Category: LIBRARY SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS
LIBRARY SCIENCE PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS, Library Science project topics and materials for undergraduate and post graduate students. Research project paper, seminar topics, proposals, titles, ideas and materials are available for dissertation, thesis and essay in Library Science department. Find below the list of research project topics for OND, HND, BSC, PGD, Msc and PHD Library Science students.
ABSTRACT The major purpose of this work was to investigation classification and knowledge development by technical librarians in academic libraries in Anambra State it was also directed to find out the factors militating against effective knowledge development in academic libraries, survey design was considered most appropriate and was adopted. The population of the study was 400,000 people while the sample sizes was 400 respondents selected using the Taro Yamane formula for sample selection. It was found out that inadequate facilities is one of the factors affecting knowledge development in academic libraries in Anambra State. It was found out there was lack of accessibility and utilization of academic libraries in Anambra State. In conclusion, it was concluded that Anambra State has been described by researchers as a failed state due to it?s incapacitations to provide enabling environment for knowledge development in academic libraries. It was recommended that both Anambra State and private individuals should join hands in building up effective academic libraries which will enhance effective knowledge development in Anambra State, the researcher also brought forward. ICTs knowledge development in academic library as the area for further research work in Anambra State.
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Library classification forms part of the field of library and information science. It was a form of bibliographic classification (library classification are used in library catalogues, while ?bibliographic classification?, also covers classification used in other kinds of bibliographic data bases). It goes hand in hand with cataloguing and classification, sometimes grouped together as technical services. The library professionals who engages in the process of cataloguing and classifying library materials is called a cataloguer or catalog librarian. Library classification scheme are one of the two tools used to facilitate subject access. The other consist of alphabetical indexing language such as Thesauri and subject headings. Library classification of a piece of work consists of two steps. Firstly, the aboutness of the material is ascertained. Next, a call number (essentially, a book?s address) based on the classification scheme in use at the particular library will be assigned to the work using the notation of the systems. However, a library classification is a system of grouping the like terms and separating them from the unlike one?s. library classification documents library materials or any information (books), serials, audio visual material, computer files, maps manuscripts, realia) according to their subject and allocating a call number (information needed) to that information resources. Bibliographic classification schemes group entitles together that are relevant the same subject, typically arrange in a hierarchical tree structure (like classification schemes used in biology). A different kind of classification scheme called a faceted classification scheme is also widely used which allows the assignment. It multiple classifications to an objects, enabling the classification to be orderly in multiple ways. Barr Jim (2009) knowledge management is about cooperation and contact. It is important to note that unlike subject headings or thesauri where multiple terms can be assigned to the same work, in library classification schemes, each work can be placed in one class. This is due to shelving purposes. A book can have only one physical place. However, in cataloguing one may have main entries as well as added entries most classification scheme like Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) and library of congress classification scheme also add a cutter number to each work which adds code for the author of the work. Classification system in libraries generally play two roles. Firstly, they facilitate subject access by alloying the user to find out what is available in a give library on a particular topic. Secondly, they provide a known location for the information source to be accessed leg where it is shelved. Lawrence Sand Giles CL (2006) Accessibility Information on the web nature.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Library plays a very important role in this economic and industrial development of developed countries. As early as 1995, Ifidon (1995) demonstrated how libraries (i.e academic, public and special libraries) were important building blocks in the economic and industrial development of developed countries Ifidon (2005) documented several information services that were provided by libraries in Canada, Germany and United Kingdom (UK) to the industry. Community which includes: providing access to patents? informations, reference services borrowing privileges, current awareness services, inter library cooperations, translation services etc. The range of these services varied according to the resources which can be tapped and the financial support given by local government and industries. A study of Kansas public libraries in the United States of America also showed that nearly a third of business and economic development organization in all pars of the state used public libraries as a resources high proportions of business that have their own libraries also use the resources and services of public libraries in most cases in the United State of America (USA) such as library system of Lancaster Country (PA) and the Cecil Country (MD) public library. Small Business Information Centre (Hamilton Pennell, 2008). Most libraries in African are still in a weak position to successful playing their roles in economic and industrial development. Libraries are still tied in the traditional role of providing access to information resources by only acquiring processing and disseminating library materials. Originally libraries were small, served the monitory and possessed a collection of books imported from colonial countries. This situation has not changed even when independence came to many African states. Most libraries have renamed with the Tittle content generated from the north, as their development was ignored in favour of the efforts to uplift poverty. Further, the rising cost of journal prices and adequate and expensive distribution mechanisms on knowledge and innovations in Africa have also inhabited libraries to provide access to updated and relevant literature for economic growth and industrial development journal subscriptions normally increase at rate of 11.16% every year beyond the reach of many institutions in Africa Ngika, (2006). Academic libraries are among the best developed libraries in Africa and they can play a great role in serving the industry community. These libraries are well equipped. However, there is a significant variation in there development and growth both in quality because their support mainly comes from their institutions with minimum subsidization they receive from government or other affiliations (Ocholla, 2008) despite the development of ICT, changing nature it will also serve as a guide line for the students scholars in library and information science field of study. It will also serve as books of record in the field of information science.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS It is a common knowledge that the viability of academic library have not been explored nor utilized. This is because of the excruciating in effective equipment of libraries in the Nigerian contemporary societies which has been culminating to the traumatizing non-challant attitude of the masses towards sourcing information from libraries, lack of interest in academic study cum knowledge acquisitions from academic libraries in Anambra State. It is unfortunate that Anambra is a failed state in regards to library building and knowledge acquisitions this is demonstrated by the past governments of Anambra State on their failure to support effective library buildings in the state, which has been stigmatizing (militating) knowledge exploration in the academic setting which demoralizes the interested researchers (readers) in Anambra State for the past twelve years in which knowledge development in Academic Library has become a past history in Anambra State
ABSTRACT This project is aimed at examining the problems and prospects of reference services in academic librarians, using the Anambra State University Uli campus library as a case study and how to evaluate the strength and weakness of the reference services in an academic librarian. It will also help to know the problems caused by the library clientele and profile solution toward the problems. This project work is design to know the functions of reference librarian and services to make prospect in the reference section of a library. Chapter one of this project works treats Background to the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of some terms as it concerns to this work. Chapter two treats literature review which covers areas like Reference materials, staffing of the reference section, management of reference section, problem facing reference section. Chapter three treat methodology which comprises of research design, population of the study, sample and sampling technologies, research instrument, and method of data analysis. Chapter four treats data analysis, presentation of result and discussion of findings. While Chapter five treats summary of the work conclusion and recommendation for further study
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the study Reference service is one of the essential services of the library. Meaning reference service is the activities, roles, functions and services rendered by the reference librarian constitute reference service. According to Prytherch, (2002) He states that: ?reference service deal with the provision of reference work by library staff?. According to Ohio Library Council, (2005) Reference services is ?A way for libraries to meet the needs of their user (clientele) communities?. Reference service involves instructing clients to operate independently and at own pace to uses electronic and print resources of the library, it also involved personal assistance given to the users to enable them meet their needs. James (2005) states that reference work started in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to respond to several forces and trends. In the next several decades from the 1930s through the 1950s, a new technology that provides, access to the library to a lager member and much wider variety of people was introduce. That technology is obviously, the telephone and the reference literature of the day speaks of its advantages but also its challenges. For example, having distinguished between ?important questions coming in via the telephone those business men and involving important topics from less important? ones from club woman planning programs, context questions like should this service be centralized or dispersed? Should it be staffed differently from the desk? What information resources should be dedicated to it? And many more. According to (ALA RUSA, 2008) reference service includes reference transactions and other activities that involve the creation, management, and assessment of information or research resources, tools and services. Creation and management of information resources includes the development and maintenance of research collections, research guide, catalogues, database, web-sites, search engines etc that patrons can use independently, in-house or remotely to satisfy their information needs. Assessment activities include the measurement and evaluation of reference work, resources and services. According to Esharenana, (2008) sees reference section as that section of library which provide a variety of services and perform functions necessary to assist the users including provision of information service on demand and in providing institution in the use of library, selected of documents and organization of reference materials. According to Obiora, (2004) states that reference sources are publications ? book and non-book materials consulted only within the library for specific facts or definite piece of information on a subject. There are two types of reference sources, general reference sources which include Encyclopedia, Directories, Dictionaries, Yearbooks and Handbook while special or subject reference sources are Mathematics, Biology, and Library Science. According to Esharenana, (2008) states that reference question is a sentence, phrase or word posed by a patron to the reference librarian asking for information or assistance in order to meet the need. According to Ramum (2003) reference policy is regarded as a kind of set of plan and as a kind of framework within which reference staff and clienteles work. Ahi Rusa, (2003) states that a reference librarians is person that provides reference service. He should posses a wide range of intellectual interest, desire to assist the patrons, flair for organizing documents ability to search literature and adequate knowledge of the library and external resources. According to Scott (2007) is pubic service counter where professional librarian provide library users with direction on how to make use of library materials, advise on library collection and services and expertise on multiple kinds of information from multiple sources. According to Anderson (2005) digital reference is a service and the reference transaction is a computer mediated communication.
1.2 Statement of Problems The aim of this study is to critically analyze the problems and prospect towards the services in the reference section and equally to view the problems that have prevented it from executing effectively and efficiently the bibliographical functions in the library. One observes that the very rapid expansion of our reference sources have reached a stage of concern. One finds that the library does not tackle the problem of acquisition of up-to-date reference materials like journals to keep the clienteles (students and lecturers even the parent institution) abreast of the new trends in their various field of study. Development of the reference collection and organization which effect in the backbone of a reference eservice should also be looked into. A maximum attention would equally be paid to the relevance of the exiting services, to see how it meet the needs of the patrons, because the effective use of these materials depends on the services provided by the reference personnel or librarians.
1.3 Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is to know the problems and prospect of reference services. Therefore the researcher will be able to find out the following purposes: i. To know if the reference section of the academic library is well organized. ii. To know if there reference services are being rendered in line with other reference services in other libraries. iii. To identify the strength and weakness of the library?s reference collection because any effective reference service may not be feasible without an appropriate and adequate reference collection. iv. To enable the researcher carry out the findings so that to make recommendation for effective reference services in the library. v. To take the library to another level through the reference services.
1.4 Research Questions For the success of this study, this study demands an answer to the following questions: i. Is the reference section of the academic library adequately organized to perform its functions? ii. To what extent can the reference materials in the library said to be appropriate for the needs of the clientele? iii. Are the reference services being rendered in-line with other reference services in other libraries? iv. Does the library make available all the useful reference materials needed by the users for them? v. Does the library clientele find it easy with the reference librarian in terms of research?
1.5 Significance of the Study 1. This study will lay on the reference services in academic library users. 2. It will provide a useful information on how reference services are being searched by the users. 3. It demonstrates to library staff the feelings of its clientele towards the type of reference materials they provide for them. 4. The recommendation to the made will be the one that if implemented will enhance an effective reference information services of the library to its user. 5. To enable adequate access to the materials be the library users.
1.6 Scope of the Study This study is restricted to the university of Anambra State Uli Campus library. The reference services rendered to the users are deeply discussed. Reasonable conclusion and recommendation was made because of limited time and space placed on this research, make it impossible to evaluate in details everything about the problems and prospect of Anambra State University reference library section. Only activities performed in the library and the general overview of their statistical record and their reference materials have been look into. The quality of staff was also evaluated, the nature of their work and services towards their users.
Launching of assessment of reference collection and services by academic libraries is on the increase, libraries are exploring new ways of expanding their services by interacting with users and responding to user inquires via the internet, especially students enrolled on the distance mode of studying. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the assessment of reference collection and services at the Ibadan polytechnic library. Two aspects were evaluate, namely, ?Resources? and ?elements of the general digital reference model?. This study was a summative evaluation study in which semi-structured interviews and observations were used to collect data. The research findings showed that these libraries used the general digital reference model in providing responses to the library users. The study established that the library did not follow the IFLA and rusa standard of staffing and training of librarians working with digital reference services. The study further found that a lack of ability to fully demonstrate to users how to access various library services was one of the major problems that the librarians experienced.
1.1 INTRODUCTION Assessment of library and information resources is one of the vital works in the field of library and information science Library and information science can not perform maximally without assessing its collection to determine whether the collection at its disposal can meet the immediate and distance needs of library users. The assessment of library reference can be defined as the term use in render assistance to readers seeking for information in the library. Consequently reference services in Nigeria libraries is an age long tradition as reference librarians serve as pilot toward directing information seekers on the latest information that are inherent in a particular field of human Endeavour, the provision of qualitative reference services will no doubt promote research and development for national development. However, reference services can be attribute to selective dissemination of information (SDI), as well as current awareness services (CAS), this is to say that a reference librarians should be able to provide some selected information that are relevant to the researcher and also create n enabling environment whereby the researcher or the investigator or the information seeker can get current information that will help him/her solve a particular problem. Through general need for users of library materials in different types of library, like public, special, documentation centre and academic library, different but it is not gainsaying that the need for constant assess of library materials is view as resources that is more important in academic library especially reference materials of the institution. The reason for this are numerously academic library constantly involving research activities than any our kind of library. As academic library, the institution authorities are to be seen to pay much attention to reference collection and its services delivery otherwise the library?s role would be seen dwelling polytechnic librarians cannot be expected to fulfill its role and carry out its responsibilities effectively funds, personnel and physical facilities, and if librarians cannot collaborate with the teaching staff in building up the library collection and in orienting the student interest to effective library use ( Aguolu, 2002). Library operation generally are by nature, services oriented. This is reflected in the referral services rendered by libraries. Considering the enormous role of Academic libraries in our institution, it becomes necessary to assess reference services in our institution, bearing in mind that reference services is the most important of all library activities. The library reference and services has been aligned with the strategic directions in line with UNESCO and ALA policies relating to literacy and equitable access to information. Reference librarians must be able to respond to a wide variety of question, depending on the needs expressed by library users. Increasingly, the concept of a reference collection made up of reference books in an inadequate characterization of resources most frequently used by reference librarians. Although print materials continue to used, they are supplemented by authoritative sources in microform, CD-Rom, or Digital resources accessed via computers and network connections With the availability of a growing number of freely available resources on the web, it is limiting to think of the reference collection as only those materials that are purchased or licensed by the library. According to smith (2010), it is possible to divide reference sources into two main classes: compilation that furnish information directly and compilation that refer to other sources containing information. In practice, this distinction becomes blurred because sources of the first type often refer to other for further information, and those of thesecond type are adequate for answering some questions. Source of the first type include Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Almanasecs, Handbooks, Yearbooks, Biographical sources, Directories, Atlass, and Gazetters; source of the second type include Catalogues, Bibliographies and indexes. Ethical isseus such as confidentiality and privacy are also relevant in the digital environment, where it is possible records should be treated with the same respect for confidentiality and privacy as library circulation records. There is also the enthical issue of availability of access to digital reference services. If librarians devote more of their resources and time to digital reference service to those who do not have internet access could be negatively affected. Gorman polanka &Bibel (2010).
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Effective utilization of libraries has been a matter of concern to librarians information scientists and educationalist in general. Therefore underutilization of library and information resources has no doubt assume a worrisome dimension, given that libraries and librarians have a responsibility of ensuring that their resources and services are effectively utilized especial when huge, amount of money is voted for resources procurement. However, as observed from the primary study that many of the academic library are not paying attention to the assessment of collection of the reference section, instead of that attention are paid to purchase of library materials that will cover all the discipline run in their institution forgetting that reference department need special attention in term of it acquestion and resources. It is in the line of this, that this researcher is been carried out to investigate the availability and use of reference sources and services by students of the Ibadan polytechnic.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY. The general objective of the study is to identify library resources available at the tertiary institution, library in oyo state and assess the quantum of usability by patrons. Other specific objective include: i. Find out reference collection and services resources available at the reference department of Ibadan polytechnic. ii. Make a comparative analysis of the years (2012 ? 2017) and varying usages of Academic library resources iii. Ascertain specific reference materials consulted by library users at the institution, Ibadan polytechnic. iv. Identify the problems affecting the Ibadan polytechnic v. Solution to the problem.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS i. What types of reference resources are available at the institution Ibadan polytechnic ii. Are there any variation in the usage of reference resources between the periods 2012 ? 2017? iii. What specific reference resources are consulted by users at the reference section of the library of Ibadan polytechnic iv. Problems v. Solution
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This research work will cover all the available reference resource available at the library of Ibadan polytechnic. This include Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Almanasecs, Handbooks, Yearbooks, Biographical sources, Directories, Atlass, and Gazetters etc. Print media available at the library will also be included. The study population for then research work will be students of the two institution, while lectures using the reference sources of library of Ibadan polytechnic will be outside the scope of this study.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The result from this research work will help us to highlight the ways in assessing reference collection and services availability of those materials inside the Academic libraries and how users responded in making use of them in our various libraries. The outcome of the study will be of great importance to the Ibadan polytechnic management and the entire administration of polytechnics in Nigeria, in improving reference sources and services respectively in polytechnic libraries and academic libraries in general in order to meet the information needs of their clientele. Libraries from time to time, need to be assessed and evaluated by its users. The user?s satisfaction is considered to be a reliable benchmark for determining library effectiveness.
This research study, selection and acquisition of library resources in post primary school in Yobe state “A case study of some selected post primary in Potiskum Local Government. Intends to give brief history various secondary school in Potiksum, statement of problem, objective of the study, research question, scope of the study, significance of the study. The study will also determine the literature of some researcher in relation to the selection and acquisition of library resources for schools in general terms and reference. The procedure for data collection will be administered with questionnaire by the questionnaire by the staff of the selected post primary schools during visitation which will serve as the survey method to be adopted. The importance of school libraries services and the processes in Nigeria and Yobe state will be discussed in terms of principles of selection policy. Purpose of selection policy standard of provision of information, level of funding in relation to library resources, finance, staff and structure. The study will give summary, recommendation and integration of school libraries in secondary schools qualify staff, provision of relevant and current materials as measures for improvement.
Selection and acquisition is refers to the process of deciding which materials should be added to a library collection. Selection decision are usually made on the basis of reviews and standard collection development tools by librarian designated as selectors in specific subject area based on their interest and field of specialization. In school libraries selection may done by teachers, at times students do consider to suit their information need or meet the curriculum at the schools. After selection the relevance one’s, the recommended titles are purchased especially in the libraries that provide suggestion box, the process of selecting ordering and receiving materials for library by purchased exchange, gift or solicited. According to library association and institution and International Federation of Library Association (IFLA) acquisition and collection development focuses on methodological and topical theme pertaining to acquisition of print and other analogue information resource, collection are developed by librarian and library staff by buying or otherwise acquiring material over a period, based on assessment of the information need of the library’s users.
Library Resources: Many valuable resources are found or available at the library, such as books e-book, CDs, DVD, magazines, games, computers internet access, microforms, maps and more. These days’ libraries are finding new and innovative ways to extend their collection to better serve their communities. The Pima (Ariz) country library carries many categories of books such as fiction and references, nonfiction. But some carry special collection of rare books manuscript and maps.
Post primary school: The post primary schools or secondary level of education caters for stdents aged from 18 to 18 years. Most children start in post primary school at the aged of 12 to 13 years age on 1 January in the year they start secondary level education in order to be registered in a post primary schools. In most rural and provincial areas there is generally one school that is attended by the students, especially in large population centres some parent and student have a choice of school.
Some selected post primary school in PotiskumYobe State are as follow:
Fika Government Secondary School Potiskum
Government Science and Technical College Potiksum
Government Girl Science and Technical College Potiksum
This work is on acquisition and management of serials in Imo state university library Owerri. The research was centered on the acquisition, storage, utilization and management of serials and their attendant problems involved in the Imo state academic library. The research employed the survey method of research, using questionnaires, interview schedules and direct observation to collect data. Apart from the methodology and procedures of investigation. Which were given the presentation, analysis and interaction, the findings were also done, data was analyzed using simple percentages.
Results gotten should that the acquisition, storage and utilization of serial were affected by inadequate funding, inadequate accommodation, lack of storage facilities and inadequate number of personnel. The researcher recommended that the perspective authorities involved should ensure of adequate funding of the serials department, provision of adequate accommodation, formulating well thought out storage policy and recruiting enough personnel in the section. Recommendations for further studies were also made. The researcher is of the view that these recommend actions will help to alleviate the serials management problems if they are implemented.
One would ask what motivated the researcher to embark on this research work. The answer is simple. The researcher developed keen interest in serials acquisition policy, procedure and management in academic libraries two important factors motivated the researcher to undertake this study first was the acquisition of serials and the inability of librarians to really managed these acquired. Second was the important of serials in libraries.
The role of serials in dissemination of information in academic library system cannot be overemphasized. Like orange juice, milk and bread, information better when it is fresh. Serials from the backbone of any academic library or research library because of their currency in information. In this way, they aid the dissemination of current information.
Information explosion has necessitated an improvement in the gathering, processing and dissemination of information sources in libraries. Hence they could be say to be indispensable in academic libraries. The use of serials in academic research has continued to be on the increase in recent times. This has further necessitated their effective development and management.
The term serials and periodical are synonymous. They are under interchangeably to refers to the materials imprint or non-print form that are produced serially or periodically. As indicated in the Anglo. American cataloguing rule (1978) a serial is a publication in any medium issued in successive part bearing numerical or chronological designation and intend to be continued indefinitely.
The part of serial publication may be published at different materials e.g. daily, weekly, month, bi-monthly, quarterly, annually, bi-annually and so forth by an academic society, a research institution, a learned society, a reputable publishing organization, a professional body. Some serials one published on subject bases while some one on general topic. It is sterility that distinguishes serial publication from book and monographs and it is the periodicity that dictates format and price.
Serials are pointed out lawal (1982) in serial acquisition and management in Nigerian university libraries problems and prospects.
can be regarded as the nerve centre of any university or academic library because they contain the most up to date information or research and knowledge. Hey are useful for study teaching, learning and research purposes, serials includes journals, magazine, newspaper, bulletins, newsletters, memories, report, year book and directories.
Today, it has not been easy for serials librarians to acquired all the necessary information resources needed. This is as a result of confusion and about over sources of and acquisition idiosyncrasies on the part of book dealers. Even where these materials are supplied, there is yet this problem of storage facilities and equipment to use. Insight shows that the attendant result of these ugly trend is that academics libraries one losing a considerable number of their clientele interims of providing the required information as and when due.
For a library to achieve it’s objectives effectively. It must be able to co-ordinate both its human and materials resources properly. The effectiveness in the usage of serials depend on the efficiency of serials management in nay library. Serials have to be selected, acquired, stored, retrieve and disseminated to the users. This is where serial acquisition and management becomes indispensable.
Woodward (1991) is of the opinion that acquisition and management of serials need skills as in any successfully manage business. It is a two way communication and clearly perceive task and understanding of the collection is a, must, he stressed that serial acquisition and management comprises all activities needs to facilitate and implement efficient and effective transfer of information to the potential users and thereby fulfill the objectives of the library wishes to achieve.
Like any other concept, management evolves diverse memories in a variety ways. According to Fussler, K. (1963) acquisition is the process by which libraries achieve or documented materials needed by their patrons or clientele. While management according to entrain and jack (1981) is the planning and integrating of effort, judicious uses of resources, motivation of people and provision of leadership other to guide an organization towards it’s goal and objectives in the efficient manner.
The carryout the above functions, managers are engaged in a continuous process of making decision. Acquisition and management is the beefing up the library stock and proper organizing and preserving of it, management is equivalent to decision making.
The goal of serial acquisition and management is to deliver promptly that serial literature, which the users needs. Librarians serving in academic libraries should realizing that researcher and users of the library require a wide range of knowledge. Realizing the complexity of the situation as well as the increasing trend towards publication in serial form, the selection and acquisition should be done on those information need of the organization. The researcher will investigate into problems of serials acquisition and management in academic library of Imo State University.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON IMO STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
The institution was established in 1981 by Imo state government as a dual or muilti-campus. The university has one campus at Ekiti and the other one were located at Aba.
On October, 1981 the university was financed and structures were laid up by late of Imo state Sam Mbakwe being the governor of Imo state by then.
The university move to it’s permanent site at Uturu Okigwe in 1986 with the creation of Abia State from old Imo State in 1992, the Soul of Imo state university was reborn at Owerri in 1992.
The Imo State library is located in the core academic area and situated in an excavation which shields it from noise and predispose it to leaning
The primary objective of the study is determines the influence of awareness and attitude of lecturers on self-plagiarism among the academic staffs in Babcock and Covenant University. The study adopted the survey research design. This design was considered appropriate for the study because it is because it is suitable for obtaining data from a large number of people. The data for the research was collected through a well design and structured questionnaire. A total of 287 questionnaires were administered to the respondents out of which 279 were completed and returned. The study employed both descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze the data retrieved from the questionnaire which were analyzed with the aid of SPSS. The study was guided by three research questions and four hypotheses. Among the findings reveals by the study were awareness has negative and significant relationship with incidence of self-plagiarism, awareness and attitude jointly has negative and significant influence on incidence of self-plagiarism. The study recommends that the management of the university should insist on creating awareness and organizing seminars as this will help in reducing the incidence of self-plagiarism.
1.0 Background of the study
Plagiarism has not really been seen as a topic for discussion by a larger group of people. This act has brought about ignorance in the consequence of this major misdemeanor. In collaboration with the ignorance of people towards the misconduct, there hasn’t really been any information about a good number of individuals that have been penalized for the practice of this felony, this has occurred mostly in intuitions. Plagiarism hasn’t been recognized by a good number of individuals but in comparison with self-plagiarism as a branch of plagiarism, it has reached more number of people.
Self-plagiarism simply referred to as the act of copying, texts recycling of an individual’s previous intellectual work in his\her present intellectual creation without citation has not been literally referred to as a threat. How is it a crime to use my own words, ideas and concept in another work of mine? Why should I cite myself? Isn’t it my work, why can’t I make use of it when I want? These and many other questions come up when this concept is discussed. Self-plagiarism was defined by different people of different occupations. An example would be one of an author who submitted a paper journal, claiming it to be an original work. Though, when the paper was run through a plagiarism detection system, it was determined that a great deal of the work was contained in earlier works published by the author. Lammey(2012)
It has to do more with the exact words and phrasing rather than the ideas or research, as it is with scholarly publication. McBride(2012) Self-plagiarism is likened to traditional plagiarism in that there is a great deal of grey area and the separation between what is acceptable and not acceptable to do. “I would say that, when you take a work you have done previously and present it as new or something that is original, that’s when you cross the line. That presentation, whether it is implicit or explicit, is when I consider it self-plagiarism” Bailey(2012).
Self-plagiarism as one of the misconducts of an institution has been seen as a big problem in the institutions. What makes it more of a threat is the fact that not everyone knows that they practice it and those that know may not really see it as a big deal. Self-plagiarism just like most academic misconduct can be caused by peoples differing views of academic integrity in Nigeria. Factors such as the education system, pedagogy, predominant student learning style, and predominant assessment style. Maris(2016) Because of the differing views lecturers have of academic integrity, it has brought about the increase in academic misconduct as some lecturers do not see self-plagiarism as a crime.
The aspect of lecturers having different views of these practices is just one section of the challenges associated with the increase of the practices of self-plagiarism. The second section is, although there may be differing views of misconduct in general, how many of them actually know that self-plagiarism exists, of those that know that it exist, how many know the implication of this practice and how many are interested in knowing the implications of self-plagiarism. Also, of those that are fully aware of this practice and its implication, how many of them have a positive attitude towards the practice.
First of all, these lecturers have to be aware of the implications of practicing self-plagiarism as most of them bask in ignorance. Once the rate of awareness has been increased, then the problem would be narrowed down to how they respond to what they have been told. The more the knowledge about something increases, the easier it will be to know how to react to it, this also applies to this study. Once awareness of this practice is increased, then the next step would be to know how they react to this information, their attitude towards it.
The attitude of the lecturers towards self-plagiarism increases the chances of final extermination or increase in the incidences of self-plagiarism. A positive attitude towards it allows the lecturers stop any form of self-plagiarism they once practiced and this would rub off on the students as the lecturers would definitely enlighten them about self-plagiarism and develop a teaching method that would say a big no to this practice. Here, awareness has totally changed the view the lecturers had about academic misconduct and also changed their teaching technique. A negative attitude on the other hand doesn’t lead to any change at all but has worsened the problem because now the lecturer knows what self-plagiarism is and the implications of this practice but has intentionally refused to put a stop to this practice, this can be very detrimental to the intellectual growth of the lecturer and the students that have the go through him/her.
There are factors that cause the growth of self-plagiarism in institutions (among students), among authors in different fields etc.
Among authors, causes of self-plagiarism after being divided into two parts; individual causes and systematic causes includes:
A higher number of authors on an article increases its chances of containing problematic text recycling
Authors of younger scientific age are more likely to improperly recycle text.
The absence of clear editorial statements on text recycling increases its likelihood of occurrence.
Problematic text recycling is more common in research disciplines in which phrases are more standardized and editors are less willing to act. (Horbach, Halffman, 2017)
There are also several causes of self-plagiarism among students. Council of Writing Program Administrators (2014):
Students may fear failure or fear taking risks in their own work.
Students may have poor time-management skills or they may plan poorly for the time and efforts required for research-based writing and believe they have no choice but to plagiarize.
Students may view the course, the assignment, the conventions of academic documentation, or the consequences of cheating as unimportant.
Teachers may present students with assignments so generic or unparticular that students may believe they are justified in looking for canned responses.
Instructors and institutions may fail to report cheating when it does occur, or may not enforce appropriate penalties.
Students may not know how to integrate the ideas of others and document the sources of those ideas appropriately in their texts. etc these and many more are the causes of plagiarism among students.
One of the objectives of this study is to ascertain the causes of self-plagiarism among lecturers as much research has not been carried out on this area.
The practice of self-plagiarism has its implications in the intellectual growth of people that participate in it. Motivation to produce original material is decreased when the intellectual property of others are stolen. This occurs in two ways:
Someone who possesses great ideas and writing potential may have his/her motivation to take time and energy to do the work diminished if you can just re-use someone else’s work and pass it as his/ he own. A continuous engagement in this practice would result to a reduced capacity for ingenuity and creative thinking.
The knowledge of someone else passing your work is his/her own reduces your motivation. The result of this is, the victim would no longer see the use in putting so much effort and would keep re-cycling the same idea and work (Carson, 2010 ; HomeWork Help, 2016).
Another implication of self-plagiarism is, the failure to cite the sources of words or ideas decreases accountability. False information could be circulated without being able to find the source of this false information. Circulation of false information could damage the minds of individuals by filling their minds with incorrect information (Carson,2010).
Also, a reuse of your work or another person’s work is fraudulent. Graduating from a college or finishing any degree at all means you have gone through your own research, written ideas you’ve been able to come up with, developed writing and research skills. If all the work you had done were fraudulent, then a degree is not deserved by such individual (Carson, 2010).
One more implication of being involved in self-plagiarism is a weakened educational community. Academic debates and opinions are narrowed due to plagiarism, reducing their contribution to academic debate. Through academic debate people are pushed to develop and examine their academic thinking in response to the contribution of others. If this debated is limited to few well-constructed but unoriginal positions, this broadening may be lost which further weaken the educational community (Edmonds, 2017).
On further research on self-plagiarism among lecturers implications and causes of self-plagiarism that affect lecturers that practice this act are aimed to be discovered as much research on lecturers and how they respond to self-plagiarism have not been carried out.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The institution is seen as the home of knowledge where knowledge is slowly inculcated into the minds of individuals in that institution. This slow inculcation of knowledge in the minds of these individuals that is, the students is referred to as education. Being educated develops some characteristics in people, these characteristic includes
The ability to differentiate between what is right and wrong, what is immoral and moral, what is just and unjust.
Gives the person hope to solve the problems humanity faces today
Good education removes ill beliefs
Gives you the power to question anything wrong
Makes you more aware and confident
Helps you learn the right way to execute yourself and behave positively
Helps you find the truth and forces you to think in different aspects. Thiyam(2016)
The availability of these attributes of an educated person points out the fact that the institution should be an enlightened and misconduct freed place.
Sadly, even with all the education acquired by individuals in the institutions. Plagiarism has not been seen only as the most practiced misconduct but also as the most practiced misconduct that isn’t taken as a big challenge by most institutions. A branch of plagiarism which is the core of this study is self-plagiarism.
Self-plagiarism has been seen as a threat as it negatively affects the intellectual development of individuals. Lecturers in the contest of this study are at the risk of having depreciation in the growth of their minds. The practice of self-plagiarism gives rise to, lower sense of reasoning, inability to be creative, a reduction in the range and scope of knowledge. These and many others would be the fate of lecturers that practice self-plagiarism. Because the lecturers feed the students with knowledge, if the lecturers do not develop their minds daily, learn more, and keep themselves updated instead of going around the same idea they have come up with for a very long time, the students themselves would receive the little those lecturers have to offer which will be detrimental to the growth of their intellect.
It is believed that the level of awareness affects the attitude they would have towards the practice. The more aware they become of the detriment of self-plagiarism to themselves and the people that come in contact with their intellectual work, the more they have a positive attitude towards this practice. If the level of awareness the lecturers have increases, it could also increase the range of positive attitude towards self-plagiarism. It is when their attitude towards this practice becomes positive that it would then decrease incidences of the practice among the lecturers as many are aware of it but still have a negative attitude towards it.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to determine the influence of attitude and awareness on incidences of self-plagiarism among lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State.
The specific objectives are to:
Ascertain the level of awareness of self-plagiarism by lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State.
Ascertain the attitude of lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State towards self-plagiarism.
Find out the frequency of the occurrence of self-plagiarism among lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State.
Determine the influence of awareness on incidences of self-plagiarism among lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State.
Determine the influence of attitude on incidences of self-plagiarism among lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State.
Determine the joint influence of awareness and attitude on incidences of self-plagiarism among lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What is the level of awareness of lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State about self-plagiarism?
What is attitude of lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State about self-plagiarism?
How often does self-plagiarism occur among lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H01: there is no significant relationship between awareness and incidences of self-plagiarism among lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State.
H02: awareness has no significant influence on incidences of self-plagiarism among lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State.
H03: attitude has no significant influence on incidences of self-plagiarism among lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State.
H04: awareness and attitude do not significantly influence incidences of self-plagiarism among lecturers in selected private universities in Ogun State.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study will involve ascertaining awareness of self-plagiarism, ascertaining the attitude towards self-plagiarism, the occurrences of self-plagiarism and the influences of the attitude, awareness and frequency of occurrences of self-plagiarism among lecturers in selected private universities, Ogun State, Nigeria.
The universities where this research will be carried out are; Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State; Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State; Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State.
The levels of the lecturers that are going to be the target for this research are; the graduate assistant, the assistant lecturer, lecturer ii, lecturer I and the senior lecturer. The aim of the variance in the levels of lecturers is to ascertain if the levels of the lecturers affect their level of awareness and attitude towards self-plagiarism and to also ascertain the frequency in occurrence of self-plagiarism on each level.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is significant because it will:
Help us know the level of awareness that the lecturers have and how the university can help in the increase of the level of awareness among the lecturers.
Help us understand the attitude of lecturers toward the practice of self-plagiarism. If their attitude towards it is positive, then that is favorable to the extermination of this practice but if negative, then it creates an opportunity to help corrected their negative attitude toward self-plagiarism.
Help us know the empirical link between the lecturers’ attitude towards self-plagiarism and their level of awareness about this practice by confirming if the level of awareness the lecturers have has a negative or positive effect on their attitude towards self-plagiarism.
Help us know the empirical link between the lecturers’ attitude toward self-plagiarism and incidences of self-plagiarism among the lecturers in the institutions. This furthermore is achieved by confirming if the attitude of lecturers toward self-plagiarism increases or decreases the incidences of self-plagiarism among these lecturers.
Help us to know the empirical link between the lecturers’ levels of awareness about self-plagiarism and incidences of self-plagiarism among the lecturers by confirming if the level of awareness the lecturer has about self-plagiarism would increase or decrease the incidences of self-plagiarism among the lecturers.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
AWARENESS: knowledge or perception of a situation or a fact. Concern about and well-informed interest in a particular situation or development.
ATTITUDE: a predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person or situation.
SELF-PLAGIARISM : described as recycling or reusing one’s own specific words from previously published texts.
PLAGIARISM: is the wrongful appropriation, stealing and publication of another author’s language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions” and the representation of them as one’s own original work.
The study examines the influence of social media use on reading habit, a case study of Babcock University, Ilishan, Ogun State”.
The study adopted the case design which is made of a structured questionnaire for collection of information and opinions of respondents. The population of the study comprised 8,968 users of social media sites readers, who are students. Purposive sampling was used to select 120 respondents from Babcock University students. Qualitative methods were used for the data analysis. This method involves the use of descriptive statistics techniques such as frequencies and simple percentages. The frequencies are evaluated while the simple percentages are calculated and interpreted accordingly.
The findings of the study are: The kind of materials students read when they visit the library are positive ones. The students engage in reading is for positive reasons. Thereading habit has positive effect on academic pursuit. There is a significant relationship between reading habit and academic pursuit of students in Babcock University.
The study concludes that there is a positive and significant relationship between reading habit and academic pursuit of students in Babcock University. The study suggested tat; More ICT equipment should be deployed to the academic libraries in higher institution to encourage digital preservation; Efforts should be enhanced by the institution authorities towards creating enabling environment for reading, as these will enhance reading habit and academic pursuit of students; Other accessory facilities should be provided in the academic environment to aid the process of reading habit and academic pursuit of students.
This study is focused on the influence of social media site on the reading culture of students in Babcock University as a case study. It is mutual to find students socializing with friends through social media site than reading books that has valuable information and capable of increasing one’s state of knowledge. Students of this generation don’t bother to read books that can increase their knowledge expect when they feel it necessary to read books. Student find the social media sites much interesting than reading books with valuable information’s that will positively add to their academic pursuit.
Reading habits helps to determine students’ academic achievement to a given extent. Both reading habit and academic pursuit are interrelated to each other and they also depend on one another. Students come from various environment and different location with different mindset of their academic pursuits. Therefore there is differ in the manner of reading habit. Some students due to bad environment and location it has really affected the way they focus on their academic pursuit some still cope while some students have good reading habit due to the good environment they come from. The environment can be a positive and also be a negative effect to the way students focus on their academic activities. Reading make students have better understanding of one’s own experience. Reading habit is formed at a young impressionable age in school, but once formed it can last one’s life time (Green, 2001).
According to Palani (2012), reading is an essential and significant aspect for creating a literate society in the world. Reading helps individuals to develop a good thinking ability that can make them make good decision for people, organizations and it also helps in developing great ideas and suggestions to solve problem in an organization, institution and other environment.
On the other hand, the increment in the mass media, had constantly influence the interest in reading books, magazines, newspapers journals and other information valuable materials among others. Palani (2012) further added that, nowadays, reading habit has lost it importance as both young and old are now glued to the television and the internet. The television and the social media site has really affected student in so many ways that students don’t want to devote time to study and gain knowledge anymore they just want to watch films, play games online, chat and make new friends on the media rather than reading. Students find reading books one of the boring activities they carry out on daily basis and find social media site the most interesting activity they carry out on a daily basis. So therefore, the social has affected students both positively and negatively in terms of academic activities. So student make use of the social media site to get significant information for educational activities or to share ideas on a particular topic taught in class and to share decision and also solve difficult problems among themselves using the social media while some student just waste their time on the social media site without getting any valuable information that will improve them academically.
Research has proven the heavy presence of social media usage among students. Wiley and Sisson (2006), for instance argue that previous studies has found that more than 90% percent of tertiary school students use social media site. These indicate the rate as which students are patronizing the social media site and this might either bring along a positive and negative effect on students as far as their academic performance is concerned. Therefore, the study will take a look at the activities students engage with during their leisure hours and what extent the use of these media sites affect their reading. And also the study will investigate the major effect of the social media on students’ ability and their overall performance in academic activities.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The internet has become the most significant source of information and the growing extent of the use of the social media site by students cannot be underestimated. It has been observed that majority of students make use of their leisure time on social media chatting and do all kinds of irrelevant things rather than reading books or other articles that has valuable content that will add significantly to their academic pursuit and due to lack of constant reading, it has led to so many failures in examination because students don’t read books they only devote their time to the internet. The social media has also contributed to low academic performance of student, low self- perceptions and less interest in academic activities Maya (2015). The problem majority of the students have that has contributed to their poor performance in academic activities is because student lack proper reading and studying habit. For students to have an excellence performance, there is the need for students to form a good reading and studying habit. Student don’t show much interest in anything concerning reading books, journals and articles, magazines and other information valuable materials because of the influence of the social media site. Today, many students prefer to watch movies and other shows on television, listening to music download games, play games online with their leisure time Isaac (2012). The social media has done a lot of damage to students’ academic life than it has impacted on students because most student are addicted to the social media site and students cannot do without going on their social media site on daily basis. These research therefore seek to investigate the level of engagement of students in Babcock University into social media sites and also determine the effect of their use on their reading habit.
1.3 Objective of the study
The general objective of this research is to evaluate the reading habit of students and how it affect them in terms of academic pursuit. The specific objective are as follows
i. To analyze the reading habit among student
ii. To examine the materials student read when they visit the library.
iii. To know what student do with their leisure hours.
iv. To know what significant information student receive from the social media sites.
1.4 Research questions
i. What kind of materials do students read when they visit the library?
ii. Why do students engage in reading?
iii. Does reading habit has effect on academic pursuit?
1.5 Research hypothesis
H0: Reading habit has a significant effect on academic pursuit of students
1.6 Scope of the study
This study will look at the influence of the social media sites on the reading habit of students of Babcock University. The study is to examine how the social media has influenced or affected students in reading their books and the number of hours students devote to the social media sites.
The study investigates the influence of self-efficacy on online information use among undergraduate students of Babcock University. The study adopted survey design method. The multi stage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 255 students from the population. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire. The data gathered were coded and analysed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics of regression. All analysis was carried out using SPSS. The result of the findings reveals that there is high level of self-efficacy among the undergraduate students; there is high level of online information usage and that self-efficacy has positive and significant effect on online information usage among undergraduate students. The study recommends that programmes and workshop that will help increase students’ self-efficacy should be organised in the institutions yearly as this will go a long way of increasing the online information used by the undergraduate students.
Although information gathering and use patterns in the traditional print environment have been researched into over the years, the electronic environment presents a new and relatively unexplored area for such study. Some early effects of the increasing availability of electronic resources are already apparent. These dramatic changes include the way in which information is provided to undergraduate students. The online Information for libraries Network has their fundamental objective, which has been to create interfaces with the global knowledge systems. It is said that students show an increased reliance on online databases and electronic resources, especially when the products are made available by libraries at no cost. “A recent study at Princeton on e-journals revealed that the smallest percentages of both users and non-users were curiously the undergraduates” (E.J, 1998), this implies that few undergraduates were using online information resources. The advent of the internet came with information boom which in turn made it easier to obtain information, about what we want to know and what we don’t want to know. The internet contains so much information that arriving at the needed information can always be a challenge on researchers, especially undergraduates today as information comes in such a wide variety. When specific information is needed, resources concerning said topic might not necessarily be directly what the student is in need of. Therefore there is a need to understand and identify key point of a research which can link with the topic of research needed by the student becomes the goal. The use of online resources is be geared toward the understanding and application of online information acquired, this information must be analyzed carefully so that new concepts can be developed on existing ones instead of just repeating the same thing but in a different manner. The use of information can be said to be knowledge.
Self-efficacy in use of online information resources or internet self-efficacy allows us to understand that the use of online resources is heavily reliant on the self-efficacy level of the person in question especially when trying to acquire a certain/specific piece of information to complete a task. Models such as TAM, LOC, and so on, are used to describe this relationship. Recently, it has also been suggested that the today’s male and female undergraduates’ are pragmatic, their sights are set less on intellectual development than professional advancement and the utilitarian promise of higher education appeals to their desire to remain competitive and to increase personal income. (Shaw and Giacquinta, 2000) “Reported that their findings suggested two results, the first being that frequently held beliefs that older adult students showed more resistance than do younger students toward computing for academic purposes and that males are more involved”. Self-efficacy applies to the use of online information materials as it is a state of mind rather than a material law, it allows for flexibility, only increasing proficiency and re-enforcing that belief through practice and accumulation of experience. In general terms self-efficacy can be counted as a factor that affects the use of online information resources. As there is interconnectedness between the two concepts there must be certain lines that affect them either directly or inversely e.g. time, motivation, access etc.
Bandura’s premise on self-efficacy is the most recognized and practical theory in psychology today, stating it as a person belief in themselves to complete certain behavior or a set of behaviors (Bandura, 1997:2). It can also be defined as the belief to attain desired results. Self-efficacy applies to all points in life not limited to the work place it is relevant to studying, carrying out assignments, research, and so on. Information resources on the other hand, simply refer to resources (books, internet, journals, encyclopedia, dictionary, televisions, etc.) that are available to aid in the provision of information or the increase of the user’s knowledge. Online information resources on the other hand refer to resources (e-books, w-journals, online databases, e-library, search engines, etc.) that has been gotten from the internet and assists in the increment of knowledge for the user.
Self-efficacy can be rated as one to the top 3 things needed for a student to develop in life. Self-efficacy is related and linked to multiple different concepts such self-esteem, self-regulation, motivation, resilience, and confidence which allows a student to grow. If students lose the belief that they can achieve something, then it would never be tried by the students without even confirming that the task was really too difficult to achieve. Competition breads the character of a student, when success becomes frequent there tends to be an increase in the student productivity because of the buildup of self-efficacy.
Use of online information resources has a few obstacles that affect the ability of the user to make adequate use of the information provided, included in this are information overload, false posting, availability of internet connection, etc. “A study of undergraduates showed that they looked for the fastest way that would lead to satisfactory results when doing research, going for electronic information sources first” (Valentine, 1993), therefore there is a need for speed so they could download materials that may possibly be useless to their need, even too much clouding their judgment on the topic at hand. ICT has become the major factor of determining potential employees, therefore the need to familiarize one’s self with the necessary computer skills and the adaptation in using information to fulfilling tasks allows for a greater possibility of employment after graduation.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Online information is highly sought after as we are in the age that identifies the need for information heavily. Among students the need becomes even greater as it is needed for assignments, projects and others; therefore self-efficacy of students in their use of online information resources becomes a point to be reviewed.
1.3 Objective of Study
The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of self-efficacy on the use of online information resources among undergraduate students in Babcock University. These objectives specific to this study are:
To identify the level of self-efficacy within the undergraduates.
To identify how much online information is used amongst them.
To determine the amount of influence self-efficacy has on online information use among undergraduates.
To find out the challenges faced when using online information resources.
1.4 Research Questions
If we are to attain answers to the objectives set, we use these research questions as a guide;
What is the level at which undergraduate self-efficacy is at?
What is the level to which use of online information resources is at among undergraduates?
What are the challenges faced with the use of online information resources?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
In an effort to attain the needed results from the objectives previousely stated we raise this hypothesis:
Self-efficacy has no significant influence on online information resource use among undergraduates.
1.6 Significance of the Study
In this study we are driven to try and identify what and the how of self-efficacy and its influence on online information resource use among undergraduates in babcock university. As it is with all things awareness of self-efficacy, can make or break a student in the sense that they become unable to carry out any tasks due to the lack of it, or do more than is necessary with too much of it. As self-efficacy has already been defined as the belief in Babcock undergraduates’ ability to carry out tasks, this study enables readers to identify ways to increase student’s self-efficacy, giving them a way to better themselves. Online information resources are used by the majority if not all students in Babcock University, which means if self-efficacy does influence the use of online information resources it will be necessary for teachers to know this an aid in developing them. With this study we seek to identify problems faced in use of online information resources and come up with possible solutions to these problems.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of Study
This research is aimed towards the identification of the influence of self-efficacy on the use of online information resources among undergraduate students in Babcock. The self-efficacy and online information use scale I set centers around nine statements. These statements will be graded on 1-5 points, where respondents would choose which suits them best (“1-strongly agree”, “2-agree”, “3-not sure”, “4-disagree”, “5-strongly disagree”). They can receive a point in the range of 9 to 45, 9 to 18 being low, 19 to 35 as medium, and 36 to 45 as high.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Self-efficacy: this is defined as the confidence in Babcock undergraduates’ ability to complete tasks.
Online information resources: as stated in the definition of information resources it refers to materials (e-books, e-journals, search engines, etc) online that can provide information to a user.
Online information resources use: it is the application of information gotten from an online resource used to carry out assignments, projects, researches and so on.
Undergraduate: is defined as a student that has yet to attain their first degree.
The importance of records keepings cannot be overstated. This study examines level of awareness and use of records in federal ministries in Nigeria. The survey research design was employed in this study. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample size of the study. Data for the study were collected through the use of structured questionnaire. The study employed the descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics of man Whitney test to test for significant differences. The finding of the study reveals that there is high level of awareness and uses of records keep in the federal ministries, some of this uses include decision making, planning etc. the study also reveals that the ministries faced challenges of power supply, virus and system break down. It was recommended there that that the federal government through the federal ministries of power should collaborate with the power holding companies of Nigeria to ensure the supply of constant power to federal ministries as this will help in improving their records keepings. It was generally concluded that generally be concluded therefore that records awareness on records keeping should be given priority as record is been considered as important as other organizational resources, such as finance, materials and staff.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Across the world, federal ministries are established to provide specialized functions and services to the citizens and international communities, so as to satisfy their basic needs. According to Leach, Stewart and Walsh (2014), federal ministries are service providers who aim to meet the demands, needs and aspirations of those for whom the service is provided. As human organizations, federal ministries function through the Personnel/Human Resource Department, which is the custodian of rules, regulations, records and extra-ministerial circulars. The ability of any institution be it public or private to carry out its mandate effectively depends on the availability of necessary and sufficient resources. Although, it is always underestimated, information is one of the key resources in enabling the accomplishment of organizational goals. According to Van der Waldt, Van Niekerk, Doyle, Knipe and Du Toit (2012), information is a fundamental resource to both government and the private sector alike. Van der Waldt et al (2012) further state that information can be maintained and enhanced through appropriate awareness and use of records. Yet, awareness and use of records is fundamental for good governance, effective and efficient administration. It forms the basis for formulating policies, managing resources and service delivery. It enables an organisation to find information easily and orderly efficient flow of information enables an organisation to perform its functions successfully and efficiently.
Corroborating the above submission, Dearstyne (2015), posits that records are essential to the administration of federal ministries. Records contain the information that keeps government programmes functioning; they give government officials basis for making decisions, administering programmes and providing administrative continuity with past operations. Records increase accountability of government and its officials. It is therefore imperative that for the purpose of transparency and accountability, federal ministries should create and maintain authentic, reliable and usable records.
The significance of awareness and use of records and information management cannot be over emphasized. Records play important role at any given stage in the life cycle of an organization. These include recruitment, training and development, promotion, transfer, implementation, monitoring, appraisal, separation, pension, organizational development etc, and they are therefore an essential informational resource. Records or information management is anchored on the premise that records require managing, in a like manner that other government resources need managing.
Record should be regarded and managed as fully important as other administrative functions since records are at the center of governmental operations. For example, transparency and accountability can be achieved by giving the public the right of access to records and this can only be achieved through accessible and sound records management. Thus, effective information and awareness/use of records is the key and foundation any responsible government needs to provide public goods and services, fulfill its obligation of transparency and accountability towards its citizens and protect their human rights and dignity.
Low productivity in the Nigerian federal ministries has been in the front burner for decades. Red-tapism, secrecy, inefficiency and ineffectiveness are all common features of the federal ministries in Nigeria. However, it is highly regrettable that new a problem has since emerged in the area of poor records use and awareness in the federal ministries. Most civil servants are ill-trained. As a result, they lack in-depth skills in awareness and use of record and approaches to civil service records and information management. Yet, information and records are not regarded as an important resource that could influence the efficiency of the organization as well as aid the success of the firm.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Inadequate records of personnel profile, materials and transactions are alarming despite the use of ICT in the Nigeria federal ministries is worrisome. Although rules and regulation regulating the use and awareness of records exist, there is ignorance or total neglect on the part of certain civil servants, and this could have adverse effects on the policy that established the ministries and ultimately on public service delivery in general. For citizen to get a simple document process in any federal ministry in Nigeria, it will take a long period of time to get it done due to the hectic process involved in locating files and documents that can be used in processing any specification. The delay in service delivery of this organization is a national concern which has made it necessary for this researcher to examine the use and awareness of records by civil servants in Federal ministries.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to analyze the awareness and use of records by civil servants in Federal ministries while the following are the specific objectives:
To evaluate the level of awareness of records by civil servants in Federal ministries.
To examine the level of use of records by civil servants in Federal ministries.
To find out the determinants of awareness and use of records by civil servants in Federal ministries.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What is the level of awareness of records by civil servants in Federal ministries?
What is the level of use of records by civil servants in Federal ministries?
What are the determinants of awareness and use of records by civil servants in Federal ministries?
HO: There is no significant difference between awareness and use of records by civil servants in Federal ministries
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
Findings from this study will educate the public administrators and the general public on the awareness and use of records by civil servants in federal ministries in Nigeria. It will also educate on the factors determining awareness and use of record by civil servants in federal ministries.
This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the awareness and use of record by civil servants in federal ministries, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research will cover the awareness and use of record among civil servants in federal ministries in Nigeria. It will also cover the factors determining the awareness and use of record by civil servants in federal ministries.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Awareness: knowledge or perception of a situation or fact
Use: deploy (something) as a means of accomplishing or achieving something; employ.
Records: a thing constituting a piece of evidence about the past, especially an account kept in writing or some other permanent form
Civil servants: a person who works for the government
Federal ministry: The Federal Ministries are civil service departments that are responsible for delivering various types of government service. Each ministry is headed by a Permanent Secretary who reports to a Minister in the Federal Cabinet
The study examines the comparative study of public university libraries and private university libraries, a case study of Babcock university and Lagos state university, Nigeria.
The research design employed is a survey design. The population is therefore 104 and consist of all the librarians in Babcock and Lasu. There was no sampling technique because the total number of the librarians in Babcock and Lasu was enumeratedly used. the sample size was 104 respondents. Qualitative methods were used for the data analysis. This method involves the use of descriptive statistics techniques such as frequencies and simple percentages. The frequencies are evaluated while the simple percentages are calculated and interpreted accordingly.
The findings of the study are: There is a positive and significant relationship between products and services available in Babcock and Lagos State Universities libraries. Frequency of utilization of school library products and services among the students of Babcock and Lagos State Universities Library are highly positive.
The study concluded that comparative study of public university libraries and private university libraries in Babcock university and Lagos state university. Nigeria are highly commendable and positive. The study suggested that; More ICT equipment should be deployed to the academic libraries in higher institution to encourage digital preservation; Training and retraining of librarians should be done from time to time to inculcate positive attitude and interest towards digital preservation; Efforts should be enhanced by the institution authorities towards digital preservation so as to meet the yearnings and aspiration of the users and researchers; Other accessory facilities should be provided in the academic library to aid the process of digital preservation.
This study was about the comparative study of public university libraries and private university libraries in Babcock and Lagos State University in South West part of Nigeria. The chapter presented the background of the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, and the significance of the study.
1.1. Background of the Study
All governments and many international and private agencies invest in higher education, however, although there is widespread commitment in principle to such investment, in Africa, development of library and information services is generally perceived to be inadequate and inputs into library development have been typically small scale, piecemeal and lacking in co-ordination. At the same time university libraries have remained central to the management of scholarly communication and for centuries they have been repository of the written record and a powerful symbol of human intellectual achievement. Although traditionally libraries have been the most important of the university facilities in supporting advanced scholarship, today, perhaps as never before fundamental questions are being raised concerning their nature and purpose as institutions.
Universities are established primarily to support and cater for teaching, learning and research activities of parent institution. University students visit the libraries in order to retrieve accurate, adequate, relevant and current information in electronic resources form for effective and efficient teaching, learning and research work. Library users include undergraduates, postgraduates’ information professionals, staff and other researchers from outside the University community who intend to use the library. The undergraduates are expected to read further after class instructions to collect relevant information for class assignments, seminars, term papers, dissertations, thesis and projects. This information could be retrieved from the electronic resources in the library.
The undergraduates of university library need information to satisfy their social and psychological needs to promote and enhance their academic pursuit during their course of study in the university. The purpose of the university libraries is to provide adequate and relevant information resources both in print and non-print formats. The print information resources like journals, textbooks, magazines, newspapers and reference materials and non-print like CD-ROM, audio-visual materials, micro-films, micro fiches, databases and e-resources are to support class assignments, project work, term papers and seminar presentation by providing relevant information and services provision for effective and efficient achievement of academic excellence.
The importance of the School libraries to learning cannot be overemphasized. According to (Morrone, 2013) meaningful learning in the information age requires thinking differently about meaningful engagement of students. They opined that Innovation in the curricula, including experimentation with technologies and learning spaces, would be more effective when driven by faculty and student needs, served by integrated support structures. The central library, though very significant, is no longer sufficient to serve the needs and interests of all the Schools/faculties in each University. According to (Ijirigho, 2009), the information explosion induced by Information and Communication technologies poses the challenge of satisfying user expectations. Attempts to satisfy the needs of the users require locating library resources and products to the schools. School libraries perform several functions.
According to (The Portland State University, 2014), the services rendered by School libraries are classified into three main groups. They are: Requesting & Borrowing of Materials: including activities like opening an account/ renew; check out and Return; departmental delivery; distant users (home delivery); authorized borrowers (proxy request form); inter- library loans and article delivery; offsite collection request and suggest a purchase. The second category of services rendered by the school library includes teaching and classroom support. It also involves course reserves request form; persistent links to library content; open educational resources; streaming films & music DVDS for classroom screening; workshops & tours; instruction request; library instruction services; contact your subject librarian.
In Africa, it has been observed that the university library has become just one among the several sources of information available to the academic community. In a recent study, Rosenberg (1997) has observed that since mid 1980s, in Africa the relative value of local university libraries has declined to a near total loss of faith in their own existence, which has led to their marginalization from the teaching, learning and research process in the university.
Libraries assist research process by collecting, preserving and making available an array of information resources relevant to their research community. Libraries are very significant to the Universities in various senses.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Increasingly, academics and in particular senior faculty members in Nigeria Universities have adopted strategies to obtain information, other than using the university library. These include: personal contacts in the first world to obtain reports and journal articles, writing for reprints, travel outside the country and development of personal libraries, the purchase of key texts and subscription to journals. For undergraduates there is increasing dependence on lecture notes and handouts as well as purchase of textbooks, methods that are felt to be in the end more reliable than depending on the university library. At the same time there is widely held opinion that the library remains highly cost-effective in providing information service to the university community especially in Africa. Although the senior academics are able to survive without library provision, for junior academics and students who have no network of research contacts life is obviously difficult. This apathy towards university libraries in Nigeria has been partly attributed to the alienation and deteriorating quality of library services in the country resulting from poor funding. This is true especially of public universities. Teaching methods, which do not support independent study by students and which devalue the role of libraries as well as poor management practices on the part of librarians have also been blamed for the poor state of affairs. The overall impact of deteriorating university libraries is poor teaching and research in the universities themselves and if the trend continues unchecked the quality of university education in Nigeria will be in jeopardy. To remedy this situation it is imperative that the policies, attitudes and practices that surround university libraries in Nigeria are examined and a decision be made on what needs to be done. This was the focus of this study. It aimed at investigating the comparison between Private and Public Universities Libraries.
1.3. Objectives of the Study
The specific objectives of the study are:
To know the extent of the products and services available in Babcock and Lagos State Universities libraries.
To understand the extent is the frequency of utilization of school library products and services among the students of Babcock and Lagos State Universities Library.
1.4 Research Questions
Based on the following objectives of the study, the following research questions were postulated;
What is the extent of the products and services available in Babcock and Lagos State Universities libraries?
To what extent is the frequency of utilization of school library products and services among the students of Babcock and Lagos State Universities Library?
1.5. Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested in their null form
Ho: There is no extent of the products and services available in Babcock and Lagos State Universities libraries.
Ho: There is no extent in the frequency of utilization of school library products and services among the students of Babcock and Lagos State Universities Library.
1.6. Significance of Study
The study when carried out is expected to bring about the following improvement on the part of undergraduate students, the university library and its services;
Enhance awareness of reference sources in the university library among students
Improve the awareness of other library information sources and services among the undergraduates.
Enhance adequate and judicious utilization of reference sources among undergraduates
It will bring about improvement in the research gestures of undergraduates.
It will make undergraduates to be more familiar with the use of reference sources.
This study is on comparative study of public university libraries and private university libraries in Babcock University and Lagos State University in Ogun and Lagos State respectively.
1.8. Definition of terms
Library: is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.
University: is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The research understudy shall encompass 5 chapters, which are as follows;
Chapter one shall comprise the introduction and body of the topic; Chapter two entails the literature review, empirical framework, conceptual framework and theoretical framework; Chapter three consists of the research methodology and design, research instrument, sample and sampling size; Chapter four entails data presentation and analysis, while Chapter five shall be the concluding part, which includes the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation.
Institutions and libraries in developing countries such as Nigeria, there is a dearth of valuable publication because most of these materials are not properly protected. The study therefore examined the attitude and interest of librarians in University of Lagos and Lasu towards digital preservation.
Survey research was adopted, University of Lagos (UNILAG) and Lagos State University (LASU) was purposely selected because of the accessibility. The population of the selected institution was 104 according to the administrative department. There was no sampling technique used because the total number the librarians in Lagos was enumeratedly used. A validated questionnaire was employed to collect data. Realiability test of the instrument yielded cronbach alpha coefficient ranging from (α) 0.649-0.755. The response rate of 78%. Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation and the inferential statistics of Pearson correlation were used for data analysis to show the relationship between attitude-interest and digital preservation. Hypothesis were tested at 5% level of significance.
The study found that there is a positive and significant relationship between attitude of librarians towards digital preservation in University of Lagos and LASU; librarians in University of Lagos and LASU are highly interested in digital preservation. It also revealed that apart from their general use of computers in their services, they also allow students regular access to digitally preserved resources;librarians in University of Lagos and LASU are committed to digital preservation based on the fact that equipment for the purpose are available adequately.
The study concluded that there is a positive and significant relationship between attitude of librarians towards digital preservation in University of Lagos and LASU. This means that the Librarians in University of Lagos and LASU are highly interested in digital preservation. It also revealed that apart from their general use of computers in their services, they also allow students regular access to digitally preserved resources. In line with the findings of the study, it was recommended that; More ICT equipment should be deployed to the academic libraries in higher institution to encourage digital preservation; Training and retraining of librarians should be done from time to time to inculcate positive attitude and interest towards digital preservation;Efforts should be enhanced by the institution authorities towards digital preservation so as to meet the yearnings and aspiration of the users and researchers;Other accessory facilities should be provided in the academic library to aid the process of digital preservation.
Key words: attitude, interest, librarians, digital, digital preservation.
Word count: 410
1.1 Background to the study
Across the world, effective digital preservation has been directly associated with the attitude and interest of librarians. The application of computer technology to information management services has caused significant changes in many institutions and organizations across the world. Cooper (2018) opined that the advent of the internet, digitisation, e-learning resources and the ability to access information and research materials from remote locations created dramatic changes in the functionality of institutions, organizations and even university libraries.
As the human findings and experience continues to become increasingly intertwined with technological tools, its documents likewise become increasingly dependent on the surrounding technology. Today’s librarians are faced with the task of preserving digital resources and the related technology required to make sense of them. However, Hedstrom & Montgomery (2018) argues that it is not solely the librarian’s concern. The unique aspects of digital objects require early intervention for successful long-term preservation. Thus the traditional preservation roles held by librarians are creeping across professional boundaries. Government agencies, corporations, and research libraries all hold considerable amounts of digital information that will need to be preserved into the future and it is the organization’s responsibility to ensure preservation (Hedstrom, 2014).
A discussion of the nature of digital resources helps to explain their increasing ubiquity in organizations and libraries as well as the unique challenges of digital preservation. Electronic documents can improve accessibility to heavily used resources, allow users to manipulate and annotate the information, as well as increase access points to underutilized information. Certainly, these benefits play a role in organizational decisions to include digital resources in their holdings. However, electronic documents have unique preservation needs that cannot be fully met by the implementation of traditional preservation processes, hence, positive attitude and interest of the librarians is required to ensure successful digital preservation. Cook (2015)stated that unlike their paper-based predecessors, digital documents are not eye-readable (Cook 2015). Instead, digital materials are dependent on technology, which is constantly evolving, for interpretation. Digital preservation is further complicated by the digital material’s reliance on contextual information and documentation (Ross 2014). Today’s librarians, however, are not facing digital preservation empty handed.The archival community has discussed the challenge of preservation of electronic documents through the development of content preservation strategies: attitude of librarians, migration, emulation, and digital archeology. Librarians and librarians have both been involved in the development of open access digital preservation tools such as PRONOM, an online file format registry and the Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS), which provides a framework for long-term digital preservation and access.
Wrubel(2015) writes that electronic resources constitute an increasingly significant portion of institutional and library collections, both in usage and cost. It seems then, that it is in the best interest of institutions and libraries to implement adequate digital preservation policies to insure the continuing utility of their most valued resources, and justify the expense of creating or obtaining them. However, there seems to be a large spectrum of awareness and application of digital preservation techniques.
In Nigeria nowadays, it is imperative for librarians to actively participate in a robust digital preservation strategy to preserve both content and access long term, although there seems to be a large majority of institutions that are not actively engaged in or perhaps even concerned with digital preservation. The current researcher is of the opinion that attitude and interest of the information officer will determine if the traditional preservation system is going to be overhauled and replaced with modern digital preservation approach.
Bhatnagar (2006) attempt to inform institutions of the benefits and processes of digitization. He further expresses awareness that obsolescence is a huge threat to digital materials and is careful to note the high financial cost ofdigitization. Alibrarians or information specialist is someone who collects, records, organises, stores, preserves, retrieves, and disseminates printed or digital information.
To achieve successful digital preservation of resources, attitude and interest of librarian towards digital preservation is a determining factor. This has to do with librarian’s perception and reactions to digital preservation which is expected to be carried out or executed in a group, institution, school setting or an organization; a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor (Eagly and Chaiken, 2013. The attitude and interest of the librarian will determine the state of readiness organized through experience exerting a directive or dynamic influences upon librarian’s response to all objects or situations with which digital preservation is associated (Allport, 2015). The current research is of the assumption that attitude and interest of information officer is the determinant of effectiveness in the discharge of the duties required of the office. Most contemporary perspectives on attitudes also permit that people can also be conflicted or ambivalent toward an object by simultaneously holding both positive and negative attitudes toward the same object (Wood, 2010). This has led to some discussion of whether individual can hold multiple attitudes toward the same object (Kahle&Valette-Florence, 2012). Ihorndike (2016) considered interest to be a pleasurable feeling which aids learning. In his opinion interest is there as gathered from past experience. Also, according to Conway (2016) digital preservation referred to the conversion of any continuously varying sources of imprint, such as line in a drawing or sound signal in a series of discrete units represented (in a computer) by binary digits.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The information resources which are unique in nature because of the content deserve to have the maximum preservation in order to retain the information they contain for a very long period of time. Institutions and libraries in developing countries such as Nigeria, there is a dearth of valuable publication because most of these materials are not properly protected. Despite that these institutions struggled and suffered to acquire these resources which are not easy to be replaced when they are lost are not properly preserved going by the attitude and interests of professionals in charge yet, the information contained in these resources can serve hundreds of users for decades of years.
Just like every other sector, information management has incorporated digital technology into its processes; hence, librarians are required to embrace the use of modern technologies in performing their duties of resource preservation effectively. Therefore libraries have decided to preserve their resources using digital technology. Since it is the responsibility of libraries to assemble, organize and preserve the documentation of human activities. It is in line with this that James (2011) identified digital preservation activities of libraries to be centered on maintaining quality information resources and access to data at all times. This is because digital perseveration could increase the chances of library users accessing the information they need at the time they want it. There are a number of problems associated with digital preservation in academic libraries in Nigeria. They include availability and maintenance of digital infrastructure, knowledge and competence of librarian towards digital preservation. These problems can definitely influence the attitude and interest of librarian towards digital preservation. It is based on this scenario that the researcher sees the need to examine the attitude and interest of librarians towards digital preservation of resources, which this study is addressing.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to investigate the attitude and interest of librarians towards digital preservation while the following are the specific objectives:
To determine the attitude of librarians towards digital preservation in University of Lagos and LASU.
To determine the interest of the librarians towards digital preservation in University of Lagos and LASU.
To determine the level of digital preservation in University of Lagos and LASU.
To determine the factors militating against digital preservation among librarians in University of Lagos and LASU.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What is the attitude of librarians towards digital preservation in University of Lagos and LASU?
What is the interest of the librarians towards digital preservation in University of Lagos and LASU?
What is the level of digital preservation in University of Lagos and LASU?
What are the factors militating against digital preservation among librarians in University of Lagos and LASU?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Outcome of this research will be useful to the government, policy makers, librarians, researchers, information seekers and the general public as it will reveal the attitude and interest of librarians towards digital preservation. It will also expose the factors militating against digital preservation among librarians therefore bringing about strategies that will result in the improvement of information management.
This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the attitude and interest of librarians towards digital preservation, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will cover all the libraries in University of Lagos and LASU. It will also cover the attitude and interest of the staff librarians towards digital preservation. The libraries include the main library and all the faculty and departmental libraries.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Librarians: A librarian is an employee that is responsible for the collection, recording, organization, storage, preservation, retrieval, and dissemination of printed or digital information.
Digital preservation: this is the process of storing information resource on a computer for future use.
Attitude: the way librarians feel about a task or job process, or a particular feeling or opinion.
Interest: the feeling of wanting to give one attention to something or of wanting to be involved with and to discover more about something.
The study examines the library service provision and user satisfaction among Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria. The study focused on Laz Otti Memorial Library as its case study.
This study employed descriptive survey research design which is a use of self-structures questionnaire in collecting data from the respondents. Purposive sampling was used to select 378 respondents. The study adopt the descriptive statistics to interpret the items on the questionnaire, and the chi-square technique was equally been utilized to test the research hypothesis at 5% significance level. The analysis of data was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences.
The study reveals the following findings: Student’s level of satisfaction with the library services in Laz Otti Memorial Library were positive. Library service provision have influence on users’ satisfaction in Laz Otti Memorial Library. The challenges of user satisfaction with library services in Laz Otti Memorial Library is potent. There is a significant influence of library services on user satisfaction in Laz Otti Memorial Library. (R = 0.832, R-Square = 0.691, Adjusted R-Square = 0.691, P-value< = 0.000)
The study concludes that there is a significant influence of library services on user satisfaction in Laz Otti Memorial Library.
The findings of this study suest that; Library management should take cognizance of informational needs of undergraduate and postgraduate students as they have different reasons for visiting the university library; Despite the fact that, the library provides its users with current and relevant information resources there is still the compelling need for the acquisition and provision of additional library collections; There is the urgent need of additional air conditioners and fans.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
Satisfaction can be defined as the fulfillment of a need or a want, so user satisfaction among library users can be defined as the contentment of information need or want of a user. When users notice that the library staff are capable, they will be guaranteed that their problems will be easily resolved, leading to greater satisfaction with the services (Andaleeb, 1998). Kotler and Koller citied in Manoj (2017) also defines satisfaction as the feeling of pleasure or disappointment a person has, which resulted from comparing a product’s supposed performance or outcome against the individual’s expectation. The main objective of libraries and librarians is to satisfy users’ needs in the academic libraries. It is important to satisfy users, because it increases the assurance and faith of users towards the services, and material provided to them (Merugu, Nandurdikar & Kumar, 2014). Vijeyaluxmy (2015) stated that “user satisfaction is based on the degree of perceived quality that meets users’ expectations, therefore library management should periodically evaluate the services they provide to their users” (p. 108). Since necessary measures can be taken when the users are dissatisfied with periodic surveys, university libraries and other libraries are now more focused on the evaluation of the user’s need and satisfaction with the services provided by the library. User satisfaction can be defined as the fulfillment or comfort a user feels when content with a service or product. User satisfaction can also be a metric used to measure the extent to which a user is delighted with a service, product, or experience (Bernazzani, 2018)
“The inability to easily identify the specific use of a library’s services because of the new technologies, and the difficulty to access information sources can all contribute to user dissatisfaction among the academic library users” (Narliya, 2009, p 101). Furthermore, when users do not have access to relevant information that is needed to fulfill their needs, they can also get dissatisfied. Libraries are an organization which is service orientated, and established to provide important information resources and quality service that will see to the users’ information needs.
The library only exist because of the users. The factors that can impact users’ satisfaction includes responsiveness, competence, assurance, tangibles and resources (Adeniran, 2011). To meet the information needs of users, real information resources and service that will satisfy the need of the user must be provided.
Library service provision are services such as book loaning and return, user registration, reservation of materials, and internet services provided by the library to meet the information needs of its users.
Libraries are collection of sources of information that are available for borrowing and for reference (Yabowaah & Plockey, 2017). The library is the center of knowledge mines and it is also the main part of academic life. According to Adeniran (2011), “Libraries are services oriented organization established for the provision of relevant information resources and quality services to meet their users’ information needs” (p.210). Academic libraries are libraries that are attached to higher institutions of learning to serve teaching and research needs of students and staff. The function of an academic library is basically to provide teaching, learning, and research support activities with the provision of relevant and useful resources in different forms, which include books, serials and, electronic resources. The basic function that lays the foundation of library services include activities such as acquiring new books and developing a well-balanced up-to-date collection, hiring library personnel, designing and developing physical infrastructure. Other services provided in the library include, circulation services where users can check in and check out books, renew books, pay fine, this is also where the rules and regulation are explained to users. Another service includes reference service where users can use materials such as index, dictionaries for a quick direction to other materials, the photocopying service is where users can make duplicate copies of a material. Furthermore, the information and communication (ICT) service is where user can make use of computer in the library to access online information, the current awareness service in the library is a service that lets users know what new collections or activities the library has; and the technical service is where new collections are acquired, cataloged and recorded. An academic library strength lies on the strength of the services it provides, in which it can certify effective use of information resources and play its role in fulfilling objectives of education (Singh, n.d). Noted by Cullen citied in Adeniran (2011), academic libraries are facing challenges due to the development of tertiary education and academic publishing worldwide. He further argued that digital revolution is affecting both traditional forms of creation, organization, and dissemination of knowledge and the world tertiary education itself. Therefore, academic libraries need to endeavor to survive and increase their user base by focusing on satisfying user’s needs.
Libraries are seen as service institution where they serve users to satisfy their information needs and library activities that is directed towards serving the needs of users because in service centers, user’s satisfaction is vital. Although the practices of the library are changing, it still remains committed to service. Librarians work hard to make sure their organizations provide high quality service in support of the goals of the library’s parent institution (Miller, 2008). Simmonds and Adeniran (2011), argue that the provision of quality services in academic library is a major problem between academic librarians, because they see the library more than just a physical place, but more in terms of where quality services can be provided and accessed; due to their views, librarians focus more on the provision of relevant library service as more vital to the users than the ordinary physical library building.
Libraries need to re-observe the range and quality of services they provide, and develop systems for consultation and cooperation with their users’ needs and users’ expectation to the highest degree, when library users are challenged with different alternative ways of information delivery and most of which are more convenient and compete on cost (Adeniran, 2011). Users’ use of the library and their satisfaction with the service of the library depends on the availability of appropriate learning materials, and the availability of capable staff in the library.
When the library service is of quality and it satisfies users, academic and research libraries can differentiate their services through friendly, helpful and knowledgeable advice; and the best technological resource available. The responsibility of the library or librarians to meet the needs the needs of expectation of users, because academic library users have different needs and expectations. For a library to work well, the services it provides most align with the needs of its users. According to Nnadozie citied in Adeniran (2011), “the basic tools and facilities for the delivery of qualitative library service provision are either available in inadequate quantities or are not existing, according to Nnadozie this explains why users are not satisfied with the library services (p. 211).
1.2 Statement of Problem
Libraries are created to provide adequate services and resources that will satisfy the information needs of its users. In order to meet the users’ satisfaction the university library do spend money to equip the library with relevant and adequate materials, electronic devices and internet access. There are possibilities that users are still not satisfied. For instance, the library might not have adequate information materials, accessing or a material might take, because of inadequate reference service, and the users might also be dissatisfied with the libraries poor internet access. Therefore, this study will examine the library services and user satisfaction of final year students in Babcock University.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out the influence of Library Service on User Satisfaction in Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria. Other objective include to:
find out the student’s level of satisfaction with the library services in Laz Otti Memorial Library.
determine the influence of library service provision on users’ satisfaction in Laz Otti Memorial Library.
find out the challenges of user satisfaction with library services in Laz Otti Memorial Library.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What’s the student’s level of satisfaction with the library services in Laz Otti Memorial Library.
Does library service provision have influence on users’ satisfaction in Laz Otti Memorial Library.
Whats the challenges of user satisfaction with library services in Laz Otti Memorial Library.
H0 There is no significant influence of library services on user satisfaction.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to know how library services provision affect user’s satisfaction in Babcock University Laz Otti Memorial Library. The result of this study will help users be satisfied by acquiring information pertaining to their assignments or research paper from relevant information provided by the library services. Libraries help in research process of its user by collecting, preserving or conserving, and making available different information resources that are relevant to the user of the library. This study will benefit academic libraries, and the library management providing improvements on how to better satisfy users with the library services provided, and know how they can support the areas of services that already satisfy the users; and through this library users and researchers will be able to fully get the satisfaction they need when using the library services. This study will also benefit the library management by helping them determine how users of the library can be retained, and also, know how the library users can be recovered as satisfied users, and also how the productivity of the library can be improved and accepted, and how to deliver quality services to their users, that will make them satisfied.
1.7 Scope of Study
The scope of this study will cover the library service provision and user satisfaction in Babcock University’s Laz Otti Memorial Library. The study will also cover the services provided and how it can impact users’ satisfaction. This study is for all students in the Babcock University. The library services in the library constitutes of the circulation services, reference services , Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services, such as Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC), technical services, current awareness services, photocopying services. The measure of user satisfaction will be determined by how fulfilled users are with the library service provision, and qualitative study approaches such focus groups, interviews, surveyed questionnaire is useful in measuring user satisfaction.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Academic library is a library that is attached to a university, in which students can come to use the services provided by the library.
Library services: services rendered to library users such as
Circulation service is where students check in, check out and renew books
Reference services is a service in which library users are provided with direction to materials in the library.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services makes the work in the library easier and faster, for example with the use of the Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) library users can easily locate materials in the material, with the use of an email the library can communicate with its users, and with the use of the library website, users in the library can get information about the library.
Photocopying Service is a service where users can make duplicate copies of a material.
Technical services this is where material in the library are acquired, classified and catalogued, organized, and preserved.
Current Awareness Service is a service that keeps library users informed about new collections in the library, and it also keeps updated about events in the library.
User satisfaction is the fulfillment expressed when a user is pleased with the library services provided.
The study focused on examining social media used and service provision in academic libraries in selected private universities in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study employed survey research design. Census survey was used for the study. Data for the study were collected from through the use of structured questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and the hypothesis was tested using inferential statistics of regression with the aid of SPSS. The result of the analysis reveals that social media used such as face book, Twitter, LikedIn, YouTube has positive and significant influence on service provision in academic libraries. The study recommended that academic library management should support their staff by persuading them to attend workshops, conferences and seminars in order for them to update their skills on all the various social media tools and keep abreast with current technological trends.
1.1 Background to the study
Academic library is a library established in institution of higher learning such as colleges of education, university, polytechnic etc. They serve a two way purpose to support the schools curriculum and aid learning, and to support the university faculty and students. Academic libraries play important role in ensuring that the mandate of the parent institution is achieved. They carry out different activities in meeting and supporting the institution through selection, ordering, acquisition, organization, storage and preservation of information materials in diverse formats and making them available and accessible to users. No university can perform efficiently and effectively without a well equipped and functional library. Therefore, in meeting the information needs of their users, academic libraries offer varied services such as current awareness services(CAS), selective dissemination of information services(SDI) bibliographic services, referral and reference services, circulation/learning services, among others. In time past, these services were provided face to face or physically, however with the presence of digital development these services could be provided without the user visiting the library in person
In the past, the materials that were used for class readings, intended to supplement lectures as prescribed by the instructor or librarian was called reserves. In that period before electronic resources became easily accessible and available, the reserves were supplied as photocopies of appropriate journal articles or as books. To facilitate academic success, academic libraries must provide access to a broad range of information services such as reference and referral services, orientation activities, and instruction sessions that teach students basic critical thinking skills which are important for using the libraries information resources. These services are provided by the library staff particularly to new students of the institutions in Nigeria. Introducing the readers to the library activities, provide a gateway to all future inquiries, not only preparing the users as independent users but also teaching them on how to use information sources as consumers, as citizens, and also as professionals . Moreover, some of the services that are rendered by academic libraries are highlighted and explained as:
Circulation / borrowing services which is one of the most vital services rendered by academic libraries. These services are being provided for her teeming population of users which constitute students, staff and other potential patrons at large which are outside the academic environment such as the communities’ members where the library is situated. The academic library provides these services by way of providing information resources that can cater for their endeavors. It also enables users have access to books or documents and also borrow such books from the library .
Academic libraries also provide qualitative services to the users by means of answering questions over the telephone, answering via the web or by email, answering reference questions by means of meeting face-to-face. Reference services for library users often involve not only answering specific questions but also personalized instruction in the methods of identifying and locating research information resources (Umar, 2008). Databases, bibliographies, and other aids are designed to introduce library users to the information resources the library provides and to guide them in finding the research information resources to further enrich the pool of available information resources.
The library also provides bibliographic verification services which involves the provision of facts and information about publications rather than people, events or even organizations. In providing this service, reference librarian searches his bibliographic records such as indexes, bibliographies, catalogues, etc., to verify that users’ information about a document is correct and complete. This service is very important because it is evident that students, scholars, publishers, authors and the general public sometimes miss some bibliographic information about some items they cited. They also provide Current awareness services (CAS) which deals with information services that are provided by academic libraries in Nigeria especially to alert their users about the existence of some current publications or information. According to Madu (2009) CAS take the form of periodic (Daily, Weekly, etc.) listing of publications, monographs and periodical articles within a given subject area. Another service that the library offers to readers is the collections service which is responsible for acquiring, describing and preserving library materials to meet the research, teaching, and learning needs of the institution and community. It is the process of meeting the information needs of the people (a service population) in a timely and economical manner using information resources locally held, as well as from other organizations.
However, the researchers observed that students complain about poor service provision in the library . At times they may not be interested in making use of the services provided in the library. Hence with the presence of the digital environment, library services could be reformed to attract users to make use of the services. Social media is one of the tools provided by the development of ICT or digital environment that can be employed in the library to attract the patronage of library services. Social media is a interactive computer-mediated technology, website or application that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, entertaining contents via virtual networks. Social media is defined according to Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) as a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundation of Web 2.0, which allows the creation and exchange of user-generated content. Thus Social Media is the Web 2.0 application for information exchange. Academic libraries are increasingly engaged on social media to connect with diverse community groups and move beyond traditional bounds of the library. Specific examples include Facebook and Twitter, but may also include more regional services, and more longstanding collaborative environments such as web-based forums and wikis. In this light, Constantinides and Fountain (2008) also asserted that the social media is a system that aids the creation of informal users’ network that facilitates the flow of information and knowledge by allowing effective generation, dissemination, sharing, editing of informational content. This means that social media is mainly used to share or convey or communicate information with a wide range of individuals through the help of internet connectivity.
Academic libraries are increasingly using social media tools to promote services and highlight resources to patrons. The active participation of users enables them to contribute content, establish communication links, and stay informed of new developments in the social network space. With information and ideas flowing in both directions from the library to the user and from the user to the library, library services have the ability to evolve and improve on a constant and rapid basis. The dynamic nature of this technology enables users to have an open access to knowledge and contribute local content on the social network space. Some of these Social Networking Sites (SNS) that can be used by librarians to meet the information needs of the users include the use of Facebook which is a social network service and website launched in February 2004, owned by Facebook Inc. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow computer science students Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes (Carlson, 2005) at Harvard University It can be used as a social media tool to promote research among library and information science professionals. Library professionals can use Facebook to keep in touch with fellow researchers. Praveen (2011) observed that professionals are connected to one another by Facebook to share views, experiences and participate in sharing awareness. Another social media tool that can be used is the Instant messaging system which is used to answer user queries over chat. This will help to attend to reference queries. Further, this will help to attend to users beyond desk hours. The feature to indicate the ‘status’ (available, busy, online) will help to inform the users about the availability of library staff providing services.
Another social media highlighted that can be used is called Myspace which helps in Academic institutions where the students are. Libraries have taken advantage of this site to post calendar, custom catalog search tools, and blog features to improve their presence. Furthermore, Ningcan also can be used for service provision in it library. It is a social media tool in which librarians can get connected with users, library associations, and more. The Nigerian Library Association (NLA) utilizes this platform to discuss topical issues among the members. In addition wiikis which is a free online encyclopedia that gives a background knowledge and definition of concepts offers a platform for users to access, edit and contribute to content. This is a collaborative web page for developing web content. Another tool that can be used in service provision is called LinkedIn in which librarians can get patrons connected with specialists in their particular field of interest via LinkedIn. Librarians can use this platform to render specialized services such as Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI). Also twitter which is a micro blogging application, to keep staff and patrons updated on daily activities, like frequently updated collections. Users can utilize this platform to type in short messages or status update. Librarians can use this platform to give users firsthand information on the on-going national elections. Users can send Instant Messages (IM) on complaints or ask questions on particular issue and get a feedback on the spot using twitter. Another social media tool that can be used in the library is YouTube which is necessary in institutions in Nigeria, and cover events such as important highlights of inaugural lectures, conferences and workshops. The last tool the researcher would be looking into is called Flickr, librarians can use this tool to share and distribute new images of library collections. Cover page of new arrivals of both books and journals can be disseminated to users . It can also be used to enlighten users on topical issues such as the different pictures of emblems of the political parties in Nigeria; for the on-going elections in Nigeria, many public and academic libraries can put this to great use. Social media has been playing a major role in humans daily life, with everything revolting around the Internet and easy access to information. Social media is evolving fast. libraries on the other hand which are more traditional way to get information have now developed the use of Social Media. However, the extent to which this is used in academic libraries in Nigeria especially in Ogun State, is yet to reckon with.
Current usage of social media by the academic library community generally, will play an increasingly important role in library service provision and outreach. Hence, using social networks in educational libraries can be considered as a potentially powerful means simply because students spend a lot of time on these online networking activities. Libraries that play a pivotal role in the aspect of education, view social media as a powerful information tool that offers an easy and cost-effective way to promote their activities, and services and a way to reach out to their users who may not have considered the library as a resource for their information needs. The technology driven environment today is pressing hard on every aspect of human endeavor. This demands that academic libraries use the latest technologies and trends to make their services more popular, interesting and user friendly. Appropriate and adequate integration of the social media network will evolve in the recasting of reference services, as it provides an avenue to reach out to the users in their preferred environments as well as aid in a more dynamic, exciting and easy reference services delivery. Social networking tool is a platform where users are both consumers and producers of online content.
With these tools, librarians can constantly evaluate and update content to meet the changing needs of
users. These tools are used for collaboration and sharing of ideas and it is becoming an integral part of
library services. It also calls for libraries to encourage users’ participation and feedback mechanism in the development and maintenance of library services. Social media helps to facilitate much closer relationships between libraries and their students. Current usage of social media by the academic library community generally, will play an increasingly important role in library service provision and outreach.
Academic libraries are restrictive in the areas of who has access to the services they provide. Their services are very limited to just the students and staff of the institution in which they may be located. There is no doubt that the academic libraries of a particular institution may be more equipped and provide better services than that of another institution. This is where the use of social media would come in. The world is becoming a global village and social media is its village square, it would only be wise for academic libraries to take this advantage to promote easy access to their resources and other services. This research tends to show how library provides services by using social media in selected academic libraries in Ogun state.Ruteyan and Eghwubare (2010) note that the challenge of most librarians is to attract users to the library and to retain them. The social media revolution is changing the way individuals and organisations interact, and libraries are not immune to this. In the late 90’s and early 2000’s, the Internet was a monolithic passive medium. It was more a medium to provide content and not for interaction. However, today the story has changed for improvement.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem:
Academic libraries play pivotal role to ensure that the mandate of the parent institution is achieved through the provision of diverse services such as current awareness, selective dissemination of information, loan services, bibliographic services, and many more. However, despite the effort of the library personnel to provide effective and efficient services to satisfy the information needs of users, observation by the researcher revealed that students complain of poor services offered by the library. This has led to less or non patronage of library services.
With the development of ICT and digital environment, one would expect that the librarians will employ these digital tools like social media tools e.g. twitter,facebook,youtube,flickr, etc. to improve their services. It seems that the reverse is the case, this study seeks to investigate the influence of social media use and service provision in selected academic libraries in Ogun State, Nigeria.
1.3 Research Objectives
The main objective of this study is to establish the influence of social media use and services provision in selected academic libraries in Ogun State, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to :
determine the services provided by librarians in selected academic libraries in Ogun State, Nigeria.
ascertain the types of services provided with the use of social media.
establish the types of social media used by librarians in service provision
find out the level of social media use by librarians
establish the purpose of using social media
determine the significant influence of social media use on service provision in selected academic libraries in Ogun State, Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were answered at the course of this study
What are the services provided by librarians?
What types of services are provided with the use of social media?
What are the types of social media used by librarians in service provision?
What is the level of social media use by librarians?
What is the purpose of using social media?
The following null hypothesis will guide the study and will be measured at 0.05 significant level
1 Social media use will not significantly influence service provision in the selected academic libraries in Ogun state, Nigeria.
1.6 Scope of the study
This study will cover the influence of the use of social media and service provision in selected academic libraries in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study will include the use of social media tools like Facebook, twitter, Flickr, YouTube and the various services that libraries provide like collection services, current awareness services, reservation services to user education. The academic libraries that will be involved in this study are Babcock university, Covenant university and Bells university, are all located in Ogun State, Nigeria. The reason for using these private universities is the assumption that academic libraries are well founded and maintained to meet the National Universities Commission (NUC) policies.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study sets out to investigate the influence of social media use and service provision in selected academic libraries in Ogun State
The results from this study will educate the various library administrators on the importance of social media use in improving service provision thereby stimulating them to make policies and decisions in favour of providing social media infrastructure and promoting its use by librarians in service provision . The outcome of this study will assist upcoming researchers in related subject. It will also provide theoretical and conceptual evidence thereby adding to existing knowledge.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are operationalized according to the study.
Social media: Social media are web based communication tools that enable library staff to interact and provide services to users.
Service provision: These are services provided by the library to staff of the local students in academic libraries and they include Selective dissemination of information , Current Awareness Service:, bibliographic services etc.
Libraries: A Library is a collection of sources of information or documents and similar resources, which are made easily accessible to a defined community for reading or reference or borrowing the materials, It provides physical or digital access to library materials, and may be a physical building or room, or also virtual space.
Academic Library: These are libraries established in institution of higher learning like universities, colleges of education etc.
Communication is the act of conveying information for the
purpose of creating a shared understating. It is something that humans do every
day. It includes verbal, non-verbal and
electronic means of interaction (Ojobor and Sheriff 2005). The electronic means
through which humans interact or communicate with one another is known as
telecommunication. Telecommunication according
to Houghton, (2007) is the science and technology of communication at a
distance by electronic transmission of impulses by telegraph, cable, telephone,
radio or television. Besides, Hornby,
(2005) defines it as the technology of sending signals, images and messages
over long distances by radio, telephone, television, satellite etc. Again, Divilbiss
(1984) sees telecommunication as electronic transmission of voice, data and
video information from one person to another.
Moreover, he states that telecommunication includes all physical
equipments, software; and procedures used in transmitting and receiving information.
Based on the above definitions, one can equally define telecommunication as a
worldwide transmission of information or knowledge from one person to another
within or outside a geographical area through the aid of electronic devices
such as telephone, radio, television, computers, and internet etc.
Telecommunication is an aspect of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT). This is because all
telecommunication facilities such as telephone, radio, television, computer,
internet, videotext, telex, satellite phone etc are ICTs facilities; while some
ICTs facilities such as scanner, photocopying machine, printer etc are not
telecommunication facilities. In view of
this, Spomega (2011) maintained that Information and Communication Technology
(ICT) is a general term that stresses the role of unified communication and the
integration of telecommunication.
Furthermore, he emphasized that Information and Communication Technology
(ICT) consist of Information Technology (IT) as well as telephony
(telecommunication), and all types of audio and video processing transmission
and network base control and monitoring function. It is
therefore pertinent to note that those aspects of ICTs that relate to
telecommunication are relevant in this study and should be discussed where
has great impact on library services and operations. The use of telecommunication
facilities in library services and operations as stated Khalid (2007) will
enable library to achieve greater integration among the various library
sub-system in respect of data input, storage and processing operations. Moreover, telecommunication enhances efficiency
in resource organization as delivery and dissemination of information becomes
effective and easy. It will also
encourage networking in library and as well eliminate repetition of tasks. With networking, indexing and abstracting of
library materials such as books, journals, newspapers, and magazines etc can be
shared among librarians in the network libraries. Moreover, sharing of electronic information
resources such as e-books, e-journals with other libraries are possible through
networking (Aina 2004).
In addition, with the use of telecommunication facilities in
library, users are neither restricted to days and hours of accessing/borrowing
library materials nor do they cluster on a particular library resources as a
result of high demand or insufficient copies of such material in the
library. Again, current awareness
services can easily be created among library users through telecommunication
facilities. Adaptation of
telecommunication facilities in rendering library services and operation will
enable the parent institution which the library is meant to service to achieve
its goals with ease. This implies that
the university will produce trained and qualified graduates which will competently
server the entire nation. These and
many others are the benefits awaiting the university libraries for employing
telecommunication facilities to their services and operations.
A university library is a library situated in a
university. Its primary purpose is to
aid the university in carrying out its curriculum requirements. A university hardly operates effectively
without a well organize library. In
affirmation, Popoola (2006) maintains that a library is an integral part of any
educational institution, most especially at the tertiary level. Moreover, Nwalo
in Adeyinka (2010) argues that no system of education is complete without
well-equipped library. Ogunniyi, (2011)
also holds that “a well stocked and organized library is a pride of any educational
institution which will definitely help in meeting its teaching, learning and
research needs through availability of contemporary serial publication
alongside other library resources”. University library is becoming more
important than ever, particularly at this period in Nigeria when most parents
especially the low income earners hardly purchase textbooks and other reading
materials for their children due to economic hardship. Besides, some relevant science and technology
textbooks are rare and very expensive.
However, University libraries provide an alternative that can make
available the information resources for the intellectual growth of students
since its primary function is to serve as an auxiliary to its parent
institution in carrying out its objectives which among other things include:
seek and cultivate new knowledge
provide the right kind of leadership to all walks of life
identify all gifted youth and help them develop their potential to education
and national development
provide the society with competent men and women trained in agriculture, arts,
medicine, science and technology
promote equality and social justice
to reduce social and cultural differences through diffusion of education, and
foster in the teachers and students and through them in the entire society, the
attitudes and values needed for developing good life in individuals and
The collection of a university library comprises materials in
book and non book format to enable it fulfill its specific objectives which include:
To collect and preserve the most
up-to-date materials for teaching and research consultation services of the
To collect and preserve information
resources in books and non-book formats
To give user-oriented services
through current awareness services (CAS)
To provide materials on history,
language, culture, and socio-economic and technological development in Nigeria
To provide reading environments in a
useful variety of locations
To maintain inter-library
co-operation with other libraries around the world
To facilitate access to information
(Adeyinka, Owolabi and Attama, 2010).
achieve the above objectives, University library operates three main services,
via technical services, readers services and administrative services. The strength and weakness of these library
services and operations depend on the librarians. Likert quoted in Ojobor, (2003) states that “all activities of any enterprises are
initiated and determined by persons who make that institution, plants, offices,
computers, automated equipment, and all else that a modern firm uses are
unproductive except for human effort and direction”. However, human beings cannot effectively
discharge their duties in isolation of relevant facilities needed in their area
In ancient time when library was at its
rudimentary stage, and information needs at its minimum; librarians adequately
discharged the aforementioned library services and operations efficiently with
non-electronic means of communication such as books, periodicals and by use of
postal services for resource sharing etc.
Iwhiwhu (2010) in line with this view opines that “before the advent of
Information and Communication Technology (ICTs), communication in the library
was done through books, newspapers, microforms, slides, etc”. However, the explosion of information needs
in the contemporary society renders the non-electronic devices used for
discharging library services and operations ineffective and inadequate since it
pose serious problems to library patrons, the parent institution and the entire
nation at large. Librarians experience
monotony and boredom as a result of repetition of task, errors in data entry
due to human fatigue or oversight, delay in supply of reference queries,
difficulties in resource sharing as a result of delay in postal services, and
lack of standards in cataloguing library resources etc while users on their own
part are faced with the problems of restriction to hours and days of assessing and
borrowing of library materials, clustering on a particular material due to high
demand or insufficient copies of such material in the library, time wastage and
loss of energy in browsing through the catalogue cards, while the parent
institution finds it difficult if not impossible to fulfill its curriculum
requirement and thus produce graduate of low standard which render nation’s
labour force incompetent and
this effect, Aiyepeku (1991) opines that, “we live and work in an age in which
most professions, including library and information services can no longer cope
with the demands of their clients by simply being literate in the vocabulary of
their practice”. Abraham (2010), in
affirmation buttresses, that no institution or organization can still rely only
on traditional printed information resources to perform effectively and
efficiently in the contemporary society. Besides, Dike (1999) emphasizing more
on the exponential growth of information needs in modern society holds that
we live in a rapidly
changing world marked by increasing emphasis on information. Ours is the information society, where
information is power; information is also changing, even it is said,
exploding-ever expanding, taking new forms… (p.1)
Mantoya cited in Adeyinka, et al (2010)
identifies the changing environment and issues facing university libraries in
recent times. He observed that the rapid growth of information and
communication technologies (ICTs) is changing the way university libraries
operate today. It has been pointed out that university library collections are
no longer collections comprising almost entirely of print materials but
collections of materials in multiple formats and media (Budd, 1998).
Information technologies such as computers, telephones, multimedia, and CD-ROMs
etc are bringing unprecedented abilities to university libraries in discharging
their services and operations to the university community. In addition, Jantz, (2000) holds that as learning
and education are transformed by the digital revolution, we can expect a
further dissolution of the traditional structures of the university
library. University library must
transform itself to keep pace with this revolution and to fully utilize the
innovations in network and computing technology.
As scientific knowledge increases, university library finds
it difficult if not impossible to meet the demands of its clientele. Inability of university library to meet with
the information needs of the university community affect the quality of
teaching/learning process in the university environment. This however, has an adverse effect on the
entire nation as it gives rise to poor quality graduates, unskilled manpower,
poor quality of material resources and high rate of corruption in the nation. This drastic situation calls for immediate
In view to resolve the above situation, Rajendran and
Rathinasabapathy, in Adeyinka, et al (2010) observe that for university
libraries to act on the core purposes in
today’s academic environment, it has to move beyond the parameters of earlier
times to pursue new modes of serving their institutions. Besides, Aiyepeku (1991) opines that “in this
age of dwindling resources and galloping of information needs, library and
information science are increasingly called upon to demonstrate their relevance
and benefit to the society”. An attempt
to play this role brings about the idea and use of telecommunication facilities
in university libraries. Thus this thesis aims at determining the extent to which
telecommunication facilities are been utilized in federal university libraries
in Enugu and
Anambra States, which include Nnamdi Azikiwe Library UNN and Festus Aghagbo
Nwako Library Awka respectively.
Nnamdi Azikiwe Library is the main library of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka established in
1960. It is found behind Vice
Chancellor’s office in the main campus of the University of Nigeria (UNN). It is located on eight hundred and
seventy-one (871) hectares of hilly savannah in the town of Nsukka,
about eighty (80) kilometers north of Enugu. The library started in two tiny rooms in the
Faculty of Education with the total volume of 12,000 excluding journals and
pamphlets. The collections were mainly
donations from the first Chancellor of the University, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe after
whom the library was named. During this period, the library renders its
services with little or no difficulties through manual facilities. In 1961 the library moved from its temporary
site to the newly completed Nnamdi Azikiwe building with a capacity of 350,000
volumes and seating for 450 readers (Obiechina, 1986). In June 2009, the library was moved to its
present site due to the rate of increase in both volumes of publications and
users. The increasing number of users
and volumes of collection affect the quality of services and operations
rendered by the librarians due to the use of manual facilities. With the use of manual facilities, librarians
hardly meet with the increasing demands
of information needs of library patrons; these often makes the library patrons
to waste much of their time and sometimes leave the library unsatisfied. The
librarians themselves are unhappy, tired and bored due to repetition of task
and unable to satisfy the needs of their users. However, to overcome these problems, the
library is gradually revolutionalizing its services and operations from manual
to automated system. The library has
established a digital library with about 120 computers to serve the library
users. The library has also introduced the use of some telecommunication
facilities such as telephone and computer in rendering library services and
Festus Aghagbo Nwako Library is the university library of Nnamdi Azikiwe
University, Awka. The Library is found
opposite PG School in the main campus of Nnamdi Azikiwe University (NAU) which
is sited thirty-five (35) kilometer to the South-West of Awka. The library is also improving in changing its
mode of serving its users from manual to computerized system. The library has a digital library which is
described as the foremost and biggest on-line library in the country. It currently housed 700 computers which
comprises of 200 laptops and 500 desk tops to serve both staff and students of
the university. As a matter of fact, the
two university libraries under study are gradually changing their mode of
rendering services and operations to their clientele from manual to automated
system. They have adopted the use of
some telecommunication facilities to aid their services and operations.
Statement of the ProblemResearch
evidence has shown that there is need for university library to transform
itself to keep pace with digital revolution so as to utilize the innovations in
networking and computing technology. As such, there is need to adopt the use of
telecommunication facilities in university libraries. Telecommunication facilities play inevitable
roles in rendering library services and operations. These roles among others include prompt and
adequate services, inter-library loan services, indexing and abstracting of
library materials etc. However, it is
unbearable that despite the relevance of telecommunication in libraries, some
university libraries in this modern age still operate with manual
facilities. As a result, library users
encountered a lot of delays in assessing library materials. Worst of it all
they are restricted to hours and days of assessing and borrowing of library
over view of serials in libraries – – –
– – – –
– – –
– – 9
Serials made available in university libraries — 18
Use of serials publications for research in University libraries 24
Extent of satisfaction with the use of serials publications for researching University libraries – – – – – – 29
that hinder postgraduate students in use of serials for researchin University libraries – – – – – – 31
for enhancement of serials utilization in University libraries 34
of Related Empirical Studies – – – – – 38
of Literature Review – – – – – 45
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS – – 46
Design – – – – – – – 46
Area of Study – – – – – – 46
of Study – – – – – – – 46
and Sampling Technique – – – – – 47
for Data Collection – – – – – 47
of Instrument – – – – – – 48
of Data Collection – – – – – – 48
of Data Analysis – – – – – – 49
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA – – – 50
What are the serials materials available to post graduate students
for research? – – – – – 50
What are the objectives of the post graduate students in use of serials in their academic work? – – – – – 51
To what extent do the post graduate students utilize these serials intheir academic work? – – – – – – – 52
To what extent are the post graduate students satisfied in use of serials in their academic work? – – – – – – 53
What are the problems that hinder post graduate students in use of serials? 54
What strategies could enhance students in use of serials in university libraries? 55 Summary of findings – – – – – 56
CHAPTER FIVE– – – – – – 58
Discussion of Findings – – – – 58
Conclusions – – – – – – 63
Implications of the Study – – – – 64
Recommendations – – – – – 64
Suggestions for Further Research – – – 65
Limitations of the Study – – – – 66
Summary – – – – – 66
References – – – – – 68
Appendices – – – – – – 75
LIST OF TABLES
Serials made available in university libraries – – – 50
Objectives of post graduate students in use of serials publications – 51
The extent of utilization of serials by the P.G students – 52
Extent of satisfaction in use of serials publications by P.G students – 53
Problems that hinder students in use of serials – – 54
Strategies that could enhance P.G students in use of serials – 55
Serials availability in these libraries – – – – 81
Population of post graduate students – – – – 82
Sample size – – – – – – 83
The purpose of this work was to
study utilization of serials publications by post graduate students for research
in two federal university libraries in South East Nigeria. The researcher
of Nigeria Nsukka and
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka. The purpose of the study were to find out
serials materials available, students objectives for using them, their extent
of utilizing serials, the problems encountered and to proffer strategies for
improvement. The population of the study was made up of eight thousands, five
hundred and twenty (8520) post graduate students from the two universities for
2009\ 2010 academic year. The sample size was made up of eight hundred and
sixty eight (868) from the two universities. Descriptive survey interview and
observation check list were used to collect data from the respondents. The data
was analyzed using frequency table and mean scores. From conclusion we are made
to know that post graduate students realized the importance of serials
publications in research work. In spite of the fact that these students
realized the importance of serials publications in research work, these
students are not satisfied with available serials publications in libraries.
Some of the recommendations made were provision of access tools like indexes,
abstracts, bibliographies, and the use of ICT to facilitate and to enhance the
accessibility of serials. User education programmes to be used for the
impartation of skills essential for effective utilization of serials. The use
of SDI services to encourage the use of serials among researchers.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Serials include publications of
indefinite duration which appear in series or regularly. As the name implies it
is a publication that is constituted by appearing regularly with distinctive
title and issued in successive parts, bearing numerical or chronological
designation and intended to be continued indefinitely. However, serials are
known to be direct and accurate in dealing with any subject area designed
purely for teaching, learning and research. Most serials indicate the subject
coverage of the document with dates and numbers. Characteristics of serials publications are:
They have a remarkable propensity for change. Serials are issued on a
continuing basis, often with a regular frequency (e.g. Annual, monthly, etc).
Many serials do not have a title page. Instead, the title is found on the cover
or at the beginning of the text. This is particularly the case with periodicals
(magazines, journals etc.) and newsletters. Serials have designations numbers
or dates or combinations of both that distinguish the individual issues.
Serials do not usually have personal authors. Most persons associated with
serials are editors or compliers. Serials are more often the work of one or
more corporate bodies that have “issued” the serial. Serials titles are often
given in more than one place in the issue and sometimes in different forms.
Serials are often related to other serials, as earlier or later titles,
companions, sections, language editions, translations, etc. Serials may also be
related to monographs. Serials may have supplements, indexes, reprints, or
special issues or may, themselves be a supplement index, reprint or special
issue. Because serials are issued continuously, the information presented on
them may change. Such changes may be in the title, issuing body, form of
numbering frequency, size and physical appearance, or just about anywhere else.
as publication in any medium issued in successive parts, with numerical or
chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. Serials
are those library materials that are published and issued in successive parts,
with chronological or numerical designation intended to be continued indefinitely.
Ogbonna and Okenyi, 2006).
importance of serials to post graduate students in their academic research is
very crucial as they provide the most up-to-date and current information in
their areas of their specially. Serials contain current and up-to-date
information, which are very important for research and also provide the latest
idea. They support and supplement school subjects and provide information on
topics not well covered in the textbooks. Serials supply additional information
or materials when the reader has exhausted all information in the available
books he can fine on the subject. They contain articles contributed by
different people on different issues, and as such grant an individual access to
a variety of stand points in different disciplines.
help students to weigh different view points and so arrive at sound opinion.
They expose students to panorama of viewpoint.
The students in this sense are endowed with unparallel knowledge such
that they are no longer a servant of a single dogma but master over an empire
of knowledge. Serials provide to the students accurate information quickly and
in depth particularly on topics of current concern stimulate the growth of new
interest and hobbies in areas like sport. They complement books available in
the library because of the current information they supply.
publications represent an important source of information and knowledge for all
categories of users. Serials information comes from academic, religious,
cultural, political, social environmental and entertainment issues. They also
help to disseminate and exchange information between authors and readers. By
this, new knowledge becomes available for further research. Serials are
therefore essential for research as they contain current information. Aina
(1988) pointed out that serials are particularly as a means of keeping
students, teachers and researchers up-to-date in their field. In any government
approved library, serials are primary sources of information thus; they are
highly valued in great demand by students and lecturers alike and utilized by
(2000) defines utilization as, to make use of something for a particular
purpose. Serials utilization is a way post graduate students make use of
available serials publications in their academic research. The concern of this
study is to examine to what extent post graduate students make use of the
intellectual contents of serials publications in their research work.
defines a post graduate student as one who engages in advanced academic studies
after graduation from high school or college pertaining to such student or
studies. Post graduate students are being considered as special people who need
serials most in their research work due to their maturity in area off
specially. Most post graduate students are already in academic institutions, so
for this notion, they need current information from serials not only to accomplished the task of their projects but
also for article publications and growth. Serials are the most current vehicles
of new ideas, knowledge and break through in scientific development for this
group of students. Serials are very important among researchers, scholars and
post g graduate students who are pursuing their masters and doctoral studies in
in general, has to do with any enquiry into the unknown. It is the search for
solutions to problems or answers to questions. Going by this, many activities
of the individual, in the course of his day to day functioning, can be
described as research in a sense. For instance, providing answers to questions
relating to the background of your finance, or how best to feed your family,
etc. When research employs a systematic approach the scientific method – it is
said to be scientific research or investigation. Indeed every field of human
endeavor involves research but not in all fields is the scientific method
employed. In other words, not every research qualifies as scientific research
investigation. Educational research, however, qualifies as scientific research
or investigation in so far as it adopts the scientific method. Educational
research, therefore, is a systematic approach to the solution of educational
problems. It involves the application of scientific method in finding solutions
to educational problems Nworgu (2006).
libraries since the range of the entire university programme starts from
freshmen to the doctoral candidates who are engaged in research, the university
libraries try to offer services of innumerable range. They therefore offer more
of general collection of materials of common interest to several fields from
the most recent to those of historical value. Their collection include general
and specialized reference materials, research materials such as incunabula,
(first editions), manuscripts, papers, letters, museum objects, and historical
maps, publications of federal, state, local and foreign governments as well as
those of the United Nations, research reports, thesis, dissertations, archives,
microforms, disc, tape recordings, films, sound tracks language laboratories
video tapes, listening and viewing apparatus, computers and other machines Eze
et al (2004).
Role of School
Libraries in Teaching and learning in secondary schools- – 14-17
Essential for teaching and learning in
Secondary schools- 17-20
library resources in teaching in secondary schools – – – 20-22
with the use of Library Resources in teaching- – 22-24
enhance the Utilization of library resources in Teaching- – 24-25
Empirical Studies- – – – – – 26-29
Summary of Literature Review- – – – – 30-31
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
Research Design- – – – – – 32
Area of Study- – – – – – – 32
Population of the Study- – – – – 32-33
Sample and Sampling Technique- – – – 33
Instrument for Data Collection- – 33-34
Observation checklist- – – – 34
Validation of the Instrument- – – – – – 34
Method of Data Collection- – – – – 34-35
Method of Data Analysis- – – – – 35
Decision Rule- – – – – – 35
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF
DATA – 36-45
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS,
RECOMMENDATION – – – – – 46-53
References – – – – – – – 54-56
Appendix 1- – – – – – – 57
Appendix II- – – – – – 58
Appendix III- – – – – – – 59
Appendix IV- – – – – – – 60
Appendix V- – – – – – – – 61
Appendix VI- – – – – – – – 65
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Percentage return of instrument according to schools- – 36
Table 2 Available library resources in the schools under study- 37
Table 3 The frequency of use of library resources – – – 38
Table 4: Reading purpose – – – – – – 39
Table 5: Studying purpose- – – – – 40
Table 6: Teaching purpose – – – – – 41
Table 7: Recreation purpose- – – – – 42
Table 8: Problems with the use of library resources in teaching – 43
Table 9: Strategies enhancing teaching in secondary schools- – 44
Table 10 Population of the study- – – – 57
Table 11 Sample of the study – – – – – 58
The study is a survey of
utilization of school library resources in teaching in secondary schools in
Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. To achieve this five(5)
research questions were formulated. Four hundred and ten (410) teachers were
used as sample out of eight hundred and twenty (820) that forms the population
of the study from the fourteen secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government
Area of Rivers State. Questionnaires and observation checklist were used to
collect data. Tables, percentages and mean were used for data analysis. It was
found that most of the relevant materials were not available in all the
schools. Some problems such as lack of convenient accommodation, lack of funds,
lack of reading tables and chairs, non-involvement of library staff in
collection development, lack of qualified librarians were among the problems of
these libraries. The major recommendations are: that there is need to increase
full allocation of the school libraries, the state branch of Nigerian library
Association (NLA) should organize development and training courses for school
librarians and media specialist to enhance their efficiency in the running of
the school libraries, the Post Primary Schools Board (PPSB) should see to it that
every secondary school established should have a library, new books and other
educational resource materials should be provided including audio-visual
equipment, principals of various schools should encourage both teachers and
students to maximize the use of few resources at their disposal, among others.
Background of the Study
The term “Utilization” is got from
the word “Utilize” which means to use. Therefore utilization means the process
of using something. In the context of this work, utilization means the process
of using library resources in teaching. According to Dike (1989:365)
“utilization is defined as being able to employ appropriate instructional
material expertly and at the right time in order to attain an instructional
Accessibility of library resources
can play a major role in encouraging reading by making a varied collection
available to teachers and student (Dike, 2007:36). Hence, accessibility will
encourage teachers to go and browse, read and use the library resources in the
libraries. The full utilization of these materials will help to uplift the
objectives of secondary education.
The school libraries have been seen
by various authors as an indispensable tools essential for modern teaching in
schools. This position is informed by the role the library resources play in
enhancing effective teaching especially in secondary schools. The library is
designed to facilitate teaching in schools. According to Edoka (2000) school
libraries refers to those libraries in primary and secondary schools which
select, acquire, conserve, retrieve and disseminate information to both
teachers and students for the broad goals, aims and objectives of the school as
well as that of education itself.
The term “school libraries” with
time and technological development has changed its traditional concept and
meaning. Today, the school library is also called: school library resource
centre, school media centre, instructional media centre, media resource centre,
learning resource centre. These terms evolved in schools in place of the traditional
school library. It aims at the meeting the requirement of modern philosophy of
education that stresses the need for individualized instruction and the use of
multi-media resources in teaching. Hence, Dike (2006:1) stated that “the school
libraries has been described as “the heart” of the school, learning resource
centre and the laboratory of all laboratories”. Just as “the heart” is central
to the human body so also the library is to the school. It means that the
library is the core aspect of the school system. If the library is removed from
the workings of the school, the aims for establishing the school will not be
achieved. Fayose (1995) asserts that “the school library resource centre is
that part of the school where a collection of books, periodicals, magazines and
newspapers, films and filmstrips, recording of all types, computers are housed”.
School library is usually a
collection of books and other resource materials organized and placed in a
silent environment in the school for use by teachers and students. Onanuya and
Okeh in Adesoji (2008). According to them its collections are maintained with
the funds provided by the school through gifts received from the Ministry of
Education, information service, philanthropic organization and Parent Teachers
Association (P.T.A.). Teachers and students go to the library singly or in
small group to satisfy their information needs, identifying sources of
information, evaluating sources of information. Just to mention but a few. The
secondary school library provide teachers with a variety of resources required
for teaching. Teachers encounter books of various types- periodicals and the
ranges of audio-visual resources. The variety of resources help in instruction
by providing different formats to carter for individual learners – gifted,
average or slow.
The library being a resource centre
houses materials that could help a teacher carry out his duty efficiently. These
resources are: Book – general, reference, non-fiction and fiction books,
Periodicals, Newspapers, Audio materials – discs, phonographic records,
audio-tapes on reals and cassettes. It is imperative to note that no education
can rise above the quality of its teachers and the library has a role to play
in harnessing teachers for quality output. Hence, teachers in secondary schools
should be provided with libraries to improve their skills in use like browsing
the shelves, use of catalogue cards, use of reference materials and teaching
The school library through its
resources is the best educational services that can facilitate teacher quality
and qualitative education for students, this is because it fosters lifelong
learning and resource based learning. American library Association as quoted by
Ferdinand and Ezekwe (1999) listed the responsibility or function of the school
library as follows:
School library provides materials that will enrich and
supplement the curriculum taking into consideration the varied interest,
abilities and maturity levels of the students served.
Provide background information which will enable
students to make intelligent judgment of their daily life.
Provide materials on opposing side of controversial
issues, so that young citizens may develop under guardians the practice of
critical reading and thinking.
Provide materials representative of many religious,
ethnic group and their contributions.
Place principles above personal opinion and reason
above prejudice in the selection of materials of the highest quality in order
to ensure a comprehensive collection appropriate for users of library.
Provide current materials for the staff to be abreast
The school library resources have
the potentials for enhancing teacher’s and student’s teaching and learning
process. The availability of these resources provide teachers with vast
quantities of information materials which will be used in teaching. There must
be communication between the teachers and learners which the library resources
facilitates. Teachers are supposed to be conversant with different formats of
library resources so as to know when and how to employ them in teaching.
Teaching is communication between
the teacher and learner. It follows that teaching is characteristically an
intentional activity which produces another characteristically intentional
activity called learning. To teach therefore, is to engage someone in an
activity or experience which influences a change in behaviour. Amadi (2006)
emphasized that teaching is goal-oriented. It is obvious that the quality of
the educational system depends on their quality and devotion. Rogers (1983) sees teaching as permitting the
students to feed his or her curiosity, arguing that “merely to absorb facts is
of only slight value in the future”. Concluding that learning how to learn is
the element that is always of value, now and in the future”. This implies that
teacher is a catalyst who makes students desirous of learning. The teacher
designs the appropriate learning environment in such a way that the students
are restless until they have satisfied their curiosity by interacting with
other components of instructional system which includes the content, media,
materials and teacher.
Teaching is the work anybody does so
long as they spend part of their lives in influencing the thoughts, feelings
and behaviour of others. Macytyre in Amadi (2006). Admittedly, teaching is
concerned with education and behaviour change, but it is a system of activities
by a formerly designated person – the teacher, and who should be of a higher
knowledge, working with one or more learners to achieve certain learning
outcomes. The primary function of a teacher is to facilitate learning by
various means and the intention of all teaching activities is to bring about
learning. Teaching has to be learner centered and the library provide the
resources for resource based teaching which makes teaching learner centered.
The situation at hand in our secondary school is that in realization of the
fact that library is one of the educational services according to National
Policy on education (Nigeria 2004), and to improve the quality of teaching and
learning in secondary schools in River state, the government in collaboration
with Ministry of Education supply books and other library materials to all
government –aided secondary school in the state. This kind of gesture from the
government attract the positive attention of both teachers and students to use
the library. It is on the basis of this that this study intends to look into
the utilization of library resources in teaching in secondary schools.
Statement of the problem
The school library is an important
tool in the school system as it supports the secondary school curriculum and
provide means which helps the school to achieve its educational objectives and
goals. It does this by making available library resources which encourages self
development among teachers as they use the resources in the library in planning
their lesson notes and employ them in teaching and learning in classes. The
school library provide a comprehensive source of learning materials in
different forms for use by teachers. It serves as a store of materials and
equipment for use by teachers in classrooms. Hence, its importance cannot be
Background of the study………………………………………………………………………………… 1
Statement of the
Purpose of the study………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
questions ………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
of the study ……………………………………………………………………………….. 8
of the study…………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE………………………. 10
Conceptual framework………………………………………………………………… 10
for use of library resources …………………………………………………………….. 12
of the university libraries………………………………………………………….. 17
of the library by patrons …………………………………………………………. 23
Factors affecting use of library by various categories of users …….. 26
Strategies of effective use of the library by lecturers……………….. 28
Review of empirical studies …………………………………………….. 29
literature review …………………………………………………………33
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD……………………………… 35
Research design …………………………………………………………………………. 35
Area of the study…………………………………………………………………………….. 35
Population of the study………………………………………………………………….. 35
Sample and sampling technique……………………………………………….. 36
Instruments for data collection………………………………………………………… 36
Validation of the instruments …………………………………………… 37
Method of data collection……………………………………………………. 37
Method of data analysis …………………………………………….. 37
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA …….. 39
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ……………………………………… 47
Level of availability of information sources ………………………………. 47
lecturers use the library of university of agriculture, Makurdi……………………………….. 47
Extent of usage of library resources………………………………………….. 48
Factors that impede/hinders the use of the library……………………………… 49
Steps to be
taken to improve university of agriculture library, Makurdi use by lecturers….. 51
Implications of the study………………………………………………….. 52
Limitations of the study………………………………………………….. 54
Suggestions for further research…………………………………………… 55
Appendix I…………………………………………………………………… 60
Appendix II…………………………………………………………………… 66
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Mean Responses on the level of availability of library materials in University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library ……………………………… 39
Table 2: Mean responses on why lecturers use library responses in University of Agriculture, Makurdi ………………………………… 41
Table 3: Mean responses on the extent of use of library resources by lecturers in University of Agriculture, Makurdi………………… 42
Table 4: Mean responses on factors that impede/hinder the use of the library material by lecturers in University of Agriculture, Makurdi …………………………….. 43
Table 5: Mean response on the steps to be taken to
improve the use of library materials in University of Agriculture library,
Makurdi by lecturers …………………………………………………………………… 44
This research work was designed
to examine the utilization of library resources by lecturers in University of Agriculture, Makurdi. The specific
objectives of the study is to find out the level of availability of library
materials in the university, and determine the extent of use of the materials
by lecturers. It is also to find out the factors that impede lecturers use of
the library and make recommendations for improvement of library use. Six
research questions guided this study. A descriptive survey research design was
used for the study. The population of this study comprises all lecturers in
University of Agriculture Library, Makurdi whose number is put at 480. Out of
this population 192 representing 40% of the population was sampled. Out of the
192 questionnaire administered 153 were filled and returned representing 80%
response rate. Statistical tools used for the analysis were frequency counts
and mean scores. The major finding of the study is that there are many library
resources such as books, journals, bulletin, transactions and proceedings,
research monographs, research reports patents, technical bulletin, price lists,
data sheets, dissertations, indexes/abstracts, biographies, gazetteers,
dictionaries, and encyclopedias amongst others, in the University of
Agriculture, Makurdi and that lecturers use the library mainly for consultation
of books and reference materials. They
also use it for research purpose and borrowing of books. A major findings was
also that lecturers utilized books more than any other source of information. A
number of recommendations were put forward for improvement of library use but
the most prominent suggestion was that more up to date and relevant information
sources should be acquired for the library, and that the library should be
Background of the Study
The main purpose of the University
Library is to support the objectives of the University, which is to promote
teaching, learning and research. The university library is meant to serve the
undergraduates, post-graduates, lecturers and other members of the university
community. The quality of a university is measured largely by the quality of
its library because of its unique role in the university system. There can
never be the existence of a university without a library since the university
is meant to teach and carry out research. For the teaching staff and research
fellows, the university library is supposed to provide information resources
and services of sufficient quality and diversity.
The university library is supposed
to provide a variety of services. It is also supposed to “serve” all the areas
of knowledge taught in the university. Consequently, university libraries are
sometimes decentralized with a main library co-ordinating departmental and
faculty libraries. This is the situation in University of Agriculture,
Makurdi Library where departmental libraries are co-ordinated by the main
library. For a university library such as the University of Agriculture,
Makurdi Library to perform its several functions, its collection must not only
include books but other materials such as general and specialized reference
collections, made up of journals, newspapers, manuscripts, historical maps,
government publications, clippings, letters, thesis and audio-visual materials.
Utilization of library resources
simply means using of library resources. A person or thing that uses something
somewhere or someplace to achieve his or her purposes is a utiliser or user. In
the same context, one can state that those who make use of the library
materials for their benefits are library users or utilisers. Also, those who
enter the library and find such library materials useful are library users.
Whittaker (1993) also defined a user as “a person who uses one or more of
library services at least once a year. Hence, people who go either to the
public, private, special school or academic libraries for some genuine reasons,
requiring the attention of the library staff, are known as the library users or
utilisers. Library users in the universities can be divided up administratively
into external and internal users. The internal users consist of undergraduates,
post-graduates, lecturers, research fellows and other members of the tertiary
institutions, while the external users are those who are not members of the
institution, but are also served by the libraries but under certain specific
Users of academic libraries are
mostly made up of subject readers who concentrate their use of library
materials on subject fields, they are working in or are studying. Students
belong to these subgroups of subjects readers. Subject specialists or academic
staff are also part of these subgroups, with the students obviously forming a
high proportion of the users of academic libraries.
Lecturers need library resources
because they are repositories of knowledge that provide the vital underpinning
for national development. The Federal Government of Nigeria, through the
Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi Decree No 28 of 1992, established
the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi (U.A.M Calenda 1996/1997 –
The general objectives of University
of Agriculture, in Nigeria including that University of Agriculture, Makurdi
were founded with a philosophy and objective of creating opportunities for
progress, production and profit in agriculture by developing manpower for it
(Ibekwe 1989). She went on to say that with these philosophies and objectives
the conventional universities with Agricultural faculties were purely geared
towards the production of graduates in Agriculture to man government ministries
and research institutions, without actually embarking on agricultural training,
research and extension with a view to enhancing high agricultural product, of
the farming majority.
But more specifically, with the
establishment of the Federal Universities of Agriculture in the country, the
integration of agriculture education, research and extension, the service broad
ecological zones of the country has probably resulted into the enhancement of
agricultural production. Adedipe (1988) summed up the task and objectives of
Nigerian Universities of Agriculture thus: the acceleration of the pace of
agricultural production for attainment of self sufficiency in food production
and improvement of human development and personal wellbeing of Nigerians
through rural development.
Indachaba (1988) stressed that
central to the essence of new Universities of Agriculture is the introduction
of innovative approaches to research, training and extension. These include
development of a strong disciplinary core with heavy practical training in crop
production and husbandry, animal production and agricultural engineering
technology. Development of training facilities and communication technologies
for imparting new skills. There is also the need for cultural or research
linkages between the agricultural research institute and outreach programmes of
the universities. These are the challenges of Universities of Agriculture
generally in Nigeria.
Surmounting the challenges above
require information by the lecturers amongst other stakeholders in these
institutions to address. The information they need is provided by the library.
This is achieved by effectively providing materials for the required
agricultural information dissemination to the lecturers and other stakeholders.
By so doing, it enables the parent institution to discharge her teaching and
The functions of any academic
library are summarized in the promotion of teaching, learning and research.
These roles are prosecuted through balanced acquisition, proper processing,
storage, interpretation and dissemination of relevant information. Anything on
the contrary renders the institution impotent in achieving its mission.
The University of Agriculture,
Makurdi Library like any academic Library is important because it is a
storehouse of information or record of human experience to which students,
lecturers and researcher can turn for information. The Library makes available
and accessible to its clientele information resources needed for teaching and
learning. By offering instruction in the use of Library and bibliographical
resources, the Library participates in the transition of knowledge.
The library of the University of Agriculture,
Makurdi started in 1981. It inherited the facilities of the defunct Makurdi
campus of the University of Jos, which in turn inherited the faculties of the
defunct Federal University of Technology, Makurdi. The library which had a
capacity for 150 (one hundred and fifty) readers and about 5000 volumes of book
started offering skeletal services to the University academic staff earlier
than the formal opening of the Library to the University community. This was to
enable the faculties prepare their lectures before the arrival of the
pioneering students. The Library of the University
of Agriculture, Makurdi had gone
through several processes of merger and de-merger giving birth to the new University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library in January,
The Library started operations and services in the new library building named Francis Idachaba Library on the 20th March, 1995. At that time the library contained approximately 30,000 volumes of books and 3891 volumes of journals. The library is presently headed by a librarian Mr. Sugh Loho. It also has a total of about fifty-two staff made up of ten professionals and forty-two para-professionals. It has a reading capacity to accommodate 500 readers at a time. There has been no study on utilization of Library resources by lecturers at University of Agriculture, Makurdi and it is for this reason that the present study was undertaken. The choice of University of Agriculture Library, Makurdi lies in the fact that it is a new University with Agricultural bias and its investigation will enable us know the extent of library use by lecturers, and the impediments of library use by them.
Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………….11
Scope of the Study……………………………………………………………………12
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review Conceptual Framework…………….13
Concept of Utilization…………………………………………………………………17
Relevance of Library-based Websites………………………………….20
Attitudes of Postgraduate Students on the Use of Web-based
Uses of Library-based Website………………………………………………………..24
Problems of the Use of Library-based Websites………………………………………33
Strategies for Enhancing Postgraduate Use of Library-based
Related Empirical Studies……………………………………………………………..39
Summary of Literature Review………………………………………………………..41
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS………………………………………43
Design of the Study……………………………………………………………………43
Area of the study………………………………………………………………………43
Population for the Study……………………………………………………………….44
Sample and Sampling Techniques…………………………………………………….44
Validation of the Instrument…………………………………………………………..44
Method of Data collection…………………………………………………………….44
Method of Data Analysis………………………………………………………………45
Summary of findings………………………………………………………………….57
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS……………..60
Discussion of findings…………………………………………………………………60
Implications of the study………………………………………………………………63
Limitations of the study………………………………………………………………63
This study examined the utilization of
library-based websites for research by library and information science
postgraduate students in selected federal Universities in south east Nigeria.
Six research questions were formulated to guide the study. A descriptive survey
design was used and the entire Population of 372 were used for the study.
Therefore, there was no sampling. The instruments for data collection were questionnaires.The
data obtained were organized and analysed using simple descriptive statistic
which includes; Simple percentages, mean scores and frequency tables. The
result showed that the level of awareness of some Library-based
websites byPostgraduate students in conduct of research were low. Also,
the result showed that students make use of social network sites more as
against academic purpose. The problems associated with utilization of
library-based websites are computer incompetency among some of the postgraduate
students in using web facilities, lack of steady power supply, lack of
appropriate funding, lack of provision of IT facilities. The strategies for
enhancing utilization of library-based websites includes provision of adequate
power supply, provision of adequate funding, arranging for seminar and workshop
to teach students on how to browse and search for information on the web. The
researcher recommended that there should be a lay down policy that will mandate
departments to organize workshops and seminar where students will learn the act
of websites usage. Also, the researcher recommended that websites utilization
should be added to the school curriculum to mandate and equip researchers and
students on the need to be aware of these websites.
Background of the Study
The word “university” is
derived from the Latin
word “universitas which roughly
means “community of teachers and scholars.
In modern usage the word has come to mean “An institution of higher
education offering tuition in mainly non-vocational subjects and typically
having the power to confer degrees. According to Aronowitz (2000), it is an institution
of higher education
which grants academic degrees
in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate and
postgraduate education. Gutek (2008) has it that universities
are institutions of higher education that offer programs beyond
the high school level. The author further explains that universities provide
necessary training for individuals wishing to enter into professional careers
as they also strive to develop students’ creativity, insight and analytical
skills. Newman ( as cited in Boulton & Coin, 2008) defined university as a
place where inquiry is pushed forward, discoveries verified and perfected, and
error exposed, by collision of mind with mind, and knowledge with knowledge. He
also said that university is a place for communication and circulation of
thought, by means of personal intercourse. The university could therefore be
seen as an institution of higher
learning providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant
academic degrees; specifically
one made up of an undergraduate division which confers bachelor’s degrees and a
graduate division which comprises a graduate school and professional schools
each of which may confer master’s and doctoral degrees.
universities differ in size and structure, their administrative functions are
nearly the same with the presence of board of trustees; chancellor,
vice-chancellor and deans of various divisions all working together to achieve
a common goal. Universities have unique mission which is
to contribute to the development and sustenance of the society through the
pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels
of excellence. Also,
(Peretomode, 2008) highlights the purposes of university education to include
development and incubation of the proper value orientation for the survival of
individuals and society;
The development of the
intellectual capacities of individuals and society
The acquisition of both
physical and intellectual skills to enable individuals to develop into useful
member of the community;
The acquisition of an
objective view of local and external environment;
The promotion and encouragement
of scholarship and research; and
The making of optimum
contribution of graduates to national unity and development. He further
stressed that university education at its completion of the programme include;
Teaching people to
think further, broader and deeper than they have been so far brought up to do;
Give each student a
training of mind to enable him think more critically that him or her could
understand and be in a position to cope with all major aspects and questions of
human existence both personal and social;
Provide an ethical
education- a man who is not just a thinking creature but one who knows the
difference between right and wrong.
The universities are generally divided into a number
of faculties, colleges, departments and schools based on discipline. A discipline is
an area of specialization or a focused study in one academic field or
profession. It incorporates expertise, people, projects, communities,
challenges, studies, inquiry, and research that are strongly associated with a
particular academic area of study or area of professional practice.
Library and Information Science (LIS) is one of
the disciplines studied in the universities. (LIS) as a profession is concerned
with the knowledge and skill, by which the records of human communication are
collected, organised and utilised. LIS is an umbrella term that encompasses
library science, librarianship, information science, information work. It is
the study and practice of professional methods in the use and exploitation of
information, whether from an institutional base or not, for the benefit of
users (Bates & Maack, 2010). Rubin (2010) in his work “foundation of
library and information science” defined LIS as a discipline oriented
toward providing access to vast amounts of accumulated knowledge and
information. LIS schools have undergone a continuous process of adaptation
mirroring the development of the profession and discipline by encouraging
future professionals to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary for successful
professional practice and scholarly work. They award both undergraduate and
postgraduate degrees in an attempt to produce experts in the various fields of
According to Wisegeek (2001) a postgraduate student
is a person who has already earned a four years undergraduate degree, commonly
called a bachelor degree, and then went further to pursue postgraduate
education. For instance, a postgraduate student may enrol in an educational
programme that ends with a master degree or and even pursue a doctoral degree.
In such cases, such educational programmes require a person to earn a
bachelor’s degree prior to enrolment and meet other admission requirements. For
the purpose of this study, postgraduate student shall be viewed as all
postgraduate diploma, masters and doctoral students that have been offered
admission by the schools of postgraduate studies of UNN and NAU. Training of
Postgraduate students is one of the most important functions of any University
(Siddle, 2001). He states that this involves training successive generations of
students and researchers who are capable of innovative and pragmatic research
across the spectrum from fundamental, through user inspired, to applied
research in a variety of educational research and development, commercial and
industrial contexts. Postgraduate Studies on the other hand involves learning and
studying for higher degrees, professional or academic certificates, or other
qualifications for which a first or Bachelor’s degree generally is required,
and it is normally considered to be part of higher education. Although the
organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different
countries, as well as in different institutions within countries, the objective
of postgraduate studies are similar all around the world, hence the main
significance of the postgraduate degrees is that it license the holder to teach
or lecture in an academic environment especially above ordinary level
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD, 2002). It is worthy to note that the major
preoccupation of a postgraduate student is research and development. Through
research the postgraduate students learn to establish or confirm concrete
facts, reaffirm the results of previous works, support theorems or develop new
theories, draw inference or solve new or existing problems from systematic
examination of circumstances and events following a definite pattern (Anderson, Day, & Mclaughlin, 2006). This
agrees with the opinion of Alabi (2004) who noted that postgraduate education
is essential or has become a
based process. This knowledge as a process includes knowledge acquisition,
knowledge incubation, knowledge application and knowledge amplification and
knowledge dissemination. It is self evident that information is a key
resources, which permeate the postgraduates teaching, learning and research as
well as publishing. Creswell, (2008) maintains that a research project is a
genre that requires one to spend time investigating and evaluating sources with
the websites to offer interpretations of the texts and not unconscious
regurgitations of those sources. The goal of a research paper is not only to
inform the reader what others have to say about a topic, but also to draw on
what others have to say about a topic and engage the sources in order to
thoughtfully offer a unique perspective on the issue at hand. This is
accomplished through reference to different information sources like journals,
newspapers textbooks, gray literature, etc of which web resources is paramount
especially in this technological era.
The rapid advancement in
information technologies has revolutionized information dissemination, sources
and retrieval with the help of websites, within the global communication
networks provided by the websites. A
website is a collection of related web pages containing images, video or other
digital assets. A website is posed on a least one web server, accessible via a
network such as the internet or a private local area network an internet
address known as a Uniform Resource locator. Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus
and Encyclopedia (2011) defines web content as the textual visual or aural content
that is encountered as part of the user experience on websites. It may include
among other things: such as text, images, sounds, video and animations. The development of library web sites started
in the 1990s. As soon as Mosaic, the world’s first web browser, was released in
1993 academic health science libraries began developing websites (Brower,
2004). Similarly, Vaughan (2001) also describes the development of the library
web site at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas (UNLV) Libraries, which became
operational in 1996. Today, very few university libraries are without a
presence on the web. The World Wide Web provides a flexible network of networks
‘where institutions, businesses associations and individuals create their own
“websites” on the basis of which everybody with access can produce their own
“home page” made of a variable collage of text and images’ (Castells, 1996). The library-base websites represent an
important component in the user experience. The library websites represent the
“face” of the library. It showcases its print and electronic
resources and it promotes services to students and faculty such as circulation,
reserves, reference, library instruction, library events, and interlibrary loan.
The library website also represents a virtual space where information is
collected, organized, and presented. When developing this virtual space, it is
important to reflect the needs of the user (Manzari, 2006). Users must be able
to locate the necessary information with ease. The library website should not
only provide information but also be a learning tool (House, 2007). The websites has become
one of the primary means of information and communication, a space for
expressing both private and professional interests, and at the same time a huge
marketplace and economic foster etc. University of Southern California (USC
2007). It has become a key platform for news and entertainment, e-commerce,
research, communication and collaboration. Within universities in Nigeria,
there is evidence of changes brought by internet websites which has become a point
of first resort for information on practically anything. Several hundreds of
millions web pages, bibliographical databases, and full-text databases are now
available on the websites of which library and information science is fully
involved (Prasher, 2003). As the needs and expectations of library users’
change in the digital environment, libraries tried finding out the best ways to
satisfy their user communities by developing library based website with
collections and services to meet their demands. Ryan (2003) and Welch (2005)
posit that since 1990s, most libraries have been offering services via internet
websites. Research findings also have it that almost all the libraries are
offering web-based services in one way or the other.
websites are websites designed for libraries, and as such they showcase to the
whole world through the websites information and wealth of knowledge repository
in the library in an e-platform. It is one of the facilities through which
information and knowledge can be stored, arranged and transmitted back to it
users quickly, timely and accurately. (Adegbija & Daramola, 2007). These
websites are the gateway of libraries and information centres to enter the
electronic information era and provide information generated by different
organizations, institutions, research centres and individuals all over the
world (Ezomo, 2006). A comprehensive resourceful library website is one showing
some characteristics designed to provide access to the following:
Orientation of the library resources, services and
Access to online databases and e-journals subscribed by the
Link to other open source databases and institutional
repositories available in different subjects;
Access to a world of
information from e-books, e-theses, e-dissertations, e-prints and web-based
reference sources, etc;
Computerized library housekeeping operations; and other
resources and services Houghton, (2000). As people who carry out research, the
postgraduate students need information in varying degrees to satisfy their
information needs. The library-based websites offer uniquely rich resource for
authentic inquiry and the postgraduate students must learn to utilize it in the
course of their research writing. The use of library based websites have made
it possible for people to access multifarious information sources scattered in
every part of the world with little or no delay and less stress. The
utilization of library-based website by the post graduate student should
ordinarily be limitless as it has reduced to the barest minimum the stress and
strain they pass through in their bid to source for and retrieve information
for their research works. Although library-based website promises new ways to
promote information access, reactions to it have been mixed. Some have embraced
it with unbridled enthusiasm while others have held it at arm’s length with a
healthy skepticism. Yet the growing influence of the platform has caused many
researchers to acknowledge that they need library-based website to satisfy
their research information needs.
This work therefore, seeks to assess the
utilization of library-based websites for research by library and information
science postgraduate students in federal universities in south-east zone of
Nigeria in recognition of the fact that these are critical sources needed to
thrive in academics holistically especially in the digital age.
Concept of Utilization of ICT Resources for Teaching, Learning and Research in Colleges of Education — – — — – 12
Concept of ICT Resources for Effective Teaching, Learning and Research in Colleges of Education. – – – – – 14
Concept of Academics in Colleges of Education and their Training Needsfor Effective Utilization of ICT Resources. — – 18
Problems Associated with Utilization of ICTs — – 19
Review of Empirical Studies — — – — — 22
Summary of Literature Review – – — — 26
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Design of the Study – – — – – — 27
Area of the study – — – — – — 27
Population of the Study — – — — 27
Sample and Sampling Techniques — – — — 28
Instrument for Data Collection — – – — 28
Method of Data Collection – — – — — 28
Validation of the Instrument — — — — — 29
Method of Data Analysis – – — – — 29
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
Discussion of Findings — – — — 42
Recommendations – — – – — — 48
Suggestions for Further Research – — — 49
Limitations of the Study – — – — — 49
Conclusions – – — – — — 50
REFERENCES – — – – — – – — 51
APPENDICES – — – – – — — — 60
LIST OF TABLES
Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Availability of ICT Resources for use in Federal College of Education in South East Nigeria — — -31 — –
Mean ratings of the respondents on the extent to which academics utilize ICT resources in teaching, Learning and research process. — 33
Mean ratings of the responses of the respondents on the purposes of using ICT resources by academics – — — 34
Mean ratings of the response of the respondents on the training needs of the academics for effective utilization of ICT resource – 35
Mean ratings of the responses of the respondents on the extent to which the purpose of using ICT resources has been met – — 37
Mean ratings of responses of the respondents on the problems encountered with the use of ICT resources by academics 38
Means ratings of the responses of the respondents on the strategies that can be adopted to enhance ICT Utilization by academics 39
This study investigated the Utilization of Information and Communication technology by academics in Federal Colleges of Education in South East Nigeria. The main objective of the study is to find out the use of ICT in teaching, learning and research process in Federal Colleges of Education in South East Nigeria. A descriptive survey design was used in carrying out the study. The population one thousand and ten (1010) academic staff members was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire and observation checklist. The data was analyzed using percentages and mean. The results from the analysis revealed that there are ICT facilities available for use by academics in F.C.E in South East Nigeria; that the academics utilizes the ICT resources to a low extent in teaching, learning and research. The findings also revealed that the available ICT resources suffered disuse as very few academics use the resources. The findings also revealed that the nine items identified in the table as problems encountered with the use of ICT resources by academics includes inadequate funds, poor power supply, poor knowledge of how to utilize the ICT facilities by the academics, insufficient of ICT facilities in colleges, Dearth of qualified man power, nonchalant attitude of the policy makers, lack of partnering with non-governmental and governmental organization, lack of training, and lack of national ICT policies. Strategies that can be adopted to enhance ICT utilization by academics includes adoption and implementation of local and international information policy, provision of alternative power supply, organizing seminars, conferences and workshops, train all categories of academics in ICT proficiency, partnering with non-governmental organization, provision of adequate fund to institutions of higher learning, increase recruitment of academic staff strength, provision of ICT facilities among others. The findings revealed that the purposes of using ICT resources were to carry out research, storage of information (examination records in CD-ROM, flash drives and floppy diskettes), using computer for power point presentation, searching, storing, disseminating and retrieving information, broadcasting educational program and connecting with colleagues among others. Academics in F.C.E in South East require some ICT training needs such as in Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). Word processing, data base management, Power Point application skills etc.
Background of the Study
of Education in its broadest sense provides the backdrop against which
development acquires its meaning. It is responsible for continuous preparation
and upgrading of teachers who can stand out for their professional competence.
Colleges of education runs Nigeria certificate in Education programme. Teacher
education programmes are structured to equip teachers for the effective
performance of their duties.
Academics in colleges of education
teaches and studies as part of their job. They utilizes information in the
course of their duties to advance the mission of education in their
instructions. The academics are the king pin of quality in education and
expectedly, the mission of teacher education in Nigerian colleges of education
can be attained by effective utilization of ICT resources for teaching,
learning and research. In academics, information is seen as indispensable tool
for teaching, learning and research activities. No meaningful academic activity
can be effective without consulting this valuable medium (resources)
information resources is required not only in the education, sector but every
aspect of the society. Information resources are defined as printed or
electronic medium that can be accessed to satisfy a need. The development of the
resources was very phenomenal. The trend which started from printed material
has grown into electronics materials. These changes are manifested in the
conversion of printed bibliography sources into CD-ROM, Data bases, direct
access to remote data bases on-line and the attendant shift in remote research
The use of information and
Communication Technologies (ICT) for teaching, learning and research is
indispensable because the importance of information resources lies in its
availability, accessibility and utilization for over all development. The
survival of research and other academic activities depend on information
resources because information is the life wire of research. Academics
therefore, are expected to utilize a large amount of information resources to
enable them function effectively in their day to day research problems
especially where these resources are made available to them at the right time
and in the right form. Ugwuanyi (2007) describe information resources as the
medium that convey information for preservation. He noted further that, it is
the ability or means to communicate with or otherwise make use of any
information resources component. Information are vital for the education,
employment and enjoyment of all Nigerians including the visually impaired
The dynamism of ICT can help
colleges of education achieve its set objectives in the areas of quality
research, teaching, instruction and training in technology, applied science,
commerce, arts, social science, humanities, education, management and such
other fields of applied science relevant to the needs of the development of
Nigeria in the area of industrial and agricultural production and distribution
for research in development. ICT usage by academics in colleges of education
can help to facilitate effective and efficient conferences, seminars and
workshops relative to such other fields of learning in technologies, applied
sciences, etc and serve to promote the objectives of colleges of education.
the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) is fast gaining
prominence and is becoming one of the most important elements that show the
basic competencies of academics in teaching, learning and research. Information
and communication technologies utilization can promote a supportive,
interactive teaching and learning environment, create boarder learning
communities, and provide teaching and learning tools for academics.
colleges of Education in Nigeria was established by decree No.4 and published
in the Federal Republic of Nigeria official gazette No.16 volume 73 of 1st
march, 1986 to:
a) Provide full
time courses in teaching, instruction and training
technology, applied science, commerce arts, social sciences, humanities and
ii. In such
other fields of applied learning relevant to the needs of development of Nigeria
in the areas of industrial and agricultural production and distributions for
research in development and adaptation of techniques as the council may from
time to time determine.
courses in education for qualified teachers
conferences, seminars and workshop relative to the fields of learning specified
on (i) above
prepare and update teachers who can stand out for their professional commitment
to function effectively as constructive socio-economic, moral and spiritual
change agents needed to promote goodwill, peace and progress not only in the
country but also in the world.
education today, ICTs are being integrated into teaching and learning
(Nwachukwu, 2009). It is being used to break down rote learning and make way
for modern education (Adeogun, 2003). Studies have been carried out on the role
of ICT in teaching and learning: Aminpour (2007) noted that new technologies
provide opportunities including the ability to tailor learning to the
individual thereby making way for knowledge societies.
can be applied by academics through so many ways; it can be used as a means of
information storage and retrieval and the method of doing research. It can also
be used as the channel for delivering instruction and for giving assignment and
sharing ideas with colleagues in other institutions. (Ebrahimi, 2009).
technology is originally a technology of “storing and retrieving knowledge or
data from computers. whereas communication technology is a technology of
both/either ‘as a process or transmission, by which ‘A’ sends a message, voice
and/or data to ‘if upon whom it has an effect’ and/or ‘as a negotiation and exchange
of meaning; which is widely know or separately evolved as broadcasting or mass
communication and telecommunications. The very critical technology to. Realized
a convergence is the advent of internet, which enables to transmit record,
store, retrieve knowledge, data, images (e.g. broadcasting) and even voice
(e.g. telecommunication), particularly worldwide on an instant or real-time
base as two-way communications for both a one-to-one and one to multiple (Kim,
is not any universally accepted definition of ICT because the application
involved constantly keeps changing almost on a daily basis. The changes happen
so fast which makes it difficult to keep up with them. ICT deals with digital
data and the ways of storing, retrieval, transmission and receipt. More
importantly, ICT deals with the ways this concept work when put together. The C
in ICT stands for communication of data over some distance by electronic means.
This is achieved by the use of networks connecting different hardware to send
and receive data like personal computer and digital television. Networks are
further divided into local area network (LAN) usually linked within an office
building and wide Area network (WAN), a very common example of the WAN is the
internet which is connected over a vast distance.
to Rijsenbrij (1997). Information and communication technology can then be seen
as the technologies that support the communication and cooperation of “human
beings and their organizations” and the “creation and exchange of knowledge” .
the association of Africa universities (2000) defines information and
communication technology as “a shorthand for the computers, software, networks,
satellite links and related systems that allow people to access, analyzed,
create, exchange and use data, information and knowledge in ways that, until
recently, were almost unimaginable. It refers to the infrastructure that brings
people together in different places and time zones, with multimedia tools for
data, information and knowledge management in order to expand the range of
human capabilities” (Heeks, 1999) in a nutshell, it involve the electronic
means of capturing, processing, storing and communicating information.
Information and communication technologies can be seen or described as the
whole modem entourage of computer hardware and software network, mobile
telephone, satellite transfers and similar items in their designed state of
active receiving, processing and transferring of information and maintaining a
steady flow of communication between peoples of different lands homes.
and communication technologies is the building blocks of the networked world,
“ICTs represent the combination of microelectronics, computer hardware and
software, telecommunications, and optic-electronics, such as microprocessors,
semiconductors and fiber optics, that enables the processing and storage of
huge amount of information and its rapid dissemination through computer
networks. These innovations enables the processing and storage of enormous
amounts of information, along with rapid distribution of information through
communication network” (UNDP, 2001), From the above, ICT include
telecommunications technologies such as telephone, cable, satellite and radio
as well as digital technologies, such as computers, information networks and
is no doubt about the profound impact made by information and communication
technologies (ICT) on our professional and none professional life. Tertiary
institutions in particular are not only faced with the challenge of trying to
be competitive and equip people to make the transition to an information
economy, they have had to make changes under increasir1y stringent economic
conditions due to continual reduced funding from government Bruce, 1994).
to Bruce (1994). ICT consists of the hardware, software, networks and media for
the collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of
information. The use of ICT falls into four major categories: constructing
knowledge and problem solving (through the internet. E-mail, CD-ROMs, database,
video conferencing), using process
skills, aiding explanation of concepts and communicating ideas.
barrier to the effective and efficient utilization of ICT by academics is the relatively
low level of information literacy skills (Ezugwu, 2008) without the ability to
manipulate and use information technology resources effectively; investment in
ICT for development of information literacy skills may be unsuccessful. In
fact, some scholars have suggested that the digital divide between the
developed and developing world has winded because of the lack of information
skills in developing countries (Dewan, Ganley, and Kraemer, 2005) without
information and communication technology literacy, academics may continue to
underutilized the technology that is provided (Pejova, 2002), resulting in a
waste of resources with potentially serious repercussions for their
development. In achieving development through ICT tools but enhancing ICT literacy,
which provides the ability to manipulate and use information effectively for
research and learning.
(2007) also define ICT as electronic or computerized devices, assisted by human
and interactive materials that can be used for a wide range of teaching and
learning as well as for personal use. Also ICI include various facets of
technologies and their application which are useable in the teaching of primary
concepts (Akudolu,2009 Okafor, 2006).
academics teach in the colleges if education and studies as part of their job
to enhance their knowledge skills. Julien (2002) observes that for academics to
efficiently and effectively use ICT resources for teaching, learning and
research they should be able to possess the following specific online searching
skills which include the ability to select appropriate search terminology,
construct a logical search strategy and evaluate information appropriately.
in Africa have been concerned with the problem of poor implementation of ICT in
Africa school. For instance, The Association
of Africa university (AAU, 2000) examined the problem and major obstacles
affecting the use of ICT in Africa
universities, and thus defined the problems to be technical, nontechnical human
and organizational and financial. Technical obstacles identified include the
poor telecommunication infrastructure, absence of national information and
communication infrastructure, lack of university coherent plan for ICT, problems of connectivity, lack of or limited
bandwidth for ICT for learning, teaching and research, non-reliability of
public electricity supply, thus necessitating extra cost for standby
generators. The non-technical deals with lack of professional development for
faculty, human and organizational aspect relates to inadequate planning for ICT
integration in regular activities of universities and inadequate human resource
base, while financial relate to inadequate funding of ICT infrastructure,
maintenance of available resources and staff development. Notwithstanding, it
can be deduced that ICTs are essential for contemporary education development
of any nation. Nigeria,
as a nation, recognizes the pivotal roles of ICTs in the revitalization and the
development of the country’s education system. This recognition brought about
the development of the specific ICT related policies so that the country
education system could husband the potentials of ICTs.
computer entered into the country’s education system in the late 70’s and early
80’s, no concrete policy was evolved for its entry into the nation’s education
system until the evolvement of the national policy on computer education in
1988 (FRN, 1988). The 1988 document contained information on the application of
computer at various levels of the country’s education, and with issues related
to basic objectives, hardware and software requirements. The document also
comments on teacher training, specifically, for the secondary school level. The
implementation of the policy kick started with a training programmed conducted
for 197 teachers from across the country. In addition, computer systems were
introduced into the federal unity schools and the armed forces secondary
schools. However, the initial enthusiasm gave way and little was achieved about
the set objective.
impetus for ICT integration in the Nigerian school system came with the 2001
National policy on information technology, tagged “use IT”. It was a major step
in the integration of ICT in all facets of the country’s life. The document
among others, recommended a start up grant of at least $158m and two percent
allocation from the total national budget for articulating the vision of the
document. The Nigerian National policy on IT (FR. 2001) has within its purview
the vision, mission, general objectives and strategies for the implementation
of the policy, and sectoral application for all sectors (health. agriculture,
tourism, etc) was also embedded. Ironically, education was subsumed under human
The document, in
the areas of education, among others envisaged the development of IT curricula
for all levels of Nigerian education, the facilities and IT dedicated
the document is a step in the right direction, however, it is inadequate to
impact positively on the Nigerian education as the philosophical frame of
reference is market driven and its little emphasis on the real integration an
infusion of ICTs in the country’s education system (Yusuf, 2005a). In addition,
the document was silent on the education of the disabled and other
disadvantaged. The revised National policy on education (FRN, 2004) emphasized
the need for ICTs at all level of Nigerian education. For instance, the
document stated inter alia in section II sub-section 102(a) that “All states,
Teachers Resource, Centers, University, Institutes of Education, and other
professional bodies shall belong to the network of information and
communication technology (ICT)”. The documents noted further in section II
sub-section 102(d) “Government shall provide facilities and necessary
infrastructure for the promotion of information and communication technology at
all levels of education”. Another major aspect of the document that is ICT
related is the national virtual library project aimed at the rejuvenation of
the Nigerian schools through provision of easy access to current books,
journals and other information resources using digital technology (FRN, 2004).
It must be emphasized, however, that little or no efforts have been made to
implement the ideas set out in these 2001 and 2004 documents.
major policy document on ICTs use in education is the ministerial Initiative on
Education for the Nigerian education system (FME, 2004). The document contains
information on the theoretical framework for e-education in Nigeria, analysis
of the Nigerian situation, that is, factors inhibiting or promoting the
integration of ICTs in education, component of c-education in Nigeria,
e-education blue print, elements of the blue print strategies, decade goals
(2015), mid-decade goals (2009) and the action plan, among others. The
ministerial initiative document though not encompassing enough to address ICTs
integration in Nigerian schools, however, the removal of the minister of
education who initiated the document. probably accounts for non-implementation
of the document.
implementation of the 1988 national policy on computer education was precursor
by the training of teachers in federal unity schools and armed forces schools.
To ensure effective implementation of the 2001 national policy on information
Technology (IT), the Nigerian information Technology developments Agency
(NITDA) was established. In addition, the digital Bridge institute, in Abuja was established by the Nigerian National
communication commission (NCC), to assist in the promotion of ICTs in Nigeria. In
spite of all these efforts, ICTs have not impacted greatly on the Nigerian
school system. In fact, the impact of ICT is much more noticeable in the
economic and communication sectors of the country.
most teachers in Nigerian tertiary institutions lack computer utilization
skills (Yusuf, 1998). However, wide gap exists between utilization and
availability of ICT resources outlined in the Nigerian computer education
policy (Jegede and Owolabi, 2003). Academics in Nigerian colleges of Education
cannot implement computer education because majority of the lecturers are not
competent in basic computer operation and in the use of simple application
software (Yusuf, 2005). In view of this apparent lack of proper utilization of
ICT resources at various levels of Nigerian education, it is important to
examine barriers militating against effective utilization of ICTs globally as
these may serve as lessons for proper utilization of ICT in Nigerian colleges of
Education. The availability of ICT resources in F.C.Ss is not yet known; the
types of ICT resources available in F.C.Es have been ascertained and the
services offered with the use of ICT resource in these F.C.Es have not been
determined; the extent to which the resources ‘contribute to teaching, learning
and are not known; the training needs of academics for effective utilization of
these resources are not known; the problems encountered in using ICT resources
need to be identified and all the strategies to enhance the usage in F.C.Es
have not been proffered.
East is one of the three geo-political zones in Southern
Nigeria. South East
comprises of five states. Namely: Abia
State and Imo State.
The zone has three federal colleges of Education namely:
college of Education, Owerri, Imo state; F.C.E Eha-Amufu, Enugu state; F.C.E
(T) Technical Umunze. Anambra state. Historically, Alvan Ikoku College of
Education was established in 1963 as an Advanced
Teacher Training College (ATTC) by the government of the then
Eastern region of Nigeria
with UNDP/UNESCO technical assistance. In keeping with the report of the Ashby
commission, it was charged with the responsibility of producing teachers at the
intermediate manpower level. At the end of the Nigeria civil war (1967-1970) the
college opened at its present main campus. By Edict no. 11 of May 21, 1973, the
institution became the Alvan Ikoku college
of Education, Owerri.
Subsequently by 2008, the federal Government of Nigeria took over the
institution from Imo state government as one of the federal colleges of
Education in Nigeria.
College of Education Eha-Amufu, Enugu state was also established to produce
qualified middle level teachers for the nation’s primary and secondary schools
by the old Anambra state Government.
college took off in October, 1981 and functioned as a state college of
Education until 31st March,1993. The college was taken over by the federal
colleges of Education (Amendment No 2) decree 1993 as F.C.E Eha-Amufu Enugu state. The federal
Government took over the college notionally with effect from 1st April, 1993
and assumed full financial responsibility with effect from 1St January, 1994.
The college library building housed the college library, the provost’s office
and part of the Registry Division at the inception with a collection of eight
thousand (8, 000) volumes.
College of Education Technical Umunze on the other hand is one of the tertiary
institutions established by the federal college of Education Decree No. 4 of
1989. The philosophy which informed the establishment of this college among
others is the realization by the federal Government of the need to produce
qualified technical teachers for the nation’s 6-3-3-5 system of education. The
college is fully funded by the federal Government through National Commission
for colleges of Education as the supervisory agency. A functional library with
well equipped computer center is also established to assist in the area of
teaching, learning and research.
Dedication – – – – – – iv Acknowledgements – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – vi
List of Figures – – – – – viii
List of Tables – – – – – – – ix
List of Appendixes – – – – – – xi
Abstract – – – – – – xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION – –
Background of the Study – – – – 1
Statement of the Problem – – – – – 9
Purpose of the Study – – – – – – 10
Research Questions – – – – – – 10
Hypotheses – – – – – – – 11
Significance of the Study – – – – – 11
Scope of the Study – – – – – 13
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW – – – 14
Conceptual Framework – – – – – – – 14
Concept of reference services in libraries – – 14
Overview of information and communication technology – 21
Concept of digital reference services – – – – 24
Application of ICT facilities for reference services – 30
Current trends in the utilization of (ICT) for reference services in libraries – 40
Problems of ICT use in reference services in university libraries – 48
Strategies for the effective utilization of ICT facilities in reference service – 50
Theoretical Framework- – – – – – 52
Theories of reference services – – – – 52
Theoretical model for the study – – – 55
Review of Related Empirical Studies – – 59
Summary of Literature Review – – – – – 66
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD – – – 68
Research Design – – – – – – 68
Area of the Study – – – – – – 68
Population of the Study – – – – 68
Sample and Sampling Technique – – – 70
Instruments for Data Collection – – – 71
Validation of Instrument – – – 73
Reliability of Instrument – – – – 73
Method of Data Collection – – – – – 74
Method of Data Analysis – – – – 75
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS – – – 76
FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 102
Discussion of Findings – – – – – 102
Implications of Findings – – – – – 113
Recommendations – – – – – – 114
Limitations of the Study – – – – 115
Suggestion for Further Research – – – 115
Conclusion – – – – – – – 115
REFERENCES – – – – – – 117
APPENDICES – – – – – – 127
1. Adopted from General Process Reference Model – – 57
Bar Chart Showing the Ranking of Problems Militating Against the Utilization of ICT Facilities in Reference Services as Perceived by Librarians 92
Bar Chart Showing the Ranking of Problems Militating Against the Utilization of ICT Facilities in Reference Services as Perceived by Library Users 93
Availability of ICT Facilities in the Reference Sections of the Federal University Libraries – – – – 77
Databases for the Subscription of E-Resources by the Federal University Libraries – – – – – – 78
Mean Responses of Librarians on What Purposes ICT Facilities are Utilized in Reference Services – – – 80
Mean Responses of Library Users on what Purposes ICT Facilities are Utilized in Reference Services – – – – 82
Mean Responses of Librarians on Extent of ICT Facilities Utilization in Reference Services in the Federal University Libraries – 83
Mean Responses of Library Users on Extent of ICT Facilities Utilization for their Reference Needs – – – 84
Mean Responses of Librarians on the Perceived Benefits of ICT Facilities Use in Reference Services in the University Libraries under Study 86
Mean Responses of Library Users on the Perceived Benefits of ICT Facilities Use for their Reference Needs – – – 87
Mean Responses of Librarians on Perceived Problems Militating Against the Utilization of ICT Facilities in Reference Services in the Federal University Libraries – – – 89
Mean Responses of Library Users on Inhibitors to their Use of ICT Facilities for their Reference Needs – – 90
Mean Responses of Librarians on the Strategies for Enhancing the Utilization of ICT Facilities in Reference Services of the University Libraries Under Study – – – 94
ANOVA Test Analysis of Significant Difference Between the Mean Responses of Librarians in the Six Geo-Political Zones on the Extent of Utilization of ICT Facilities in Reference Services – 98
ANOVA Test Analysis of Significant Difference Between the Mean Responses of Librarians in the Six Geo-Political Zones on the Problems Militating Against Their Utilization of ICT Facilities in Reference Services 98
ANOVA Test Analysis of Significant Difference Between the Mean Responses of Library Users in the Six Geo-Political Zones on the Benefits they Derive
from their Utilization of ICT Facilities for their Reference Needs. – 99
LIST OF APPENDICES
A. Questionnaires for Librarians and Users on the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), for Reference Services in Federal University Libraries – – – – 127
B. Availability of ICT Facilities in the Reference Sections of the Federal University Libraries – – – – – 137
C. Validation of Research Instrument on Utilization of ICT Facilities for Reference Services in Federal University Libraries – – 138
D. Reliability of Instrument – – – – – – 139
E. List of Selected Federal Universities Studied
from the Six Geo-Political Zones 151
F. Interview Guide for Reference Librarians – – – 152
G. Distribution and Collection of Questionnaire – – – 153
Formulas for Mean, Standard Deviation and ANOVA Test Statistics. – –
I. List of Federal Universities in Nigeria – – – – 155
purpose of this work was to examine the extent of utilization of Information
and Communication Technology (ICT) in reference services in Federal university
libraries in Nigeria.
Six research questions and three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the
study. Descriptive survey was the research design adopted for the study. The
population of the study comprised all the librarians and reference library
users in all the federal university libraries in Nigeria. Simple random sampling was
used to select two Federal university libraries from the six geo-political
zones, making a total of twelve libraries that were used for the study. Four
hundred and sixty-five (465) librarians from the federal university libraries
and a total of twelve thousand six hundred and fifty two (12,652) users (Masters
and Doctoral students) of the reference sections of the Federal university
libraries as stated by the reference librarians made up the population. Stratified
random sampling was used to sample two hundred and eighty-five (285) librarians
while accidental sampling was used to sample one thousand, five hundred and
sixty (1,560) library users for the study. Two structured questionnaires were
used to collect data from librarians and library users. Observation and
interview guides were also used to elicit information from reference librarians
on utilization of ICT in reference services. Frequency, Mean scores and
Standard deviation were used to analyze data from the questionnaire, while data
from the observation and interview were analyzed qualitatively and the
hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test statistics.
Major findings showed that ICT facilities were available in federal university
libraries, that the ICT facilities were utilized for reference services but
that they were not utilized reference operations like inter – library loans,
resource sharing, networking and chat services. The utilization of ICT
facilities in reference services has made reference operations faster, easier
and interesting. The constraints facing the utilization of ICT in reference
services included poor funding, irregular power supply, lack of reference
librarians and lack of ICT information policy in the country. The researcher
also found out strategies that could be used to enhance the utilization of ICT
in reference services: adequate funding, training and retraining of librarians
through seminars, workshops and conferences. The National Universities
Commission (NUC) should mandate all universities to automate their libraries
within a stipulated period. There should be regular supply of power and
maintenance of the ICT facilities.
Background of the Study
generally rely on universities for their development and their sustainability. Universities
have been recognized as critical centers for the development of societies
through the advancement and diffusion of knowledge. Universities are required
to generate and organize information for teaching, research and management
decision making (Yusuf and Onasanya in Agabi & Uche, 2006). It is for these
reasons that research, teaching and community service are considered the most
central objectives of the university system. According to Jega (2007),
universities as institutions for knowledge generation and its transfer to the
society have been central to development, contributing ideas, skills,
technology and expertise in many spheres of human endeavour. Uzoigwe and
Onwubiko  opined that university libraries are central to the functions
of the universities and contribute to the overall development of the society
through its provision of relevant information resources that are necessary for
sustaining the teaching, learning, research and public service.
The university library is an academic library that
is located in a university to serve primarily the students, workers and the
community at large [Wikipedia 2012]. Oyedun  concisely defined academic
libraries as those libraries that are mainly found in tertiary institutions. In
the same vein, Ubogu  maintains that academic libraries continually seek
to identify their roles in contributing to institution outcomes and objectives
in the areas of teaching, learning and research. He reveals that priorities in
most academic libraries include active participation in furthering the
institutional objectives of producing students who are information literate and
are prepared for lifelong learning.
According to Oparah
(2006), the university library through her reference services is expected to
provide the following:-
access to information resources :-
Through online catalogs, indexes and
databases including full text e – resources.
Through connections to local, regional
and global networks and
By securing materials for students,
academics and staff through interlibrary loan and other resources sharing
ICT infrastructure: state-of-the-art
hardware and software and sufficient bandwidth and responsive network
management at multiple levels, from the institutional level upwards.
Expert professional support to
facilitate thorough and accurate use of all library resources,
Access to library materials and services
to the community.
According to Ajidahun
(2004), it is worth mentioning that university libraries in Nigeria are now
being gradually computerized, thus these libraries are expected to provide ICT
facilities for greater productivity and service in which case; users will no
longer be dependent on reference librarians as search intermediaries. According
to Rockman  ‘the role of reference librarians has changed from search
intermediaries to information competence teachers’. Wilson  argues that with the emergence
of electronic reference and ask-a-librarian’ services, the information that was
once provided at the reference desk is now being offered on the library
The reference section is one of the most
sensitive sections of the university library due to the variety of services it
offers to the users. The reference section, which provides reference services,
according to Ezeani (2005), plays very crucial and critical roles in presenting
a good image of the library. This is because the reference staff is the ‘front
line’ staff as the section is usually the first port of call for any
researcher. It is because of this role, reference librarians often determine
the extent a library is successful in serving its clientele. Reference Services
as perceived by many is all about rendering assistance to users in pursuit of
their information needs. Reference Services, according to Gama  means
personal assistance given by librarians to users in pursuit of information. The
assistance could be in form of referral to likely sources of information.
Idris, Oji and Abana  noted that the central course of discourse in
reference services is ‘personal assistance’.
It is also the formalized provision of information in diverse forms by a
reference librarian who is interposed between the questioner and the available
information. Reference services involve translating the queries of users into
terms that can be met by a given reference source.
There are two types of
reference services: direct and indirect services. The direct reference services
involve person- to- person relationship, usually one in which the librarian
answers the user’s question. Indirect reference services consist of behind-the-scene
activities which comprise the preparation and development of catalogues,
bibliographies and all other reference aids that help in providing access to
the library collections for the provision of reference services. The
information glut and increased production of materials have made it difficult
for the reference librarian to render efficient services to users using
traditional means. Moreover, the traditional reference strategies of searching
card catalogue, instruction to users, helping the users to locate books on the
shelves, inter-library loan, using indexes and abstracts to answer users’
queries are characterized by increased inefficiency and ineffectiveness.
The delays in manual reference services have
frustrated library users to the extent that many may have resolved not to come
to the library again. Ehikhemonor, Rugh and Dewoth in Achebe (1998) have shown
that there could be reduction in patronage if library users’ interests are not
met. As Onifade and Sowole (2011) put it, libraries are no longer passive and
archival institutions but are effective service institutions. The
responsibilities of libraries go beyond gathering and organizing books and
journals to include an active role in disseminating information. One way this
can be achieved is through effective reference service, which can be harnessed
by the use of computers and ICT facilities.
According to Agbo (2011),
information and communication technology (ICT) is an umbrella term that
includes all technologies for the manipulation and communication of information.
It encompasses any medium to recorded information (magnetic disk, tape, optical
disks (DVD/CD), flash and paper record), technologies for broadcasting
information (radio, television, and cinema), technologies for communicating
through voice and sound or images (microphone, camera, loudspeaker, telephone
to cellular phones) and wide varieties of computing hardwares (desktop
computers, laptops, servers, mainframes, networked storage. It can also be
defined as the mechanism of capturing, processing, storing, transmitting and
communicating information. Along, with this rapid technological advancement
entered the “internet”, which has today created a borderless surge of
information which also boosted reference services in our libraries.
The emergence of computer
technology and its related information and communication technologies in
library operations has come as a potential rescue to reference librarians in
their bid to cope with the above challenges. Since the problems of information
explosion in the 1970’s, libraries in the developed world have strived to adopt
ICT in their services to facilitate the flow of information to and from users
(Okore, 2005). In fact, the contemporary
reference services that have indisputably made the application of ICT to reference
services mandatory include: on line searches of information, bibliographic
searches and easy retrieval of information. Other services like current
awareness services (CAS) provision of current statistics on the use of
reference materials in the libraries and listing of current reports and
selective dissemination of information (SDI). The main purpose of ICT in
reference services is to help users find an information source or the
information itself to meet their individual needs. It will also help users to
outsource documents or information based on available databases. It makes it
possible for library users to access their catalogues and other documents
without pulling their drawers of three by-five cards.
The introduction of ICT in reference
services has the potential of eliminating the bottle-necks and cumbersomeness
associated with manual reference services. According to Martell (2003)
rendering of reference services to users using ICT can be on-site or
off-site. The functions of the reference
librarian have remained constant. The difference that exists now is primarily
in the tools that are used. In the past, the librarian used books, magazines,
encyclopedias, guides, newspapers and other print materials, with only the
library catalogue to answer reference queries. Today, reference librarians have
incorporated a host of new tools for digital reference services which include
the telephone, photocopier, fax machine, television, computer, printers, modem,
disks, CD-ROMs, telecommunications, scanners, e-mail, data bases, e-resources
and the Internet to help their patrons. Libraries in the developing world are
currently attempting to take advantage of these new devices (Corral, 1995).
With ICT, the On-line Public Access Catalogue (OPAC), a networked universally
accessible entity, helps the reference librarian to access the holdings of a
library anywhere easily. Before the introduction of ICT, inter-library loan was
a problem because of the physical delivery of documents, but with the new
technologies of scanning and digitizing, delivery and retrieval of journal
articles and other documents to off-site users has been made easy.
the availability of functional virtual libraries that have full internet
connectivity and linkages to massive databases and ICT systems, one can source
information anywhere. With ICT, reference services are apparently faster,
easier and at the convenience of the user. All relevant information materials
can virtually be accessed by the reference librarian using ICT systems and made
available to library users. With the application of ICT, reference librarians
are expected to answer queries by down-loading and manipulating files to assist
users with software application. Information and Communication Technology has
led to the establishment of databases which have enabled libraries to
out-source content and disburden themselves of the task of collection building (Wolf
in Okore, 2005). Other areas where ICT resources are used in digital reference
services include: current awareness services, co-operative resource sharing,
compilation of electronic bibliographies and user education for library users.
The provision of reference services
in an electronic environment is becoming very complex. According to Roesch
(2006), the current application of ICT to reference services involves high-tech
information resources and operations, including various media: e-mail, web
forms, chat, video, web customer call centre software, voice over internet
protocol (VOIP) and video conferencing. These media are divided into two
categories, namely: asynchronous and synchronous. Asynchronous forms involve
communication between the users and the librarians which is experienced with
little time delay within 24 hours. They include e-mail, web form, chatterbot
and frequently asked questions (FAQs). On the other hand, synchronous forms
involve immediate communication with the users. They include simple chat;
instant messaging as a chat variant, extended chat, voice over internet
protocol (VOIP) and video conferencing. Other variants of digital reference
services media, according to (Roesch 2006), include the web contact centre,
which combines several forms of digital reference offered by a library and
collaborative reference which is provided by several libraries that have formed
a consortium by pooling their resources and sharing work-load together. The Question Point Software in addition to
library Profile Modules are used to co-ordinate the collaboration amongst the
participating libraries (Roesch, 2006). The author further explained that
digital reference via e-mail is very easy and cheap to implement and may be
asked even when the library has closed; their only disadvantage is the time
delay in answering the queries.
Many libraries, according to Davis (2000), have good
virtual reference desks. Reference via
web forms allows users to provide further and more structured details of their
information needs. This notwithstanding, it is not suitable for more complex
needs, such as detailed research queries. Chatterbots is an interactive
data-base that contains a range of pre-paid information; the users do not
communicate with the librarian but rather enter their queries in the fields
provided and receive replies immediately. They are available round the clock
and to several users concurrently (Roesch, 2006). It is doubtful that this
advanced form of digital reference services is obtainable in Nigerian
utilization of ICT in reference services in Nigeria has been very gradual. The
provision of ICT in Nigerian libraries started with special libraries and
spread to academic libraries (Ohaji, 2004). Ogunleye cited by Ajihadan, (2004)
reported that attempts to apply ICT in library operations and reference
services in Nigeria
in the 1970s and 1980s failed. The literature of these efforts is replete of
tales of flop and unsuccessful implementation.
Nevertheless, a few stories of success have been recorded earlier,
mainly in the foreign-owned or sponsored libraries like the IITA library, the
British Council Libraries in Enugu, Ibadan, Kano, Kaduna and Lagos,
the United States Information Services (USIS) library and a few others
(Nwachukwu, 2006). The NUC (2002) and UNESCO (2003) planned virtual libraries
for Nigerian universities, but the plans were not actualized in many
universities (Gbaje, 2007). Furthermore, Gbaje laments that the failure of
National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) has led to poor
implementation of the virtual library initiatives in the universities and that
this has continued to adversely affect the application of ICT in library
operations in university libraries in Nigeria. Olanlokun (2003) concluded that
the application of ICT in library services in the universities in Nigeria
is still at its infant stages of development.
However, Nkanu  reported rapid growth of
computerization exercise in libraries because of its immense benefits in
breaking the barriers of time, distance and location that used to impede the
provision of library services. These benefits of utilization of ICT for
reference services were hindered in our libraries by the high costs of
maintaining ICT facilities, epileptic power supply, and lack of trained ICT
staff and the menace of virus in ICT systems (Uzoigwe, 2004). O’Connor (1998)
sees the lukewarm attitude of Nigerian government and some university
authorities to the electronic library as a basic problem. All these may hinder
the effective functioning and utilization of ICT in reference services in the
federal university libraries.
The ICT use these days
in federal university libraries according to Gama (2008) is better than that of
state-owned university libraries because the federal government sponsored the
computerization of federal university libraries, although the Education Tax
Fund also helped to computerize most of the state university libraries. Studies
by Asamoah -Hassan (2002) showed that many of the universities in West Africa,
have ICT facilities in their libraries. A similar study conducted in Nigeria
by Ajidahun (2004) on the status of ICT in university libraries indicated that
there were ICT facilities in all the 21 university libraries studied. Ibegbulam
(2000) and Anunobi (2005) conducted research on the use of ICT for reference
services in federal university libraries in Nigeria
while Asamoah-Hassan (2002) conducted a research on the state of information
and communication technology (ICT) availability in West
Africa. These studies revealed that ICT was much used for
administration, serials, cataloguing and not much in reference services. Many
university libraries from different geo-political zones in Nigeria show evidence of
utilization of ICT facilities more than other zones. Studies by Anunobi 
support the above assertion that some zones have and utilize ICT facilities
more than others. These studies did not dwell extensively on reference