CONSTRUCTION OF 12VOLTS BATTERY CHARGER

CONSTRUCTION OF 12VOLTS BATTERY CHARGER

ABSTRACT

This battery charger is a devices used to store the electrical energy to the battery after the battery has been discharged itself. The battery charger is designed to use electricity as its source of switch, regulation transistor, diode, light emitting diode, construction wire. The charger is designed and constructed to deliver full current until the current drawn by the battery falls to 150MA. At this time a lower voltage is applied to finish off and keep the battery from overcharging by switching off itself when the battery is fully charged.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

        A battery charger is a device used to introduce energy into a secondary cell or rechargeable battery by forcing an electric current through it. The charging protocol depends on the size and type of the battery being charged. Some battery has high tolerance for recharging by connection to a constant voltage source or a constant current source. (J.Minear 2000). Simple charger of this type requires manual disconnection at the end of the charge cycle. Other battery types cannot withstand long high rate over charging. The charger has temperature or voltage sensing circuit and a microprocessor controller to adjust the charging current, and cut off at the end of charging. Albert H.(2005) cleared that low battery chargers may take several hours to be completely charged. High rate chargers may restore most capacity within minutes or less than an hour but generally require monitoring of the battery to protect it from overcharging.

        A battery which is actually an electric cell is a device that produces electricity from a chemical reaction. In one cell battery, a negative electrode, an electrolyte, this conducts ions, a separator, also an ion conductor and a positive electrode. An electrical battery is one or more electro chemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 2000 by Alessandro volta and especially since the technical improved Daniell cell in 2004, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications . There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries) which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. Battery comes in many sizes from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wrist watches.

        However in recent times (sawafuji electric of 2006) states that battery charger has become very useful and popular to DC equipment. Most of the electronic devices such as laptops, mobile phone e.t.c and mobile machines like vehicle and motorcycles, operational capacity depend on the DC power supply from a battery.

1.2   Statement of Problem

        A simple 12volts battery charger work by supplying a constant DC or pulsed DC power source to a battery being charged. The simple charger does not alter its output based on time. The circuit of a battery charger has the ability to convert voltages from one form to another (usually AC to DC voltages).

        Therefore from my research I carried out due to this project. I have found that most of an electronic gadgets damage easily because of this charging problem which I listed below;

–      Over charging

–      Excess voltage

–      Short circuit

1.3   Objective of the Study

        The objective of my project is to highlight and improve on the construction and demonstration of a simple 12volts battery charger in such a way that the need of problem listed above should be met.

1.4   Significance of the Study

        The importance of this project work is to aid both techniques and students on how to construct a simple battery charger circuit and how it works. It is hope that after the construction of this charger circuit, it will be kept on the laboratory to be used for battery charging and for practical’s and other academic functions.

1.5   Scope of the Study

        This project work is limited to the construction of a simple battery charger of 12volts. The circuit input voltage is 240volts from the AC supply mains which will be stepped down by a step-down transformer to 12V. The 12V is rectified through a bridge rectifier and filtered through capacitor connected in parallel from the positive terminal of the bridge rectifier. The output voltage is used to charge a battery.

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CONSTRUCTION OF A SIMPLE DYNAMO

CONSTRUCTION OF A SIMPLE DYNAMO

ABSTRACT

Dynamo is the name given to D.C generators. In the past, alternating current generators are not common. Voltages are generated using dynamo where the voltage generated are later converts to A.C. The dynamo I constructed had a permanent magnet. This magnet in the form of circular disc which revolves around turns of coil that is wound on a u-shaped former. When the disc is rotated the magnetic field North / South pole cuts lines of force and e.m.f is generated.

INTRODUCTION

1.0  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The word Dynamo from “(from the Greek word dynamics: meaning power) was originally another name for an electrical generator and still has some regional usage as a replacement for the word generator. After the discovery of the AC generator and that alternating current can be used as a power supply. The word dynamo became associated exclusively with the communicated direct current electric generator while on AC electrical generator using either ship rings or rotor magnet would become known as an alternator.

A dynamo is an electrical generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator. Dynamos were the first electrical generators capable of delivering power for industry and the foundation upon which many other later electric power conversion devices were based including the electric motor, the alternating current alternator and the rotary converter. Today the simple alternator dominates large scale power generation for efficiency, reliability and cost reasons.

A dynamo has the disadvantages of a mechanical commutator besides; converting alternating current to direct current using power rectification devices (vacuum tube or more recently solid state.) is effective and usually economical.

The faraday disk was the first electric generator. the horseshoe shape magnet (A) created a magnetic field through the disk (D) when the disk centers toward the rim. The current flowed out through the sliding spring contact m, through the external circuit and back into the centre of the disk through the axle. The operating principle of electromagnetic generators was later called Faraday’s law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. He also built the first electromagnetic generator, called the Faraday- disk, a type of homopolar generator, using a copper disk rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnetic. It produced a small DV voltage. This was not a dynamo in the current sense, because it did not use a commutator. This design was inefficient, due to self counseling counter flows of current in regions that were not under the influence of the magnetic field. While current was induced directly underneath the magnet, the current would circulate backwards in regions that were outside the influence of the magnetic field. This counter flow limited the power output to the pickup wires and induced waste heating the copper disk later, homopolar generators would solve the problem by using an array of magnets arranged around the disk perimeter to maintain a steady field effect in one current flow direction.

Another disadvantage was the output voltage was very low, due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. Faraday and others found that higher, more useful voltages could be produced by winding multiple turns of wire into coil. Wire windings can conveniently produce any voltage desired by changing the number of turns? So they have commutator to produce direct current. Independently of Faraday, (The Hungarian) Anyas Jedlik started experimenting in (1827) with the electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors. In the prototype of the single pole electric starter, both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic.

About 1856 he formulated the concept of the dynamo about six years before Siemens and Wheatstone but did not patent it as he thought he was not the first to realize this. His dynamo used, instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets placed opposite to each other to induce the magnetic field around the rotor, it was also the discovery of the principle of dynamo self excitation.

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCT AN ELECTRONIC DIGITAL DISPLAY SYSTEM

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCT AN ELECTRONIC DIGITAL DISPLAY SYSTEM

Abstract

The aim of this project work is to design and construct an electronic digital display system, based on light-emitting diodes connected in an array that forms the information to be displayed i.e. “GREAT NIGERIAN STUDENTS”. This project is useful for creating attention – getting messages, presentations, advertisements and location identifiers. The system consists of power supply unit, oscillator unit, counter unit, driver unit and output unit. The power supply unit uses alternating current (AC) from the mains which will be stepped down to 12V using a step-down transformer, rectified with bridge rectifier, filtered with the actual capacitor and regulated to 9 volt using an IC regulator. The oscillator unit contains a 555 timer IC set as astable multivibrator used to produce clock pulses for the counter unit which contains 4017 decade counter IC. The 4017 counter enables the information to be displayed sequentially as desired. The driver unit uses transistor to amplify the signal strength of the counter’s output. The output unit enables the information to be displayed using light emitting diodes (LEDs).

Chapter one

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

Electronic digital display system as used in this reports refers to a sign that uses electronic hardware and software to display its copy, messages or images. Also, a sign utilizing a fixed light source to provide a message  in text, images pictures, and / or symbols that may appear to move or may appear as on/off messages. This is contrast to traditional non-electronic signs where the copy displayed is physically applied to the sign surface by printing, painting or otherwise attaching it onto the sign. The materials or substrate to which the copy is applied is typically paper, wood, plastic or the wall of a building.

          In this modern time, solid materials have helped man to show that he really exists by doing wonders in the world of electronics. One major development, made possible by the enormous advances in solid state technology, is the “digital revolution”. Circuits are designed to implement the basic digital logic functions fundamental to all digital systems. Digital electronics therefore comprises the design, manufacture and use of circuits for processing information in digital form (Simpson, 1978).

          An information display is a way of providing information and it is also used as an object for promotion. It can be seen in a form of cardboard or tarpaulin at stores / shops, sign posts, placards, notice boards and electronic display boards. But the advent of new technologies has made the information in the form of an electronic display in the world of advertisements and promotions (Gupta, Shukla and Nagwekar, 2013). The ability to display a short message can be useful application to be available for any business. Electronic digital display system is perfect for this application. It can be used for both indoor and outdoor which makes it universal fit for any business or event. Electronic digital display system is very efficient and cost effective way to spread messages to thousands of people, without any personal contact or door to door sales. Light-Emitting Diode (LED) is a solid state light source with several attractive properties for display application. LED is a diode that gives off visible light when forward biased (Mehta and Mehta, 2014). It is chosen as the main component for displaying messages because, today LED is the most energy efficiency example and other useful systems.

          The birth of signs and display can be said to be as old as the existence of man on the planet earth. From the beginning of the world, different types of displays have been in use, each mode to serve the purpose of invention efficiently. Signs are any kind of visual graphics created to display information to a particular audience (David, 2013). In 1389, King Richard II of England compelled landlords to erect signs outside their premises (Manton, 2008). In ancient Rome, signboards were usually made from stone or terracotta (Chris, 1995).

          With the advancement in technology, man started carving woods and trees. The use of special dyes on wood as a means of identifying special locations. With the discovery of Bronze and iron, man started using the materials to display sign, thus the advent of metal sign boards were born, which are mostly used in developing countries. On semiconductors and vacuum tubes technology, light displays and sign boards were built to add more beauty in the old system and as a way to increase visibility. LED technology is frequently used in signs now instead of Neon signs, introduced in 1910 at the Paris Motor show (Bellu, 2006). The use of electronic is now becoming very important. It is extensively applied in almost our day to day activities.

          Electronic digital display system is also used for outdoor advertisement. Before, outdoor advertising was mainly characterized by the use of paper. Every bus stop and billboard had a paper advertisement inside. The reason for this was simple paper was easy to use and extremely cheap. It had some draw backs as  well. Before an image is actually on the street, it first has to be printed, pasted and placed. The journey from design to placement is quite long. Another disadvantages is the considerable amount waste generated by the use of paper. Finally, many people ignore a paper advertisement and there attention is drawn to the vibrant environment around them and not  to a still image.

          The extent of development in information dissemination has made it possible that the well known method of displaying information using sign posts, notice boards, etc has to be modified by using electronic digital display system. In today’s rapidly advancing technology market, most conventional digital display system are not being implemented using individual logic gates and integrated circuits (ICs) such have been used in the past instead, programmable devices such as microprocessor and microcontroller chips which contain the circuitry necessary to create logic functions are being used to implement digital systems. The use of 555 timer as a stable multivibrator and decade counter (CD4017) can be used to build less expensive electronic display system. The use of these two major ICs will bring about less board space, less power consumptions and overall, low cost in manufacturing.

          This project however; emphasizes mainly on the display of information using two major integrated circuits (ICs) namely NE555 timer (ICI) and CD4017 (IC2) to control the lighting of LEDs. This message display circuit is built around readily available, low cost components. It is easy to fabricate. A total of 250 LEDs will be used to display the message “GREAT NIGERIAN STUDENTS”.

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FABRICATE AND A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A TRACTOR MOUNTED SINGLE ROW CASSAVA PLANTER IN A SYSTEM OF OPERATION

1.0  INTRODUCTION

Cassava is a major staple crop in Nigeria, as cassava and its product are found in daily meals of Nigeria.

Currently, cassava is undergoing a transition from a mere subsistent crop found on the field of peasants to a commercial crop grown in plantations. Cassava is drought tolerant, staple food crop grown in tropics and subtropical areas. Cassava is to African peasant farmers what rice is to Asian farmer or wheat and potatoes are to European farmers (El-Sharkawy, 2003).

Although raw cassava roots contain significant vitamin C, it is well sensitive to eat and easily leaches into water and therefore almost all of the processing techniques seriously affect its content (Julie et al, 2009).

In the subtropical region of southern China, cassava is the fifth largest crop in term of production, after rice, sweet potato, sugar cane and maize. China is also the largest export market for cassava produced in Vietnam and Thailand. Over 60% of cassava production in China is concentrated in a single province, Guangxi, averaging over 7 million tons annually (Frederick, 2008).

Nigeria produces about 54 million metric tons (MT), making her the highest cassava producer in the world, producing a third more than Brazil and almost double the production capacity of Thailand and Indonesia.  Currently more than 248 million tons of cassava was produced worldwide in 2012 of which Africa accounted for 58% (IITA, 2012; FAO, 2013).

Over time, cassava has evolved from being a peasant’s crop to cash crop and industrial crop. Cassava in Nigeria is used for 2 main purposes:- 90% as human food and only 5-10% as secondary industrial material (used mostly as animal feed). Cassava production in Nigeria is increasing every year but Nigeria continues to import starch, flour, sweeteners, that can be made from cassava (Cassava Master Plan, 2006).

  1. AIM

To design, Fabricate and run performance evaluation of a tractor mounted single row cassava planter.

  1. OBJECTIVES
  2. To enhance cassava planting through mechanization across the valve chain.
  3. To reduce the time involved in planting.
  4. To reduce stress involved in planting
  5. To design the machine for effective use on the farmland or field.
  6. To promote large scale productivity and also increase income for the farmers.

1.3  PROBLEM STATEMENT

Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) is a very important and valuable crop with numerous or variable uses. The farmers encounter series of problems in planting the cassava, tilling the soil, covering of the soil, inadequate land due to land tenure system, uses of implements like cutlass, hoe etc., all these activities or processes takes much more time of the farmers. That is why faprmers cannot practice cassava production on a large scale of land due to the time consumption and stressful effort to carry the processes out.

1.4  SCOPE AND LIMITATION

The scope of the project is to design, fabricate and a performance evaluation of a tractor mounted single row cassava planter in a system of operation. The machine is applicable to small scale production or operation for cassava processing in rural areas.

The limitation of the project is to plant on one phase row ridges which cannot function more than one hopper and a farmer planting the cassava through the hopper.

FABRICATE AND A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A TRACTOR MOUNTED SINGLE ROW CASSAVA PLANTER IN A SYSTEM OF OPERATION

MODIFICATION AND TESTING OF BIOMASS DRYER

ABSTRACT

Drying is out of the major problem in post harvest operation. The traditional method of Drying (Sun drying) is weather dependent and unhygienic which affect food storage most especially in developing countries like India where more than 3300 to 3700 hours of bright sunshine per year available in North- West and West coastal region. The dryer consist of the following operating component parts: a cabinet, blower, trays, temperature controller, copper wire and light emitting Diode (LED) screen and switch. The factors considered in the study were turmeric of 2000g weight, temperature (500C, 600C and 800C) and each were replicated 3 times. The testing was carried out in term of drying rate, amount of moisture loss and applied temperature. Temperature of 600C and 700C favours the drying of the three weight that temperature of 400C. the time taken for each figure sample at different weight and temperature differs. Hence, the higher the temperature the lesser the time taken for the turmeric to dry, the higher the weight the higher the time taken for turmeric to dry, the statistical analysis (ANOVA) shows that there is high significance difference at 5% in the mean value of the drying rate as affected by temperature 400C and there high significance difference at 1% and 5% in the mean value of the drying rate. The efficiency of the battery operated biomass dryer on the modification to the biomass dryer was evaluated to be N 223,250.00.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xii
List of Plates xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Problem Statement 2
1.3 Aim and Objectives 2
1.4 Justification 3
1.5 Scope of the Project 3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Drying as an Element of Post Harvest 4
2.1.1 Types of Losses 5
2.1.1.1 Moisture Content 6
2.1.1.2 Damage 6
2.1.1.3 Direct and Indirect Losses 6
2.1.1.4 Weight Loss 6
2.1.1.5 Quality Loss 6
2.1.1.6 Food Loss 7
2.1.1.7 Seed Viability Loss 7
2.1.1.8 Commercial Loss 7
2.2 Methods of Drying 8
2.2.1 Traditional method of drying 8
2.2.2 Modern Methods of Drying 8
2.3 Mechanisms of Drying 9
2.4 Basic Theory of Drying 10
2.4.1 Thin Layer Drying 11
2.4.2 Deep Bed Drying 14
2.5 Factors affecting rate of drying 15
2.5.1 Crop Parameters 15
2.5.2 Air Parameters 16
2.5.3 Dryer Parameters 17
2.6 Review of Dryers 17
2.7 Drying Process 18
2.8 Agronomy of Turmeric 19
2.8.1 Benefit of Turmeric 19
2.9 Sources of Energy for Drying 20
2.9.1 Briquette as a Source of Energy 20
2.9.2 Solar as a Source of Energy 21
2.9.3 The Fossil Fuels 21
2.9.4 Electricity 21
2.9.5 Nuclear Power 21
2.9.6 Hydro Power 22
2.9.7 Geothermal Energy 22
2.9.8 Wind Power 22

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.1 Modified Areas on the Biomass Dryer 23
3.2 Materials 23
3.2.1 Charcoal 23
3.2.2 Digital Weighing Scale 24
3.2.3 Temperature Monitor and Controller 24
3.2.4 Biomass Dryer 25
3.2.5 Digital Venier Caliper 25
3.2 Description of the Machine 26
3.3 Component Parts of the Biomass Dryer 26
3.3.1 Chimney 27
3.3.2 Drying Tray 27
3.3.3 Drying Chamber 27
3.3.4 Solar Panel 27
3.3.5 Battery 28
3.3.6 Ash Port 28
3.3.7 Temperature Controller 28
3.3.8 Centrifugal Fan (Blower) 28
3.3.9 LED Screen 28
3.3.10 Charge Controller 28
3.3.11 Copper Pipe 29
3.4 Design Consideration for the Biomass Dryer 29
3.4.1 Air Temperature 29
3.4.2 Air Relative Humidity 29
3.4.3 Air Flow Rate 30
3.5 Material Selection 30
3.6 Operation of the Biomass Dryer 31
3.7 Design Analysis/Design Calculation 31
3.7.1 Design for the Volume/Capacity of Drying Tray 31
3.7.2 Design of Area of the Temperature Controller 31
3.7.3 Design of Area of Copper Pipe 32
3.7.4 Design of Area for the Burning Chamber 32
3.7.5 The Amount of Moisture to be Removed from Agricultural Produce 32
3.7.6 Design for Solar Panel Capacity 33
3.7.7 Drying Rate 33
3.7.8 Design Calculation and Analysis 33
3.8 Bill of Engineering Measurement and Evaluation (BEME) 35
3.10.1 Sourcing of Raw Material 37
3.10.2 Sample Preparation 37
3.10.3 Experimental Design and Layout 37
3.10.4 Experimental Procedure 38
3.10.5 Output Parameter 38
3.10.5.1 Measurement for Drying Rate 38
3.10.5.2 Determination of Water Loss 38

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Results 40
4.2 Discussion 44
4.2.1 Effect of Drying Rate on Turmeric at 500C 44

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 48
5.1 Conclusions 48
5.2 Recommendations 48
Reference 50
Appendix A 54
Appendix B 56
Appendix C 58
AppendiX D 60

LIST OF TABLES
Table No Description Pages
Table 3.1: Bought out Components for the Production 36
Table 3.2: Cost of Materials for the Production 36
Table 4.1 Drying Rate of Turmeric at 500C When Loaded with 2000g 40
Table 4.2 Drying Rate of Turmeric at 600C When Loaded with 2000g 40
Table 4.3 Drying rate of Turmeric at 700C When Loaded with 2000g 41
Table 4.4 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Table for Sample 3mm, 6mm and 9mm at Temperature 500C. 41
Table 4.5 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Table for Sample 3mm, 6mm and 9mm at Temperature 600C. 41
Table 4.6 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Table for Sample 3mm, 6mm and 9mm at Temperature 700C 43

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No Description Pages
Figure 2.1: The Period of drying 11
Figure 4.1: Effect of Drying Rate of Turmeric at 500C of 3mm, 6mm and 9mm size of Turmeric 44
Figure 4.2: Effect of Drying Rate of Turmeric at 600C of 3mm, 6mm and 9mm size of Turmeric 45
Figure 4.3: Effect of Drying Rate of Turmeric at 700C of 3mm, 6mm and 9mm size of Turmeric 46


LIST OF PLATES
Plate No Description Pages
Plate 3.1: Charcoal 23
Plate 3.2: Digital Weighing Scale 24
Plate 3.3: Temperature Controller 24
Plate 3.4: Biomass Dryer 25
Plate 3.5: Digital Venier Caliper 25
Plate 4.1: Sliced Tormeric Before Drying 39

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Drying is the dehydration process used to remove the moisture present in food products by the application of heat. The heat may be supplied either by hot air or from the biomass energy. Drying process is used to preserve the food products for future usage. Drying prevents the growth of bacteria and yeast formation. Drying can be achieved by using open air and biomass dryers. (Atulet al, 2014). Drying has a vital role in post harvest processing. It has always been of great importance for conserving agricultural products and for extending the food shelflife. (Doymaz 2007).
Drying crops by biomass energy is of great economic importance, especially in Nigeria where most of crops and grain harvests are lost to fungal and microbial attack. These wastage could be easily prevented by proper drying which enhance storage of crops and grains over long period of time. The biomass energy can easily be harnessed by a proper design of biomass dryer for crop drying. This method of drying requires the transfer of both heat and water vapor (Forsonet al, 2007). Biomass drying is a process of using biomass energy to heat air and the product so as to achieve drying of agricultural products (Ajay et al, 2009). Biomass air heaters are simple devices to heat air by utilizing biomass energy and employed rate temperature between 800C such as crop drying and space heating (Bukola and Ayoola, 2008).
Biomass can be define as all renewable or organic matter including plant materials, animal products, and forestry by products and urban wastes etc with highly different properties to be used as fuels. Energy obtained from biomass is not site specific, thus can be established at any place where plant and animal waste is available. The biomass backup burner helps the small scale farmers to dry their product in a more efficient manner. It is also able to reduce the drying time as compared to direct sun drying (Paistet al, 2005).
The biomass dryer is one of the dryers which has achieved some level of acceptance. One of the important disadvantages of the dryer is that it cannot be used without any backup heater during night times and cloudy days. Introducing biomass makes the dryer operational even beyond sunshine hours (IEA, 2011).

MODIFICATION AND TESTING OF BIOMASS DRYER

THE COILS PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

In the past with the necessary of metals it always seems impossible to join two metals together with grooving riveting, this idea leads to alternative of finding a lasting solution to the problem. This brought about the idea of a welding machine with a well laminated core and coil wound together to form a high rated transformer which is immersed in a can of oil.

Welding is the most economical and efficient way to join metals permanently. It is the only way of joining two or more pieces of metal permanently to make a single piece. Welding is vital to our economy.

It is even said that over (50%) of the gross nation product of the industries is related to welding in one way or the other. Welding ranks high economy industrial process and involve more science and variable than those involved in any other industrial process.

The electrode is either a rod that simply carried current between the tip of the tong and the work, or a rod or wire that melts and supplies, fill metal to the joint.

The basic arc welding circuit is an alternating current (A.C) or direct current (D.C) power source connected by a “hot” cable to an electrode, when the electrode is positioned close to the work piece, an arc is created across the gap between the metal and the hot cable electrode. An ionized column of gas developed to complete the circuit.

1.1     BREIEF HISTORY AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Arc welding did not come into practice until much later. In 1802, “Vasily Petrov” discovered the continuous electric Arc and subsequently proposed its possible practical applications including welding. The French electrical inventor “Auguste Demeritens” produced first carbon arc touch, patented in 1881, which was successfully used for welding leading in the manufacturer of lead-acid batteries. In 1881-1882 a Russian inventor “Nikolai Bernardo” created the electric arc welding method for steel known as carbon arc welding, using carbon electrode. (Lincoln Electric 1994), the procedure hand book of arc welding, Cleceland Ohiho Lincoln Electric ISBN 99949-25-82-2. The advance in arc welding contacted with the inventor of metal electrode in the late 19th century by a Russian, “Nikolai Slavyanov” 1888 and an American, “C.L coffin”. Around 1900 A.P strotimenger released in Britain a coated metal electrode which gave more stable arc, in 1905 Russian scientist “Vladimir Mitevich” proposed the usage of three phase electric arc for welding.

In 1919 the alternating current welding was invented by “C.J Hoslag” not become popular for another decade. Competing welding process such as resistance welding and oxy-fuel welding were developed during this especially the later, faced stiff competition from arc welding especially after metal coving (known as flux) for the electrode to stabilized the arc and shield the base material from impurities continued to be developed.

The arc welding was not common until during world war I, welding started to be used in ship building in Great Brittan in place of riveted steel plates. The Americans also became more of accepting of the new technology when the process allowed them to repair their ships quickly after a German attack in the New York Harbor at the beginning of the war. Even in the good old days, Nigeria make use of forgoing whereby two pieces of metal are join together by heating them to a high temperature ant then hammering them together (forge welding).

In 1919 the British ship builder “Cammel Laird” started construction of merchant ship, the fillager, with entire welding hill, she was launched in 1921.

During the following decade, further advanced allowed for the welding of reactive such as aluminum and magnesium, this in conjunction with the development in automatic welding, alternating current, flux fed a major expansion of arc welding during the 1930’s and then during world war two after decades of development, was finally perfected in 1941 and gas metal arc welding followed in 1948, allowing for fast welding of non-ferrous material but required more expensive shielding gases. Using a consumable electrode and a carbondioxide atmosphere as shielding gas. It quickly becoming to most popular arc welding process , in 1957. The flux cored arc welding process debuted in which the self-shielded wire automatic equipment, resulting in greatly increased welding speeds. In that same year plastic arc welding was invented. Electro slag welding as released in1958 and was followed by it cousin, electro-gas welding in 1961.

1.2     LITERATURE REVIEW

This write up is fully based on the method and ways of carrying out welding work and construction of the machine. Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins material usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from the lower temperature metal. Joining techniques such as brazing or soldering which do not melt the base metal. The value of welding as a standard method of joining metal was not fully appreciated before world war one, then because of the need for speed of production in every metal using and metal fabrication industry, the order of welding processes came on their own. During and after world war two, the new welding method were developed, which further increased speed and facilitates the joining of the many special purpose alloys that were developed during this period.

Limited in its early application to small or less important parts, welding in the second half of the 20th century was employed in fabrication too numerous to mention, such as ship, locomotives, rail and cars. The petroleum industry is a classic example. The cutting edge of the bit used to drill on wells consist of a hard weld metal fused to backing transportation to and from refinery is via all welded transport iron material.

Whenever a piece of apparatus is intended to contain a liquid or gas, welding is the logical method of fabrication. As such, it has almost completely replaced other method. Welding as of course by no means of confined to wide application where leak tightness is involved. In the conventional body on frame automobile, there are some 8,000 to 10,000 resistance welds and up to 40ft of arc welding.

THE COILS PRODUCTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PALM OIL FUEL ASH (POFA) BLENDED – GRANITE – GRAVEL CONCRETE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION                                                                                            i

DEDICATION                                                                                                ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                    iii

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                            vii

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                          ix

ABSTRACT                                                                                                    xi

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                              1

INTRODUCTION                                                                                            1

1.1 Background of the study                                                                           1

1.2 Scope                                                                                                     4

1.4 Justification                                                                                            5

1.5 Statement of Problem                                                                               5

1.6 Aim                                                                                                        5

1.7 Objectives                                                                                               5

CHAPTER TWO                                                                                             6

LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                     6

2.1 Properties of concrete with POFA                                                               6

2.1.1 Physical properties                                                                       6

2.1.2 Chemical Properties of POFA                                                                   7

2.1.3 Mechanical properties of POFA                                                                8

2.2 Compressive Strength of Concrete with Replaced POFA                                10

2.3 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) of Concrete with Replaced POFA                   13

2.4 Workability of Concrete with Replaced POFA                                              14

2.5 Porosity of Concrete with Replaced POFA                                                   16

2.6 Permeability of Concrete with Replaced POFA                                             18

2.7 Properties of Cement                                                                                19

2.7.1 Physical properties of Cement                                                                 19

2.7.2 Mechanical properties of Cement                                                                    20

2.7.3 Chemical Properties of Cement                                                             20

2.7.4 Cement hydration                                                                                20

CHAPTER THREE                                                                                           22

Study Area                                                                                                    22

3.0 Materials Used and Methodology                                                                22

3.1. Materials                                                                                                22

3.1.1 Cement                                                                                                23

3.1.2 Aggregate                                                                                            23

3.1.3 Granite                                                                                       23

3.1.4 Gravel                                                                                        23

3.1.5 Water                                                                                        24

3.1.6 Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA)                                                                       24

3.2 Methodology                                                                                           25

3.2.1. Sieve Analysis Procedure                                                                    25

3.2.2 Specific Gravity of Ordinary Portland Cement Determination                       26

3.2.2.1 Experimental Procedure                                                                      27

3.3: Concrete Mix Design                                                                                29

3.4 Fresh Concrete Workability                                                                      30

3.5 Density                                                                                                   31

3.6 Determination of Compressive Strength                                                     31

CHAPTER FOUR                                                                                            33

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS                                                                         33

4.1 Oxides Composition of POFA                                                                     33

4.2 Grain size distributions from sieve analysis                                                  34

4.3 Compressive Strength Test Results                                                             35

4.4 Optimum Mix Ratio Determination                                                              52

CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                              53

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                                         53

5.1   Conclusion                                                                                            53

5.2 Recommendation                                                                                     54

REFERENCES                                                                                                 55

LIST OF TABLES

Table2. 1: Chemical composition range of OPC and POFA                                  7

Table2. 2: Chemical composition analysis in POFA                                   8

Table 2. 3: Compressive strength of concrete with various percentages of POFA    10

Table 2. 4: Tensile strength of concrete by the addition of various % of POFA      10

Table 3. 1: Concrete mix design based on design expert                                     2

Table 4. 1:  Oxides composition of POFA                                                           33

Table 4. 2: Fine sand grain size distributions from sieve analysis                          34

Table 4. 3: Granite size distributions from sieve analysis                                     35

Table 4. 4: specific gravity of cement and POFA                                                 35

Table 4. 5: Compressive strength at 7 days of curing age                                    36

Table 4. 6: Compressive strength for 28 days curing age                                     40

Table 4. 7: Compressive strength for 56 days curing age                                     44

Table 4. 8: Compressive strength for 90 days curing age                                     46

Table 4. 9 summary of compressive strength (n/mm2) at different POFAmix ratio   49

Table 4. 10: Regression analysis for 7 days age concrete                                    50

Table 4. 11: Regression analysis for 28 days age concrete                                  50

Table 4. 12:  Regression analysis for 56 days age concrete                                 51

Table 4. 13: Regression analysis for 90 days age concrete                                  51

Table 4. 14: Analysis of variance for compressive strength                                 51

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2. 1: Strength versus UPV                                                                    9

Figure 2. 2: Compressive strength versus POFA replacement percentage              12

Figure 2. 3: Strength activity index of POFA mortar                                          13

Figure 2. 4: Relationship between UPV and replacement percentage                             14

Figure 2. 5: Slump flow against POFA percentage                                             16

Figure 2. 6: Relationship between porosity and POFA content                                      17

Figure 2. 7: Relationship between strength and porosity of 80% content of POFA mortar                                                                                                 18

Figure 2. 8: relationship between permeability and replacement level of POFA      19

Figure 3. 1: Map of Maiduguri town showing Ramat Polytechnic                         22

Figure 3. 2: Granite                                                                                        23

Figure 3. 3 Palm oil kernel and ash                                                                   25

Figure 3. 4: sieve arrangement                                                                        26

Figure 3. 5: POFA replacement percentage (25% – 35%)                                   29

Figure 3. 6: Granite replacement percentage (0% – 100%)                                 29

Figure 3. 7: Cubes cast and curing                                                                   30

Figure 3. 8: Compressive strength test-                                                           32

Figure 4. 1: Graph for grain size distribution for fine sand                                  34

Figure 4. 2: Graph for grain size distribution for granite                                     35

Figure 4. 3: Compressive strength vs granite and POFA at 7 days curing age        37

Figure 4. 4: Slump height vs granite and POFA at 7 days curing age                    38

Figure 4. 5: Predicted and actual compressive strength at 7 days curing age        39

Figure 4. 6: Predicted and actual slump height at 7 days curing age                    39

Figure 4. 7: Compressive strength vs granite and POFA at 28 days curing age      41

Figure 4. 8: Sump height vs granite and POFA at 28 days curing age                   42

Figure 4. 9: Predicted and actual compressive strength at 28 days curing age       43

Figure 4. 10: Predicted and actual slump height at 28 days curing age                 44

Figure 4. 11: Compressive strength vs granite and POFA at 56 days curing age    45

Figure 4. 12: Slump height vs granite and POFA at 56 days curing age                 46

Figure 4. 13: Compressive strength vs granite and POFA at 90 days curing age    47

Figure 4. 14: Slump height vs granite and POFA at 90 days curing age                 48

Figure 4. 15: Predicted and actual compressive strength at 28 days curing age     48

Figure 4. 16: Predicted and actual slump height at 28 days curing age                 49

ABSTRACT

Utilizing Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) in concrete mix is a major way of turning waste to wealth. Gravel as an aggregate is cheaper than granite. Thus, obtaining an optimum combination of these materials in achieving a maximum compressive strength in concrete will go a long way in helping the construction industry.The study was carried out to establish an optimum replacement ratio for Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) blended granite-gravel of concrete. Uniform water/binder (w/b) ratio of 0.5 and mixes ratio of 1:2:4 was utilized. Thirteen runs of experiments plus control were designed using the Central Composite Response Surface method (Design Expert). Based on the analysis, the increase in granite volume led to increase in compressive strength. However, increase in POFA percentage led to decrease in compressive strength at 7, 28, 56 and 90 days curing ages. The study also observed highest compressive strength at 25% POFA replacement and lowest at 35% replacement. Also, for granite, highest and lowest compressive strength were achieved at 100% and 0% replacement respectively. However, for slump height, the higher the percentage of granite or POFA in concrete, the higher the slump height. The optimization analysis showed that, at 29.69% POFA and 98.75% Granite, compressive strength of 24.29 N/mm2 and slump height of 89.36mm were achieved. The optimum strength found is slightly higher than the maximum strength achieved (24.27N/mm2) at 90 days and also, slightly lower than the control (25.33 N/mm2).

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Concrete is regarded as the primary and widely used construction ingredient around the world in which cement is the key material. However, large scale cement production contributes greenhouse gases both directly through the production of CO2 during manufacturing and also through the consumption of energy (combustion of fossil fuels). Moved by the economic and ecological concerns of cement, researchers have focused on finding a substitution of cement over the last several years. In order to address both the concerns simultaneously many attempts have been made in the past to use materials available as by product or waste. This is due to the fact that the use of by product not only eliminates the additional production cost, but also results in safety to the environment. Hence, the development and use of blended cement is growing rapidly in the construction industry mainly due to considerations of cost saving, energy saving, environmental protection and conservation of resources.       A number of investigations have been carried out with Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), an agro-waste ash, as potential replacement of cement in concrete. Sata et al. (2004) found compressive strength of 81.3, 85.9, and 79.8 MPa at the age of 28 days by using improved POFA with a reduced particle size of about 10 microns in concrete as replacement of 10%, 20% and 30% of cement respectively. They also reported highest strength at 20% replacement level. Tangchirapat [2009] observed the compressive strengths of ground POFA concrete in the range of 59.5–64.3 MPa at 28 days of water curing and with 20% replacement it was as high as 70 MPa at the end of 90 days of water curing. However, the drying shrinkage and water permeability were noted to be lower than that of control concrete with improved sulphate resistance. Past researchers also depict that both ground and un-ground POFA increase the water demand and thus decrease the workability of concrete. However, ground POFA has shown a good potential for improving the hardened properties and durability of concrete due to its satisfactory micro-filling ability and pozzolanic activity.  

EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PALM OIL FUEL ASH (POFA) BLENDED – GRANITE – GRAVEL CONCRETE

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PEDAL OPERATED GROUNDNUT DECORTICATOR

ABSTRACT

Shelling of groundnut pods (Arachis hypegea) by hand is tedious, laborious and unhygienic with low efficiencies. As a result farmer get low income due to amount of broken kernels and a lot of time is lost in the tedious shelling operation. To overcome this problem, pertinent parameters that influence shelling efficiency of pedal operated groundnut decorticator were identified. Pedal operated decorticator were designed and fabricated with chain and sprocket of bicycle and aluminum spike tooth is used and evaluation was done in the department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin because it was affordable and locally fabricated. A rotary motion mechanism was employed to drive the decorticating drum while concave screen was fixed. The selection of the screen aperture was based on the size and shape of the groundnut seed. The factors considered in this project work were feed rate and operators characteristics (height, weight and knuckle lengths). The evaluation of machine was conducted while time was taken for each tests. The result of the pedal operated groundnut decorticator revealed that operator III has the maximum shelling efficiency of 65% was achieved at 9minutes, 16 seconds and breakage of 9% and throughput capacity of 15.3kg/hr. Operator II was the optimum shelling efficiency of 56% at 12 minutes 44 seconds and breakage of 8% and throughput capacity of 14kg/hr. Operator I has the minimum shelling efficiency of 47% at 11 minutes 44 seconds and breakage of 16% and throughput capacity of 15kg/hr. The total amount used for the fabrication of the pedal operated groundnut decorticator was totaled to Ninety-two Thousand and Seven Hundred Naira only (N92,700.00). The result of the fabricator implies that the characteristics of Operator III is recommended to farmers who shell for seed can now obtained more seed shelled with low breakage and will get more income. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xii
List of Plates xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems 2
1.3 Objective of the Project 2
1.4 Justification of the Project 3
1.5 Scope of the Study 3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 4

2.1 Physical Properties of Groundnut 4
2.1.1 Determination of Size 4
2.1.2 Determination of Coefficient of Friction 5
2.1.3 Determination of Moisture Content 5
2.1.4 Angle of Repose 6
2.1.5 Porosity 6
2.1.6 Surface Area 6
2.2 History of Groundnut in Nigeria 6
2.3 Agronomy of Groundnut 7
2.4 Post Harvest Losses of Groundnut Seeds 8
2.5 Economic Importance of Groundnut Seed 9
2.6 Factor Affecting Shelling Operation 11
2.6.1 Cylinder-Concave Clearance 11
2.6.2 Sieve Shake 12
2.7 Description of some Threshing Equipment 12
2.7.1 Maize Sheller 12
2.7.2 Maize Dehusker-cum Sheller: 13
2.7.3: Hand Maize Sheller 13
2.7.4 Groundnut Striper 14
2.7.5: Groundnut Thresher 15
2.7.6: Groundnut Decorticator Manually Operated 16
2.7.7 Power Operated Groundnut Decorticator 17
2.7.8 Pedal Operated Thresher (Paddy Thresher): 18
2.8 Terminology Related to Thresher 18
2.8.1 Feed Rate 18
2.8.2 Clean Grain 19
2.8.3 Concave Clearance 19
2.8.4 Cleaning Efficiency 19
2.8.5 Threshing Efficiency 19
2.9 Review of Existing work 19

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIAL AND METHODS

3.1 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 23
3.1.1 Sample Preparation 23
3.1.2 Determination of Size and Shape 24
3.1.3 Determination of Moisture Content 24
3.1.4 Determination of Mass, Volume and Density 25
3.1.5 Determination of Coefficient of Static Friction 25
3.1.6 Determination of Angle of Repose 25
3.2 Description of the Groundnut Pedal Operated Machine 26
3.3 Design Consideration 28
3.4 Design Calculation and Analysis 28
3.4.1 Design for Hopper 28
3.4.2. Design for Decorticating Unit 29
3.4.3 Design of Chain Drive 32
3.4.3.1 Determination of Chain Length between the Pedal and Idler Shaft 32
3.4.3.2 Determination of Chain Length Between the Idler Shaft and Decorticating Shaft 33
3.4.3.3 Determination of Chain Length Between the Idler Shaft and Blower Shaft 33
3.5 Material Selection 34
3.6 Fabrication Procedure and Assembly 34
3.6.1 Fabrication of Main Frame 34
3.6.2 Fabrication of Hopper 35
3.6.3 Fabrication of Bicycle Pedal and Chain Drive 35
3.6.4 Fabrication of Decorticating Drum 35
3.6.5 Decorticating Screen 35
3.6.6 Operator Seat 36
3.6.7 Aluminum Spike Tooth 36
3.7 Principle of Operation of the Machine 36
3.8 Cost Analysis 37
3.9 Performance Evaluation 38
3.9.1 Sourcing of Experimental Material 38
3.9.2 Sample Preparation 38
3.9.3 Experimental Procedure 38
3.9.4 Instrumentation Used for the Experiment 39
3.9.5 Design Layout 42
3.9.6 Output Parameter 42
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.0 Results And Discussion 45
4.1 Results 45
4.2. Discussion 46
4.2.1 Physical Properties of Groundnut Pods 46
4.2.2 Effect of Operator Parameter Threshing Efficiency 47
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusions 48
5.2 Recommendations 48
References 49
Appendix A 52
Appendix B 59

ABSTRACT

Shelling of groundnut pods (Arachis hypegea) by hand is tedious, laborious and unhygienic with low efficiencies. As a result farmer get low income due to amount of broken kernels and a lot of time is lost in the tedious shelling operation. To overcome this problem, pertinent parameters that influence shelling efficiency of pedal operated groundnut decorticator were identified. Pedal operated decorticator were designed and fabricated with chain and sprocket of bicycle and aluminum spike tooth is used and evaluation was done in the department of Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering Technology, Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin because it was affordable and locally fabricated. A rotary motion mechanism was employed to drive the decorticating drum while concave screen was fixed. The selection of the screen aperture was based on the size and shape of the groundnut seed. The factors considered in this project work were feed rate and operators characteristics (height, weight and knuckle lengths). The evaluation of machine was conducted while time was taken for each tests. The result of the pedal operated groundnut decorticator revealed that operator III has the maximum shelling efficiency of 65% was achieved at 9minutes, 16 seconds and breakage of 9% and throughput capacity of 15.3kg/hr. Operator II was the optimum shelling efficiency of 56% at 12 minutes 44 seconds and breakage of 8% and throughput capacity of 14kg/hr. Operator I has the minimum shelling efficiency of 47% at 11 minutes 44 seconds and breakage of 16% and throughput capacity of 15kg/hr. The total amount used for the fabrication of the pedal operated groundnut decorticator was totaled to Ninety-two Thousand and Seven Hundred Naira only (N92,700.00). The result of the fabricator implies that the characteristics of Operator III is recommended to farmers who shell for seed can now obtained more seed shelled with low breakage and will get more income. 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables xi
List of Figures xii
List of Plates xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems 2
1.3 Objective of the Project 2
1.4 Justification of the Project 3
1.5 Scope of the Study 3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 4

2.1 Physical Properties of Groundnut 4
2.1.1 Determination of Size 4
2.1.2 Determination of Coefficient of Friction 5
2.1.3 Determination of Moisture Content 5
2.1.4 Angle of Repose 6
2.1.5 Porosity 6
2.1.6 Surface Area 6
2.2 History of Groundnut in Nigeria 6
2.3 Agronomy of Groundnut 7
2.4 Post Harvest Losses of Groundnut Seeds 8
2.5 Economic Importance of Groundnut Seed 9
2.6 Factor Affecting Shelling Operation 11
2.6.1 Cylinder-Concave Clearance 11
2.6.2 Sieve Shake 12
2.7 Description of some Threshing Equipment 12
2.7.1 Maize Sheller 12
2.7.2 Maize Dehusker-cum Sheller: 13
2.7.3: Hand Maize Sheller 13
2.7.4 Groundnut Striper 14
2.7.5: Groundnut Thresher 15
2.7.6: Groundnut Decorticator Manually Operated 16
2.7.7 Power Operated Groundnut Decorticator 17
2.7.8 Pedal Operated Thresher (Paddy Thresher): 18
2.8 Terminology Related to Thresher 18
2.8.1 Feed Rate 18
2.8.2 Clean Grain 19
2.8.3 Concave Clearance 19
2.8.4 Cleaning Efficiency 19
2.8.5 Threshing Efficiency 19
2.9 Review of Existing work 19

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIAL AND METHODS

3.1 Physical Properties of Biological Materials 23
3.1.1 Sample Preparation 23
3.1.2 Determination of Size and Shape 24
3.1.3 Determination of Moisture Content 24
3.1.4 Determination of Mass, Volume and Density 25
3.1.5 Determination of Coefficient of Static Friction 25
3.1.6 Determination of Angle of Repose 25
3.2 Description of the Groundnut Pedal Operated Machine 26
3.3 Design Consideration 28
3.4 Design Calculation and Analysis 28
3.4.1 Design for Hopper 28
3.4.2. Design for Decorticating Unit 29
3.4.3 Design of Chain Drive 32
3.4.3.1 Determination of Chain Length between the Pedal and Idler Shaft 32
3.4.3.2 Determination of Chain Length Between the Idler Shaft and Decorticating Shaft 33
3.4.3.3 Determination of Chain Length Between the Idler Shaft and Blower Shaft 33
3.5 Material Selection 34
3.6 Fabrication Procedure and Assembly 34
3.6.1 Fabrication of Main Frame 34
3.6.2 Fabrication of Hopper 35
3.6.3 Fabrication of Bicycle Pedal and Chain Drive 35
3.6.4 Fabrication of Decorticating Drum 35
3.6.5 Decorticating Screen 35
3.6.6 Operator Seat 36
3.6.7 Aluminum Spike Tooth 36
3.7 Principle of Operation of the Machine 36
3.8 Cost Analysis 37
3.9 Performance Evaluation 38
3.9.1 Sourcing of Experimental Material 38
3.9.2 Sample Preparation 38
3.9.3 Experimental Procedure 38
3.9.4 Instrumentation Used for the Experiment 39
3.9.5 Design Layout 42
3.9.6 Output Parameter 42

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.0 Results And Discussion 45
4.1 Results 45
4.2. Discussion 46
4.2.1 Physical Properties of Groundnut Pods 46
4.2.2 Effect of Operator Parameter Threshing Efficiency 47

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusions 48
5.2 Recommendations 48
References 49
Appendix A 52
Appendix B 59


LIST OF TABLES
Table No Description Pages
Table 3.1: BILL OF ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION (BEME) 37
Table 3.1: Sample Preparation 38
Table 4.1 Data Sheet for Physical Properties of Groundnut Pods 45
Table 4.2 Data Sheet for Output Parameters 45
Table 4.3 Data Sheet for Output 46
Table 4.4 Average Performance of Thresher 46

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No Description Pages
Figure 2.1: Maize Sheller 13
Figure 2.2: Hand Maize Sheller 14
Figure 2.3: Groundnut Thresher 16
Figure 2.4: Manual Operated Groundnut Decorticator (Oscillating Type) 17
Figure 2.5 Power Operated Groundnut Decorticator 18


LIST OF PLATES
Plate No Description Pages
Plate 2.1: Groundnut Pod 9
Plate 3.1: Sample of Groundnut Seed 23
Plate 3.2: Determination of Coefficient of Static Friction and Angle of Repose 26
Plate 3.3: Pedal Operated Groundnut Decorticator 27
Plate 3.3: Digital Venier Caliper 39
Plate 3.4: Digital Weighing Scale 40
Plate 3.5: Digital Stop Watch Scale 40
Plate 3.6: Electric Oven 41
Plate 3.7: Tachometer 41

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

5.1 Conclusions 48
5.2 Recommendations 48
References 49
Appendix A 52
Appendix B 59


LIST OF TABLES
Table No Description Pages
Table 3.1: BILL OF ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION (BEME) 37
Table 3.1: Sample Preparation 38
Table 4.1 Data Sheet for Physical Properties of Groundnut Pods 45
Table 4.2 Data Sheet for Output Parameters 45
Table 4.3 Data Sheet for Output 46
Table 4.4 Average Performance of Thresher 46

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure No Description Pages
Figure 2.1: Maize Sheller 13
Figure 2.2: Hand Maize Sheller 14
Figure 2.3: Groundnut Thresher 16
Figure 2.4: Manual Operated Groundnut Decorticator (Oscillating Type) 17
Figure 2.5 Power Operated Groundnut Decorticator 18

LIST OF PLATES
Plate No Description Pages
Plate 2.1: Groundnut Pod 9
Plate 3.1: Sample of Groundnut Seed 23
Plate 3.2: Determination of Coefficient of Static Friction and Angle of Repose 26
Plate 3.3: Pedal Operated Groundnut Decorticator 27
Plate 3.3: Digital Venier Caliper 39
Plate 3.4: Digital Weighing Scale 40
Plate 3.5: Digital Stop Watch Scale 40
Plate 3.6: Electric Oven 41
Plate 3.7: Tachometer 41

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) is a species in the legume or beans family (Ashish and Handa, 2014; Atiku et al., 2014). It was first cultivated in Peru. Its seed contain about 63% carbohydrate, 19% protein and 6.5% oil. Groundnuts are grown in tropical and subtropical climate regions and warmer parts of temperature regions and it is low growing annual plant and has a variety of uses. Prior to its usage however groundnut need to undergo preprocessing which include drying and shelling. Removing of kernels from the pod is generally referred to as shelling or “decorticating” (Maduako et al., 2006). In Nigeria groundnut is mainly decorticate by hands (traditional method). This method is not hygienic as dirt from hands and mouth could pose health risk from the nuts. (FAO. 2001).
Shelling is a fundamental step in groundnut processing as it allows the kernel and hull to be used as well as other post harvesting technologies to take place such as oil extraction or in hull briquetting (Pradhanaet al., 2010). Shelling is usually carried out on the farm just before the farmer sells his product for the following reasons: Kernel do not store as well as nuts in the shell and groundnuts in the shell are fifty per cent heavier than kernels alone and therefore costlier to transport. Shelling can generally be done by hand or machine. Hand shelling is the process in which the pod is pressed between the thumb and first finger so that the kernel is released. In mechanization now we use large and smaller machinery for groundnut shelling. These machines are used in industries where large production is required. There are different methods of shelling and different machines have been fabricated and used to shell wide variety of crops under different conditions (Nyeaanga et al., 2003., Atiku et al., 2004; Gitau et al., 2013; and Maduakoet al., 2006). The peasant farmer cannot afford this machine because they are too costly and complex in operation and maintenance. Also the operator had to be trained and spare part imported. These factor increase the overall cost production which does not make any economic sense to the farmer.

1.2 Statement of the Problems

Research shows that groundnut has an inherent poor storage life, if not threshed after harvesting unlike some other crops, but in threshed forms, it can be stored for a very long period of time (Onuoha 2010). Therefore, to overcome the problem associated with manual threshing and quick rate of insect infestation after harvesting, the development of groundnut decorticating machine is of paramount. Traditionally the seeds are left in the pods which would then be stored in a pot and would only be shelled when they are needed for cooking (Ngugi, 2007), shelling is one by hand or beating with a short stick or pestle and mortar, followed by winnowing (Kaul and Egbo,1985). The constraints such as fatigue, high time energy inputs and inefficiency in manual shelling of groundnut led to design and fabrication of pedal operated groundnut Sheller that will go a long way in solving the problem of rural farmers that are engage in groundnut production at small and medium scale level.

DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PEDAL OPERATED GROUNDNUT DECORTICATOR

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A REMOTE CONTROLLED TRI–BAND FREQUENCY JAMMER

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

A mobile phone jammer or signal blocker is an instrument used to prevent cellular phones from receiving signals from base stations. The process of blocking the receiver to receive a transmitted signal is called Jamming of the signal. The jammer effectively disallows cellular phone signal when activated. These devices can be used in practically any location, but are found primarily in places where a phone call would be particularly disruptive because silence is expected. Such places include court rooms, meeting venues, lecture theatres or a library environment.

Mobile phone usage is at the increase and globally appreciated as it made the world a global village. In spite of its advantages, mobile phones are sometimes misused especially in the lecture halls, worship centers, movies theatres, concerts, and shopping malls, all suffer from the spread of cell phones because not all phone users know when to stop talking. These boss serious distractions [1].

Jamming in wireless networks is defined as the disruption of existing wireless communications by decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio at receiver sides through the transmission of interfering wireless signals. Jamming is different from regular network interferences because it describes the deliberate use of wireless signals in an attempt to disrupt communications whereas interference refer to unintentional forms of disruptions. Unintentional interference may be caused by the wireless communications among nodes within the same networks or other devices (e.g. microwave and remote controller). On the other hand, intentional interference is usually conducted by an attacker who intends to interrupt or prevent communications in networks. Jamming can be done at different levels, from hindering transmission to distorting packets in legitimate communications[6].

The concept came into existence through military use when one country during war situation did not want their radio transmission to be intercepted by the enemy, with the use of RF jammers to jam near border areas. Although in most parts of the world, the use is restricted based on specificlaws of the country, application is however allowed for research purposes since these jammers actively broadcast radio signals. One of those attempts led to the creation of radio jammers: in World War II, the British used to jam German radio communications [2, 3, 4].

Jammers work by giving a Radio Frequency (RF) signal or a signal at the same frequency expected by the device that’s being jammed, but at a higher power compared to the targeted signal. The jamming signal itself is usually a random noise. Jammers were originally developed for law enforcement and the military to interrupt communications by criminals and terrorists [5]. The device being jammed will then receive the higher power signal which is from the jammer, and then the devices can no longer function correctly (Bhatia 2015). The technology being used in mobile phone jammers or signal blocker is very simple. It breaks down the network between base station and the cell phone and broadcasts a RF signal with frequency range of cell phones leading to the phone displaying no network available. This device can block the frequency range of 800 to 2100 MHz or the band for which it is designed and a coverage radius of few meters so that it does not disrupt the services of other users.

Mobile phone can be disabled via interrupting any of these signals. Because the distance to the base station is larger than the distance to mobile phone that needs to be blocked, it needs less energy to block signal from base station to phone[7].

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Constant interruptions at important gatherings and events as a result of the introduction of mobile communication platform as against the fixed line platform which enables users carry about their mobile phones is increasingly becoming a nuisance when rapt attention or quietness is desired. Modern technology has contributed to the sophistication of bombs which are being triggered by GSM and Radio signals. There is a rising need to use force to prevent cellular and phone-related interruptions. Following the failure of moral suasion and bold inscriptions placed at strategic points and entrances to the venue of events, participants either decide to ignore or completely do not process the instruction appropriately. The need for mobile phone jammers or signal jammer has become imperative to prevent or effectively stop these interruptions by blocking transmission of Radio and GSM signals.

1.3       AIM

Design and construction of a remote controlled tri–band frequency jammer.

1.4       OBJECTIVES

The main objective of this project include:

  1. To design a remote control system of  the  circuit
  2. To design Intermediate Frequency (IF) section of the circuit.
  3. To design Radio Frequency (RF) section of the circuit.
  4. To design and construct a wireless signal jammer circuit.
  5. To block mobile phone transmission by creating interference within the range of the jammer.
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A REMOTE CONTROLLED TRI–BAND FREQUENCY JAMMER

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AUTOMATIC CHANGE-OVER FOR THREE PHASES

ABSTRACT

        The main aim of any electric power supply in the world is to provide uninterrupted power supply at all times to all its consumers. Although in developing countries, the electric power generated to meet the demands of the growing consumers of electricity is insufficient hence instability and outage.

        Power instability or outage in general does not promote development in the public and private sector. The inventors do not feel secure to come into a country with constant or frequent power failure.

        These limit the development of industries. In addition, there are processes that cannot be interrupted because of their importance. For instance, surgery operation in hospitals, transfer of money between bank and lots more. Power instability and outage in developing countries (Nigeria) creates a need for alternative source of power to backup the main supply.

        Automatic changeover switches find a wide application scope wherever the reliability of electric supply from the utilities is low and it is used in lighting motor circuits wherever continuity of supply is necessary. For switching to an alternative source from main supply and vice versa.

        This project is a design of an automatic changeover switch this means that when there is any mains failure, the automatic changeover switch will change to an alternative power supply (GENERATOR) and back to the main supply when it is restored.

        The purpose of this project is to maintain constant supply to the main circuit that is being supplied by making up for the time delay that usually accompanies the manual switching from one source to another.

        The design comprises of the power connection circuit and control connection circuit. The main components to be used include contactor, relay, timers, rectifier e.t.c.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AUTOMATIC CHANGE-OVER FOR THREE PHASES

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTHS OF PALM KERNEL SHELL CONCRETE USING DIFFERENT CURING METHODS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

To cure Concrete is to provide concrete with adequate moisture and temperature to foster cement hydration for a period of time. Proper curing of concrete is crucial to obtaining design strength and maximum durability, especially for concrete exposed to extreme environmental conditions at an early age (James et al., 2002). (Teo et al., 2006) defined curing as the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from concrete during cement hydration. High curing temperature (up to 212ºF or 100ºC) generally accelerates cement hydration and concrete strength gain at early age. Curing temperature below 50ºF (10ºC) are not desirable for early age strength development. When the curing temperature is below 14ºF (-10ºC) the cement hydration process may cease. Concrete needs to be kept for a longer time in formwork when cast in cold weather condition (ACI Committee 308, 2000).
On the whole, the strength of concrete, its durability and other physical properties are affected by curing and application of the various types as it relates to the prevailing weather condition in a particular locality, as curing is only one of many requirements for concrete production, it is important to study the curing method of palm kernel shell concrete which best adapts to each individual casting process.
The construction industry relies heavily on conventional materials which include cement, crushed rock aggregate and sand or quarry dust for the production of concrete. In the United Kingdom alone, almost 146 million tonnes of sand, gravel and crushed rock aggregates were reportedly mined for construction in 2011 (Department for Communities and Local Government, 2013).
In the light of the above, large quantities of cracked palm kernel shells (PKS) are therefore generated by the producers. Palm kernel shells are obtained after extraction of the palm oil, the nuts are broken and the kernels are removed with the shells mostly left as waste. Palm kernel shells are hard stony endocarps that surround the kernel and the shells come in different shapes and sizes (Alangaram et al., 2008). These shells are mainly of two types the “Dura” and “Tenera”. The Tenera is a hybrid which has specially been developed to yield high oil content and it has a thin shell thickness compared to Dura type (Dagwa and Ibhadode, 2008). The use of materials such as rice husk, bagasse, palm kernel shell powder, etc. as fillers and/ or reinforcement agents in polymers and composite materials manufacture such as in brake pads have been reported by several authors (Aigbodion et al., 2010).
Natural sand and crushed gravels have been used for many years as aggregates for concrete production due to their availability across the country. However, the high demand for normal weight concrete for construction continues to drastically reduce the natural stone deposits and consequently damage the environment. The introduction of artificial and natural lightweight aggregates (LWA) to replace conventional aggregates for the production of concrete in many developed countries, has brought immense benefits in the development of infrastructure, especially, high rise structures using lightweight concrete (Mahmud et al., 2009).
The high cost of building materials in the developing countries of the world can be reduced to a minimum by the use of alternative materials that are cheap, locally available in most countries and which bring about a reduction in the overall dead weight of the building.
Some industrial and agricultural bye-products that have little or no economic benefit could gainfully be used as building materials.

1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Many problems are associated with concrete with inadequate curing practices.
Typically, the most common curing-related distress of concrete is plastic shrinkage cracking.
Fresh concrete exposed to hot, windy and arid environment are most easily to show such kind of distress at the surface area. Particularly, when the moisture evaporation rate at the top surface of concrete exceeds the rate at which the moisture is supplied through the concrete bleeding process (the process where excessive mixing water are forced to go upward due to the settlement of aggregate and cement particles), plastic shrinkage cracking
is easily formed from the failure to resist the stresses induced by the volumetric contraction of concrete due to moisture loss before enough strength has been developed.

1.2 AIM OF THE STUDY

The aim of this research work is to carry out a comparative study on the compressive strength of palm kernel shell concrete using different curing methods

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The specific objectives of this research work are:

  1. To determine the workability of fresh concrete made from palm kernel shell.
  2. To determine the physical properties of concrete produce with palm kernel shell using four (4) different curing methods.
  3. To carry out statistical analysis on the results of compressive strength of concrete from the four (4) different types of curing methods for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days.
  4. 1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
    This research will help to discover how curing types affect the compressive strengths
    of palm kernel shell concrete.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMPRESSIVE STRENGTHS OF PALM KERNEL SHELL CONCRETE USING DIFFERENT CURING METHODS

KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC ILORIN REAL TIME SCHOOL BUS TRACKING SYSTEM USING (RFID)

ABSTRACT

In present time due to increase in number of kidnapping and road accident cases, parent always worry about their children.

This paper proposes a SMS based solution to aid parent to track their children location in real time. The proposed system takes the advantage of the location services provided by module kit which carry by the child in their school bag. It allows parent to get their child location on a real time map by the geographical co-ordinates which send by module kit. Information such as GPS co-ordinates and time are gathered on the module kit.

The communication between the parent and the child module kit is done using short message service (SMS). SMS offers the system unique features. It will allow the system to work without the need of internet connection. The system sends the location of child’s smart phone to parent’s smart phone when the parent wishes to check on the child.

KEYWORDS

  • RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)
  • GPS (Global Positioning system)
  • Child Tracking System

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title                                                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                                                                 iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                     iv

Abstract                                                                                                                     v

TABLE OF CONTENT     

CHAPTER ONE
1.0   Introduction                                                                                     1         

  1.   Objectives of study and Goals                                                                       2

1.2  Research Goals and Objective                                                  2

1.3   Definition of Terms                                                                                         4

1.4       User advantages                                                                                           5

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1   RFID Technology                                                                                            6

2.2   RFID Application in transportation field                                     8     

2.3   System capabilities                                                                                         9

2.3.1 Data acquisition                                                                                             10

2.3.2 Biometric identification                                                                                11

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       METHODOLOGY PREVIEW                                                                     12

3.1  Existing system working and methodology                                   13       

3.2  System design and requirement                                                                     14

3.3  Hardware components Description                                                               15

CHAPTER FOUR

INSTRUMENTATION

4.1  Research Engineering Block Diagram and Description                    17
4.2  How does RFID works                                                                                     18

4.3 System functional Requirement                                                                      20

4.4 Advantages of this project                                                                               22

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion                                                                                                         23

5.1  Recommendation                                                                                              24

    Reference                                                                                  26                               

5.3  References

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

Millions of children need to be moved from home to school and vice versa every day. For parents, obtaining a safe transport for their children is a crucial issue. The students ride their bicycle getting to and from school safety. A research undertaken by the Scottish executive central research unit with purpose of increasing the proportional of non car travel to school reveals that travelling by bus or coach appears to be by for the safest mode. Statistics suggest that a child travelling by car is seven (7) times more likely to take part or be involved in a road traffic casualty than a child travelling by our statistics from U.S.A, CANADA and Australia also confirm that public transport (and school transport in particular) has a high level of safety just an in Europe.

For instance, the Australian college of Road safety notes that bus travel in the safest form of road transport, at least 14 times safer than the private car, and that the record for school bus travel in particular is very good.

Also, the research undertaken by national highway traffic safety administration in notes that when comparing the number of fatalities of children aged 5-18 years during normal school transportation hours, from 1989-1999 (school years). School buses are 87 times safes than private cars.

          To help- avoid frightening and potential costly mistakes like these, this investigates an RFID enabled solution to here monitor children when they are traveling to and from school on stool buses. This system will transmit data via cell modem to allow buses to be tracked from a command center at fleet headquarters, as well as to the parent of that child.

          As an option, a push button emergency alarm can be installed that will send an alarm to the monitoring station that the bus is in trouble. Another option that increased situational awareness or the addition of biometrics that, can store locally the identity picture sent periodically or on request from the command centre.

KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC ILORIN REAL TIME SCHOOL BUS TRACKING SYSTEM USING (RFID)

KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC, ILORIN OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF STEAM BOILER

ABSTRACT

The steam boiler is to control specification problem, to illustrate how the evolving algebra approach to the specification and the verification of complex system can be exploited for a reliable and well documented development of executable but formally inspectableand systematically modifiable code. A hierarch of stepwise defined abstract machine model in developed, the ground version of which can be checked for whether it faithfully reflects the informally given problem.The sequence of machine model the yield various abstract views of the system, making the various design decisions transparent, and leads to CH programs.The Abstract machine are evolving algebras and thereby have a rigorous semantically foundation allowing us to formalize and prove, under precisely stated assumption, some typical sample properties of the system.This provides insight into the structure of the system which supports easily maintenance extensions and modifications of both the abstract specification and the implementation.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title                                                                                                   i

Certification                                                                              ii

Dedication   iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                             v

Table Content                                                                                    vi

CHAPTER ONE

  1. Introduction                                                                             1

1.1     Background of steam boiler                                                      4

1.2     Aim                                                                                          5

1.3     Objective of the study                                                               6

1.4     Scope of the Study                                                                   7

1.5     Justification of the study                                                           7

1.6     Statement of the study                                                             10

CHAPTER REVIEW

2.0     Literature Review                                                                     12

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Materials and Method                                                                15

3.1     Description of the fuel used                                                      17

3.2     Procedure of the steam boiler machine                                      18     

3.3     Parts of the machine                                                                 20

3.4     Strength of the material used                                                    21     

3.5     Maintenance of steam boiler                                                     22

3.6     Mechanical properties of steam boiler                              22

3.7     Uses of steam boiler                                                                  24

3.8     Function of steam boiler                                                            25

3.9     Merits and demerits of steam boiler                                           26

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Experimental Analysis                                                               28

4.1     Result                                                                                      29

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Conclusion                                                                                30

CHAPTER SIX

6.0     Recommendation                                                                      33

6.1     Reference                                                                                 36

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

A steam boiler is an enclosed vessel in which water is heated and circular, either as hot water steam, to produce a source to either heat or power. A central heating plant may have one or more boiler that use gas oil, or coal as fuel. The steam generated is used to heat building, provide hot water, and provide steam for cleaning, sterilizing, cooking and laundering operation. Small package boiler also provides steam and hot water for small building.

A careful study of his course can help you acquire useful knowledge of steam generation, types of boilers pertinent to boiler operations, various fitting commonly found on boilers, and so on. The primary objective of this chapter is to lay the foundation for you to develop skill in the operation, maintenance, and repair of boilers.

The boiler system is made up of:

1.       Feed water system

2.       Steam system

3.       Fuel system

Are feed water system provide water to the boiler and regulates it automatically to meet the steam demand. The water supplied to boiler that is converted to steam is called feed water the success of feed water are

1.       Condensates or condensed steam returned from the process

2.       Make up water which is the raw water which must come from outside.

Steam boilers have several strength that have made them a common feature of building. They have a long life, can achieve efficiency up to 95% or greater. Provide and effective method of heating a building and in the case of steam system required little or no pumping energy. However fuel costs can be considerable, regular maintenance is required and if maintenance is delay repair can be costly guidance for the construction, operation and maintenance of boilers is provided primary by the ASME <American society of mechanical engineers> which produce the following resources. Rule for construction of heating boiler and pressure vessel cods section IV-2007 Recommended rules for the car and operation of heating boilers, Boiler and pressure vessel code, section VII-2007. Boilers are often one of the largest energy users in a building. For every year a boiler system goes unattended boiler costs can increase approximately 10% boiler operation and maintenance is therefore a good place to start when looking for ways to reduce energy use and save money. Barry Allen (2008).

KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC, ILORIN OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF STEAM BOILER

.

KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC ILORIN FABRICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WINDOW BURGLAR PROOF

ABSTRACT

Burglar proofs are major essential application to building structure activities for the beautification and security of the house such as school subtraction detached garage and high durability the ability to secure good quality and high durability at less affordable price to an average in Nigeria has been a problem. It aims to prevent animal and unwanted people into the building while is also maintain by painting to prevent corrosion of the burglar proof.         

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title of project                                                                          i

Approval page                                                                           ii

Dedication                                                                                iii

Acknowledgment                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                    v

TABLE OF CONTENT    

CHAPTER ONE

1.1Introduction                                                                         1       

1.2 Aims                                                                                   3

1.3 Objective of the project                                                       3

1.4 The Importance for Burglar Proof                                         4       

1.5 Literature Review                                                                4                 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1     Iron Rod Burglar Proof                                                     6

2.2     Flat Bar Burglar Proof                                                      6

2.3     Wire Mesh Burglar Proof                                                  6       

2.4     Wooden Burglar Proof                                                      6

CHAPTER THREE

3.1    Description of Burglar Proof                                             7

3.2     Material Consideration                                                     7

3.3     Selection of material                                                        7

3.4     Material Problem                                                             9

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1     Design Calculation                                                          13

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     Construction Procedure                                                   16

CHAPTER SIX

6.1     Testing Procedure                                                           17

6.2     Problem Encountered                                                      17

CHAPTER SEVEN

7.0     Conclusion                                                                      18

7.1     Recommendation                                                            19

          Reference                                                                       20

          Appendix                                                                         21               

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

Crime is any act of omission or commission of offence that violates a written code of conduct of the land or any geographical location therefore burglar is a crime that is defined by the law of Nigeria.

Burglar proof is an engineering design to control and prevent burglars from having a direct attach or entrance into our places of having

Construction of burglar proof base on the material used such as iron (mild steel) the discovery of iron makes a turning in mains creative innovation to improve his environment conditions as it makes a basic foundation for technological feet in the field of communication production and transportation. To declare iron and steel as the voice of technology is to sat the least  about its benefits taking into consideration their uses and principal properties such ass, atomic weigh 55647, atomic number 26, melting point 15400c, boiling point 30000c oxidation number 2.3 density of 7.85/m3.

The basis of all physical object made of iron depends on the knowledge of history of iron ores wining of the ores, processing of the ore into pig iron and refining of the iron are into steel of various qualities and grades. Man exploits the extensive use of iron as science and technology advances, which brought about the discovery of many uses among which is for making burglar proof.

This iron revolution gave bright hope to main concerning security, in fact it’s advantages over wood which was in use in early years ago has really given satisfaction to man iron burglar proof is termites attach free as a result of its possession of high resistance and high degree of stain this making it highly suitable and durable for security purposes and it has water resistance when coated with anti must or corrosion compare to wood.

As a result of these merits man has substituted the use of wood with metal in burglar proof making metal burglary proof could be of various designs it could be made of mud steel or iron rods throughout and many other shapes for beautification.

KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC ILORIN FABRICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WINDOW BURGLAR PROOF

STAND ALONE 2KVA PV GENERATOR

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

          The sun provides the energy to sustain life in our solar system. In one year, the earth receives enough energy from the sun to meet its energy needs for nearly a year. Photovoltaic is the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, it is a beautiful alternative source of energy to conventional sources of electricity for many reasons it is safe, silent, non – polluting, renewable, highly modular in that their capacity can be increased incrementally to match with gradual load growth, it is reliable with minimal failure rates and projected service lifetimes of about 20 to 30 years. It requires no special training to operate, it contains no moving parts, it is extremely reliable and it’s virtually maintenance free, and can be installed almost anywhere.

          A photovoltaic system is a complete set of interconnected components for converting sunlight into electricity by photovoltaic process including array, balance of system and load. The intensity of sunlight that reaches the earth varies with time of the day, season, location and the weather condition, the total energy on a daily or annual basis is called Irradiation and indicates the straight of sunshine. Irradiation is expressed in Whm – 2 per day or KWh.m-2 per day. Different geographical regions experience different weather patterns, so the site we live is a major factor that affects the photovoltaic system design, the orientation of the panels, finding the number of days of autonomy where the sun does not shine in the sky and choosing the best tilt angle of the solar panels.

          Photovoltaic panels collect more energy, if they are installed on a tracker that follows the movement of the sun although it is an expensive process; for this process they are usually fixed in a particular position with an angle called the tilt angle B. This angle varies according to seasonal variation, for instance, in summer the solar panel must be more horizontal while in the winter, it is placed at a steeper angle.

          In this project, the various components of a photovoltaic system and factors affecting its design for the purpose of domestic use is explained. Then a residence model with medium energy requirements in one of the offices in Pure and Applied Physics Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso is taken as a study case. The design procedures of the photovoltaic system will be provided in ascending manner.

1.1     SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

1.11   Components

          Photovoltaic system is considered of a variety of equipment in addition to the photovoltaic array, a balance of system that wired together to form the entire fully functional system capable of supplying electric power and these components are:

  1. Photovoltaic Cells: Represent the fundamental power conversion units, they are made from semi – conductor materials and convert sunlight energy to electricity. Individual photovoltaic cells are usually quite small, producing around 1 to 2 watt of power. To increase the power output of a photovoltaic cells, they have to be connected together to form modules, modules are connected in parallel and series to form larger parts/units called Panels and Arrays to produce electric power that meets any electric need.

Solar panel.

  • A storage Medium: Battery bank which is involved in the system to make the energy available at night or at days of autonomy (sometimes called dark days) when the sun is not providing enough radiation the standard batteries that are used in solar system are lead – acid batteries because of their high performance; long life and cost effectiveness.

battery

  • A Voltage Regulator or Charge Controller: Is an essential part of nearly all power system that change batteries, the basic function of a controller is to block reverse current and prevent battery from getting overcharged. Some controllers also prevent battery over discharging, electrical overload, display battery status and the flow of power.

Solar regulator

  • An Inverter: Is device that changes a low d.c voltage to usable a.c voltage. It is one of the solar energy. Systems main element is the solar panel generate d.c voltage. Inverters are different by the output wave format, output power and installation type. It is also called power conditioner because it changes the form of the electric power. There are two types of output wave format: Modified Sine wave (MSW) and Pure Sine wave (PSW). The MSW inverters are economical and efficient, while the pure sine wave inverters are now sophisticated with high end performance and can operate virtually any type of load. There are two types of inverters that can be installed, the stand alone installation and grid connection installation.
STAND ALONE 2KVA PV GENERATOR

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A PORTABLE CASSAVA GRATER

ABSTRACT

There is need for a hygienic processing of cassava. Prevalent condition in the commercial grating area of this staple food shows a susceptibility of food contamination. This project addresses the need for the development of a home scale cassava grater where the materials, the tuber s of cassava being grated can be properly monitored.

          Some design considerations used in this project are; the machine should be efficient during use in the household as well as moveable (portable) and Safety or easily operated. Another problem considerations is that cassava Produces a large amount of cyanogenic glycosides so in selecting materials, for construction adequate care must be taken not to use materials that cannot degrade /corrode easily due to the acidic content in cassava. The malice component which is made from mild steel which consist of major parts namely, the mainframe which is constructed with angle iron which gives strength and rigidity  o the war all matins, the hopper/s receptacle through which cassava is admitted into the machine for grating, the grating unit consist of the shaft, perforated  mesh  rolled sheet, circular disc and rival pins, the discharge unit   which direct the flow of the grated cassava to astrrage   pit or receptacle, and the electric  motor which is made from cast iron and winding horse power of the machine . The capacity of the grater fabricated was 158kg/hr. the unit cost is #62,100 as against the #75,000 for the current grating unit in the market.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                         ii

Dedication                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                iv

Abstract                                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                       vi

List of Table                                                                                               x

List of Figures                                                                                            xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Introduction                                                                                          1

1.1Varieties          of Cassava                                                                               1

1.2 Importance of Cassava                                                                         2

1.3 Uses of Cassava                                                                                   3

1.4 Methods of peeling Cassava                                                                          4

1.4.1 Manual Method                                                                                 5

1.4.2 Chemical Method                                                                              5

1.4.3 Steaming Method                                                                              6

1.4.4 Mechanical Method                                                                                     6

1.5 Justification of the Study                                                                      7

1.6 Aim and Objectives                                                                              8

1.6.1 Objective                                                                                           8

1.7 Scope of study                                                                                               8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Literature Review                                                                                  10

2.1 Background to the study                                                                      10

2.2 Economic Importance of cassava product                                            14

2.3 Steps or Procedures for Cassava Processing                                        15

2.3.1 Peeling                                                                                               16

2.3.2 Washing                                                                                            17

2.3.3 Grating                                                                                              17

2.3.4  Dewatering/Dehydration                                                                            18

2.3.5  Fermentation                                                                                     18

2.3.6  Frying                                                                                               18

2.3.7  Sieving                                                                                              19

2.4     Types of Cassava                                                                             19

2.4.1  Manual Grater                                                                                  20

2.4.2  Mechanical Grater                                                                                      21

2.5     Factors Affecting Grating Performance                                             23

2.5.1  Capacity of Grater                                                                                      23

2.5.2  The Rate of Grating                                                                          23

2.5.3  Rough of the Grater Surface                                                             24

2.5.4  Moisture of Cassava Tuber                                                               24

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.0  MATERIALS AND METHOD                                                           26

3.1  Materials                                                                                             26

3.1.1  Mild Steel                                                                                          26

3.1.2  Stainless Steel                                                                                   27

3.1.3  Alloy Rubber                                                                                    28

3.1.4  Cast Iron                                                                                           29

3.2  Description of Machine Parts                                                                      31

3.2.1  The Main Frame                                                                                       31

3.2.2  The Hopper                                                                                                31

3.2.3  The Grating Unit                                                                               31

3.2.4  Electric Motor and Pulley System                                                     32

3.2.5  The Discharge Unit                                                                           32

3.3     Project Methodology                                                                         32

3.3.1  Machineries and Machining Processes                                                        32

CHAPTER FOUR:

DESCRIPTION OF THE MACHINE AND ITS MAJOR COMPONENTS

4.0  Description of The Machine and its Major Components                     35

4.1  Cassava Grating Drawing                                                                             35

4.2  Shaft Design                                                                                        40

4.3  Determination of the Bending Moment of each point of loading                   41

4.3.1  Force Exerted on Shaft                                                                     42

4.3.2  Reactions at the Bearings due to Vertical Loading                                     44

4.3.3  Reactions at the Bearings due to Horizontal Loading                       46

4.3.4  Speed Transmission                                                                          48

4.3.5  Power Transmission                                                                         49

4.3.6  Belt Design                                                                                       50

4.3.7  Determine of Centre Distance                                                           50

4.3.8  Length of Belt                                                                                   51

4.3.9  Angle of Contact on Driver Belt Sheave                                           51

4.4     Performance Evaluation                                                                    52

CHAPTER FIVE:

5.0     CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                                       58

5.1     Conclusion                                                                                        58

5.2     Recommendation                                                                              58

References                                                                                         60

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Materials used in the constructing of cassava grater                     30

Table 2: Indicating the number of loading and time taken for each

     loading in order to evaluate performance of existing Machine     53

Table 3: Indicating the number of loading and time taken for each

     loading in order to evaluate performance of existing machine               54

Table 4: Comparison of the commercial and fabricated grater                             55

Table 5: bill of engineering materials and evaluation                                  57

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Isometric Drawing                                                                       37

Figure 2: Front View Elevation                                                                            38

Figure 3: AutoCAD Drawing                                                                     39

Figure 4: Grafting Drum                                                                                      40

Figure 4: Shaft Bending Moment Determination                                        41

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          Human generation need recipe of various varieties to get energy to perform their daily activities and also to survive, then there is need for consumption of energy giving food like yam, cassava. Cassava is originated from latin America and was later introduced to Asia in the 17th century and to Africa in about 1558, in Nigeria, cassava is mostly plant by subsistence farmers, usually intercropped with vegetables, plantation crop, yam, sweet potatoes, melon,beans, and maize etc. Cassava is propagated by 20-30cm long cutting of the tree stem, space between plants is usually 1-1.5m. Intercropping with beans, maize, and other annual crops is produced in young cassava plantations.

  1. Varieties of Cassava

          Cassava is classified as either sweet or bitter, like other roots and tubers, both bitter and sweet varieties of cassava contain auto nutritional factors and toxins with the bitter varieties containing much larger amounts. They must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication, goiters, and even ataxia or partial paralysis, (Fao, 2001)

The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a “food security crop”) in times of famine in some places. Farmers often prefer the bitter varieties because they defer pests, animals and thieves.

1.2     Importance of Cassava

          No continent depends as much on root and tuber crops in feeding its population as does as Africa. Cassava, yams and sweet potatoes is an important source of food in the tropics. The importance of cassava to many Africans is epitomized in its name for the plant, e.g ege, paki, agble. The production rate world-wide is positive for cassava over the last years, and the production increase by 12.5% between 1988 and 1990 with Nigeria becoming the largest cassava producer in the world. (Bamiro, 2006)

          Cassava and yams also occupy an important position in Ghana,niger republic, Benin republic,Cameron agricultural economy and contribute about 46% of the agricultural Gross Domestic product (GDP). Cassava accounts for a daily intake of 30% in Ghana and is grown by meanly every farmer’s family. Cassava is the most favoured among all Tuber crops and even all food crops by Ghanaian consumers. ( Bamiro, 2007 )

1.3     Uses of Cassava

          Cassava is a staple crop and food source for millions of people in Nigeria, Ghana and other parts of Africa. It has many uses in addition to producing nutrition to humans. The leaves can be eaten as a vegetable or cooked as a soup. They can also be dried as hay and given as feed stuff to animals for extra protein.

The tubers can be processed into many things

  1. Cassava can be processed into flour. The flour can be used to produce most of our local food  and even foreign food.
  2. Cassava can be processed into chips. Cassava chips can be used for animal feed.
  3. Cassava can be processed into ethanol. The ethanol produced from cassava can be used as bio-fuel when combined with additives.
  4. Cassava can be processed into fructose. Fructose is used in industry for sweetening fizzy drinks.
  5. Cassava can be processed into starch. The starch can be used in textiles industry.

            Cassava is usually grown for human consumption. Fufu is a traditional way to consume cassava. There are 14 steps to the process making fufu including peeling grating and washing so its time consuming and labour consuming. Garri is another traditional way of eating cassava. The cassava is grated and put into porous sacks for the water to drain out and for the cassava to ferment slightly.Amala is another way of consuming cassava which includes fermentation,drying,grinding and sieving processes . Cassava flour has been turned into variety of snack foods. You can purchase cassava snack that are promoted as “healthy snacking” in the UK in a variety of flours.

1.4     Method of Peeling Cassava

          There are several methods of peeling cassava, which have been adopted. They include manual, chemical, steaming and mechanical methods. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages

1.4.1  Manual Method

          The manual method of peeling cassava is primitive and cumbersome. It’s unhygienic, time wasting and requires more time of producing small quantities. Also, it’s carried out by hand peeling of cassava using a sharp edged object like knife.

Advantages of manual peeling

1. It require no money

2. No chemical involved which may lead to poison when react with tuber

Disadvantages  of manual peeling

1. So cumbersome and slow

2. Doesn’t  encourage peeling of large quantity.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A PORTABLE CASSAVA GRATER

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A DEEP FREEZER

ABSTRACT

This project is on the design and fabrication of deep freezer for the preservation of items/products and making the items to cool. The project is able to develop a simple efficient economical and environmental friendly refrigeration system (A freezer) towards better technological advancement in Nigeria. This project modifies the existing refrigeration system with the use of R-600 a which is ozone friendly, and non-contaminant like previous refrigerant of the hydrofluoric-carbon, HFC and CFC like R-12, and R22 which has been phased out according to the general convection at Britain in 1996. The cooling load obtained was 10682KW, and co-efficient of performance be minimized. The material used were mild steel and the inner pipe of the cabinet i.e. evaporator in order to minimize corrosion. For the better improvement of this work, low power consumption of the compressor refrigeration was used so as to maintain the rate of cooling and freezing of large items/products. And the outer dimensions are: length-1245mm, breadth-895mm-0. 895m, Height-906mm-0.96m and the inner dimensions are Iength-1225mm-1.225m; Breadth-895mm-0.895m, Height-886mm- 0.886m.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgement                                                                             iv

Abstract                                                                                            v

Table of content                                                                                vi

CHAPTER ONE: REFRIGERATION

1.0     Introduction                                                                            1

1.1     Literature Review                                                                              2

1.2     General Definition and Development                                                3

1.3     Purpose and Scope of Refrigerator                                         4

1.4     Objectives of the Project                                                                   7

CHAPTER TWO: TYPES OF REFRIGERATOR SYSTEM

2.0     Types of Refrigerator System                                                 8

2.1     The Vapor Compression Refrigeration System                       8

2.2 The Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System                                       9

CHAPTER THREE: DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENTS                   PARTS

3.0     Description of the Components Parts                                               13

3.1     Compressor                                                                                      13

3.2     The Condenser                                                                        16              

3.3     The Evaporator                                                                       17

3.4     Pressure Gauges and Thermometers                                                 19

3.5     Strainer/Drier                                                                          19

3.6     The Capillary Tube                                                                 20

CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN CRITERIA, CALCULATION AND ELECTION OF EQUIPMENT

4.0     Design Criteria, Calculation and Selection of Equipment                 21

4.1     The Evaporator Cabinet                                                                   21

4.2     Design Condition                                                                              22

4.3     Evaporator for Cabinet Casing                                                         23

4.4     Conducted Heat                                                                       27

4.5     Refrigerant Piping Design                                                       28

4.6     Calculations of Component Parts                                           32

4.7     Refrigerator Load Estimation                                                  40

4.8     Refrigerant Used                                                                     41

4.9     Determination of the Flow Rate                                              47

4.10   Heat Balance for the System                                                   48

4.11   Co-efficient of Performance                                                     50

CHAPTER FIVE: FABRICATION DETAILS

5.1     The External Cabinet and Material Select                               53

5.2     Insulation                                                                                53

5.3     Compressor Base                                                                              55

5.4     Condenser                                                                               55

5.5     Assembly of Part                                                                    55

5.6     Lubricants in Refrigeration System                                         56

5.7     Trouble Shooting in Domestic Refrigerator                                      57

5.8     Bill of Engineering Materials and Evaluation (BEME)            59

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

6.0     Conclusion                                                                              60

6.1     Recommendation                                                                     60

References                                                                               62

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1:          Hydrocarbon refrigerant Application (Jones, W.p. [(1996)]    45

Table 2:          Common Refrigerant (Jones, W.P. 1996)                                     46

Table 3:          Construction of the Evaporator                                                     54

Table 4:          Trouble shooting in domestic refrigerator                                               57

Table 5:          Bill of engineering materials and evaluation                               59

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 1:     The Vapor compression refrigeration system                8

Figure 2:     The Absorption refrigeration system                                      10

CHAPTER ONE

REFRIGERATION

1.0     INTRODUCTION

The ice cream being sold at the corner stores, the frozen vegetable for dinner, the refreshing water for drinking at the office, water cooler are all dependent on the science of refrigeration. Refrigeration in its specialized forms in a comparative modern development which has been in practice for generations, and its application in controlling environmental condition has made possible some outer space programs and many other scientific and commercial activities as it can be obtained in our houses and on the farm which is considered as an example of a natural refrigeration techniques, the porous clay jugs used in hot desert countries for cooling water, the ice box, for food preservation etc. (Raymond, C.G. (1973).

This write up presents the principle of mechanical refrigeration in vapor compression refrigeration system and it application which gives a clear understanding about the design and operation of the unit.

1.1     LITERATURE REVIEW

Refrigeration is branch of engineering that is concerned with the science of producing and maintaining temperature below that of the surrounding atmosphere [Raymond, C.G. (1973)]. It also the process of removing heat from the substance.

Before the advent of mechanical refrigeration, water was kept cool by storing in semi-porous pots, so that the water could seep through and evaporate. The evaporation carried away heat and cooled the water [Raymond, C.G. (1 973)].

The first development took place in 1834 when Perkins proposed a hand operated compressor working machine. In 1851 came Gorries and in 1856 Lind developed a machine working on ammonia [Andrew, D. & Alfred, (1970)]. The development was considered quickened in the forties when Dupent put in the market, a family of new working substances, the floro chloro derivate of methane,1 ethane etc. under the name of ferons; then followed the liquefaction of other permanent gases included helium in 1908. [Andrew, D. & Alfred, F.B. (1970)].

In 1926, Ginque and Diebye independently proposed adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt. In 19th century application of mechanical refrigeration in fields other than ice making including direct cooling and freezing of perishables foods, air conditioning for industry and human comfort [[Andrew, D. & Alfred, F. B. (1970)].

1.2     GENERAL DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

Refrigeration may be defined as the process of removing heat from a substance. The American society of Engineers defines refrigeration as “the science of producing and maintaining temperature below that of the surrounding atmosphere”. This implies the development of temperature differential rather than the establishment of a given temperature level.

Therefore refrigeration is accomplished by establishing temperatures differentials and evaporation of liquids or combination of both methods for removing heat from a substances in a refrigeration i.e. heat is put into the working substance at lower pressure and temperature and provide the latent heat to make it boil and change to vapor. The vapor is then compressed to a high pressure and temperature at which the superheated gas can be removed and the fluid is turn to liquid. The total cooling effect will be the heat transferred to the working fluid in the evaporator [Raymond, C. G. (1973)].

In any refrigeration process, three basic factors are involved which are: Heat change, pressure control and liquid gas relationship, therefore a working system will require a connection between the condenser and the inlet to the evaporator to complete the circuit.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A DEEP FREEZER

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF DOMESTIC DEEP FREEZER

ABSTRACT

This project is on the design and fabrication of deep freezer for the preservation of items/products and making the items to cool. The project is able to develop a simple efficient economical and environmental friendly refrigeration system (A freezer) towards better technological advancement in Nigeria. This project modifies the existing refrigeration system with the use of R-600a which is ozone friendly, and non-contaminant like previous refrigerant of the hydrofluoric-carbon, HFC and CFC like R-12, and R22 which has been phased out according tothe general convection at Britain in 1996. The cooling load obtained was 10682KW, and co-efficient of performance be minimized. The material used were mild steel and the inner pipe of the cabinet i.e. evaporator in order to minimize corrosion. For the better improvement of this work, low power consumption of the compressor refrigeration was used so as to maintain the rate of cooling and freezing of large items/products. And the outer dimensions are: length-1245mm, breadth-895mm-0. 895m, Height-906mm-0.96m and the inner dimensions are Iength-1225mm-1.225m; Breadth-895mm-0.895m, Height-886mm- 0.886m.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgement                                                                             iv

Abstract                                                                                            v

Table of content                                                                                vi

CHAPTER ONE: REFRIGERATION

1.0     Introduction                                                                            1

1.1     Literature Review                                                                              2

1.2     General Definition and Development                                                3

1.3     Purpose and Scope of Refrigerator                                         4

1.4     Aim and Objectives                                                                 7

CHAPTER TWO: TYPES OF REFRIGERATOR SYSTEM

2.0     Types of Refrigerator System                                                 8

2.1     The Vapor Compression Refrigeration System                       8

2.2     The Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System                         9

CHAPTER THREE: DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPONENTS                   PARTS

3.0     Description of the Components Parts                                               13

3.1     Compressor                                                                                      13

3.2     The Condenser                                                                        16     

3.3     The Evaporator                                                                       17

3.4     Pressure Gauges and Thermometers                                                 19

3.5     Strainer/Drier                                                                          19

3.6     The Capillary Tube                                                                 20

CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN CRITERIA, CALCULATION AND ELECTION OF EQUIPMENT

4.0     Design Criteria, Calculation and Selection of Equipment                 21

4.1     The Evaporator Cabinet                                                                   21

4.2     Design Condition                                                                              22

4.3     Evaporator for Cabinet Casing                                                         23

4.4     Conducted Heat                                                                       27

4.5     Refrigerant Piping Design                                                       28

4.6     Calculations of Component Parts                                           32

4.7     Refrigerator Load Estimation                                                  40

4.8     Refrigerant Used                                                                     41

4.9     Determination of the Flow Rate                                              47

4.10   Heat Balance for the System                                                   48

4.11   Co-efficient of Performance                                                     50

CHAPTER FIVE: FABRICATION DETAILS

5.1     The External Cabinet and Material Select                               53

5.2     Insulation                                                                                53

5.3     Compressor Base                                                                              55

5.4     Condenser                                                                               55

5.5     Assembly of Part                                                                     55

5.6     Lubricants in Refrigeration System                                         56

5.7     Trouble Shooting in Domestic Refrigerator                                      57

5.8     Bill of Engineering Materials and Evaluation (BEME)            59

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

6.0     Conclusion                                                                              60

6.1     Recommendation                                                                     60

References                                                                               62

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1:          Hydrocarbon refrigerant Application (Jones, W.p. [(1996)]    45

Table 2:          Common Refrigerant (Jones, W.P. 1996)                                     46

Table 3:          Construction of the Evaporator                                                     54

Table 4:          Trouble shooting in domestic refrigerator                                               57

Table 5:          Bill of engineering materials and evaluation                 59

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 1:     The Vapor compression refrigeration system                8

Figure 2:     Pictorial view of refrigeration system                                      10

Figure 3;     Pictorial view of compressor                                         23

Figure 4;     Pictorial view of evaporator                                          27

Figure 5;     Pictorial view of condenser                                            29

CHAPTER ONE

REFRIGERATION

1.0     INTRODUCTION

The ice cream being sold at the corner stores, the frozen vegetable for dinner, the refreshing water for drinking at the office, water cooler are all dependent on the science of refrigeration. Refrigeration in its specialized forms in a comparative modern development which has been in practice for generations, and its application in controlling environmental condition has made possible some outer space programs and many other scientific and commercial activities as it can be obtained in our houses and on the farm which is considered as an example of a natural refrigeration techniques, the porous clay jugs used in hot desert countries for cooling water, the ice box, for food preservation etc. (Raymond, C.G. (1973).

This write up presents the principle of mechanical refrigeration in vapor compression refrigeration system and it application which gives a clear understanding about the design and operation of the unit.

1.1     LITERATURE REVIEW

Refrigeration is branch of engineering that is concerned with the science of producing and maintaining temperature below that of the surrounding atmosphere [Raymond, C.G. (1973)]. It also the process of removing heat from the substance.

Before the advent of mechanical refrigeration, water was kept cool by storing in semi-porous pots, so that the water could seep through and evaporate. The evaporation carried away heat and cooled the water [Raymond, C.G. (1 973)].

The first development took place in 1834 when Perkins proposed a hand operated compressor working machine. In 1851 came Gorries and in 1856 Lind developed a machine working on ammonia [Andrew, D. & Alfred, (1970)]. The development was considered quickened in the forties when Dupent put in the market, a family of new working substances, the floro chloro derivate of methane,1 ethane etc. under the name of ferons; then followed the liquefaction of other permanent gases included helium in 1908. [Andrew, D. & Alfred, F.B. (1970)].

In 1926, Ginque and Diebye independently proposed adiabatic demagnetization of a paramagnetic salt. In 19th century application of mechanical refrigeration in fields other than ice making including direct cooling and freezing of perishables foods, air conditioning for industry and human comfort [[Andrew, D. & Alfred, F. B. (1970)].

1.2     GENERAL DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

Refrigeration may be defined as the process of removing heat from a substance. The American society of Engineers defines refrigeration as “the science of producing and maintaining temperature below that of the surrounding atmosphere”. This implies the development of temperature differential rather than the establishment of a given temperature level.

Therefore refrigeration is accomplished by establishing temperatures differentials and evaporation of liquids or combination of both methods for removing heat from a substances in a refrigeration i.e. heat is put into the working substance at lower pressure and temperature and provide the latent heat to make it boil and change to vapor. The vapor is then compressed to a high pressure and temperature at which the superheated gas can be removed and the fluid is turn to liquid. The total cooling effect will be the heat transferred to the working fluid in the evaporator [Raymond, C. G. (1973)].

In any refrigeration process, three basic factors are involved which are: Heat change, pressure control and liquid gas relationship, therefore a working system will require a connection between the condenser and the inlet to the evaporator to complete the circuit.

1.3     PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF REFRIGERATOR PROJECT

The purpose of refrigerator deals with the use of refrigerator which is in three forms.

i.        To produce the temperature of a substance (Act of cooling).

ii.       To change a substance from one state to another (as water to ice)

iii.      To maintain substance in a desired temperature state (food preservation or ice storage) [Raymond, C. C. 1973].

All the above purpose is personal comfort in both temperature and hot climatic regions. It importance to the society can also be grouped under the following sub headings:

1.       DOMESTIC: Refrigerators are commonly used in the house for domestic purpose. They are usually in all sizes having a compressor rating between (1/2) half and (1) one-horse power and are hermetically sealed type. They are commonly employed for cooling drinks and as food preservation [Andrew, D. & Alfred, F. B, (1970)].

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF DOMESTIC DEEP FREEZER

DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF CEILING BOARD USING PLASTER OF PARIS (P.O.P) GYPSUM MATERIAL

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          This project deals with the design and production of ceiling board using Plaster of Paris [POP] gypsum materials. Plaster of Paris [POP] is a white powdery mixture of gypsum. It has been named such because the first deposit of gypsum was found in Paris. This powder when mixed with water solidifies, but without losing its volume. During manufacturing process, the gypsum is heated and as such, it does not necessarily require any high heat treatment like ceramics and clays [Worrall 1999]. Because of its property to harden with just water, it is used in a number of areas, but most notably for molding decorative objects.

          According to Cornelis and Hurlbut (1985), plaster results from the calcinations of gypsum (CaS04.2H20), which partially dehydrates to produce a hemi-hydrate (CaS04.1/2H2O). Although plaster of Paris a widely used today: its origin dated 9,000 years old and were found in Amotolia and Syria. It is also know fact those 5000 years ago, the Egyptians burnt gypsum in open-air fire, then crushed it into powder and finally mixed with water to make jointing material for the blocks of monuments, used model of plaster taken directly from the human body.

1.1     LITERATURE REVIEW

Plaster is one of the oldest known synthetic building materials: it was used by the Egyptians at least 4000 years ago in the construction of the pyramids, and the Greeks were producing decorative plaster work by 500 BC. The chemistry of the conversion of gypsum to plaster was also investigated early on by chemists such as Le Chatelier (1850 – 1936) and van’t Hoff (1852 – 1911).

Plaster is made by heating gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) powder, thus converting it to calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CaSO4.½H2O). The hemihydrate is also known as stucco or Plaster of Paris. Probably so named because of the very large deposit of pure gypsum found beneath Paris. When water is added to the stucco, the material rehydrates to give a solid mass of gypsum. This rehydration is accompanied by an increase in temperature and a slight expansion of the plaster, causing the gypsum to perfectly fill a mould.

2.0     RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES

          The aim of this project is to design and produce ceiling board using Plaster of Paris (POP) gypsum materials.

          The objectives of the study are highlighted below:

  • To produce durable light weight building material for ceiling
  • To determine the strength of the ceiling board
  • To determine its durability.
  • To determine the volume and density of the ceiling board.

3.0     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

          The scope and limitation of this project is basically the design and production of ceiling board using plaster of Paris [POP] gypsum material. In the project , the density of the sample will be determined and the flexural test will be carried out to determine the strength of the sample made up of composite quantity of POP plaster, water and Fibre

[know as villas]

when subjected to loading.

4.0     JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The use of plaster of Paris [POP] gypsum ceiling board for ceiling finishing should be adopted and improved because the problems associated with asbestos, which have been used as ceiling finishes for years but with the use of plaster of paris [POP] gypsum material as ceiling finishes which offers sufficient sound insulation and considerable absorption of heart from the roof and hence provide employment opportunity to the producer.

5.0   METHODOLOGY

5.1     OBTAINMENT OF THE MATERIALS

          The materials obtained for the project design are plaster of Paris, fiber (villas), water and mould.

The used materials were obtained from the following:-

  1. A local commercial POP material dealer Mevlon located at Ibrahim Taiwo Road Ilorin, Kwara State 
  2. The mould used was obtained from Muhummed store at Olomoyoyo Emir’s Road, Ilorin.
  3. Water supply was obtained from Civil Engineering Department Laboratory.

5.2     TOOLS USED FOR THE PROJECT ARE ENUMERATED THUS:-

  1. Scrapper
  2. Measuring tape
  3. Mixing bowl
  4. Bucket
  5. Ranges
  6. Saw 

5.3     MOULD’S PREPARATION

Already made mould (frame work) is used with dimension 710mm x 710mm x 14mm.

5.4     PREPARATION OF SEPARATOR

The separator is a mixture of premier soap and groundnut oil. It is applied to the mould for easy removal of the sample from the mould.

5.5     MIXING OF THE AGGREGATE

          Mixing is the process of thoroughly combining different materials to produce a homogeneous product. In this case water and P.O.P plaster are mixed to form a mortar with mix proportion 3 liter of water to 2kg of P.O.P plaster mixed vigorously to form a homogeneous mixture.

5.6     CASTING

The underlisted steps explain the casting of POP ceiling board:-

  1. Firstly, the mortal was mixed in a clean container (mixing bowl). 
  2. Water was poured into the container (mixing bowl) and plaster of Paris was sprinkled over it.
  3. It took two minutes approximately before absorption.
  4. Then hand was used to mixed the mortal and shake vigorously to obtain a fully homogeneous mixture.
  5. The mortar was poured on the mould and sprayed to ensure it cover all the surface of the mould as first layer
  6. Fibre/villas was added which serves as reinforcement on the poured mortar.
  7. Similar mortar was prepared and poured on it and it was ensured that it covered the entire surface as well which serves as the second layer.
  8. Finally, the sample was left for 13 – 15 minutes to set.

5.7     DETACHING OF THE MOULD

          The detaching of the ceiling board from the mould was done with the adoption of a special technique after the final setting. The setting period is very important and must be adversely followed to avoid breakages.

5.8     ABSORPTION OF WATER TEST

          Water absorption test was carried out on the sample to determine the water absorption capabilities. This test becomes pertinent to measure its response to water leakages from the roof after or during a down – pour. Seven samples was weighted and then immersed in water from one to seven days (1-7) of speculated in sample test, thereafter they were removed from the water and re-weighed as per the speculated days of immersion. The obtained data were recorded against each mass fraction and the mean obtained.

Ms = mass of immersed sample

Md = mass of dry sample

DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF CEILING BOARD USING PLASTER OF PARIS (P.O.P) GYPSUM MATERIAL

DETERMINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL REINFORCEMENT IN ILORIN METROPOLIS

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Steel is a man-made material containing 95% of iron. The remaining constituent are small amount of element derived from the raw-material use in the making of the steel, as well as other element added to improve certain characteristics or properties of the product (Marcus, 1964).
Steel reinforcement are used generally in the form of bars of circular cross-section in concrete structure. They are like a skeleton in human body. Plain concrete without steel or any other reinforcement is strong in compression but weak in tension. Steel is one of the best forms of reinforcement to take care of those stresses and to strengthen concrete to bear all kinds of load. In steel reinforcement transverse is very important. They not only take care of structural reinforcement but also help main reinforcement remain in desired positions. They play a very significant role abrupt changes or reversal of stresses like earthquake etc.
As compare with concrete, steel is a high strength material. The useful strength of ordinary reinforcing steels in tension as well as in compression i.e the mild strength, is of the order of 10 times compression strength. Reinforcement in concrete is used to absorb the tensile forces so that cracking which is inevitable in high strength concrete does not weaken the structure.
However, reinforcement is also used for resisting compression forces primarily where it is desired to reduce the cross- sectional dimensions of compression members, as in the lower floor columns of multi-story buildings. Even if no such necessity exist, a minimum amount of reinforcement is placed in all compression members to safe guard them against small accidental bending moment which might crack or fail an unreinforced member (George, 1979).
The most common types of reinforcing are in the form of round bars. The plain round mild steel bars manufactured in accordance with BS 5950 are required to have a characteristic strength in tension of 250N/mm2 with a minimum elongation of 22% accordingly; they are designed grade 250 by the standard.
Since steel is an engineering material, it is therefore necessary to talk about the strength of this material. The strength of material refers to the materials ability to resist an applied force. A materials strength is a function of engineering processes, and scientist employ a variety of strengthen mechanisms to alter the strength of a materials. The general understanding of the relationship between external forces applied to an engineering structures and resulting action of the members of structure can be achieved by studying the strength of the material (Brunch,1978).
Tensile strength measure the force required to pull a material. Tensile strength of a material is a limit state of tensile stress that lead to tensile fracture in the manner of ductile fracture, or in the manner of brittle fracture (Sudden breaking in two or more pieces with a load stress state).

2.0 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

According to different researches carried out on collapsed buildings, many were based on the qualities of materials used. The materials which include, concrete and reinforcement are basically the composite materials which determine the strength and stability of a structure. Apart from the different mix ratios used in concrete which may not be accurately applied, there is more concern on the sizes and strengths of reinforcement used in the reinforced concrete structure. The reinforcement being the tensile materials in concrete, bears the tensile stresses on the structures and therefore determine the structures ability to withstand tension. The various concrete elements in buildings are column, beams, slabs, and foundation. If the required sizes and number of bars to be used in the structural elements are not used there will be defects on the structural elements.

3.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main aim is to determine the characteristics strength properties of mild steel reinforcement in Ilorin metropolis with the following objectives:
• To verify the various sizes of mild steel available in the market comply with standard specification.
• To make recommendation based on the finding of this project.

4.0 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

More often in Nigeria we have collapse of buildings several factors can be said to be responsible for a building to collapse. If steel reinforcement is not of standard strength it can cause failure and collapse of the structure. Hence, there is need to verify the strength of the mild steel sold in the market before use in structural work.

5.0 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This project will cover the laboratory test that will be carried out on various diameter of mild steel specimen to check for their characteristic strength. Tensile strength test and physical examination of the diameter of various specimens would be carried out using Vanier caliper.

6.0 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

The methods used in carrying out this project include procurement of material, preparation of specimens, testing of specimens, analysis of result, conclusion and recommendation.

DETERMINATION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL REINFORCEMENT IN ILORIN METROPOLIS