THE ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU) TO AFRICAN UNION (AU) THE JOURNEY SO FAR

THE ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU) TO AFRICAN UNION (AU) THE JOURNEY SO FAR

 

CHAPTER ONE
ISSUES AND REASONS FOR REGIONAL INTERGRATIONS
1.1 Introduction
Regional integration is not a new idea or initiative in Africa. Along with the creation of African common market it has been fueling division of African leaders for the past 45 decade. In fact, the creation of the organization of African Unity (OAU) in 1964 reflected the awareness, by the leaders of the day that Africans
strength was rooted in Pan-Africa cooperation.1 The Southern Rhodesia Custom Union was established in 1949 and the East African community in 1967(Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania). 2 So far, United Africa has a long history and is the unique product of social and cultural attitude of Africa, today, the African Union (AU) is an entity that continues to work for the integration in the continent to enable it plays its rightful role in the global economy while addressing multi-faceted socio-economic and political problem. The advent of the Organization now known (AU) is described as an advent of great magnitude in the institutional evolution of the continent.3 In a 1959, speech from Kwame Nkrumah, Ideological father of the African Union. He stated that in Ghana, we regard our independence as meaningless unless we are able to use the freedom that goes with it to help other African people to be free and independent, to liberate the entire continent of Africa from foreign dehumanization and ultimately to establish a union of African state. 4”Of all sins Africa can commit, the sins of despair will be most unforgivable……..unity will not make us rich, but it can make it difficult for –Africa and the African people to be disregarded and humiliated——My generation led Africa to political freedom. The current generation of leadership and people of Africa must pick up the flickering touch of African freedom to refuel it with their enthusiasm and determination, and carry it forward” 5 (President Nyerere, former President of Tanzania at the 40th anniversary of Ghana’s independent,1997) The historical foundations of African Union originated in the union of African States. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) was established on May 25th 1963. 6 It remained the collective voice for the continent until 2002.The intended purpose of the OAU was to promote the unity and solidarity of the African States in a time of independent movements. The OAU also aimed to ensure that all African States enjoy human right, raise the living standard of all Africans and settle arguments and dispute between member states. 7 In the charter of the Organization of African Unity adopted in 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, African States became committed to work together to coordinate and intensify their cooperation and eort to achieve a better life for the people of Africa. The OAU Struggle to enforce its decision and its lack of an army made it difficult to intervene in civil wars and countries struggling with colonialism. The policy of non-interference in the aairs of member states also restricted the OAU in achieving its goals. Consensus was difficult to achieve within the organization. The French colonies, the Pro-capitalist and the Prosocialist
faction during the cold war, all had their agenda and made it very diicult to reach an agreement on what had to be done. Through the diiculties and struggles the OAU endured, it still provides a forum that enabled member states to adopt coordinated positions on the matter of common concern. For example, through the OAU coordinating committee for the liberation of Africa, the organization worked and succeeded in forging a consensus in support of liberation struggle and the fight against apartheid.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The African Union was formed to cater for the needs and aspiration of member states amongst the various set objectives
*Achieve greater unity and solidarity between the African countries and the other people of Africa
*Defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its member states
*Accelerate the political and socio- economic integration of the continent

 

 

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THE ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY (OAU) TO AFRICAN UNION (AU) THE JOURNEY SO FAR

UNITED STATES AND FIGHT AGAINST GLOBAL TERRORISM

UNITED STATES AND FIGHT AGAINST GLOBAL TERRORISM

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the study
The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, in Washington, D.C., New York City, and Pennsylvania were acts of war against the United States of America and its allies, and against the very idea of civilized society. No cause justifies terrorism. The world must respond and fight this evil that is intent on threatening and destroying our basic freedoms and our way of life. Freedom and fear are at war. The enemy is not one
person. It is not a single political regime. Certainly it is not a religion. The enemy is terrorism premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents. Those who employ terrorism, regardless of their specific secular or religious objectives, strive to subvert the rule of law and eect change through violence and fear. These terrorists also
share the misguided belief that killing, kidnapping, extorting, robbing, and wreaking havoc to terrorize people are legitimate forms of political action. The struggle against international terrorism is different
from any other war in our history. We will not triumph solely or even primarily through military might. We must fight terrorist networks, and all those who support their eorts to spread fear around the world,
using every instrument of national power— diplomatic, economic, law enforcement, financial, information, intelligence, and military. Progress will come through the persistent accumulation of successes—some seen, some unseen. And we will always remain vigilant against new terrorist threats. Our goal will be reached when Americans and other civilized people around the world can lead their lives free of fear from terrorist attacks. There will be no quick or easy end to this conflict. At the same time, the United States, will not allow itself to be held hostage by terrorists. Combating terrorism and securing the U.S. homeland from future attacks are our top priorities. But they will not be our only priorities. This strategy supports the National Security Strategy of the United States. As the National Security Strategy highlights, we live in an age with tremendous opportunities to foster a world consistent with interests and values embraced by the United States and freedom-loving people around the world. And we will seize these opportunities. This combating terrorism strategy further elaborates on Section III of the the National Security Strategy by expounding on our need to destroy terrorist organizations, win the “war of ideas,” and strengthen America’s security at home and abroad. While the National Strategy for Homeland Security focuses on preventing terrorist
attacks within the United States, the National Strategy for Combating Terrorism focuses on identifying and defusing threats before they reach our borders. While we appreciate the nature of the difficult challenge before us, our strategy is based on the belief that sometimes the most difficult tasks are accomplished by the most direct means. Ours is a strategy of direct and continuous action against terrorist groups, the cumulative effect of which will initially disrupt, over time degrade, and ultimately destroy the terrorist organizations. The more frequently and relentlessly we strike the terrorists across all fronts, using all the tools of statecraft, the more effective we will be. The United States, with its unique ability to build partnerships and project power, will lead the fight against terrorist organizations of global reach. By
striking constantly and ensuring that terrorists have no place to hide, we will compress their scope and reduce the capability of these organizations. By adapting old alliances and creating new partnerships, we will facilitate regional solutions that further isolate the spread of terrorism. Concurrently, as the scope of terrorism becomes more localized, unorganized and relegated to the criminal domain, we will rely
upon and assist other states to eradicate terrorism at its root. The United States will constantly strive to enlist the support of the international community in this fight against a common foe. If necessary, however, we will not hesitate to act alone, to exercise our right to self-defense, including acting preemptively against terrorists to prevent them from doing harm to our people and our country. The war on terrorism is asymmetric in nature but the advantage belongs to us, not the terrorists. We will fight this campaign using our strengths against the enemy’s weaknesses. We will use the power of our values to shape a free and more prosperous world. We will employ the legitimacy of our government and our cause to cra strong and agile partnerships. Our economic strength will help failing states and assist weak countries in ridding themselves of terrorism. Our technology will help identify and locate terrorist organizations, and our global reach will
eliminate them where they hide. And as always, we will rely on the strength of the American people to remain resolute in the face of adversity. We will never forget what we are ultimately fighting for—our fundamental democratic values and way of life. In leading the campaign against terrorism, we are forging new international relationships and redefining existing ones in terms suited to the transnational challenges of the 21st century

 

 

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UNITED STATES AND FIGHT AGAINST GLOBAL TERRORISM

HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE IN LAGOS STATE

HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE IN LAGOS STATE

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Lagos is the economic and social “nucleus” of Nigeria and the West African subregion, accounting for 32 per cent of national GDP. It is also one of the fastest growing cities in the world; by 2015, it is expected to be the globe’s third largest city, according to UN estimates. Over the past decades, the city has had to contend with the challenges that accompanied staggering population growth rates.But since 1999, a consistent leadership has guided a reform process hinged on sustainable urban development. Now, Lagos’s transformation is  from its former status as an infamous, decaying metropolis into a modern, attractive, and functional city.
Lagos is a classic example of a modern city, having transformed from a small farming and fishing village in the fifteenth century to a burgeoning mega city in 2010, when its population rose to over 10 million people. Until recently, this mega city was generally written about in a negative light and frequently satirized. Today, however, the face of Lagos is changing as a result of a series of transformations effected by a new style of governance adopted from 1999.
In the past, scant attention was paid to land-use planning, basic infrastructure, and other public services needed to sustainable accommodate the city’s exploding population growth. One of the most visible manifestations of this was severe traic congestion, which ultimately led to the relocation of Nigeria’s
political capital from Lagos to Abuja in 1986. Now, new parks are just one sign that Lagos is on a new path towards sustainable urban development. Less visible signs of local government reform include improvements in basic city services and physical infrastructure. Since Nigeria returned to democratic governance in 1999, the successive governors of Lagos State have initiated and pursued a knowledge-based approach to critical reforms. Aside from promoting sustainable development, these reforms also span resource mobilization, innovative and inclusive approaches to spatial planning principles, transportation upgrades, provision of educational health care services and facilities, and partnership building with the private sector in development. As a result of these reforms, Lagos is being transformed into a modern city that oers a high level of services provided by an increasingly efficient  city administration.

Statement of the Problem
Demographic change is one of the key challenges today for urban development together with globalization, knowledge/technological shi, climate change and the development of the green economy, inclusiveness and poverty. Strategic solutions cannot be based on addressing one of these factors alone but must take into account the interplay of these elements within a particular local area of development (urban or rural). At the same time that there are important challenges to be addressed, there are also opportunities to be fostered such as the development of the “silver” economy of older entrepreneurs, the “white” economy for medical services for the elderly population, or the natural “green” advantage of shrinking areas. However, policy responses are still fragmented and there is no articulation of a sustainable answer to ensure and increase the quality of life in the light of these changes.

Objectives of the Study
1. To deduce the history of development and its impact on the demographic change of Lagos state.
2. To determine the impact of demographic change on Lagos state residents.
3. To create an overview of the history of the development and demographic change of Lagos state.

Research Questions
1. Does development impacts on the demographic change of Lagos state?
2. What is the impact of demographic change on Lagos state residents?
3. To create an overview of the history of the development and demographic change of Lagos state.

 

 

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HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE IN LAGOS STATE

THE PRE-COLONIAL JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF ESANLAND (A CASE STUDY OF IRRUA KINGDOM)

THE PRE-COLONIAL JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF ESANLAND (A CASE STUDY OF IRRUA KINGDOM)

 

CHAPTER ONE
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF IRRUA
Irrua is in Esan Central Local Government Area of Edo State in Nigeria. Irrua and other towns around her are part of the Esan group. It is situated in the western portion of Esanland. The town covers about 80 square kilometers. It shares a common boundary with Agbede to the north, Ewu to the North-west,
Ekpoma to the South-West and Uromi to the South-East. The town is made up of twenty (20) villages namely; Eguare, Usugenu, Akho, Idumebo, Idumabi, Usenu, Onogbo, Agua, Edenu, Ugbokahre, Ibore,
Atuagbo, Ugbalo, Udomi, Ibhuolulu, Afuda, Ekomojoudu, Idumuogodo, Idumoza and Ujabhole. The traditions of origin of the people have put Irrua into two groups: these are Otoruwa group and Uwesan. But administratively Irrua is divided into four (4) groups of Otoruwa, Uwesan, Ikekato, Ujabhole. The
Otoruwa group consists of Eguare, Usugbenu, Idumebo, Idumabi and Usenu. Uwesan consists of Onogbo, Agua, Edenu, Akho, Ugbokare and Ibore. Iketato consists of Atuagbo, Ugbalo, Udomi and Ibhuolulu. Ujabhole consists of Aguda, Ekomojouda, Idumuogodo, Idumuoza and Ujabhole. In pre-colonial times, the people were predominantly farmers due to their fertile soil. There was considerable thick forest in which timber and palm tree were plentiful. The pre-colonial Irrua society depended on Agriculture as the major foundation upon which other economic activities were built. Both men and women had different roles to play in the society. While the men constituted the farming, hunting bands and fighting force, the women were more involved in trading and supplemented the men with the cultivation of crops like, cassava, pepper, tomatoes, okro and beans. It was through the Onojie of Irrua that most of Enijie in Esan paid their annual tribute to the Oba of Benin. This position given to Irrua was confirmed and awarded the title of Okaijesan on Ikhihibhojere, by Oba Akenzua 1 of Benin in 1723.

TRADITIONS OF ORIGIN, MIGRATIONS AND SETTLEMENT
The origin of the people of Irrua is characterized by the lack of documentary sources in explaining it early history which is also peculiar to the precolonial history of most West African states and in an attempt to know how the people of Irrua came to be where they are would lead to various accounts of its origin.
According to the people from the Otorowa group, the great migration, which took place in Benin during the 15th and 16th century, mostly during the reign of warrior Kings like Ewuare the great, Oba Ozolua and Esigie brought about the settlement of Irrua. According to this tradition, the migration from Binis was occasioned by the inhuman mourning laws decreed by Oba Ewuare the great in 1460. Majority
of these migrates escaping Ewuare’s tyranny moved in groups. The fleeing Bini groups were led by notable warriors like Oghu, who settled at Ivue, Uromi. They found their way to Esanland aer months of wondering in the forest between Benin and Esan. The tradition further states that, the very first group mostly people from Ugboko in Benin City landed in Irrua under the leadership of one Amilele, a great warrior (Okankulo) of Benin. They settled in Irrua territory.
According to Dr. C.G. Okojie in his book “Ishan Native Laws and Customs”, Amilele together with his followers founded the present day Eguare settlement and due to the superiority of the new immigrants in term of number, cooperation and domineering spirit were able to conquer other settlements around
them in which some of their neighbours migrated to Iki which is the present day Opoji. When Oba Ewuare finally realized that he could not use force or the use of force would not be able to bring back his rebellious subjects back to Benin, he sought diplomatic means. He declared a general amnesty to the leaders Okankulo and promised them rewards if they could return to Benin. The group that settled in Irrua sent back to the Oba with the word “Iriowa iide-e” (we are at home, we are not coming). It was the word Iriowa that was later corrupted to Irrua during the colonial era.
The second tradition has it that the people of Irrua migrated from Uhe near Ile-Ife many years ago. Amilele gathered his people and took them on diplomatic visit to Benin to pay homage to the then Oba of Benin who was called Ohe. On getting to Benin, the Oba (Ohe) gave his daughter called Iruiwa to Amilele as his wife and gave him the title of Onojie (Enigie). Aer a short stay, Amilele and his new wife, together with followers set out from Benin to return home. But on their way home to Ifeku, they stopped to rest on the way and the site they rested became the present day Eguare. While resting, they sighted a large and ripe palm fruit and subsequently interpreted to be an evidence of the fertility of the land. Amilele decided to settle there and sent a report to the Oba of Benin notifying him of their decision to settle in the new territory. There and then they named that settlement Iriowa, aer the Oba’s daughter and Amilele beloved wife.
The fault of the second tradition of the origin of the Otorowa people in Irrua is that of Ifeku island which did not occur until the 19th century. However, both traditions of origin have Benin as its place of origin and Amilele as the hero or founder. According to the intelligence report on Ishan division of Benin Province, has it that they began to grow and in no time other villages were established around Eguare. The villages founded by the descendents of Amilele and his followers were Akho, Eguare, Usugbenu, Idumabi, Idumebo, Usenu and Onogbo. They were collectively known as Otoruwa. Tradition has it that the remaining thirteen villages of Ibore, Atuagbo, Ughekhare, Agua, Ugbalo, Udomi, Ibhuolulu, Eidenu, Afuda, Ekomolouda, Idumogodo, Idimuoza and Ujabhole, migrated originally at dierent times from Benin, Ifeku, Otuo and Agbede. The establishment of the twenty villages that constituted Irrua will be treated separately.

 

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THE PRE-COLONIAL JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF ESANLAND (A CASE STUDY OF IRRUA KINGDOM)

FEMINIST ACTIVITIES IN NIGERIA AND THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SOCIETY

FEMINISM ACTIVITIES IN NIGERIA AND THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SOCIETY

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The issue of feminism springs up from women’s consciousness of their situation in the society and various oppressive acts against them. In traditional Africa the woman is an object of constant scorn, degradation and physical torture. In the past, women did not exist as individuals with personalities to defend. They rather existed as mere docile and exotic accompaniments to the males. Throughout that period, women lacked a voice to articulate their dilemma and their point of view. They, thus, accepted their fate without resistance.
In those days, these women, in addition to experiencing the same oppressive social condition as their male counterparts in a developing world, were subjected to extra repressive burdens arising from the socio-cultural structures of patriarchy and gender hierarchy. These years of subjugation have, however,
produced in today’s women relentless questioning of the status quo. They protest against dehumanization, political enslavement and social oppression.
They rationalize that the running of the African world is not the preserve for males and thus there should be absolute equality of both sexes in all spheres of life. Such a reaction is termed feminism, which is an ideology that urges, in simple term, recognition of the claims of women for equal rights with men.
The term feminism usually refers to a historically recent European and American social movements founded to struggle for female equality. Feminism by this designation has become a global political project.
African female writers have come a long way from the 1960’s when the few women that published fiction could be counted on one fingers and they were hardly noticed by critics or if noticed at all, were not taken seriously. At the end of the twentieth century, it was no longer out of place to talk about generations of female African writers or categorize female authors as ‘established’ or ‘emerging’. Nadine Gordimer, a female writer from South Africa had won the noble prize for literature in 1991. two years later, the African continent lost a leading female writer Flora Nwapa of Nigeria. A novelist, short story writer,
and poet, Flora Nwapa held in her hands on her death bed on 17 October 1993, the first printed copies of her three new plays; sycophants (SIC). A pioneer African Female Novelist, she had published poetry and short stories before revealing her talents as a playwright, etc.
The phenomenon of female change was not limited to creative artists. African women scholars too, were no longer satisfied to have somebody else define for them the aesthetics of female writing, or patronizingly describe for them the dynamic and intrinsic reality of being a woman in the African socio-cultural and
political environment.
this issue of African literature today is entirely devoted to African writers and the presentation of women in African literature. This in itself is a recognition of two important facts: first, that African women writers, as a number of articles in the collection point out, have been neglected in the largely male authored journals, critical studies and critical anthologies and secondly, that the last ten years or so have seen a tremendous blossoming of highly accomplished work by African women writers and it would have been in excusable to continue to ignore them. The second fact partly, though not entirely oers an explanation for the first. If the critical attention has been scanty, it is partly because up-to the end of the 1960’s the literary output of African women was also rather scanty. This is most probably due to a number of well known historical and sociological factors. Writing and education go hand in hand and for all kinds of sociological and other reasons the education of women in Africa lagged far behind that of men. Adetokunbo Pearce’s article on Efua Suther Land’s plays suggest precisely how public the role of the dramatist could be and usually is, but African societies have been slow in according to women this ‘senior’ position and public exposure.
In this regard it might seem strange, perhaps, that the genre in which African women have featured last is that of poetry, which is the most private of the genres. The face remains, however, that in so far as Africa is concerned, the role of the poet also has always been public. The death of African women writers,
up-till the very recent past, is therefore probably in itself a consequence of traditional African attitudes towards women. Feminism is the belief, largely originating in the west on the social, economic and political equality of sexes represented worldwide by various institutions committed to activity on behalf of women’s rights in interest

 

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FEMINISM ACTIVITIES IN NIGERIA AND THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE SOCIETY

TRADITIONAL HAUSA CLOTHS: A COMPARATIVE COLLECTION OF SOKOTO AND KEBBI STATE

TRADITIONAL HAUSA CLOTHS: A COMPARATIVE COLLECTION OF SOKOTO AND KEBBI STATE

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Nigeria, among other African countries is known for her different varieties of traditional cloths ranging from one ethnic group to the other. The evidence can be seen from all the thirty six states in Nigeria; the clothing style of the eastern Nigeria differ from that of the northern Nigeria as so on. Clothing is anything placed on the body to adorn or to motivate behaviour (John and Foster, 1990). It includes all the different garments, accessories or ornaments worn by people as well as their make-up and styles. Theories have attempted to explain the motivation factors underlying clothing choices and decision. Such theories include: modesty, immodesty, protection and adornment theories (Marshal Jackson, Stanley, Kefgen and Touchie 2000). Modesty theory focuses on standard regarding the area of the anatomy to be concealed and state that clothes are worn solely to conceal or cover nakedness (Marshal et al. 2000). Various cultures have rules about modesty that relate to their use of clothing. The immodesty theory on the other hand states that clothing is not to cover nakedness but to attract attention. The argument here is that wearing of garment is far erotic than in going without them (Marshal et al. 2000). The protection theory view physical protection and psychological protection as major reasons of purpose of wearing clothes. Dress or clothing is a kind of garment worn by people of all cultures since pre-historic times. Different peoples of the world have their unique dress culture. The materials used for making dresses range from cotton, wool, silk fabric to flax fabric and rubber. Dresses that people in all cultures wear are determined by a number of factors. The main factor that has determined, and is still determining, the variety of clothes in different times and locations, is climate (Braun, 2005). In Nigeria for instance, we have the rainy season and the dry season, with their characteristic cold and hot temperature. Dress culture therefore has to bow to the prevailing weather condition. Dress culture has also been affected by changing styles or fashion in vogue. Other factors that influence the dress that people wear are the availability of materials, cost of materials, technology of the period, peoples’ social status, human migration, religious tradition, assimilation of various traditions, social cosmopolitan outlook or modernity, travels and perhaps colonization, conversion and nationalism.
The study will consider the Northern Nigeria especially the Hausa clothing style taking into consideration Sokoto and Kebbi state.

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
The problem associated with the difference in style and fashion of clothing style in Nigeria is due to the style of weaving. The styles and patterns of dressing are largely determined by variables like group dynamics cum peer group relationship, weather, event, ethical dressing code (such as law and medical student) etc. Despite these and other variable certain types of dressing by the ladies in particular tend to have disastrous eect
on their male counterparts, lecturers, and the society hence negative motives may be developed generally through cursory looking. Beside, most of the attitude and behaviour towards dressing, at times by the female students do not conform to moral standard thereby, debasing the human value, norm and
standard. As a result, the cherished cultural norms and values are highly abused and relegated to the background, according to Best (2002), this negative trend in dressing is an indication of poor parental upbringing, low level of cultural and religious values and practices. The cultural practice in Nigeria is the
major cause of the variation in clothing style. Take the Northern Nigeria for instance, the Hausas in Kebbi weaves their cloth in different manner compared to that of Sokoto and vice visa.

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main aim of the research work is to examine the carryout a comparative collection of Hausa cloths of Sokoto State and Kebbi State. Other specific objectives of the study are stated below as follows:
1. To examine the effect of cultural differences on the clothing style of Sokoto and Kebbi state
2. To examine the weaving style/pattern on the nature of traditional cloths
3. To investigate on the factors acting the quality of production
4. To examine the effect of individual style on preference of Sokoto or Kebbi State cloth collection
5. To profer solution to the above problem

 

 

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TRADITIONAL HAUSA CLOTHS: A COMPARATIVE COLLECTION OF SOKOTO AND KEBBI STATE

NATURE OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES IN WEST AFRICA

NATURE OF CHRISTINA MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES IN WEST AFRICA

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHRISTIANITY
Christianity is a religion that believes there is only one God. It is based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christianity has evolved over the centuries. Like any religion, disciples from one generation to another and from place to place as missionary including Africa conveyed the message and teachings.
Christianity in Africa is not devoid of the culture of the people. This integration easily promoted the mass exodus of missionaries into Africa and West Africa in particular. It must be noted that the coming of missionaries to Africa saw a dierent orientation of the culture of the West African people
that was said to seen as negative arising from some customs such as the killing of twins, burial of the living alive with a dead king including corporal punishment to oenders for conduct of certain level of criminal activities. African culture and or customs is not a monolith and while the foundations remain fundamentally unaltered, the interpretation and expression of continues to be a forever-blossoming flower.
Christianity has been plagued with the history of European conquest and today it is yet to escape that legacy and become an agent of true liberation. With the exception of Ethiopia, the intention of Christianity in Africa was never to create development, in any capacity, in the African mind. Jesus was a Jew. He observed the Jewish faith and was well acquainted with the Jewish Law. In His early thirties, Jesus traveled from village to village, teaching in the synagogues and healing those who were suering.
Thus being the very first missionary of the Faith. Jesus’ teaching was revolutionary. He challenged the established religious authorities to repent from their self-righteousness and hypocrisy and realize that the
Kingdom of God is rooted in service and love. Jesus’ teachings stirred the hearts of people and created instability, something the Jewish religious authorities feared. Soon, a faithful group of men began to follow Jesus and call him teacher. These men became His disciples. Jesus taught His disciples about the will of God and about the “new covenant” God will bring to humanity through Him. Jesus helped them to see that mankind is bound to the pain and futility of life as a result of sin. Due to sin, mankind lost its relationship with God.
The purpose of this “new covenant” is to restore those who accept it into a renewed fellowship of forgiveness and love with God. What is this new covenant? Jesus himself would pay for the sins of all humanity by being crucified unjustly on a Roman cross. Three days later, He would rise to life, having conquered death, to give hope to a hopeless world. Well, it happened just as Jesus taught, and His disciples were witnesses to an amazing miracle. Their teacher, Jesus of Nazareth, died and three days later rose again to become their Messiah. Compelled by a great commission to share the love that the God of this universe had imparted upon them, the disciples began to proclaim this gospel of hope throughout the territory as the
earliest missionaries. Thus, from a small group of ordinary men that lived in a small province in Judea about 2000 years ago, and the Christian Faith has since spread to the rest of the world including West Africa. Their gospel message was and still remains simple: “For God so loved the world, that
He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.” (John 3:16).
Though most of the historical record for the start of the Christian faith is recorded in the New Testament accounts, the history of Christianity actually began with prophecy in the Old Testament. There are over 300 prophecies (predictions) that span over a period of 1000 years that are recorded in the Old Testament concerning the coming of a Jewish Messiah. A study of Jesus’ life, death and background will show that He was undoubtedly the fulfillment of these Messianic prophecies. Thus, even long before Jesus came in the world, His mission was made known to mankind through the Word of God. At first glance, the history Christianity’s origin may seem like nothing more than a fairy tale. Many feel that it’s just too implausible, and even intellectually dishonest, for people living in the 21st century to believe that these events actually took place. However, the Christian faith, unlike any other religion, hinges on historical events, including one of pivotal importance. If Jesus Christ died and never rose to life, then Christianity is a myth or a fraud. In 1 Corinthians 15:14, Paul exhorts his readers to grab hold of this central truth, that “And if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain.” The evidence for the resurrection is the key to establishing that Jesus is indeed who He claims to be. It is the historical validity of this central fact that gives Christians genuine and eternal hope amidst a hurting world.

 

 

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NATURE OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY ACTIVITIES IN WEST AFRICA

 

THE UNITED NATIONS UNDER KOFI ANNAN

THE UNITED NATIONS UNDER KOFI ANNAN

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Kofi Annan was born in the Kafandors Section of Kumasi, in Central Ghana, Africa, in what was then the British colony of the Gold Coast, on April 8, 1938. He is a twin, which has a respected state in Ghanaian culture. His full name is Kofi Atta Annan, while his twin sister Efua Atta, who died in 1991, shares the middle name Atta, which in Fante and Akan means “twin”. Annan and his sister were born into one of the country’s aristocratic families, both their grandfather and their uncle were tribal chiefs.1 and became accustomed to both traditional and modern ways of life. He has described himself as being “atribal in a tribal world”. In Akan tradition, some children are named according to the day of the week on when they were born; and in relation to how many children precede them. Kofi in Akan is the name that corresponds with Friday. In 1965, Kofi Annan married Titi Alakija, a Nigerian woman from a well to do family. Several years later, they had a daughter, Ana and later a son Kojo. The couple separated in the late seventies that is when Kojo was six years old and got a divorce two years later. In 1984, Annan remarried to Nane Legergran a Swedish lawyer at the United Nations (UN). Between 1954 and 1957, Annan attended the Elite Mfantsipim School, a Methodist Boarding School in Cape Coast, founded in the 1870s. Annan has said that the school taught him “that suering anywhere concerns people every where.4 In 1957, the year Annan graduated from
Mfantsipim, Ghana gained independence from Britain. At the age of twenty, he won a Ford Foundation Scholarship for undergraduate studies at Macalester College, St. Paul. In 1958, Annan began studying economics at the Kumasi College of Science and Technology, now the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology of Ghana. He received a Ford Foundation grant, enabling him to complete his undergraduate studies at Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota, United States. In 1961, Annam then did a DEA degree in International Relations at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, Switzerland. some years of work experience, Annan became the Alfred P. Sloan Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He studied at the MIT Sloan School of Management.5 Even then, he was showing signs of becoming a diplomat, or someone skilled in International Relations. At the end of his fellowship program, he was awarded a Master of Science (M.Sc.) degree in Management.
Early Career In 1962, Kofi Annan started working as a Budget Officer for the World Health Organization, an agency of the United Nations (UN). In 1972, he moved to Cairo, Egypt, as Chief Civilian Personnel Oicer
in the UN emergency force. Annan briefly changed career in 1974 when the United Nations to serve as Managing Director of the Ghana Tourist Development Company where he worked as the Director of Tourism in Ghana. Annan returned to International Diplomacy at the United Nations in 1976. For the next seven years, he was associated with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Geneva. He returned to the UN Headquarters in New York City in 1983 as Director of the Budget in the Financial Services Office. In the late 1980s, Annan returned to work for the UN, where he was appointed as an Assistant Secretary-General in three consecutive positions. Human Resources, Management and Security Coordinator (1987 – 1990), he became Assistant Security-General for another department at the United Nations, the office of Program Planning, Budget and Finance, and Controller (1990 – 1992) and Peace Keeping Operations (March 1993 – December 1996).
In fulfilling his duties to the United Nations, Annan has spent most of his adult life in the United States, specifically at the UN headquarters in New York City. Annan has by this time filled a number of roles at the United Nations, ranging from peace keeping to managerial and 1990s were no different.
In 1990, he negotiated the release of hostages in Iraq following the invasion of Kuwait. Five years later, he oversaw the transition of the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) to the Multi-national Implementation Force (IFOR) a UN peace Keeping organization. In this transfer of responsibility, operations in the former Yugoslavia were turned over to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

 

 

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THE UNITED NATIONS UNDER KOFI ANNAN

 

THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT AND UNITED STATES GEO-STRATEGIC AND ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN THE MIDDLE-EAST

THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT AND UNITED STATES GEO-STRATEGIC AND ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN THE MIDDLE-EAST

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Conflict is an inescapable phenomenon of human life both at the interpersonal or international level.1 The prevalence of conflict, its management and prevention are therefore critical areas of international relations. Conflict comes in varied forms. They could be interstate, arising from perennial disagreements between States; intra-state civil conflicts which may come in varying degrees such as inter-ethnic conflicts; religious conflicts induced by ecclesiastical rivalries; conflict due to ideological incompatibilities amongst others. Some notable crises in human history includes those between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, the Croats and Serbs in former Yugoslavia, the African National Congress and the Apartheid regime in South Africa, Rwandan crisis between the Hutus and Tutsis; the Biafran Separatist Movement in Nigeria, Israeli – Palestinian Conflict which is the focus of this research, to mention a few.
The allusion of the English Philosopher – Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) in his work “Leviathan” to an anarchic state of nature where the dominant individual interest is self-preservation, is an apt description of the international system. Extrapolating to the international domain, Hobbessian theorizing is accentuated by the very absence of a hierarchical structure of government in the international arena to check the eccentricity of States whose actions in the guise of national interest replicates a state of nature. This is in contrast with what obtains in the domestic arena where Municipal law is invoked in case of an infraction. Hobbessian prescriptions that, “power be centrally and absolutely controlled, that is, a “unitary state” is however inconceivable in the international system. Scholars of international relations are of the opinion that the Concept of State Sovereignty which is an outcrop of the idealism orchestrated by the Westphalia Settlement, promotes the culture of anarchism in the international system. This is against the backdrop of the “free-wheeling irresponsibility”of Sovereign States. Many writers are of the view that Sovereignty in contemporary international relations is an anachronism, as it is akin to absolutism.
However, the broadening focus of international law which re-conceptualizes the notion of sovereignty, now exerts a restraining influence on Sovereign States by making them answerable in relation to acts bordering on crimes against humanity and international humanitarian law. This has advanced the frontiers of international relations. Perhaps, before an examination is made into the Arab – Israeli Conflict, it is pertinent to peruse some of the probable causes of conflict and at the same time provide an analytical assessment of the dispute. Conflicts are manifestations of an underlying and sustained disagreement between groups that have not shown enough commitment to lasting peace.
Fundamentally, the perennial of an un-resolved societal gap or problem could be an incentive for conflict. The roots of the Israeli – Palestinian Conflict which has assumed a broader dimension, that is, the Arab – Israeli Conflict, could be traced primarily to the rivalry between the Jewish Israelis and the Muslim Palestinians over primordial claims to the same territory. It could be encapsulated as “One Land, Two Peoples”. Some probable causes of conflict among other things are:
1. Incompatibilities of objectives and actions among interacting groups or policy in the case of states, could be an inducement for conflicts.
2. Conflicts could arise as a result of a demand for a piece of territory for example, the Iraqi annexation of Kuwait and Saddam Hussein’s intention to subvert the Sovereign prerogatives of the Kuwaiti government which attracted international condemnation and allied response led by the United States to defeat Iraq’s aggression.

 

 

 

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THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT AND UNITED STATES GEO-STRATEGIC AND ECONOMIC INTERESTS IN THE MIDDLE-EAST

 

NIGERIAN FOREIGN POLICY UNDER GENERAL IBRAHIM BADAMOSI BABANGIDA (1985 – 1993)

NIGERIAN FOREIGN POLICY UNDER GENERAL IBRAHIM BADAMOSI BABANGIDA (1985 – 1993)

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY’
Africa as noted by Chaplan (1966:376), “is an important strategic arena in contemporary world politics”. Osuntokun (1999:19) argues further “being the most populous black country in the world, Nigeria is being compelled to shoulder willingly and unwillingly the leadership of the black world. This led to Nigeria’s
feeling that she had a responsibility far beyond her borders as noted by Joe Nanven Garba…” In all our dealings with international organizations we are guided not by selfish national interests, but a high sense of responsibility and concern for countries (particularly in Africa) whose needs in some respect are greater than ours”. Ambassador Jolaoso stated further that Africa has always been the centre-piece of Nigeria’s foreign policy, with West Africa being the most crucial sector of this piece. He further stated that since foreign policy, represents the initiatives or responses by a country to issues which directly aect the interest of the country to that extent, it is related to the domestic as well as the international system.
Aghahowa (2007:59) posits that “the nature of man compels interaction and mutual dependence. According to him, man cannot survive in isolation, therefore, the associational tendencies of man manifest locally, nationally and globally. Nigeria’s understanding of her leadership position in Africa compelled Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa to declare while answering questions on Africa’s involvement in the cold war:
“We shall make every effort  to bring them together so that having been made aware of the danger we may find a way to unite our effort and prevent Africa from becoming an area of crises and world tension”.
Nigeria in the African continent belongs to the global world of interdependence. Its relations externally can best be illustrated thus: “If you drive a ford Escort, chances are that your transmission was made in Japan, your wiring in Taiwan, your door assembly in Brazil, your steering gears in Britain, and assorted other parts elsewhere?.
A states foreign policy is not operated in a vacuum. How far has Nigeria been able to carry out this rather uneasy responsibility and what have been the obstacles to Nigeria’s proclaimed position as “the giant of Africa?” It is the position of this research paper, therefore, to examine Nigeria’s foreign policy over the years and General Ibrahim Babangida’s era vis-à-vis development in the International system.
According to Mr. Kunle Adeyemi of the Ministry of External affairs, Nigeria as a result of her size, status and economic potential has a number of corresponding responsibilities she cannot shy away from. This responsibility is more significant considering that one of every five African is a Nigerian while one of every six black persons is a Nigerian. This in fact is the basis of Nigeria’s historical responsibility to Africa and the black diaspora.
The foreign policy of Nigeria as a merchant state was to consolidate traditional external market for Nigeria’s cash crops, establishing favourable conditions for attracting foreign participation in the economy and then of course, adopting an international image required to attract and sustain the good will of foreign friends and donors

 

 

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NIGERIAN FOREIGN POLICY UNDER GENERAL IBRAHIM BADAMOSI BABANGIDA (1985 – 1993)

TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE AMONG IBIAKU CLAN IN MKPAT ENIN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE 1900-2000.

TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE AMONG IBIAKU CLAN IN MKPAT ENIN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE 1900-2000.

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Marriage is an important institution worldwide particularly in Africa. For its importance, marriage has been categorized differently; we have the traditional marriage which takes into consideration customs and norms, followed by Islamic and Christian marriages which are regarded as modern marriages. In this present dispensation the three marriages have borrowed a lot of things from one another that one hardly distinguished each one. Traditional marriage being the oldest though not abolished but is relegated to the background so much that in most places it remains a shadow of itself. So when people perform traditional marriage one finds out that it is only the name that remains.
This therefore raises the question of whether people still know what traditional marriage is. It is against this background that the researcher wish to study traditional marriage among Ibiaku clan in Mkpatenin Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state to bring back into lime light the lost memory of the people’s traditional marriage.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to make an in-depth study of the traditional marriage system among Ibiaku clan and the importance that is hitherto attached to it. The second objective is to examine the various processes that were involved in traditional marriage like the fattening institution and the visit of Ekpo (masquerade) to the fattened girl.

1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is traditional marriageamong Ibiaku clan in Mkpatenin Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Although the researcher is going to be referring to traditional marriage elsewhere, but this work is limited to Ibiaku clan. In other words, this research will only focus on the traditional marriage system in Ibiaku clan within the period of 1900 to 2000. The researcher have chosen this period (1900-2000) as a reference point for the essay to be able to establish how the traditional marriage institutions in Ibiaku clan has evolved over the past century focusing on continuity and change in tradition.

1.4 METHODOLOGY
In this work, primary and secondary sources were consulted. I interviewed Mr. Edet Onyong who is a son to the priest that performs traditional marriage. Mr. Bassey Umoren a participant in traditional marriage, Mrs. Nene James Eiong  an eye witness to traditional marriage. The researcher interviewed them because they were relevant to this work based on the fact that they all did traditional marriage, which means they have the experience and are eye witness to traditional marriage in the clan. Secondary sourced that are relevant to this work were also used which were found in the University of Uyo library

 

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TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE AMONG IBIAKU CLAN IN MKPAT ENIN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE 1900-2000.

TRADITIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN OMU-ARAN DURING THE COLONIAL ERA

TRADITIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN OMU-ARAN DURING THE COLONIAL ERA

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.1. INTRODUCTION:
Omu-Aran is the most populous and largest town in igbominaland of kwara state. The town was originally called “Omu” but was later changed to OmuAran about 1400 when the people moved finally to the present site. The name “Omu” was derived from Omutoto, the woman whose children established the first settlement at Odo-Omu between the 13th and 14th century. Indeed, it was largely in recognition of Omu-Aran’s historic importance in igbominaland that the town was chosen as the headquarters of the former
igbomina-Ekiti local government authority in 1968.
It also became the headquarters of Irepodun local government area when the former Igbomina-Ekiti local government was split into two on the 24th of august 1976. The people speak Igbomina dialect or Yoruba language and their customs are in many ways similar to those of the other Yorubas. Their occupation was  largely influenced by the vegetation of the area. Thus, they are predominantly farmers, producing such crops as yam, maize, guinea corn, cassava, beans and vegetable for consumption. While kola nut, palm products, cocoa and coffee  in very small quantities are economic crops. Omu-Aran is famous in handcraft
such as basket making, blacksmithing, carving, dyeing, cloth weaving, wood carving and pottery.

1.2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
The aim of this research work is to discuss traditional institutions in Omu-Aran during the colonial era.
Objectively, it seeks to examine the impact of colonial rule on the traditional institutions in Omu-Aran.
The work intends to look at how traditional institutions were able to survive and co-exist with the incursion of the Europeans and the advent of colonialism.
It explores the activities of traditional institutions prior to colonial rule and how British administration interfered with these institutions. By this, making available to the public and the academic world, an analytical research work on traditional institutions and their survival in the face of foreign domination.

 

 

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TRADITIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN OMU-ARAN DURING THE COLONIAL ERA

THE SURVIVAL OF IGBOMINA INDIGENOUS POLITICAL STRUCTURE UNDER THE ILORIN EMIRATE SYSTEM IN THE 20TH CENTUR

THE SURVIVAL OF IGBOMINA INDIGENOUS POLITICAL STRUCTURE UNDER THE ILORIN EMIRATE SYSTEM IN THE 20TH CENTURY

 

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The motivation to undertake this study on “the survival of Igbomina indigenous political structure under Ilorin emirate system in the 20th century” is born out of increasing question on the identity and tenacity of the culture of Igbomina people and more especially their political system. For over a century, the Igbomina people were under different powerful political authorities. While places like Oke – Ode and Babanloma were under the Nupe authority, places like Oro, Igbaja, Omu- Aran, among others, were under Ilorin. The influence and impact of these authorities over the Igbomina speaking people are indeed, lasting. While the dressing of some of the traditional title holder has been seriously influenced, religion and custom has not been battered. The totality of this situation has naturally been generating questions that this research study tend to provide answers to.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this work is to critically examine how Igbomina indigenous political system survived till date despite that the polity undergone series of incursions at dierent times in history.
Equally important is the era of Ilorin emirate hegemony over the Igbomina people. The influence of Ilorin emirate has also been given serious treatment in this essay. It should be noted however, that within the establishment of imperial presence through the planting of fiefs and appointment of agents called
“AJELE” to oversee various Igbomina community by Ilorin emirate, the impact of it was felt in the whole of Igbominaland. In particular, the Igbomina groups that are in Kwara state. The role of British colonialists in sustaining the authority of Ilorin emirate over Igbomina is also worthy of appraisal.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is to discuss the integration of Ilorin culture into Igbominaland. Especially the stock in Kwara state. The specific focus would be on how the Igbomina indigenous culture have survived under dierent
subjugating authorities. The study covers from between 1900 -1999. This would be largely because the Ilorin emirate imperialism on Igbomina reached it apogee and decline in the 20th century. This study will also touch on various aspects of history on the incursion in Igbomina land. The relationship between Igbomina people and Ilorin before the emergency of emirate system in the mid 19th century. The situation would be treated along the administrative structure of Igbomina indigenous political institutions and the structural changes recorded aer the era of established authorities over the Igbomina peoples.

 

 

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THE SURVIVAL OF IGBOMINA INDIGENOUS POLITICAL STRUCTURE UNDER THE ILORIN EMIRATE SYSTEM IN THE 20TH CENTURY

THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ODO-OWA DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD

THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ODO-OWA DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
This work is aimed at ensuring that socio-economic development of Odo-Owa in Oke-Ero Local Government Area of Kwara State during the colonial period is articulated and written down for historical purpose, thus ensuring that the basic information about the socio-economic activities of the people is
documented.
It also aims at examining the colonial rule system, the various changes and activities during the colonial period. It hopes to advance the history of Odo-Owa from essential political history to socio-economic history, the research also aims to show the major areas of concern which are the social and economic
developments that took place the town during the colonial period.
It must be noted the sources employed form this work have been made use of just to ensure that the authencity and originality of what will be written down about the socio-economic development of Odo-Owa during the colonial period is right. The objective of this work is to look into the socio-economic activities in the town before the colonial period, and the changes brought as a result of the colonial presence.

1.2. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this work can be seen form the socio-economic development of Odo-Owa before the colonial rule; how the colonial rule influenced the development and its eect. There are different activities and event during the colonial rule, the people of Odo-Owa community were mostly farmers and because of this the children are taken along with them to the farmland. As a result of colonial rule people did not show interest in farming as it was before the colonial period some people now preferred white collar jobs, while
some farmland and le vacant and people have build houses on it. It should be added also that as a result of the lack of transportation system, the traders most especially have to treck along distance. At times they spend two or three days before getting to neighboring village and this was because they had to trek long distance.

 

 

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THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ODO-OWA DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD

THE ROLE OF THE NJIKOKA DIASPORA COMMUNITY IN FLORIDA, IN HOMELAND DEVELOPMENT

THE ROLE OF THE NJIKOKA DIASPORA COMMUNITY IN FLORIDA, IN HOMELAND DEVELOPMENT

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Over the years, one of the most important developments in the field of migration has been the mass exodus and the emergence of large and economically thriving Nigeria Diaspora Communities in the developed countries of America and Europe and recently, the Asia countries. This had brought about a growing
concern on the part of Nigeria government, international agencies and some scholars over the “Brain drain” phenomenon in Nigeria and Africa at large, because of the continuous exodus of Africans from Africa since the late 1970’s1. Despite this, there is still a close-tie relationship maintain by these Nigeria Diaspora and their home country. They usually send remittances back home and take part in the development activities in their hometowns. By these, they have collective impart on poverty alleviation and encourage gradual development in their Homeland.
In the last few years, the nexus between Diaspora and Development has emerged as a distinct policy field, driven by the Diaspora. This is because of the growing economic and human-resources potential of Diaspora communities, which needs to be tapped in order to benefit the overall development of the country. Kudos to modern and rapid communication that now enables the Diasporas to exert far greater influence on their homeland than ever before. This advantage enables Diaspora communities to buildup interesting social, economic and political bridges that link their new places of residence with the homeland. This gives the Diaspora communities a considerable advantage over traditional mainstream development organization operating back home and enables the Diasporas to make significant contributions to the overall development of their homeland. What was formally known as “Brain drain” has now translate to “Brain gain” because the homeland now reap development benefits, and even spur brain gain in the return of highly educated and skilled Diaspora to their homeland.
In the case of Njikoka Diaspora Community in Florida, which forms the centre of this study, most of them on individual basis remit great sums of money (through formal and informal channels) annually back home2. About 90% of such remittance flows directly to their respective families, thereby working to
alleviate poverty and providing lifeline for those whose breadwinners had relocated outside the country. The remaining 10% are channel into investment, developmental pursuits and fund productive activities that accelerate the transfer of skills, knowledge and experience to firms in their homeland. Research
had shown that these investments become important sources of employment sustaining many people who would otherwise have no way of securing  livelihood

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
There is still a limited understanding of the concept of development within the context of Njikokans in Diaspora and their developmental activities back home. This arises because of the conceptual confusion over the meaning of the term “Diaspora and Development”. There is therefore, a need for more
research into this, and more clarification of its precise conceptual denotation and its translation in practical terms. It is based on this premise that this study is aimed at broadening the conceptual understanding of what is meant by “development” within the context of Njikoka Diaspora and her role in development
of her homeland.
The objective of this study is to improve our understanding of the other aspects of the field of Diaspora and Development, while seeking to analyze some key actors, structural features and recent developments in the field of Diaspora engagement in Njikoka.

 

 

 

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THE ROLE OF THE NJIKOKA DIASPORA COMMUNITY IN FLORIDA, IN HOMELAND DEVELOPMENT

THE MOBILIZATION OF WOMEN IN ILORIN POLITICS 1979-2003

THE MOBILIZATION OF WOMEN IN ILORIN POLITICS 1979-2003

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Gender incongruity in politics is a worldwide phenomenon, literature abounds showing that the level of women’s participation at the highest level of political activity accounts for their invisibility in the top positions of power. Locally and internationally, such low representation cut across countries with different
political systems and at different stage of economic development.
In Nigeria, it would appear that women have never really tested power in the realm of Nigerian politics. However, literature abounds showing women’s participation in politics. The place of women in politics during the pre-modern period is sufficiently familiar. The exploits of legendary women like QUEEN Aminat of Zauzau, Iyalode Efunsetan Aniwura of Ibadan, princes Inikpi of Igala and Emotan of Benin reality come to mind. During the period, women asserted and expressed themselves politically. Some women who made their mark on political scene at the colonial period in Nigeria included: Mrs Margret Ekpo of the famous Abba women riot of 1929, Madam Abibat Tinubu of Lagos and Egbaland, Mrs Funmilayo Ransome
Kuti of the Abeokuta women union of 1948 and Hajia Sawaba Ganbo of Northern Element Union (NEPU) to mention a few. Though women enjoyed high political authority in Southern Nigeria, this was not a general Phenomenon; men had always been dominant in the political structure with women complementing them. Women activities were subordinate and supplement to the existing structure3.
In Nigeria studies show that the participation of women in democratic politics has been largely low 4. In liberal democracies, political parties, legislature assemblies and executive councils are vital sources of decision making among other power centres. Political parties in particular provide the citizens with the opportunity of participating in the management of a country’s airs and constitute a major platform for selecting and promoting candidate for elections. They also provide avenue for mass mobilization and provision of political leadership for the Nation. Political parties also organize and share power in parliament as well as influence the decision of government and other executive bodies. Since the emergence of indigenous political leadership in 1960, Nigeria women have remained invisible in the party system. Women were grossly underrepresented in party membership as well as in decision making organs. The marginal showing of women in political parties made it difficult for a visible women party constituency to emerge or develops.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
Women through the ages have contributed immensely to the social and economic development of various communities world over. Their political involvement might not have been that pronounced but current women’s participation in politics all over the world is witnessing tremendous increase in leaps and bounds. This is the result of the United Nation and other international bodies 1975-1985.
In Africa and other developing countries only a small percentage of women is actively involved in both high level politics and decision making processes. Actually, women participation in politics in the developing world is concentrated mainly in the lower echelons of public administrations, political parties and trade union. Only very few women occupy top decision making position.

 

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THE MOBILIZATION OF WOMEN IN ILORIN POLITICS 1979-2003

THE INTEGRATION OF MIGRANTS INTO SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF AWE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

THE INTEGRATION OF MIGRANTS INTO SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF AWE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Awe is the industrial nerve centre in Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State.1 Unlike other industrial settlement, its enjoy peaceful atmosphere. Not much is written on Awe and Afijio Local Government in general. Needless to say, not much attention had been given to the place of migrants and their role in
bringing about socio economic development in the area. This could be as a result of researchers concentration on a bigger communities and settlements like Oyo, Ejibo, Iwo, Egba, llorin, Ibadan among others. This research work seeks to promote knowledge in the various migrant association that exist, how they operate, their relationship with the indigenous people and probable problems they are encountering. This would provide to the people and the academic, the opportunity to understand the migrants activities and their influence in the socio-economic development of Awe. Since the indigenous population themselves are “restrained” from contributing to the development of the town, due to the peoples cultural belief.2
This essay would serve as a reference point for further knowledge. It is hoped that it will stimulate other researches, probing into the history of Awe and the migrants contribution.

1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to explore the trends of migrants and discuss effect  of immigration on the growth and development of Awe. It also intends to analyse the collective eorts and activities of migrants to the socio-economic development of the area putting into consideration both negative and positive impact of the activities of the immigrants. Indeed, activities of specific groups of migrants in their pursuit of excellence would be examined as it aects their host community, for instance, Mrs Giwa, proprietress of Best Legacy International group of schools, Sieberer Herbert former Manager of Amo group of companies, Dr. Kusi, Momoh hospital, Mr and Mrs Olayemi, poultry farmers, among others are individuals that had contributed immensely to Awe’s development.This study aims at positioning the community as a significant settlement enriched with enormous natural qualities and powerful nature’s good tidings.
In order to achieve this, primary and secondary sources becomes important element in the reconstruction of the economic contribution of migrants and indigenousness to the transformation of the Awe community.

1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY
This project work is limited to the period between 1900 – 1999. It basically seek to appraise and analyse the activities of specific groups of migrants in context to their contribution to the socio-economic development of Awe.

 

 

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THE INTEGRATION OF MIGRANTS INTO SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF AWE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

 

THE IMPACT OF OGBOMOSO EMIGRANTS ON SOCIO-POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF OGBOMOSO COMMUNITY 1969-2010.

THE IMPACT OF OGBOMOSO EMIGRANTS ON SOCIO-POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF OGBOMOSO COMMUNITY 1969-2010.

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
According to oxford Advance Learners, Dictionary, Migration is the movement of large numbers of people from one place to another 1. Which characterized human existence from the time immemorial for food; shelter and security? However, There are two main perspectives of the theories of migration economic
and non economic determinants of migration. Firstly, migration is usually from low income areas with few job opportunities with the objectives of improving the status and economic wellbeing of the migrants. Secondly, the non-economic factors aect the decision to migrate such as means of co-villagers at
destination, ethnic compatibility and residual environmental factors at both origin and destination2.
This study therefore, attempt to study the different migration patterns between 1969 when the migration became well noticed in Ogbomoso and year 2010 when their impact became highly  appreciated.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Firstly, the purpose of this essay is to examine the factors that led to the movement of some indigences of Ogbomoso to other places in Nigeria and beyond and why some have decided to be permanently residence at their new places. Secondly, to examined their socio-political and Economic set up through their organization and to examine how they impacted on socio-political, and economic structure of Ogbomoso community between 1969 and 2010.

1.3. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work examined the impact of Ogbomoso emigrants on socio-political structure of Ogbomoso community during 1969 when migration became rampant in the midst of people of Ogbomoso till 2010.
Also, greater emphasis will be laid on the factors responsible for the migration of Ogbomoso indigences to other parts of Nigeria. The impact of the various migration in Ogbomoso community is yet to be written, and this is what this essay is set to accomplish.

1. 4 SIGNIFICANCE
This essay will enlighten people on the development that Ogbomoso emigrants brought to Ogbomoso community and this may prompt other researchers to carry out research on similar topic However, this research work will also xray their negative eect on the town because migration depopulated Ogbomoso which had adversely acted quick development of the town (Ogbomoso)

 

 

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THE IMPACT OF OGBOMOSO EMIGRANTS ON SOCIO-POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF OGBOMOSO COMMUNITY 1969-2010.

THE GROWTH OF MARKET IN IKARE AKOKO: A CASE STUDY OF OSELE OF OSELE MARKET (1840 TILL PRESENT)

THE GROWTH OF MARKET IN IKARE AKOKO: A CASE STUDY OF OSELE OF OSELE MARKET (1840 TILL PRESENT)

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
A market is a site where sellers and buyers assemble daily or specific days to exchange goods and services. Markets are not only important as centers for the exchange of goods, ideas and fashions but also perform significant social and political functions in the community. Moreover, exchange and subsistence activities were and still are integrated into market systems. It is important to identify the factors which enable markets to expand. These are namely.
1. The volume and value of goods and services transacted (food products, sundry provisions and herbal products) determine the size of the market in quantitative terms.
2. Geographical location of the market which allow access from various directions.
3. The number and social status of the groups engaged in exchange, which influence the composition of the goods and services traded. All these factors are present on Osele market which is the subject of this essay. The concept of market is appropriate to early as well as to move recent times.
That market can contract and that future trends are more a matter of speculation than of accurate prediction. During the pre-colonial period, market used to be located at the centre of the town whereby, people from different parts of the community came to buy and sell varieties of goods (as it is today). In the course of the marketing activities among the people some events which warrant historical investigation take
place. Undoubtedly, Osele market is not only one of the most famous markets in Akoko but one of the most well, attended market in Yoruba land. This is for the choice of Osele market for this study. This study therefore aims at examining the factors of growth of this famous Akoko market with a view to bringing out
the elements and substance of its growth and importance. The extent to which Osele market attracted traders not only from Akoko land but also from other places to bring out how it had contributed to the inter-group relations among the people in the pre-colonial period. Furthermore it must be stressed that there is no gain saying in the assertion that Osele market attracted traders from Akoko and Yoruba.

1.2 SCOPE OF WORK
The study that make up this work is the topic of the work. The topics of the work has been chosen carefully to describe and analyze the development of the markets from the simplest periodic markets though the retail and large specialized markets in Ikare. It also deals directly with the development expansion
and stability of Osele market which is the case study of work. The first – part of the work deals with the general information of the study of the work. The second parts deals with the origins and development of Osele market.
The chapter also deals with the goods and services in Osele market. The third chapter dates 1900 – 1960 it starts by showing the significance of the colonial rule on the development of Osele market. It then goes on to examine the expansion and control of Osele market. This chapter also deals with the impact of the market guild on Osele. They are the social and political elements behind the market functions and developments.

 

 

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THE GROWTH OF MARKET IN IKARE AKOKO: A CASE STUDY OF OSELE OF OSELE MARKET (1840 TILL PRESENT)

 

THE CONTRIBUTION OF MARBLE MINING COMPANY TO THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF IGBETI COMMUNITY FROM 1969 TO PRESENT

THE CONTRIBUTION OF MARBLE MINING COMPANY TO THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF IGBETI COMMUNITY FROM 1969 TO PRESENT

 

CHAPTER ONE
Background to the Study
Definition of marble mining: what is marble? Marble can be defined as a type of had store that is usually white and oen has coloured lines in it. It can be polished and is used in building and for making status etc. a slab / block of marble, a marble floor/ sculpture.
Mining: The purpose of the ground the industry involved in this coal diamond goal tin mining.
The role of marble mining in economic development: The Marble Mining company have played prominent roles in Igbeti’s economy in terms of employment, provision of a wide range of goods and service it has helped to facilitate international transactions, it has also contributed to the gross National Product
Payment of Taxes, import and export duties also make transfer of technology possible, this they do by training their workers. However, if the technology transfer is properly looked at in terms of scientific knowledge that constitutes the engine of modern industrialism, then it is argued that Marble Mining have
not done enough to the hosts economic.
In spite of this view, it would not be correct to say that Marble mining company had not made impact to the host’s economy. Therefore, we shall examine the contribution of Marble Mining Company. The study shall focus on the impact the company. This is to enable us access its performance and impact to the Igbeti economic development.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this work is to examine the role of Marble Mining Company to the economic development of Igbeti as well as the rate at which these developments is taking place.
In doing this, we shall examine the origin of Marble mining company, its operation. We shall also attempt to explore the attention paid to the aspect of internal environment at the organization such as the quality of the products, the distribution of products, resources mobilization and utilization, organization structure general administration and management.

 

 

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THE CONTRIBUTION OF MARBLE MINING COMPANY TO THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF IGBETI COMMUNITY FROM 1969 TO PRESENT