EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF SECURITY AGENCIES IN NIGERIA PORTS

Abstract

This study is on efficiency and effectiveness of security agencies in Nigeria ports. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Nigeria port Authority, portharcourt, Rivers state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made marine engineers, firemen, seamen and signal officers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Nigeria is indeed one of the greatest maritime nations of the world; this is confirmed by both the local maritime operators and foreign maritime operators. Ports are supposed to be security zones and policed as such to prevents crimes mainly theft, smuggling among sabotage attacks, stowaway. In olden days, theft as merely limited to petty pilferage and broaching of cartons by Dockers only tilling their pockets that would neither attract attention nor cause appreciable loss to the cargo consignee. The crime latter escalated to piracy on board vessels at anchorage. Crews were violently robbed and cargo stolen, with some measure of success in checking piracy at anchorage, attention shifted to the ports proper. There are many security agents both conventional recognized law enforcement agents and the fadeless ones purporting to be government officials seeing to the general security of our ports These notwithstanding the ports are being easily accessible to a multitude of hoodlums now popularly known as “what rats” and syndicates of other malefactors actors who have made the ports their homes. They vandalize the lighting system to enable them carry out their natural and notorious activities. Any degree of crimes can now be perpetrated by these hoodlums acting in cohorts with some of the security agents, and port official. Crew members going ashore are sometimes violently attacked and robbed within and outside the ports. Cargo theft has grown from breaking any types of package within the ports to complete disappearance of container out of the ports. Cargos are being successfully cleared from the port by spurious owners. Ships are boarded by unauthorized persons who steal both cargoes and ship property including those relate to safety. What a criminal act! Vehicular cargoes are more vulnerable to plunder age because of the attention they attract. They are loaded with some goods that are not made parks where they normally await clearing. They are securely locked and then keys are handed to security officials for safety. But most of these vehicles with or without undeclared goods are mysteriously opened and their valuable parts are stolen Clearing of cargoes is a process which the shippers, freight forwarded and consignees thinks is as difficult as the head of the camel having to pass through the eye of the needle The customs long room is being made too “long” for clearing agents Problems with all department involved in the clearing start from the usual indifferences to work, the officials thinking that they are doing the agents favour The agents must “co-operate” with the officials, otherwise their entries will either be unnecessarily delayed further or completely lost in the labyrinth of bureaucracy Having survived the voracity these official and the goods released the clearing agent face the cast ordeal of having to “settle” all other security agents and officials even with authentic release documents Some of the security men still go outside the ports to intercept and tort the consignee for “settlement” Coupled with factors like high port tariffs, port insecurity is now causing Nigerian ports serious loss of clientele to neighbouring ports. Lome and Cotonou for example, although in charter parties and ordinary contracts of affreightment where carriage of goods by sea Act 1971 does not apply to the operating bills of lading. Ship owners can exclude liability for loss of or damage to cargo arising from piratical acts generally the Act (COGSA “71”) does not provide such that Nigeria has joined the club of port stigmatized as dangerous in insurance circle. Consequently, ship owners and shippers pays higher premiums for ships and cargoes, a burden that is ultimately passed to the public consumers.

If Nigeria must grow both politically and economically, there are needs for an efficient and effective security system for safety of cargoes id ship including the crews. There should be both the activities of the appropriate authority and the private sectors to ensure that security at the port be maintained.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Crew members going ashore are sometimes violently attacked and robbed within and outside the ports. Cargo theft has grown from breaking any types of package within the ports to complete disappearance of container out of the ports. Cargos are being successfully cleared from the port by spurious owners. Ships are boarded by unauthorized persons who steal both cargoes and ship property including those relate to safety. What a criminal act! Vehicular cargoes are more vulnerable to plunder age because of the attention they attract. On this background the researcher wants to investigate efficiency and effectiveness of security agencies in Nigeria ports

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study includes:

  1. To highlight the importance of security agents in ports.
    2.    To evaluate the performances of security agents in ports
    3.    To focus attention on factors influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria ports

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0:  there is no importance of security agents in ports

H1: there is an importance of security agents in ports

H02there are no factors influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria ports

H2: there are factors influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of security agents in Nigeria ports

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will give clear insight on efficiency and effectiveness of security agencies in Nigeria. The study will be beneficial to students, Nigeria port authority and the general public. The study will also serve as a reference to other researchers that want to embark on this study.

EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF SECURITY AGENCIES IN NIGERIA PORTS

IMPACT OF SAFETY MEASURES ON WATER TRANSPORTATION IN NIGERIA

Abstract

This study is on impact of safety measures on water transportation in Nigeria. The total population for the study is 200 staff of ministry of transport, Abuja. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made marine engineers, administrative staff, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

The modem era of maritime transport was ushered in by the advent of the steam engine. Wooden ships and sail gave way to iron ships powered by steam. A long era of growth in maritime transport followed as trade needs were served more efficiently, and transport activities could be better predicted. Trading horizons expanded and the world economy grew. Transit time was no longer at the whim of prevailing winds and both passenger and freight traffic increased dramatically. The advent of the jet engine played havoc with the market for long-haul ocean passenger transport as people switched from long ocean liner voyages to more convenient plan travel. Passenger vessels changed radically between 1950 and 2000. In 2000. only ferries and cruise ships remain in most of the developed world, although some small passenger ships can still be found in inter-island services in remote areas of Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Caribbean, and on the great rivers, such as the Nile and the Amazon. In spite of the growing volume of freight moving by air. the bulk of international freight moves by water. Cargo transported by ship falls into two broad categories: bulk and unitized cargo. The former usually travels via tramp vessels and includes both liquid (including crude oil and oil products) and dry bulk, with iron ore. grains, and coal having the highest transport volumes. Unitized cargo (predominantly containers) is transported primarily by ships in the liner trades. Unitization is the process of consolidating cargo into a more manageable form for transport, be it a pallet or a container. There are many types of vessels to service specialized needs but these general categories provide a useful starting point to understand maritime transport and port systems. Liner shipping companies offer scheduled transport services to third party logistics service suppliers and cargo owners whose markets are increasingly global. Rather than contracting for the use of the whole vessel, as is the case in the tramp sector, cargo owners only purchases the space necessary at a particular time, thereby sharing the vessel with many others. Containers canny most of the world’s component parts, semi-finished, and finished goods. The transfer of goods within the car parts industry from one country to another provides an excellent example of goods using the liner sector of the shipping market Container traffic is important because the timely delivery of the container’s contents creates jobs and generates income across a large population base. It is very important for the future economic health of many nations that container trade continues to grow. Manufacturers can buy components in many places, consolidate them in one or a number of locations for assembly and then transport them to a third location to be sold. Sometimes component parts move seven or eight times before reaching the retail market. The tramp market transports both dry and liquid bulk products. In contrast to the liner carrier, the tramp vessel does not operate on a fixed schedule or itinerary but sails to meet the current demand with a service where one ship usually carries the cargo for one cargo owner. The successful operator is able to match the ship’s capability to the market demand while minimizing the number of voyages in ballast (with no cargo). Ship owners supply vessels on a voyage or time basis. Vessels may be chartered by the cargo owner from the ship owner or operator for as little as a single voyage or as long as the life of the ship. The charter contract may be for only the vessel itself, as in the case of a bareboat charter, or include crew in the cases of voyage or time charters. Not all vessels in the oil trade operate in the charter market as many are owned by the oil companies and only transfer crude oil from port storage depots to refineries, and refined products from the refinery to the local distribution point. Nigeria has 8,600 km of inland waterways. The longest are the Niger River and its tributary, the Benue River but the most used, especially by larger powered boats and for commerce, are in the Niger Delta and all along the coast from Lagos Lagoon to Cross River. The history of transportation in Nigeria dates back to the pre – colonial era. Within this period, transportation facilities such as roads, railways, air transport facilities were really non-existent with emphasis then on the bush path. At present, the modes of transport in Nigeria include road, railways, airways, inland waterways, coastal waters, the deep sea, and the pipeline (Anyanwu, et al. 1997). The potential significance of road development for investment, trade, growth and poverty alleviation has long been recognized. Not only does road transport infrastructure facilitate the direct provision of services to consumers, it also provides intermediate inputs that enter into the production of other sectors and raise factor productivity. In the stone ages primitive boats developed to permit navigation of rivers and for fishing in rivers and off the coast. It has been argued that boats suitable for a significant sea crossing were necessary for people to reach Australia an estimated 40,000-45,000 years ago. With the development of civilization, bigger vessels were developed both for trade and war. In the Mediterranean, galleys were developed about 3000 BC. Galleys were eventually rendered obsolete by ocean-going sailing ships, such as the Arabic caravel in the 13th century, the Chinese treasure ship in the early 15th century, and the Mediterranean man-of-war in the late 15th century. In the Industrial Revolution, the first steamboats and later diesel-powered ships were developed. Eventually submarines were developed mainly for military purposes for people’s general benefit. Meanwhile, specialized craft were developed for river and canal transport. Canals were developed in Mesopotamia c. 4000 BC. The Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan and North India (from c. 2600 BC) had the first canal irrigation system in the world. The longest canal of ancient times was the Grand Canal of China. It is 1,794 kilometers (1,115 mi) long and was built to carry the Emperor Yang Guang between Beijing and Hangzhou. The project began in 605, although the oldest sections of the canal may have existed since c. 486 BC. Canals were developed in the middle Ages in Europe in Venice and the Netherlands. Pierre-Paul Riquet began to organize the construction of the 240 km-long Canal du Midi in France in 1665 and it was opened in 1681. In the Industrial Revolution, inland canals were built in England and later the United States before the development of railways. Specialized craft were also developed for fishing and later whaling.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The present issues and challenges of water transportation in our country Nigeria is listed as follows which prompted to this core course of this research work.

1.There is a seasonal fall in water level in rivers especially Niger and Benue Rivers which become nearly dry during summer.

2.Reduced flow due to diversion of water for irrigation, for instance, in the River benue which makes it difficult even for steamers to ply.

3.There is reduced navigability due to siltation.

4.There are problems in smooth navigation because of waterfalls and cataracts.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this research work is on how to guarantee a safety measure on water transportation and to evaluate the impact of having a safety water transport system, among other are the following listed.

1.To evaluate the water route transportation system.

2.To examine the effect of poor water transport to the transportation system.

3.To highlight the possible measure to improve the routes for water transportation

4.Make the necessary recommendations to the government for enhancing the country’s water transportation system.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0:   there is no effect of poor water transport to the transportation system.

H1: there is effect of poor water transport to the transportation system.

H02: there is no possible measure to improve the routes for water transportation

H2: there is possible measure to improve the routes for water transportation

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Every organization is concerned with the best possible way of improving Operation and performance to guarantee sustainable growth that will lead to the achievement of organizational goals. Therefore, the knowledge that would be obtained from this research will assist management of transport to take measures that will guarantee safety in the transport system which will help them to achieve overall efficiency and effectiveness in their operations. This study will also benefit the institutions in general, as it will provide the framework with which proper system upgrade can be carried out together with the adoption of the new ideas presented here to guarantee efficient service delivery, maximization of profit and minimization of cost. Students of management sciences and other researchers who intend to carry out further studies will find this study as a useful reference material especially in their literature review and findings thereby helping to arrive at objective conclusions.

IMPACT OF SAFETY MEASURES ON WATER TRANSPORTATION IN NIGERIA

A STUDY OF PORT CONCESSIONING IN NIGERIA AND PRODUCTIVITY

ABSTRACT

This study is on A study of port concesioning in Nigeria and productivity. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Apapa seaport, Lagos state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made clearing agents, marine officers, sub officers and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Maritime transport plays an important role of being many nations’ major gateway for international trade and are a good instrument for measuring the economic health of a nation (Ogunsiji & Ogunsiji, 2010, UNCTAD, 2008). The ports have considerable influence on the volume and conditions of trade as well as the capacity for economic development of nations still developing. In Nigeria, greater percentage of international trade is routed through the sea, and given its huge population, it is believed that the Nigerian economy may account for about 70% of all seaborne trade in the West African sub-region (Fivestar Logistics, 2008). Hence, the country’s ports are increasingly challenged to meet the pressure mounted from movement of ships and cargo in and out of the ports. The pattern of port reforms all over the world is towards deregulating, revitalizing, decentralizing and privatizing the sector and organizes competition within it. However, port reforms are policy measures by government that are aimed at revitalizing, strengthening operational and functional modalities at the ports, thereby resulting in increased efficiency and productivity

Relatively, it is pertinent to understand that the concept of concession is an integral part of a privatization principle that sees the actual contracting out of the management of the port to private sector for a period of time. It is the process by which the assets of a state-owned enterprise are entrusted to a private operator for a limited period of time whose duration can be extended. It main objective which reflect an aspect of globalize policy is basically to ensure gradual divestment of government shares from the public ports and transferring same to private management hands, which ignites increased efficiency, performance, productivity and competition amongst the ports. It is also aimed at transforming, restructuring and reforming the ports, thereby creating user-friendly ports with an improved operational performance and functions. This concept of concession if adequately implement will reduce undue waiting time of vessels and increased vessel turn-around time at the ports, manifesting in lower operating costs of vessels, sheds, cargo berths and terminals at the end.

The embrace of port reform in Nigeria is aimed at making our ports not only user-friendly but also investor-friendly, by achieving shorter turn-around time of vessels, transparent shipping operations and reduction in shipping cost and losses, which in turn leads government into providing modern cargo handling plants and equipment to enhance smooth operations at the ports. However, it is imperative to state clearly that the operational functionality of the port terminal operations through the provisions, of super structures and infrastructural facilities will increase the efficiency, performance and productivity of any port system, thereby registering an appreciable cargo throughput at the end of the day. Unfortunately, this has never been the case for Nigerian ports, which over the years have suffered from numerous problems which are identified as but not limited to port neglects, lack of infrastructural facilities and funding, lack of shipping policy, inconsistence of government policy, undue interruptions and interventions by government in maritime issues and operations, management problems, high port charges, ageing port infrastructure, cumbersome and bureaucratic cargo clearance, inadequate investment in equipment. These challenges however over the year have hindered the operational functionality, performance, flow of administrative links and development of Nigerian ports.

The growth in shipping business, the need for congenial business environment of the ports, advent of containerization and advances in cargo handling methods which imposed considerable infrastructure requirements in seaports, the growing inability of government to finance its owned ports and other risen challenges has led to deregulation processes of Nigeria ports this in turn introduced several measures aimed at minimizing and correcting anomalies and malaise in the port services and maritime industry as a whole

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The potential of Nigeria to achieve sustainable economic growth and development are no doubt due to its rich and diversified basic resources. Unfortunately, despite Nigeria’s huge investments in the public’s investment returns was less than 0.5% per year since 1960. So to remedy the poor performance of public enterprises, the federal government revisits privatization ideology that is hinged on reforms, including the concession of the port, which can have serious consequences for Nigeria’s economy if well guided.

In the 1990s, Nigerian ports showed very low levels of efficiency, which resulted in long lead times for vessels and increasing the residence time of the containers. It often took weeks to unload and reload a ship instead of 48 hours considered standard in other regions such as Asia. Furthermore, the workforce was bloated and unproductive, the cargo was subject to massive flight levels, and port charges were excessive. Perhaps worst of all, the port infrastructure required substantial renovation and rehabilitation, and this investment would require substantial external financial support, the federal government was reluctant to provide given the existing operating inefficiencies in the sector.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To determine the role of the management style in the administration of the port of Apapa after concession
  2. To assess the impact of port concession on port congestion
  3. To review the effectiveness of the concession on freight compensation
  4. To determine the role of the concession on freight handling efficiency
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0there is no role of the management style in the administration of the port of Apapa after concession.

H1: there is role of the management style in the administration of the port of Apapa after concession

H02: there is no impact of port concession on port congestion

H2there is impact of port concession on port congestion

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The recommendation of the study is hopefully contributing to a more competitive Apapa port in terms of better management and a better administration of the port in the West African region. It is believed that the economy of most developing countries such as Nigeria, are highly dependent on maritime transport system, while it is also responsible for the development of a transport system. This is because the effective port and cargo handling system will encourage shipping companies, importers and exporters to make full use of port facilities in the nation’s seaport. Therefore, the concession is a global phenomenon. It is often rooted in the culture longtime globalization; Thus Nigeria cannot afford to stay away from the global market where capital goods mainly channeled through the ports.

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers A study of port concesioning in Nigeria and productivity. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

 PORT: A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although usually situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Papa, Lagos, are many miles inland, with access from the sea via river or canal.

CONCESIONING: In the case of a public service concession, a private company enters into an agreement with the government to have the exclusive right to operate, maintain and carry out investment in a public utility (such as a water privatisation) for a given number of years.

PRODUCTIVITY: Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production. Often, a productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of an aggregate output to a single input or an aggregate input used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of input

A STUDY OF PORT CONCESSIONING IN NIGERIA AND PRODUCTIVITY

EVALUATION OF TRICYCLE AS PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN AN URBAN AREA (A CASE STUDY OF IPATA-SANGO, ILORIN)

ABSTRACT

            This project goes into detailed evaluation of tricycle as public means of transport system in an urban area with a particular reference to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis selected as the case study. The project reviews existing literature on Tricycle ( Keke Napep) within Ipata-Sango, Ilorin. Inclusive are the circumstances that led to the invention of this medium as well as the drawbacks encounter in the past. However the finding of the research work base on the evaluation of Tricycle as public means of transport system indicates the present operational but attached to this are some few shortcomings caused by both Kwara State Government, the Tricycle transport agency and tricyclists or operators. Also is the shortcoming of management and staff leading to inefficiency in the system. With the full study on all these drawbacks, it`s now suggested that the running of the corporation should be given to competent personnel base on merits and qualifications with less intervention by the State Government into the financial and operational capabilities. In addition, the management/staff is suggested to be encouraged and developed by giving incentives and training in their course of service years. Above all the research work poses to be more effective in planning and monitoring all aspect of Safety. If it is done continuosly, therefore it serves a means of redressing areas where there are deficiencies.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                             PAGES

Title page                                                                                                                     i

Certification                                                                                                                 ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Table of contents                                                                                                v-vii

List of tables                                                                                                       viii-ix

Abstract                                                                                                                       x

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction                                                                                                          1

1.1 Statement of the problem                                                                                     1

1.2 Aim and Objectives of the study                                                                          2

1.3 Justification of the theory                                                                           2-3

1.4 Scope of the study                                                                                                3-4

1.5 Description of the study area                                                                          4-5

1.6 Proposed Methodology                                                                                        5-6

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review                                                                                                 7

2.1 Tricycle as a mode of transportation                                                               7

2.2 Importance of Tricycle (Keke Napep) as a mode of public

       Transport in an urban area                                                                          8

2.3 Short coming of Tricycle                                                                8-9

2.4 The importance of wearing helmet while riding a Tricycle              9-10

2.5 Requirement to be met by helmet used by Keke Napep riders (Tricyclist)    10-11

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology                                                                                                        12

3.1 Oral Interview                                                                                           12-13

3.2 Issuing of Questionnaire                                                                               13-14

3.3 Field Work                                                                                                            14

3.4 Kwara State Tricycle operation (Control Safety E.T.C)  laws 2010    14-15

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Analysis and Discussion of result                                                            16

4.1 Introduction                                                                                                          16

4.2 Oral Interview                                                                                                       16

4.3 Questionnaire                                                                                                        17

4.4 Field Work                                                                                                   17-18

Characteristic of operators (Tricyclist)                                                            21-23

Challenges or factors militating against the smooth running of the trade 21

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Conclusion and Recommendation                                                           23

5.1       Conclusion

5.2       Recommendation                                                                                            23

             References                                                                                         24                

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1:  Details of the result from the Oral interview                                            16

Table 4.2:  Result from the questionnaire distributed                                  17

Table 4.3:  Ages of respondent within Ipata-Sango, Ilorin                        18

Table 4.4:  Reason for operating Tricycle within the various streets        18

Table 4.5:  Educational attainment of respondents                                    19

Table 4.6:  Monthly income of the operators within the various Street.  20

LIST OF PLATES

Plate 4.2: Amilegbe-Ipata road, Ilorin                                                                   22

Plate 4.3: Oke andi junction, Ilorin                                                           22       

LIST OF FIGURE

  Figure 1.1      Description of Case Study                                                                 5

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

      The inability of the conventional modes of transport such as Trains,buses, cars, Okada and ferry services to meet transportation demand owing to fleet depletion and high operational cost caused by down turn in economy,resulting in high record of accident from Okada motor cycles has led to unplanned emergence of para transit or non conventional mode of transportation popularly known as KEKE NAPEP (tricycle).

      Tricycle refers to a commercial device where tricycle riders carry passengers for hire.The name TRICYCLE is as a result of the machine being a pedal driven vehicle with two wheel at the back and a wheel at front.KEKE NAPEP is known for it comfort ability and safety compare to Okada motorcycle. Kekenapep (Tricycle) became more useful and indispensable as soon as the federal government bound Okada motorcycle across several states in the country.In an ironic metaphor,the first group of tricycle transporters was then given the name “KEKE NAPEP.”Because of the comic irony of this name being used for tricycles and popularity of the manufacture which is India, the name Keke napep for commercial tricycle was never to be for gotten and eventually become as popular as it is okay.

1.1       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

            The primary objective of most transport system is to make profit.This is because profit yield growth, survival and continuity in business.The various transport corporations recognize this fact.Over the years and prior to this contemporary age,a lot of factors had challenged the profitability of this transport system. Travelers across the nation have found it difficult to convey considerable goods which cannot be carried by lorry as a result of it meager nature and lesser weight,on several occasion business men and travelers are usually stranded and effectually get frustrated until the invention of this so called TRICYCLE which have gone a long way to assist the travelers and transporters in conveying the goods from the manufacturers and sites to their destination comfortably and safely compare to Okada motorcycle. The study therefore examines the following problems;

1.         What are the motives for establishing Tricycle as public transport system in Nigeria and     subsequently in Kwara State?

2.         To what extent are these motives being achieved?

1.2       AIM OF THE STUDY

  1. The aim of this project is to evaluate Tricycle as public transport system in an urban area within Ipata-Sango

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To assist the effectiveness of tricycle compare to other means of public transport system.
  2. To determine the significance of  tricycle compare to other means of public transport
    1. JUSTIFICATION OF THE THEORY

Evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transport is considered worthy of study because of the inability of travelers to convey their goods and produce from the market and farm including sites to their destination. Also a lot of Okada motorcycles multiply on the various roads without helping in conveying of goods and even safety entirely especially within Ipata-Sango Ilorin. Therefore, to assist the public especially in the aspect of safety and transportation of goods, there is a need to study in to the evaluation of tricycle as a public means of transportation in an urban area.

1.4       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is limited to Ipata-Sango, Ilorin metropolis. The major factor considered here is

  1. Avoidance of overloading
  2. Adherence to the approved speed limit
  3. Abstains from drunkenness
  4. Avoidance of rough riding
  5. Ensuring the tricycles are protected with the mini canopy(water proof) for safety
  6. We also focus on the plate number and uniformity of the vehicles colour
  7. The total number of passengers patronizing tricycle.

THE PASSENGERS CHALLENGES

All passengers are likely to encounter one form of challenges or the other. In the course of my research, I observed that the passengers usually encounter diverse forms of challenges such as;

i.          Exposure to rainfall: In most cases, the build up of the TRICYCLE     (Keke  Napep) makes the passengers vulnerable to external forces such as rainfall and for this reason most of the passenger found it uncomfortable to board because they usually get wet when travelling.

ii.         Excessive Wind pressure: the two sides of the Tricycle is obviously opened with no        doors   unlike vehicles that are properly secured. This opening usually expose the passengers to   high wind pressure which may subsequently result to illness especially          when the vehicle         is on high speed.

iii.        Uncomfortability : on several occasions, the passengers seat at both front and back are     usually tight as a result of variation in size and shape of the passengers. The  bigger the         passengers, the more tight and uncomfortable they feel while travelling.

iv.        Accident: The kind of accident associated with this form of Transportation (KEKE NAPEP) is usually fatal, though they seems to be very rare on local road. This factor also         discourage some passengers from travelling by Tricycles.

1.5       DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA (case study of Ipata-Sango) Ilorin.

            From IOT, take a bike straight to Ipata. Ipata is usually a marketing area and a very busy place too. There are two lanes road at ipata with shop available along the roadside. Tricycles are also common in that area.

CBN Road
Oja Oba Road

From Ipata, there is a straight road that links to MurtalaRoad and by the left is round about, immediately after the roundabout is straight route to Sango. Sango is also a commercial centre (marketing place) with more lively feature than Ipata. There is a ministry of Agriculture at Sango, a mobile police station and Tricycles are very common there. From Sango, there is straight route to kwara State Polytechnic permanentsite(ps)      

                  IPATA TO SANGO AREA, ILORIN METROPOLIS       

CBN Road
Oja Oba Road
Sabo Oke Road
Amilege Roaad
Ipata Road

Figure 1.1: Description of Case Study

1.6       PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

In collecting data for this project work, various methods were employed. Data used was collected by using both primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary collection method includes.

  1. The administration of structured questionnaires
  2. Personal interviews (with selected of staff and passengers) observations.

The secondary method includes the use of related texts

  1. Related texts
  2. Journals
  3. Magazines and write up on the use of Tricycle as a public transport system
  4. Annual report and account of profit maximization. This help to give a clear exploration of the study.
EVALUATION OF TRICYCLE AS PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN AN URBAN AREA (A CASE STUDY OF IPATA-SANGO, ILORIN)

MARITIME ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

MARITIME ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Cabotage is a legislative tool restricting access or reserving maritime or aviation trade within a country’s territorial jurisdiction to the local capacities. The Nigerian Maritime and Cabotage was introduced by the Nigerian Government following calls by prominent maritime specialists and operators on the need for government to make concerned effort towards harnessing the indigenous maritime capacity and utilizing the abundant opportunities in the sector for the benefit of the Nigerian people in order to reverse the trend where it still has its maritime trade both territorial and extra territorial dominated by foreign operators. The government’s intention in introducing the cabotage regime is to encourage the development of the maritime industry by an interventionist scheme aimed at boosting the growth of the local capacity in the face of choking external competition and domination. Cabotage is a practice worldwide that is over 60 years old, a contemporary economic approach which justifies intervention of this nature to induce some determined result (as against the classical economic approach of free market forces), as an acceptable tool to achieving some set economic goals, especially where competition is unfair and dominance is prevalent. It has been observed that this practice worldwide both in maritime and aviation has been induced by diverse factors including reserving all, or part of the national market opportunity to national flag ships or aircrafts either for political, economic or security reasons. Other reasons for this protective policy practiced around the world are to develop indigenous human and capital capacity. These are some of the major aims of the Nigerian maritime cabotage.

And as for the scope of the cabotage Act, the Coastal and Inland Shipping (cabotage) Act, 2003 covers the carriage of goods and passengers by vessels and any other mode of transportation, mineral, other natural resources, and any marine transportation or activity of commercial nature within Nigeria’s territorial waters as prescribed by the Exclusive Economic Zone Act CAP 116, laws of the Federation Republic of Nigeria, 1990. The Act seeks to restrict the use of foreign vessels in domestic coastal trade and consequently enhance the development of indigenous tonnage.

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MARITIME ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

IMPACT OF MARINE POLLUTION IN SHIPPING OPERATIONS AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT

IMPACT OF MARINE POLLUTION IN SHIPPING OPERATIONS AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Approval Page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Declaration         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study     –        –        –        –        –

1.2    Statement of General Problem     –        –        –        –

1.3    Objective of the Study –        –        –        –        –        –

1.4    Research Questions   –        –        –        –        –        –

1.5    Hypothesis   –      –      –      –      –      –      –        –        –

1.6    Significance of the Study     –        –        –        –        –

1.7    Scope of the Study     –        –        –        –        –        –

1.8    Definition of Terms      –        –        –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.2    Theoretical Framework         –        –        –        –        –        –        –

2.3. Green House Gas Emissions      –  –        –        –        –        –

2.4. Power Plants     –  –        –        –        –        –        –         –        –

2.5. What is the Term Gas Flaring?    –  –        –        –        –        –

2.6. Origin of Gas Flaring               –        –        –        –        –        –

2.7. Culprits in Niger Delta Oil, Flares and Power Plants     –     –

2.8. Environmental and health impacts of Gas Flaring/Power Plants Emissions                –                  –        –

2.9 Barriers to Gas Flaring Utilization      –       –        –        –        –

2.9. Environmental Management Theories    –         –        –        –        –

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.2    Research Design        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

3.3    Research Methodology        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0    Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

4.1    Data Presentation and Analysis   –        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Summary   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.2    Conclusion         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

5.3    Recommendations      –        –        –        –        –        –        –

References –      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study              

Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Eighty percent of marine pollution comes from land. Air pollution is also a contributing factor by carrying off pesticides or dirt into the ocean. Land and air pollution have proven to be harmful to marine life and its habitats. The pollution often comes from non point sources such as agricultural runoff, wind-blown debris and dust. Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, refers to contamination by excessive inputs of nutrients. It is a primary cause of eutrophication of surface waters, in which excess nutrients, usually nitrogen or phosphorus, stimulate algae growth.

Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which are then taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most of which are either deposit or filter feeders. In this way, the toxins are concentrated upward within ocean food chains.

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IMPACT OF MARINE POLLUTION IN SHIPPING OPERATIONS AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT

A STUDY ON SHIP FINANCING IN NIGERIA

A STUDY ON SHIP FINANCING IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have been recognised as critical to economic growth and poverty reduction in developing countries. Shipping businesses represent significant portion of SMEs and have dominated the private sector investments in developed nations. Existing studies have identified funding as a major constraint to SMEs in developing countries. The banking institution statutorily positioned to assist in SMEs funding in these countries are constrained by a host of factors. This paper investigates the factors affecting banks financing and development of SMEs in the maritime shipping sector of Nigeria. Data for this study were obtained from Likert scaled questionnaires which were administered to a randomly selected sample of commercial banks with shipping portfolios. Evidence from data analysis using ordered Logit regression model indicates that; risk perception attitude of banks, information constraints on SMEs, lack of skills in SMEs financing and unfavourable regulatory environment are significant factors affecting banks investments in SMEs in Nigeria’s shipping sector. Policy implications of the findings are discussed.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to Study

Shipping has existed in over 5000 years and the first sea trade network we know of was between Mesopotamia, Bahrain and Indus River. Shipping is constantly changing and shipping today is far from shipping 5000 years ago. Thanks to the discovery of the global sea routs in the late fifteenth century, the industrial revolution in the late eighteenth century and the dismantling of the colonies in the second half of the twentieth century, shipping went from slow and expensive by land to a tightly knit global business community (Stopford 2008, p. 45).

Access to capital is central in building a business community like the shipping industry. High investments cost, due to highly technological vessels, require ship-owners who know how to get funding.“Because shipping is such an old industry, with a history of continuous change, sometimes gradual and occasionally calamitous, we have a unique opportunity to learn from the past.” (Stopford 2008, p. 4)

Finding out how ship-owning companies finance their investments, by using historical data and learn from past years, is the objective of this study.Hopefully, the study will provide answers to financing in the ship-owning industry.

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A STUDY ON SHIP FINANCING IN NIGERIA