AIDS patient, and reported the finding in the science journal. A number of these vinal isolated was introduced together into continuous cell cultures to see if a strain of the virus could replicate in the cells one did replicates and Gallo’s named
the virus HIV. III because of the resemblance to two human T-lymphotropic viruses. (Neser, 2001).

 

 

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EVALUATION OF CURRENT TECHNIQUES IN DIAGNOSES OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV)

HEALTH CARE COST OF LIVING AND ITS EFFECT ON THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY

HEALTH CARE COST OF LIVING AND ITS EFFECT ON THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
An effective health care is a basic and inevitable human need. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2005), fly percent of economic growth differentials between developed and developing nation is attributable to ill-health and low life expectancy. Developed countries spend a high proportion of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on Health Care because they believe that their resident health can serve as a major driver for economic activities and development. To this end, Governments in Nigeria, over the years have been making frantic eorts at ensuring that there is an increase in the level of public expenditure on health. In 1970, recurrent expenditure on health was N12.48 million. This figure rose astronomically to N52.78 million and N132.02 million in 1980 and 1985 respectively. This trend continues as the expenditure rose steadily form 575.3 million in 1989 to N68.20millions 1991 and further to 72290.07 million and 98.200 million in 2007 and 2008 respectively. The aforementioned scenario clearly underscores the fact that health care expenditure in Nigeria has been on the increase over the years. However, in spite of all these increase, much impact has not been made in the area of reduction of infant, under five and maternal mortalities since 1970. For instance, the Nigeria’s rate of infant mortality (91 per 1000 live births) is among the highest in the world, and the immunization coverage has dropped below thirty percent while the mortality rate for children under age five is 192 deaths per one thousand. By year 2007, it was reported that more than one hundred and thirty four thousand women died from pregnancy complications. In addition, the life expectancy ratio on the average has been on the decline over the study period. It should however be noted that despite the increase in government expenditure in health care in Nigeria, the contribution of this to health is still marginally low whereas the extent and magnitude of its impact on economic growth is undetermined . The relationship between human capital and economic growth has received generous enquiries in the literature .The significance of Human capital in achieving sustainable economic Growth has been documented. Growth theories suggest the role of human capital in achieving significant growth in the
economy. The economic view of human capital encompasses education, health, training, migration, and other investments that enhance an individual’s productivity. Outcome from several studies seem to suggest that there is a positive correlation between health status and sustainable economic growth. The wide acceptance of this nexus prompted the prominence of health outcome in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In fact three of the goals are health specific while the others can also be regarded as health enhancing. Thus, the development of human capital becomes more important in many resource constraint countries like Nigeria. The opportunity costs of spending on health is very high and thus the need for a justification on the increase or otherwise of health spending in Nigeria. Incidentally, Nigeria is among the developing nations with poor health outcomes and its attendant problems. The health status of Nigeria is still considerably low and exists below that of some countries in West Africa. Low life expectancy at birth, high infant and maternal mortality rates, malaria and tuberculosis afflictions are some of the characteristics features of the Nigeria`s health status. Life expectancy at birth in Nigeria was estimated at only 48 in 2007, compared with 56 in Ghana. This is complemented by the high numbers of women who die of complications during pregnancy or childbirth.
Although the global maternal mortality ratio of below 400 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births in 2008, the maternal mortality ratio for Nigeria was 1100 per 100 000 live births, still on the high when compared to 560 and 910 in Ghana and Guinea respectively. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among adults aged 15
and above infection has contributed significantly to Nigeria’s low life expectancy (WHO 2010). It was estimated at 2,886 per 100,000 people. It is above the Prevalence rate in Ghana (1722), but below that of Cameroon (4580). Also, the per capital income in Nigeria is low, with more than half of the population
leaving below the poverty line. Thus, provision of adequate funding for health care either by the household or the government remains difficult.

 

 

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HEALTH CARE COST OF LIVING AND ITS EFFECT ON THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY

AN ANALYSIS OF THE INCREASE IN MORTALITY RATE AS A RESULT OF ABORTION AMONG YOUNG WOMEN

AN ANALYSIS OF THE INCREASE IN MORTALITY RATE AS A RESULT OF ABORTION AMONG YOUNG WOMEN

 

ABSTRACT
This study attempted to analyses reasons responsible for increase in abortion related mortality rates among young women in Benin metropolis.The survey research design was used to carry out the study, and the random sampling technique was used in selecting public places; such as schools, hospitals religious
organization and shops in the three Local Government areas; Egor, Ikpoba-Okha, and Oredo, that makes up the Benin metropolis. The study was organized using a sample of two hundred and fly (250) respondents, randomly selected from these three areas. Questionnaire and unstructured interview were used to elicit responses from respondents. The validity of the questionnaire was carried out by three lecturers from the department. The reliability of the instrument was determined using the test retest method. The instrument was administered to twenty respondents who were not part of the final study, and at an interval of two weeks the same instrument was again administered on the same group of respondents. The scores obtained were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient with a result coefficient of 0.68. The data obtained through questionnaire were analyzed using frequency counts and simple percentages. Results obtained indicated that:
1. Abortion was identified to be responsible for the increase in maternal mortality rate among young women in Benin Metropolis.
2. Mortality rates in abortion related cases can be reduced among young women in Benin Metropolis through sex education.
3. That there is a need for proper and special approach, which is individual confidential approach to counselling abortion victims.
4. That people are of the opinion that if abortion is made legal maternal mortality rate will not be reduced and will lead to high abortion incidence.
5. That government has a lot to contribute to issue of abortion related maternal mortality.
Conclusively, emphasis should be laid on sex education. A special approach (individual confidential approach) should be used in counseling abortion victims, in order to live a life out of shame. Government should provide free maternal and health services for teenage mothers. In addition, counseling centres for young mothers as well as social support to take care of unwanted children should be provided.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Abortion is a relatively used term. It is the word used to describe the act of termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability. The term “Abortion” most commonly refers to the induced removal of human pregnancy. It could mean a plan or arrangement
which takes place in the foetus before it can develop properly.
In Nigeria, as in all parts of the world, women experience unplanned pregnancy. Some of these women seek to terminate their pregnancies by safe medical methods or by other unorthodox methods available. The procurement of abortion is by no means a new phenomenon in Nigeria. The main reason why young
girls and women procure abortion is always changing. Increasingly, women procure abortion due to desire to avoid premarital births and to control family size (Aboyeji, 2003). However, abortion as it is used in this study is the act of terminating or stopping the development of a child in the womb of a woman either by medical operation or self medication. Abortion, when induced in the developed world in accordance with local laws is among the safest procedures in medicine. Notwithstanding, unsafe abortion occurs in approximately 70,000 maternal death and 5 million cases of disabilities are recorded yearly, globally

 

 

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE INCREASE IN MORTALITY RATE AS A RESULT OF ABORTION AMONG YOUNG WOMEN

 

IMPACT OF EARLY MARRIAGE AND THE PREDICTOR OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CHALLEGES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGDE HOSPITAL, IBADAN, OYO STATE)

IMPACT OF EARLY MARRIAGE AND THE PREDICTOR OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CHALLEGES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGDE HOSPITAL, IBADAN, OYO STATE)

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Although the prevalence of early marriage is declining, considerable proportions of young women continue to marry as children, that is before age 18 (Mahmud 2005). It is globally recognized that early marriage truncates girls’ childhood and circumscribes several rights of the girl child as outlined in the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), including the right not to be separated from their parents against their will (Article 9), the right to freedom of expression (including seeking and receiving information and ideas, Article 13), the right to education (Articles 28 and 29), the right to rest and leisure and to
engage in play and recreational activities (Article 31) and the right to protection from sexual abuse, harassment and exploitation (Article 34)(Graham 2002).
However, an increasing body of evidence from diverse settings shows that the long-held assumption that marriage is a safe haven for adolescent girls is untenable and that a number of health challenges are associated with early marriage. This article synthesizes what is known about the links between early
marriage and sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities of adolescent girls in developing countries like Nigeria.
Adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) comprises a major component of the global burden of sexual ill health. Although overlooked historically, international agencies are now focusing on improving ASRH and providing programmatic funding. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health rights are
based in various legal instruments: in 2002, the UN General Assembly Special Session on Children recognized the need to initiate, develop and implement health policies and programs for adolescents that promote their physical and mental health( Janz 2014); in 2003, the Committee of the Convention on the
Rights of the Child issued a General Comment recognizing the special health and development needs and rights of adolescents and young people(Langille 2000). Other supporting instruments are the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and the right to health—a
concept included in various international agreements such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the international Millennium Development Goals, which include indicators to reduce and eradicate if possible pregnancy rates among 15–19 year olds, increase HIV knowledge among adolescents, and
reduce the spread of HIV among young people. Various terms are used to categorize young people: “adolescents” refers to 10–19 year olds (divided into early [10–14 years] and late [15–19 years] adolescence); “youth” refers to 15–24 year olds; and “young people” refers to 10–24 year olds. In the world today,
approximately half of the population is under 25, with 1.8 billion people are between 10 and 24 years of age—90% of whom live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and many experiencing poverty and unemployment(Mago et al 2005). While sexual initiation and sexual activity vary widely by region,
country, and sex, in all regions young people are reaching puberty earlier, oen engaging in sexual activity at a younger age, and even marrying earlier(Mahat et al 2001); consequently they are sexually mature for longer before marriage than has historically been the case. The risks of neglecting Adolescent sexual
and reproductive health are much; a painful or damaging transition to adulthood can result in a lifetime of ill eects.
For girls, early pregnancy/ motherhood can be physically risky and can compromise educational achievement and economic potential. Adolescent girls in particular—face enormous risk of exposure
to HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sexual coercion, exploitation, and violence. All of these have huge impacts on an individual’s physical and mental health, as well as long term implications for them, their families, and their communities. An adolescent’s sexual and reproductive health is strongly linked to their particular social, cultural, and economic environment. In addition to regional variation, experiences are diversified by age, sex, marital status, schooling, residence, migration, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status, among other characteristics.

 

 

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IMPACT OF EARLY MARRIAGE AND THE PREDICTOR OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CHALLEGES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY COLLEGDE HOSPITAL, IBADAN, OYO STATE)

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

 

ABSTRACT
The child abuse menace is as old as the birth of the first child, until very recently child maltreatment has never been seen as a social problem. It was falsely assumed that such physical punishments are supposed to correct had behavior and ensure conformity. But the consequential distorted personality of the child disproves the assumption. This study aims at showing that it is only through the care of children will one gain experience and develops interest in finding out more about the affliction of the Nigerian child. In addition, the researcher hopes that who are able to read this will get to know and pray that the past experiences of these silent suers will serve to prevent tomorrow’s children from similar fate.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It has been the general assumption that children with reasonable physical care would grow into normal happy adulthood. But scientific investigations of psychologists, sociologist and psychiatrists regarding personality development has uncovered the greater importance of the growing up and its lasting effect
on the total personality of a person. Adult personality has its root in childhood. What we can do as adult is largely determined by ways in which we were allowed into experience inevitable events of childhood.
Thus the aim of this research work is to shed more light on the issue of child abuse and neglect in Kaduna South Local Government of Kaduna State.
A child is neglected when he lacks continues physical and emotional contact with his mother. Children under this category are those may be due to lose of mother or both parents or the separation of both parents, thus child may be sent to nursery school or orphanages with many children which makes it difficult
for special individual attention to be rendered to each child. Those children are therefore brought up
by stranger which could be changed at different times due to the shi of their study.
Child abuse on the other hand can be defined as the portion of harm to children that result from human action or in action that is prescribed, proximate and preventable. The definition recognizes that such harm is no accident but something perpetrated on children by others, usually intestinally and that the actors inflicting this harm do not enjoy society approval. It is also point out that abuse generally come from the child immediate environment and that it is preventable child neglect is a passive form of maltreatment or abuse UNICEF (1986).

 

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FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

 

HEALTH EDUCATION AS A PARADIGM TO ACHIEVING VISION 2020 IN NIGERIA NATION

HEALTH EDUCATION AS A PARADIGM TO ACHIEVING VISION 2020 IN NIGERIA NATION

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
According to Professor Emmanuel Ofeme, in Owerri, while delivering lecture at the 2nd Sam Okwaraji Memorial Lecture, Published by Chimaobi Uchendu, in the Sun News online sports of Friday, September 19, 2008, he said that unlike vision 2010, which was collaborative in its formulation and comprehensiveness
in articulation in scope, Vision 2020 is only a single track, very large organization, but low to change and interest of the people type of development strategy for the national economy of Nigeria, as it is only defined in terms of economy. This is the financial system strategy (FSS, 2020) model. Its main focus is to make Nigeria to become among the 20 best developed economics in the World by the Year 2020.
The former Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Governor, Professor Charles Soludo, is the source and author of this great vision 2020, which he recorded in 2007, and has listed educational reforms, among others, as vital to its actualization. In this write-up, the Health Education as a paradigm to the achieving of vision
2020 goals in Nigeria nation, shows the when, what, where and how the knowledge of Health Education can facilitate effectively the achievement of the Vision 2020 goals. And by referring to the National Policy of Education, or objective, Section 1, subsection 4(a), which says that, Education is an instrument for
national development, to this end, the formulation of ideas, their integration for national development, and interaction of persons and ideas are all aspects of education. This implies that, the education of a nation will result to a better citizen, made up of individuals who are mostly independent and can contribute, and take decisions to the benefit of their nation, and also themselves. And a country where people can live effectively
and healthy life will be easily developed through given health instruction and education to the people living in it.
According to an extract from the Keynote Address Delivered by Dr. P.S. Dakum, in Nigeria Journal of Health Education (NJHE), Vol. 15, No. 1, 2005, health in relationship to education is crucial to the development and advancement of the Nigeria economy. For Nigerians, only those who are educated, that can carry on the economical progress of the country. But to have a sound education for meaningful development, all Nigerians need to be healthy. But, furthermore, according to the reference given above, low level of health will result to low level education. To buttress home my point, to realize the goals of vision 2020 effectively, through the use of health education, there is need for the government and people of Nigeria to utilize Health Education tools, like access to good roads, building health care centre and providing adequate drugs, and also involving technocrats as administrators in various ministries, etc.

Statement of the Problem
The under-development and impoverished situation of the Nigerian economy, as it is visible in every time siphoning of the nation’s wealth to foreign banks, by incompetent leaders of this country. Insecurity of lives and properties, gross misconduct and corruption in high places, including among the law enforcement agencies and the police. Bad leadership and other existing unhealthy situation that has crippled the development of this country are the problems to be tackled.

Purpose of the Study
The way, thorough which educating of Nigerians, about their health and other health-related issues, can bring about a high standard of living. And tremendous advancement of the nation’s economy, to place it among the 20 best economies of the world by the year 2020, is what this project work entails.

Research Questions
1. How can vision 2020 goals using Health Education tools bring the all needed development?
2. Are the vision 2020 goals different from the developmental changes needed in Nigeria?
3. Is the peace of this nation different from the security of lives and properties?
4. Is the independence of the judiciary different from good leadership in Nigeria?

 

 

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HEALTH EDUCATION AS A PARADIGM TO ACHIEVING VISION 2020 IN NIGERIA NATION

IMPACT OF PUBLIC PIT TOILET SYSTEM AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS (A CASE STUDY OF UDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN ENUGU STATE)

IMPACT OF PUBLIC PIT TOILET SYSTEM AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS (A CASE STUDY OF UDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN ENUGU STATE)

 

ABSTRACT
A lot of public latrine poses a very serious problem to the people of Awka and also to other places across the country. The problem of open defecation which some people refer to as going to the bush or bush shitting has persistently been difficult to address in Awka and Nigeria because of the unavailability of good public and home toilets both in the cities and local communities or villages. A lot of people live without proper sanitation in Awka and these people have to decide on daily basis how to organize defecation without feeling ashamed or fear. Two hypothesis were formulated? To test the relationship between outbreak of disease and public latrine and the need for provision of latrine in public places. Data used for the study were collected from primary and secondary sources including questionnaire survey of the residents in Awka. From the analysis, it was found out that enough latrine are not provided in public places like markets, public compounds and even hostels thereby making the least provided to be overused and uncared for. The tests result shows that good latrine and the quality of life of the residents are significantly related. The recommendations made in the study include adequate provision of public toilets and toilets facilities as well as financing and maintenance of toilet facilities. It is hoped that the suggested measures of this study will go along way to improving the life residents in Awka territory

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
A pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human feces  in a hole in the ground. They use either no water  or one to three liters per flush with pour-flush pit latrines. When properly built and maintained they can decrease the spread of disease by reducing the amount of human feces in the environment from open defecation. This decreases the transfer of pathogens  between feces and food by  flies.These pathogens are major causes of infectious diarrhea and intestinal worm infections  Infectious diarrhea resulted in
about 0.7 million deaths in children under five years old in 2011 and 250 million lost school days. Pit toilets are the lowest cost method of separating feces from people. A pit toilet generally consists of three major parts: a hole in the ground, a slab or floor with a small hole, and a shelter. The shelter is known as
an outhouse. The pit is typically at least 3 meters (10 feet) deep and 1 m (3.2 feet) across. The World Health
Organization recommends they be built a reasonable distance from the house balancing issues of easy access versus that of smell. The distance from groundwater  and surface water should be as large as possible to decrease the risk of groundwater pollution. The hole in the slab should not be larger than 25 centimeters (9.8 inches) to prevent children falling in. Light should be prevented from entering the pit to reduce access by flies. This may require the use of a lid to cover the hole in the floor when not in use. When the pit fills to within 0.5 meters (1.6 feet) of the top, it should be either emptied or a new pit constructed and the shelter moved or re-built at the new location. The management of the fecal sludge  removed from the pit is complicated. There are both environment and health risks if not done properly

 

 

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IMPACT OF PUBLIC PIT TOILET SYSTEM AND ITS ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS (A CASE STUDY OF UDI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN ENUGU STATE)

SAMPLE SURVEY ON THE USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES DRUGS AMONG FEMALE STUDENT OF FACULTY OF SCIENCE (A CASE STUDY OF OSUN STATE POLYTECHNIC, IREE)

SAMPLE SURVEY ON THE USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES DRUGS AMONG FEMALE STUDENT OF FACULTY OF SCIENCE (A CASE STUDY OF OSUN STATE POLYTECHNIC, IREE)

 

ABSTRACT
This project has the aim of studying the uses of contraception drug among female student of faculty of science in Osun State Polytechnic, Iree. The study employed the use of statistical method like measure of central tendency, stratified sampling techniques, analysis of variance (ANOVA), co-eiciencies of
correlations. The result of the analysis shows that there is relationship between the student and their attitude towards contraceptives.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
All over the world statement, thinkers and demographers have been concerned with the rapid growth of population rate in the last four decades. A current rate of growth. The world population as at 21 May, 2010; the human population of the world is estimated by the United State Census Bureau to be 6822,
200,000. Annual birth have leveled at about 134 million per year since their peak at 163 million in the late 1990’s and an expected to remain constant. However, deaths are only around 57 million per year and are expected to increase to 90 million by 2050, because births out number deaths, the world’s population are
expected to reach 90 million between 2040 and 2050. The rapid increase in human population over the course of the 20th Century has raised concerns about whether earth is experiencing over population and
scientific consensus that is the current population expansion and accompanying increases in usage of resources are linked to threats to the ecosystem. Since as rising level of atmosphere Carbon oxide, global warming and pollution Due to this pace of growth, strategies were undertaken to curb the problem. This led to the emergency of “Contraceptive” drug. Other terms commonly used includes birth control, fertility regulation, Planned Parenthood and responsive parenthood, Huge amount have been spent on family planning and family planning programs just in a bid to popularize its importance and adoption in tertiary institution. Therefore, it is expected that there is a widespread knowledge of contraceptive drug among adolescent especially female student. Although, the adoption of there information varies, some have interesting and positive attitude due to passive orientation while others see the usefulness and go a head to practice it. Sexual activity is particularly high among unmarried youth and those who happen to use contraceptive and those who did not use with social concern in mind but more for personal reasons such as to avoid illegitimate births.
Contraceptive drugs should not only be seen in the view of population reduction alone but also in line with the misfortune that is associated with indiscriminate sexual intercourse. A growing population of adolescent not only initiates sexual intercourse at early stages, but also engages in having multiple sexual partners. Hence a high incidence of illegally induced abortion. In most cases, restrictions on abortion force women to rely on illegal abortion and as most young people are poor, they oen use unqualified abortionist, which leads to frequent severer health consequence such as sterility and death.
It is therefore time for the society to recognize that the health and even the lives of its young ladies must not be scarified in an attempt in an attempt to prevent their sexual activity. In most developing countries young ladies get married later and more start sex before marriage. This exposing them to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and unwanted sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) including HIV/AIDS. In these countries 20% to 60% of young women pregnancies and births are unwanted most coming sooner than planned. These pregnancies put young women health at risk through child bearing or unsafe abortion.
Increasingly, early parenthood means lost education as will as with life long loss of earnings. Evidence in Nigeria shows that induced abortion increasing and is considered to be a major cause of material mortality which quite high in Nigeria.
The question to ask ourselves now is, has the introduction of contraceptive use in any way helped to stem the rate of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) among women especially female student in the tertiary institution? The answer to this question bore is not affirmative.

 

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SAMPLE SURVEY ON THE USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES DRUGS AMONG FEMALE STUDENT OF FACULTY OF SCIENCE (A CASE STUDY OF OSUN STATE POLYTECHNIC, IREE)

 

ASSESSMENT OF PERCEIVED QUALITY OF PHYSIOTHERAPY SERVICES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA TEACHING HOSPITAL)

ASSESSMENT OF PERCEIVED QUALITY OF PHYSIOTHERAPY SERVICES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA TEACHING HOSPITAL)

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The idea of teaching hospitals in Nigeria is a very important segment of the country’s health care system, renderings wide range of modern and highly experienced and developed specialist services like acute, emergency, newborn, geriatric, diagnostic, rehabilitation, palliative and outpatient care. As segment of broad system that renders health services, teaching hospitals chip in to the nation’s health results in collaboration with other national health major components, together with higher education and training schemes meant for diverse disciplines including medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, medical technologist, paramedic and specialist training schemes. Over and beyond that, teaching hospitals also played significant roles in making sure diseases prevention strategies, health-promotion strategies, chronic disease management, other primary care services and accessible aged care are brought into existence and implemented. The teaching hospitals are designed to render and satisfy the diverse health needs of communities in Nigeria and beyond. Viewing it from the perspective of physiotherapy services, the patients desire to be referred by physicians or specialists through a referral letter in order to receive the needed physiotherapy services at rehabilitation medicine department which includes the first ‘Entrance’ between patients and physiotherapists.
Concurrent with the growing of our population is a meaningful rise in the frequentness of chronic diseases. This in turn has maximized the cravings for physical therapists and physical therapy services by all health agencies. The unaccustomed, unfamiliar need for services may outsmart and exceed the capabilities of the already existing medical facilities. There is also a fast growing need and urge for out-of hospital treatment programs with a concurrent shortage of competent and well to do physical therapists to sta
them. Irrespective of the expertise in therapeutic exercises and the available record of effectiveness
and productiveness, many people continue to live with physical disabilities all around the world, specifically in Africa, Nigeria. Access to rehabilitation for people with disability is deficient and wanting, not to talk of the rural communities, with the attendant economic and social outcomes if the status quo is maintained. Notwithstanding, physiotherapy being perceived from the positive sided positively by all referral groups of patients, there is still a differentiation of knowledge about the profession by the general public, which influences self-referral. Diverse referral practices exist among doctors based on the different views held by these doctors as to the conditions seen as amenable to physiotherapy or their therapeutic intentions when suggesting physiotherapy with or without other medications as noted by Akpala et al. Hurley 2002 opined that other factors that might act referral systems could be the age, sex of individual doctors, medical school attended, and previous experience of hospital or other rehabilitation services, and specifically of physical therapy. There is also a challenge in the employment of evidence-based practice by many physical therapists. Jetteetal.also pointed out that physical therapists had a desire to maximize the use of evidence in their everyday practice.
The reduced idea of public-health-oriented physical therapy can be seen in the midst diverse physical therapists. According to the chartered society of physiotherapy in the year 2010, physiotherapy workforce has a major significant role to play in the public health agenda through its contribution to the prevention of disease, promotion of good health, specifically through physical activity and development in the all-round quality of life. Numerous studies have indicated the urge to resolve these issues and put an end to the constraints in physiotherapy specifically in the Nigerian environment. Irrespective of being a large research work supporting the importance of physiotherapy for most effective and satisfactory public health of every nation’s citizenry, there still remains a need for a more public health-oriented well researched and reasoned physical therapy practice. On this premise, this study will assess the perceived qualities of physiotherapy services in University of Nigerian Hospital.

 

 

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ASSESSMENT OF PERCEIVED QUALITY OF PHYSIOTHERAPY SERVICES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA TEACHING HOSPITAL)

HEALTH EDUCATION AS A PARADIGM TO ACHIEVING VISION 2020 IN NIGERIA NATION

HEALTH EDUCATION AS A PARADIGM TO ACHIEVING VISION 2020 IN NIGERIA NATION

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
According to Professor Emmanuel Ofeme, in Owerri, while delivering lecture at the 2nd Sam Okwaraji Memorial Lecture, Published by Chimaobi Uchendu, in the Sun News online sports of Friday, September 19, 2008, he said that unlike vision 2010, which was collaborative in its formulation and comprehensiveness
in articulation in scope, Vision 2020 is only a single track, very large organization, but low to change and interest of the people type of development strategy for the national economy of Nigeria, as it is only defined in terms of economy.
This is the financial system strategy (FSS, 2020) model. Its main focus is to make Nigeria to become among the 20 best developed economics in the World by the Year 2020. The former Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Governor, Professor Charles Soludo, is the source and author of this great vision 2020, which he recorded in 2007, and has listed educational reforms, among others, as vital to its actualization. In this write-up, the Health Education as a paradigm to the achieving of vision 2020 goals in Nigeria nation, shows the when, what, where and how the knowledge of Health Education can facilitate eectively the achievement of the
Vision 2020 goals. And by referring to the National Policy of Education, or objective, Section 1, subsection 4(a), which says that, Education is an instrument for national development, to this end, the formulation of ideas, their integration for national development, and interaction of persons and ideas are all aspects
of education. This implies that, the education of a nation will result to a better citizen, made up of individuals who are mostly independent and can contribute, and take decisions to the benefit of their nation, and also themselves. And a country where people can live eectively and healthy life will be
easily developed through given health instruction and education to the people living in it.
According to an extract from the Keynote Address Delivered by Dr. P.S. Dakum, in Nigeria Journal of Health Education (NJHE), Vol. 15, No. 1, 2005, health in relationship to education is crucial to the development and advancement of the Nigeria economy. For Nigerians, only those who are educated, that can carry on the economical progress of the country. But to have a sound education for meaningful development, all Nigerians need to be healthy. But, furthermore, according to the reference given above, low level of health will result to low level education. To buttress home my point, to realize the goals of vision 2020 eectively, through the use of health education, there is need for the government and people of Nigeria to utilize Health Education tools, like access to good roads, building health care centre and providing adequate drugs, and also involving technocrats as administrators in various ministries, etc.

Statement of the Problem
The under-development and impoverished situation of the Nigerian economy, as it is visible in every time siphoning of the nation’s wealth to foreign banks, by incompetent leaders of this country. Insecurity of lives and properties, gross misconduct and corruption in high places, including among the law enforcement agencies and the police. Bad leadership and other existing unhealthy situation that has crippled the development of this country are the problems to be tackled.

Purpose of the Study
The way, thorough which educating of Nigerians, about their health and other health-related issues, can bring about a high standard of living. And tremendous advancement of the nation’s economy, to place it among the 20 best economies of the world by the year 2020, is what this project work entails.

 

 

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HEALTH EDUCATION AS A PARADIGM TO ACHIEVING VISION 2020 IN NIGERIA NATION

INFLUENCE OF DOCTOR-PATIENT COMMUNICATION FOR MANAGING DIABETES IN PORT HARCOURT

INFLUENCE OF DOCTOR-PATIENT COMMUNICATION FOR MANAGING DIABETES IN PORT HARCOURT

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Patient-doctor communication is a very important and essential branch of clinical practice. Once it is handled appropriately, it will surely have no choice but to yield a curative eect for the patient, as has been validated in controlled studies. The rate or way in which a doctor conveys information to a patient is as
paramount as the information being communicated. Patients, who understand their doctors well are more likely to dictate health problems, understand their treatment options, enhance their behavior as needed, and follow their medication schedules. Previous and numerous research works have shown that effective
patient-doctor communication have the power to improve a patient’s health as quantifiable as many drugs, probably making available a partial explanation for the powerful placebo eect seen in clinical trials.
Over the years, doctors were seen to hone their “so” communication skills at patients’ bedsides, in their rounds as residents, and as students at the elbows of master clinicians. But today, the communication and interpersonal skills of the doctor-in-training are no longer seen as fixed personal styles that transcended during residency but, instead, as a set of measurable and changeable behaviors that can unfold. On the basis of some up and coming literature on the value of effective communication, medical students and postgraduates are continuously given instruction on methods and strategies for listening, explaining, questioning, counseling, and motivating.
Effective patient-doctor communication has been correlated with patient outcomes, together with satisfaction and care, adherence to treatment, and enhanced health status. Research has pointed out numerous factors that act or influence technical and interpersonal exchange in the patient-doctor
relationship, together with verbal and nonverbal communication, empathy and patient-centered care, patient counseling, efficient transmittal of information, rapport, and informed collaborative choice and patient participation. Effective communication has to do with better physical and functional
health outcomes among patients with diabetes, for instance, just because of relationships to patient adherence and enhanced chronic disease self management.
Patient commitment and participation in care, together with question asking, information substitute, and shared decision-making, are to a large extent related with the way the health of some patients turn out, specifically, when these are reinforced by doctors. Though patients dire considerably in the
information they make available, and doctors also dire in their responses to patients’ communication, demand for information, and zest to be effective participants in their care, patients seem to be more satisfied and experience lesser symptoms and health issues or challenges when they are able to have their needs for information met. Presently, health psychologists and medical educators have gone a long way in both research and otherwise to find out the best way to inculcate communication skills to doctors and medical students in order to enhance and improve the process and quality of patient care.Numerous training programs have been introduced and weighed, and the assessment of doctors’ communication skills has recently been added to medical board certification. These eorts to enhance and improve and also measure communication skills are timely, as the limitations or constraints to effective communication between patients and doctors are growing. Irrespective of the attestations showing that the average length of the patient-doctor encounter has not changed significantly over the years, specific survey data shows that there is a correlation between patient participation in capitulated health plans and shorter once visits.\

 

 

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INFLUENCE OF DOCTOR-PATIENT COMMUNICATION FOR MANAGING DIABETES IN PORT HARCOURT

 

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON HEALTH EDUCATION INTERVENTION ON MALARIA PREVENTION IN COMMUNITIES IN ANAMBRA STATE

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON HEALTH EDUCATION INTERVENTION ON MALARIA PREVENTION IN COMMUNITIES IN ANAMBRA STATE

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is a nation fill with vegetation and water bodies; this is usually pronounced in the eastern and the southern part of the country. This is usually good for the people living in such environment in terms of agriculture and good weather condition; even with these advantages there are more disadvantages to this
of nature.
Some of the disadvantages include diseases presented by most of the water bodies especially the stagnant ones. But for the purpose of this study we shall focus on malaria as one of the advantages faced by the inhabitants of this environment.
From the statistics of world health organization (WHO); it reads that malaria is mostly found throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world and this ugly disease has causes more than three hundred (300) to about five hundred (500) million acute illness.The study went further to state that more than
one million deaths from this population are noticed annually.
The study states that about 30 to 40 percent of the world population is that are living in most of the poorest countries are liable to be infected with malaria parasite. The malaria parasite spread more far more than four times living with most deadly diseases like Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS),
Leprosy, measles, tuberculosis, wooping cough etc combined together today.
It is general noticed that most young mother of under three to five in the six Geo-political zones in Nigeria have neglected this issue of malaria parasite and the preventive methods as recommended by the world health organization (WHO).
Most health organizations have been trying to control the effect of this malaria parasites; the national malaria situation survey relating to the preventive health behaviour in malaria shows that there have been a poor use of mosquito net among parents of under five in the six Geo-political zones in Nigeria; the
study shows that a percentage below 10% was recorded for the parents of under five that uses mosquito nets.
The survey went on to show that some of the preventive measures that were reportedly adopted included the use of the following: Windows- 16.5%, door nets –15.6%, insecticide and aerosol –33.8%, mosquito repellents about 22.7% and herbs were about 23.0%. Malaria is the most occurring parasitic endemic disease in Africa, although it is preventable, treatable and curable,but yet it is one of the major health
problems in Nigeria. The malaria eect and signs in the country is getting worse despite numerous interventions that have been used for the prevention. The blockage to the success of some the interventions are observed to be socio-cultural, economic and political in nature. Malaria is stated to be the most
alarming cause of death and deformity in children under five in the country. In Nigeria today, modern medicine tends to interpret health in terms of medical interventions, and discuss more on the importance of medical technologies. It is mostly ideal to promote the concept and qualities of health as a result of the
interaction of human beings and their surrounding environment. Behavioural change communication aimed at making sure that individuals, families, communities and health workers are taking preventive measures to prevent disease, improve on their knowledge of malaria and use of antimalarial drugs
accordingly. There should be more eorts to facilitate a smooth transition into the use of Arthemisin based combination therapy (ACTs). Intensive BBC and capacity development should be directed towards the user of the malaria drugs and all cadres of health providers through under listed means

 

 

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON HEALTH EDUCATION INTERVENTION ON MALARIA PREVENTION IN COMMUNITIES IN ANAMBRA STATE

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE HEALTH DANGERS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE CONTENT IN BREAD

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE HEALTH DANGERS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE CONTENT IN BREAD

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Bread is an important source of food in Nigeria. It is consumed extensively in homes, restaurants and hotels. Bread is made from low protein wheat. It usually contains several ingredients that would help improve the quality of bread. Some of the basic identified ingredients, apart from flour are table salt, sugars,
flavors and at least a flour improver such as potassium bro-mate (Vicki, 1997). The major challenge in both flour milling industry and bakeries is the baking quality of flour, which is determined by the capacity of the dough prepared from it to retain gas. As a result of wide variations in the composition of flour, various treatments and supplements conditioning agents (flour/bread improver) are added for strength during mixing, extensibility for molding and also to increase loaf volume and texture. Over the years, several improver have been used but studies have shown some to be deleterious to health, thereby necessitating their ban. The use of potassium bro-mate has been a common choice among flour miller and bakers throughout the world because it is cheap and probably the most efficient oxidizing agent. It acts as a slow oxidizing agent throughout the fermentation proofing and baking process affecting the structure and the theological properties of the dough. As a result, many bakeries use potassium bro-mate as an additive to assist in the raising process and to produce a texture in the finished product that is appealing to the public.
Potassium bro-mate has adverse effect on health and its health effect are divided into two categories. The first category deals with effect related to non cancer effect .
This includes its effect  on the nutritional quality of bread. It degrades vitamins A2, B1, B2, E and niacin which are the main vitamins available in bread (IARC, 1999). Studies (IARC, 1999) have shown significant differences in essential fatty acid content of flour treated with bromate or in bread made from flour containing bromate.
In humans, potassium bromate can cause cough and sore throat when inhaled (Atkins, 1993). Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, kidney failure, hearing loss, bronchial and ocular problems, are some of the other non cancer health problems associated with ingestion of potassium bromate (Atkins,
1993). In the second category, numerous studies have revealed the potential of potassium bromate to cause cancer in experimental animals and in humans (CSPI, 1999; Watson, 2000). In bromate as bread improver has been banned. In Nigeria however, some breadmakers/bakeries have continued to include potassium bromate in their bread.
Furthermore, a preliminary survey revealed that some other materials employed in bread making (e.g. water) and the environments where these bakeries are located are not free from contamination by heavy metals such as lead. It is against this background that this investigation was undertaken in eastern part of
Nigeria where bread consumption is very high and where many of the bakeries are located in the midst of slums and squartments. This study therefore is aimed at assessing the safety of bread being marketed in the Nigerian market

 

 

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE HEALTH DANGERS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE CONTENT IN BREAD