RECORDS MANAGEMENT IN THE LEGISLATIVE ARM OF GOVERNMENT IN NORTH-WESTERN STATES OF NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

Records are what organizations cannot do without. Reitz (2004) consideredrecords as a document in any form created or received by any agency or person, accumulated in the normal conduct of business or affairs, and retained as evidence of such activity. It is also an account of something, put down in writing, usually as a means of documenting facts for legal or historical purposes. According to Decree Number 30 (1992), records mean:

All papers, registers, printed matters, books , maps, plans, photographs, microfilm, cinematographic films, sound recordings or other documentary materials regardless of physical form or characteristics made or received by public or state offices, or by business houses of companies private bodies or individuals in pursuance of their legal obligations or in connection with transaction of their proper business, but does not include library or museum material made or acquired solely for reference or exhibition purposes, extra copies of record kept only for convenience of reference or stock of publication.

Records are the basis for decision making, accountability and transparency.They are vital resources that document the institutions performances. They are important primary sources of information during investigations and prosecution and as an area of focus in corruption prevention. With a few exceptions, examinations carried out by various organizations and researchers point to poor records system as having largely contributed to corruption in public institutions (Oyedokun 2010). Records can either be a tangible object or digital information, for example data bases, office documents, e-mails, etc. Wyorkson&Obasuyi (2010) defined records as “evidence of an event.”

It is a document of an activity that will or has taken place. Records are documentary evidence about a person, place or thing. Every piece of record contains information. A record,therefore, is a piece of recorded information. Similarly, ISO (2001) as cited in Oyedokun (2010) also defined record as information created, received and maintained as evidence by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business or government activities.They are also unique and irreplaceable sources of information without which the distinctive human creative and adaptive characteristics cannot flow to the fullest extent possible.

Records management is an aspect of general administrative process which is concerned with achieving effectiveness and efficiency in the production, safeguarding, use and disposal of records during their entire life cycle. It is the field of management devoted to achieving accuracy and economyinthe systematic creation, retention, dissemination, observation, use and disposition of official records of a company, government agency, organization or institution (Adikwu, 2007).Also recordsmanagement entails all records keeping requirements and policies that allow an organization to establish and maintain control over information flow and administrative operations (State of Florida2009).Records management covers various formats: physical and electronic form, usually undertaken by a professionally trained records manager on the basis of a thorough records survey.This is so because records managements are usually better undertaken by professionally trained personnel as supported by Reitz (2004).

The primary concern of records management is the effective and economic management of public records and information in order to ensure that information is available when and where it is needed in an organized and efficient manner in an appropriate environment.It is only through the operation of a well-run record management programme that an organization retains control of its corporate memory which allows the organization, whether public or private, to conduct business Records management means the planning, controlling, directing,organizing, training, promoting, and other managerial activities involved with respect to records creation, maintenance, use, and disposition in order to achieve adequate and proper documentation of the policies and transactions of the Federal Government and effective and economical management of agency operations. Records Management seek to manage and control records throughout their life cycle, from their creation and distribution, through their filing and use, and ultimately to their final disposition or permanent retention. The above definition also encompasses records in electronic format, which includes web pages, e-mails and manual records or print formats.

1.2         Statement of the Problem

In an ideal situation, a record is a valuable resource and an important asset for good and effective governance. Record is information created, received and maintained as evidence by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business or government activities.

Records must beprotected because they provide evidence of action, events or decision. Relevant, precise and accurate records are needed in the state legislative arms of government to support their ongoing legislative processes. Without records management, no assessment can be made as to whether the honorable members actually carry out their duties or actions; nor can it be ensured that these duties or actions and transactions meet the criteria of efficiency and legitimacy

In spite of the importance of records management in any organization and legislative house in particular. a preliminary study by the researcher revealedthat a number of state legislative houses do not have record officersneither do they keep records in electronic formats in most of the state legislative houses, Also the researcher observed that inefficiencies and ineffectiveness in the management of records in the state legislative arm through which filing arrangement is difficult leading to the problem of inability to retrieve needed records within the Legislative arm of government in Northwestern Nigeria is causing unnecessary delay in retrieval of records. It is against this background that this study has been undertaken in order to find out how records are being managed in the State houses of assemblies. In line with this, Wamukoya and Mutula (2006) as cited in Moloi and Mutula (2007) noted that “chronic weaknesses in government record keeping can adversely affect private sector investments and contribute to the lowering of the general standard of service offered to businesses”.

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RECORDS MANAGEMENT IN THE LEGISLATIVE ARM OF GOVERNMENT IN NORTH-WESTERN STATES OF NIGERIA

MANAGEMENT OF MEDICAL RECORDS IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTRES IN ZAMFARA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study

Primary Healthcare Centres were established as essential part of healthcare agencies and its main principles are equity, health promotion and disease prevention, community participation, appropriate health technology and multisectoral approach. This is why WHO (1980) initiated the “Health Promotion” program considered as an essential strategy in achieving the general objective “Health for all” health promotion for the population. Promotional and preventive measures require support from the community, health politics and multisectoral approach. These primary healthcare centres generate records daily and these records must be properly managed, maintained and stored to ensure their effective utilization by patients, researchers, scholars and other medical records experts.

Some of the values of medical records according to Akandji (2006) are to assess the performance of health care rendered to the patients. Provide data for statistical evaluation of cases to determine the strength and weaknesses of treatment processes. Provide information for training and educating health care providers through seminars or workshops, to protect the legal interest of patient, hospital and health professionals against litigation. Serve as reference sources where physicians can refer to previous cases to treat current and future ailments and finally provide information for research. No organization can achieve its goals without maintaining its records and these records are the backbone of the entire operation of our primary health care centres. These records can be created either as tangible object or digital information. This view was supported by ISO (2001) as it noted that records stand as information created, received and maintained as evidence or an information by an organization or person in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business. All organizations and individuals alike generate records to serve as a guide to their activities. The success or failure of organization is determined by appropriate record keeping.

Records management according to ISO (2001) is a field of management responsible for the efficient and systematic control of creation, receipt, maintenance, use and disposition of resources about business activities and transactions in the form of records.

As a result of the dawn of new era in information and communication technology, computers and ICT tools are very crucial in managing bulks of records that was why Ogunfemi (2005) highlighted the role of digital bridge institute in promoting the compliance to ICT use in all facets of our endeavours. The DBI has the mandate to formulate and implement pilot projects demonstrating the application of ICT in the relevant fields of importance in Nigeria and Africa.

The medical records profession began following the effect of devastation of Second World War in 1945 motivated the government to introduce National Health Care Services and established “Medical Records Services” principally to collect, collate, and analyze statistic of the victims of Second World War as it affects Great Britain and its colonies (Akanyi, 2006).

Proper records Management leads to actual realization of the objectives of an individual or organization. To buttress this point Ogundele (2006) noted that bad management practice is the inability to obtain and use resources efficiently to realize stated objectives.

Primary health care centres in Zamfara state are constantly creating medical records in their bid to render health care services to the people in the state. The researcher conducted this study because primary healthcare centres provided largest percentage of healthcare services to the people of Zamfara State. The state has about 543 healthcare institutions out of which 522 were Primary Healthcare Centres.

History is the logical starting point in the investigation of any field. Prince (2002) stated that Zamfara state covers an area of about 38,418 square kilometres with 4% of Nigeria’s landmass. The state has a population 3.5 million people according to 2006 National population census figure. The state shares borders with Katsina, Sokoto and Kebbi States in Nigeria and the Republic of Niger. It has 14 local government areas and fall in the North-West Geo-political zone of Nigeria.

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MANAGEMENT OF MEDICAL RECORDS IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTRES IN ZAMFARA STATE

MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRONIC RECORDS IN PRIVATE RADIO CORPORATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

The creation of records is a fundamental aspect of the management of any business and operations, be it government or private organization. Today, corporations such as media houses (Radio Corporations, Television Stations and Print Media) and government agencies are creating and receiving records at an astonishing rate. The volumes of these records are not only staggering but the records also come in a variety of formats. According to Charles (2000), records are paper, maps, exhibits, magnetic or paper tapes, photographic films and prints, and other documents produced, received, owned or used by an agency, regardless of media, physical form or characteristics. Similarly, the International Standard Organization (2001) defines records as information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business. The key word in the two definitions is evidence. This means that a record serves as evidence, be it in a physical or electronic format which, at the end of the day, provides an essential means to meet legal, financial and accountability requirements of an organization. A body’s ability to function efficiently and give account of its actions could be negatively affected if sound records management principles are not applied.

Records management is a process of ensuring the proper creation, organization, use maintenance and disposal of records to achieve efficient, transparent and accountable governance. Sound records management ensures that all the records that radio corporations create in the conduct of their official business are, and remain reliable, authoritative and authentic. According to Xolite and Jerry (2012), records management seeks to efficiently and systematically control records that are routinely created as a result of activities and transactions and throughout their lifecycle (creation, organization, use, maintenance and disposal). This means that records management is also based on the principles of regular review and controlled retention or destruction with the general aim of ensuring cost-effective business processes, legal and regulatory compliance, and corporate accountability. Chinyemba and Ngulube (2005) in Xolite and Jerry (2012) asserted that “Proper records management involves establishing systematic controls at every stage of the record’s lifecycle in accordance with established principles of records management.” This, therefore, means that practicing proper records management leads to good management.

Electronic records are records created electronically and stored by means of computer technology and other machines that go with the given electronic records. Machine-readable records cannot be read without the proper hardware and software. A coding process of the information (converting the data into an electronic signal) makes the record machine-readable. Electronic records are used for decision making, reference purpose, legal purpose, information creation (Kansas Historical Society, 2012).

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MANAGEMENT OF ELECTRONIC RECORDS IN PRIVATE RADIO CORPORATION

MANAGEMENT OF DIGITISATION PROJECTS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Recent development in the world of information resource handling and management have moved from being manually driven to electronic driven especially in Libraries, Information centers, Museums and Archival centers where information bearing media were originally in printed formats. The need to source and present information for academic purpose is a daily routine for university libraries all over the world. Digitisation of library collections is a common phenomenon amongst academic and research institutions because it improves access and preservation of information resources. Libraries are making effort to convert text and images of their local and rare materials into digital formats so that they can be available to a wider audience. Gbaje and Bot (2009) stated that when print collections in the library are transformed into electronic and online resources, they reduce the need for library customers to physically visit the library building to access them.

Asogwa (2011) asserted that traditionally, librarians in academic institutions today make use of modern technologies to provide quicker, accurate and more sophisticated information services to customers. In Nigerian university libraries, the picture has rapidly changed due to the ability of librarians to make effective use of computer and telecommunication technologies to create, manage and disseminate digital contents across the globe. Creation of digital materials has become an emerging practice of today‟s information professionals. This is made feasible by high processing speed and large storage media capability of the computers as well as the power of the Internet to transmit information globally provided greater opportunities and challenges to librarians and information professionals. Technology has made information traditionally provided in paper to be digitised, preserved and made available and accessible to customers in electronic format.

Akintunde (2007) postulated that, the vision of any library that wants to go digital is the total digitization of its records and resources for easy access in electronic format with the goal to create and enhance access to electronic documents. The demands for more and more digital content in an ever-increasing electronic world as a result of its flexibility and its multimedia nature paved a way where access to information has become paramount in this millennium.

Urban (2002) in Akintunde (2007) stressed that the purpose of digitising library material is for increase in access to resources, preserving the original through reduced handling and for the building of a digital library. Other reasons for digitisation of library collections according to Akintunde (2007) include:

  1. Increase access because of high demand from the customers and the desire by the library to improve access to a specific collection;
  2. Improve services to an expanding customers group by providing an enhanced access to the institution‟s resources;
  3. Reduce the handling and use of fragile or heavily used original material and creating a “back up” copy such as brittle documents;
  4. Development of technical infrastructure and staff skill capacity;
  • To create a virtual collections that permit sharing partnerships with other institutions to increase worldwide access;
  • Reduction of the volume of the printed material and necessary operational space for its storage;
  • Reduction of the cost for acquiring and maintaining the printed material;
  • Faster search and access to the required information through a terminal;
  • Multi-user access to the same information simultaneously through a terminal and among others.

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MANAGEMENT OF DIGITISATION PROJECTS IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES

IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

The library is the nerve center of academic activities in universities and is a bank of knowledge with varied and useful information carried in different kinds of material, each of which has its unique way of handling. The academic library is an important agent in the pursuit of academic excellence in higher institution. Its main goal, according to Umuakwe and Oyebinama (2009), is to support the objectives of the host institution which has to do with learning, teaching, research and administration.

Academic libraries, according to Oyelude (2002), are libraries that are found in tertiary institutions which include universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. However, these academic libraries in universities are also regarded as research libraries because among their objectives are the provision of materials in support of postgraduate, faculty, external and collaborative researches. This shows that libraries are very important in institutions of higher learning because they assist the institutions to achieve their aims and objectives by providing information that will meet the information needs of the users. It is also evident that, the extent to which the institution is able to carry out its laudable objectives portrays how well the institution’s library has been supportive in the provision of all the essential information resources.

A deficient collection that is built on uninformed decision can have adverse effects on the academic library and subsequently in attainment of the goals of the parent institution. Therefore, every academic library requires a workable information resource development policy to guide its decision on resource development. The academic library is charged with the responsibility of ensuring academic performance through collection building, maintenance access and use. In addition, it supports the attainment of goals of its parent institution. Adeyemi (1991) observed the roles which academic libraries must play to assist in achieving the goals of their parent institutions viz:

  • Maintenance of adequate information resources, monographic and serials.
  • Bibliographic activities of newspaper clipping, indexing and abstracting of reference aids and sources;
  • National and international library cooperation, lending and resource sharing.
  • Reliable reprographic and document delivery services;
  • Well trained and dedicated staff;
  • Display and exhibition of reference stock.

Therefore, for academic libraries to achieve its optimum goal, it must stock adequate and relevant collections. Such collections, according to Kent and Lancour (1971) include amongst others books, manuscripts, serials, government publications, pamphlets, catalogue, reports, recordings, microfilms, microfiche and micro cards, punched cards, computer tapes e.t.c. Other collections that have recently been added to libraries are the internet, electronic and digital resources.

The development of an academic library collection is not just the duty of the librarian; it is a cooperative effort between librarians and the teaching faculties. A deficient collection can have an adverse implication on the institution. It is because of this that Olanlokun and Adekanye (2005) averred that it is imperative that the collection must be developed in such a way that it will meet the aspiration of the library patrons.

This implies that it is only with adequate library collection policy that academic libraries could reach the academic goals of their parent institutions. As Chukwu (1998) pointed out, the major indicator of a good library is the quality of its collection.

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IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES

ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF MOTIVATION ON JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHER LIBRARIANS IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY (FCT) ABUJA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

The elementary school years are of considerable consequence for shaping achievement of children (Okebukola & Owolabi 2008). Children at this level experience learning far more with printed books. It is within the formative years that children can be easily motivated to learn. At the secondary school level, instruction specifically places more emphasis on learning content in academic subject areas. It is therefore imperative to develop both the skill and the will to read for students to develop into mature and effective readers to be able to cope with advanced reading and scientific skills required at the secondary school level. Several scholars have contributed greatly to literature on matters pertaining to African students and literacy. Their recommendations are for better teachers, better textbooks, smaller classes, reformed curricula, better teacher remuneration, new political visions or changed attitudes (Abel 2003; Okebukola 2008; Warwick, 1999). As noted by Warwick (1999), all of these solutions have their place but most are impractical in the short run. They cost too much or they depend on social or political change, which will take generations to bring out. Nigerians need practical solutions and research continues to play a contributory role, since the problem still persists.

To find a possible solution to the problem, there is a need to approach the problem from the perspective of teacher-librarian since the task of effecting this change on children falls on them. Perhaps if they perform their duties efficiently this problem might not have arisen in the first place. In order to increase the literacy level of school children in FCT, teacher- librarians must be motivated so that they are satisfied with their jobs.

In Nigeria, the Nigerian School Library Association (NSLA) has recommended that the designation “school librarians” be used for professionals, para-professionals and teacher librarians appointed to run school libraries. Such a person should have a minimum qualification of Diploma in Library Studies at Primary Schools and a Bachelor‟s degree in Secondary schools. A background in education is also considered relevant.

Teaching and learning could be regarded as twin concepts or as the two sides of a coin that complement each other. Teaching takes place only when learning has taken place. For effective learning to take place, certain conditions must be met, such as environmental factors, people factors, equipment factors, information (textbooks, charts, formulas) and problem definition and time (task duration) of these factors. The one relating to information seeking becomes more important as it is indispensable to the teaching and learning process. This has led to the library being one of the important constituents of education – the Teacher –the Taught and – the Learning process.

Motivation is concerned with the factors that influence people to behave in certain ways. Motivating other people is about getting them to move in a certain direction in order to achieve a desired result. Today, concepts of social class often assume three general categories: a very wealthy and powerful upper class that owns and controls the means of production; a middle class of professional workers, small business owners, and low-level managers; and a lower class, which rely on low-paying wage jobs for their livelihood and often experience poverty. Until recently, employee interests and needs have been neglected and their personal development goals put at a back stage. What perhaps may have changed this ironical way of thinking about employees was research, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies,

conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932. Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results. Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation and that shall form the basis of the theoretical review are Maslow‟s need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg‟s two- factor theory, Vroom‟s expectancy theory, Adams‟ equity theory, and Skinner‟s reinforcement theory.

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ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF MOTIVATION ON JOB SATISFACTION OF TEACHER LIBRARIANS IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY (FCT) ABUJA