FRIENDSHIP IN ARISTOTLE VIS-À-VIS MODERN DAY CONCEPTION OF FRIENDSHIP. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

FRIENDSHIP IN ARISTOTLE VIS-À-VIS MODERN DAY CONCEPTION OF FRIENDSHIP. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Quite a number of things are fanciful to human being; wealth, prestige, power, good health and host of others. However, all these things make more meaning only when shared with others. Therefore, friends are “sine qua non” to human existence. It is on this ground that Aristotle would say, “for man is a social being, and designed by nature to live with others”.1Every human being needs the other to live a fulfilled life. No man is an Island. No man can boast of living well in a place alone, he needs the other person.

As regards friendship, there are different conceptions as there are scholars who philosophize on that. Each expresses his or her own notion of friendship. Though there are different notions among scholars about friendship, most of the differences perhaps are as a result of cultural differences and background.

It is an obvious fact that not all types of friendship seek to the development of both the individual and the entire society. This, I believe is the major fact why friendship as a term has been misconstrued and misconceived. Sequel to this, some regard friendship as a thing to be avoided because of the negative connotations that often go with it.

1.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY.

Over the years, people (including philosophers) have looked at the concept of friendship from various perspectives. Such people include Plato, Cicero, Epicureans, Thomas Aquinas, St. Augustine, Aristotle, etc., each of these philosophers has his view of friendship.

However, the purpose of this work is to discuss how modern day people understand friendship using Aristotle’s conception of friendship as a paradigm. This work will investigate why people make friends. In the same vein, it has as its purpose to find out whether friendship is intrinsically good or bad.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.

In spite of the fact that friendship is a “sine qua non” to human existence, it has over the years passed through different hardships. Even the early Greeks and Romans were victims of this. Thus Aristotle laments over the failure of friendship with, “O my friend, there is no friend”.2 Empedocles on his side, contrasts friendship with strife. This motivated Aristotle to exalt friendship in his ‘Nicomacheaan Ethics’.

 

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FRIENDSHIP IN ARISTOTLE VIS-À-VIS MODERN DAY CONCEPTION OF FRIENDSHIP. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A PHILOSOPHICAL LOOK INTO RELIGION AND FREEWILL IN THE LIGHT OF JAMES WILLIAM. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A PHILOSOPHICAL LOOK INTO RELIGION AND FREEWILL IN THE LIGHT OF JAMES WILLIAM. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

There are two good things in life: freedom of thought and freedom of action[1]. In the whole world man is the only being that is condemned by its nature to be free as well as to be religious. So by nature man is endowed with the power of the will just as he is equally endowed with religious tendency.

Freewill in the simplest term means the freedom to make choice. Moreover, man in his own very nature cannot extricate himself from the bondage of making choice. In the same vein man is equally held bound by religious tie, so man cannot but be religious. For man to choose otherwise, is already a choice of its own and a religion of its own. That is why I maintain that man is condemned to be free and equally religious. No wonder Jean Paul Sartre asserts.

I am condemned to be free. This means no limit to my freedom can be found except freedom itself, or if you prefer, that we are not free to cease being free. 2

It seems unthinkable to imagine a world without freewill, that type of world should be devoid of punishment and reward. This is because in such a deterministic world, what ought to be will come to be, at the time it was destined to be, and through the agent it was destined to come through.

However this freedom man enjoys is not unconnected to the very fact that man is the only being endowed with a conscious thinking faculty. Ekwutosi has this to say: “that human act is the result of a complex process in which the decisive point is the will after a deliberation of the intellect…….. Specifically human action possesses the following constitutive qualities knowledge, voluntary/freedom. 3

 

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A PHILOSOPHICAL LOOK INTO RELIGION AND FREEWILL IN THE LIGHT OF JAMES WILLIAM. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A PHILOSOPHICAL APPRAISAL OF JOSEPH FLETCHER’S NEW MORALITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A PHILOSOPHICAL APPRAISAL OF JOSEPH FLETCHER’S NEW MORALITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The problem to be treated is about moral decision-making. How is one to act when faced with a moral decisive situation? Life presents us with situations where decisions are not so clear-cut. Saying yes to one perceived good often means saying no to another. The question “what ought I to do” in a given situation raises conflict for us. Making decisions is a part of man’s life. Man tries to make the right decisions always because a wrong decision taken can be detrimental to both an individual and the community. Hence, B. O. Eboh observes that, “It is often difficult to take a moral decision in a given situation because of the many other facts which may surround such a situation”[1]. The point is that there are many realities to be taken into consideration in moral decision-making.

At this point, one may ask: “what moral decision am I to take in a moral situation?”

1.1     APPROACHES TO DECISION MAKING

There are three main alternative routes or approaches to follow in making moral decisions. They are: (1) the legalistic approach, (2) the antinormian approach, the extreme opposites i.e. a lawless or unprincipled approach; and (3) the situational approach. All these three have played their part in the history of Western morals.

(A)    LEGALISM

Legalism is the most common and persistent approach to decision making. It triumphed among the Jews after the exile and has dominated Christianity constantly from very early days. There exist a series of well-defined and absolute laws (secular, cultural and religious) that the individual must implement in every situation. Legalism sees moral rules and principles not as guides but absolute norms that must be obeyed at all costs and in all situations. With this approach, one enters into every decision-making situation armed with already-made rules and regulations. Fletcher affirms that, “legalism looks at the letter of the law and insists on its observance while ignoring the spirit of the law”.

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A PHILOSOPHICAL APPRAISAL OF JOSEPH FLETCHER’S NEW MORALITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

MACHIAVELLIANISM AND DEMOCRACY (NIGERIA AS A CASE STUDY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

MACHIAVELLIANISM AND DEMOCRACY (NIGERIA AS A CASE STUDY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1  Introduction

Machiavelli has gained the world popularity because of the way he conceived and understood politics. Today “Machiavellism” is used to describe a political situation characterized by tyranny, despotism, deception and violence. This is because of Machiavelli’s approach and guidelines towardsachieving stability in the state. Machiavelli crafts a perspective that aligns politics with warfare, and justifies the deployment of force, the exercise of cruelties, the practice of deceit and the manipulation of appearances in the service of government. He was greatly influenced by the political disarray in Florence of his time. Moreover Machiavelli presented virtue as vice and vice versa. For him the politician or ruler should not be a moral agent. He should be less concerned with the morality of actions in as much as he maintains power.

The Machiavellian principle in its nature considers the end of actions and not the means used. This poses a state of the survival of the fittest. This situation to a great extent negates the principle of democracy and scuttles its growth. Democracy as we know is praised for its space for freedom, equality, justice and fairness. For any democratic institution to flourish all traces of Machiavellism should be eschewed. This is my major concern in this work. I shall verify how the Machiavellian principle is in play in the Nigeria’s politics. Has it helped matters or does it bring anarchy? This is the question we shall attempt in this discourse.

1.2 Purpose of Study

The aim of this work is to critically analyze the principles of Machiavelli. This will take the form of stating and describing the whole content of his principles as well as pointing out its implications. Also I shall ‘x-ray’ the principle of democracy tracing its origin and the conditions for its practice. This verification will be done within the Nigerian situation. However, the sole issue here is to relate the principle of Machiavelli to the situation of democracy in Nigeria.

 

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MACHIAVELLIANISM AND DEMOCRACY (NIGERIA AS A CASE STUDY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

THE NOTION OF THE HUMAN PERSON IN KIERKEGAARD VIS-À-VIS AFRICAN INDIVIDUAL. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

THE NOTION OF THE HUMAN PERSON IN KIERKEGAARD VIS-À-VIS AFRICAN INDIVIDUAL. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

There are diverse understanding of the concept of the human person among thinkers and philosophers. In this regard, Arthur C. Danto affirms that “Neither in common usage, nor in philosophy has there been a univocal concept of ‘person”[1].

But basically, the English word ‘person’ is derived from the Latin word, ‘persona,’ which can be traced to the Greek ‘prosopon,’ which in its original sense denotes the ‘mask’ worn by an actor. Later it came to refer to the role played by the actor or the dramatist, and finally to the human being as an actor on the stage of life; as Willaim Shakespeare says: Life is a stage where each person is an actor. Cicero used the term ‘person’ to denote an assumed appearance, a mark of distinction or dignity or a sum total of personal qualities.

Legally speaking, person denotes a subject of law, a being bound by law. This is evident in the Roman legal system where person designates cives Romani-the Roman citizen, a man who enjoys the citizenship (civitatis) or freedom (libertatis). In this sense, person refers to that being that possesses certain rights and conditions that make him capable of exercising them.

Nevertheless, the advent of the existentialist style of philosophizing brought about a kind of ‘Copernican revolution’ to the understanding of the human person in the history of Western philosophy. Kierkegaard, the “father of modern existentialism and the first European philosopher who bore the existentialist label”[2] paid particular attention to the concept of the human person. Just like Heidegger who pointed out the forgetfulness of ‘Being’ in traditional philosophy occasioned by the influence of science, Kierkegaard reacts against the forgetfulness of the concrete problems of the “thinking subject” in the history of thought. The early Greek philosophers were physicists, who had no direct concern about the human person. It was Socrates who first directed the attention of philosophy to the issues about man himself.

 

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THE NOTION OF THE HUMAN PERSON IN KIERKEGAARD VIS-À-VIS AFRICAN INDIVIDUAL. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A CRITIQUE OF POPPER’S STRATEGY FOR THE GROWTH OF SCIENCE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A CRITIQUE OF POPPER’S STRATEGY FOR THE GROWTH OF SCIENCE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  TOWARDS ESTABLISHING THE BACKGROUND OF POPPERIAN PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE.

1.1 CAN FACTS CONSTITUTE THE TERMINUS A QUO OF SCIENCE? (THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION)

It is one of the fundamental canons of the empiricists, the positivists of all sorts and in fact the entire circle of the inductivists, that the ladder of science can only be climbed through the collection and assembling of our experiences. Put in another way, it is the case that scientific knowledge requires primarily and basically the collection of protocol sentences. The principle of induction can be expressed in the following statement:

If a large number of A’s have been observed under a wide variety of conditions, and if all those A’s without exceptions possess the property of B, then all A’s have the property B.1

Thus if various forms of metal expanded when heated at various occasions, one can conclude that all metals expand when heated. This is essentially an inductive process, which until the time of Popper was in the eyes of its exponents, a non-optional extra for empirical sciences. This principle of induction, the principle that scientific knowledge grows through the progressive movement from the particular statements (i.e. statements about facts) to the general (universal) statements, which are essentially the form in which, scientific theories appear, is considered of supreme importance for scientific discovery and advancement. Hence, Reichenbach makes bold to assert that the elimination of this principle from the foundational structure of science is tantamount to divesting science of its power to determine the truth or otherwise the falsity of its theories. Science will, therefore, be in want of a veritable means by which the veracity of her theories is established. There is no longer any intellectual difference between the scientific posits and the fanciful, arbitrary inventions of the poetic genius.2

 

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A CRITIQUE OF POPPER’S STRATEGY FOR THE GROWTH OF SCIENCE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

PSYCHOLOGY OF GENIUS IN ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

PSYCHOLOGY OF GENIUS IN ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1   INTRODUCTION:

In the evolutionary system, advancement in the human world was as a result of the urge to satisfy the immediate needs of man and even more. Every organism is essentially endowed with its means of livelihood. So, nature has done so well to provide animals with their own means of attack, nutrition, defence and every means of survival.

Hitherto, with further development of the organism in higher animal, a higher means of survival is required. This higher requirement manifests itself in the form of human reason and the intelligence. The reason, then, in a gradual process develops in man as an essential tool to discover and to create new ways of satisfaction, in order to conquer its own world – the human world.

One might not relent to question the value of the human intellect and what it is all about. However, human intellect bestows its subject with the power of reason – ratio or intelligence. And this, therefore, distinguishes   the man, homo sapiens, as that thinking or wise individual from other evolutionary categorization of humans as  in homo erectus

[ standing  man], homo habilis  etc. Also, it plays an important role in every  human make-up.

According to Prof Copleston,  [1963] reason “ has primarily a biological function. If one may so speak, Nature intends it as an instrument for satisfying the needs of a more highly complicated and developed organism than that of animals.”1

One would not to a greater extent question the insatiability of the human needs and desires. And could one as well question the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer that man and his world are virtually the Will, the blind desire, and representation. Every satisfaction presupposes a desire, and the latter seeks to attend the former in a logical dialectics. So, then, as man wangles in his eternal and insatiable desires, he immerses himself in it and becomes the Will as Schopenhauer opined.

Consequently, human intellect could be seen as a liberator, a key to human freedom, and emancipation. Schopenhauer [1788] espoused it well that though intellect is by its nature, the servant of the Will, it is capable in man of developing to such an extent that it can achieve its objectivity. That is to say, “that though man’s mind is in the first instance, an instrument for satisfying His bodily needs, it can develop a kind of surplus energy which sets it free at least temporarily, from the service of desire” [1]

 

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PSYCHOLOGY OF GENIUS IN ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

ZIK’S NEO-WELFARISM: A VIABLE OPTION FOR THE NIGERIAN STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

ZIK’S NEO-WELFARISM: A VIABLE OPTION FOR THE NIGERIAN STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

This thesis springs from a genuine sense of patriotism to fashion a way forward for my beloved country. It is rather remarkable at this time there seem to be little incentive for patriotic concerns since the state had neglected to play its part on the unwritten social contract with its citizens. Achebe captures the scene very aptly, “when two Nigerians meet, their conversation will sooner or later slide into a litany of our national deficiencies.”[1]

These national woes range from the alarming state of governmental maladministration to the executive mismanagement of the supreme powers of the state. Its effects include incessant nation-wide confusion, political instability, and social unrests seriously endangering life and property. The irony however is that these social evils that are man-made are perceived by some people to be Divine ordinances or as an aspect of man’s essence which cannot be ameliorated.

The root cause of this general prevailing decadence in our society is the poverty of ideology. The prevalent ideology is reflected in the untoward practices of the leadership, which has filtered into the entire sphere of society’s life. Thus, our moral sensibilities have been inverted.

The tall order facing us if we mean to regenerate our fatherland is “to evolve a new political culture,”[2] through re-examining the alien ideology “imposed on us as a super structure by the colonial whites”[3] with our indigenous ideology to form a social matrix, what Zik calls Neo-welfarism. I see this event as a historical necessity. So that we recover from our state of complete inertia, when confronted with issues threatening our corporate existence and destiny.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Nigeria is a country blessed with enough material and human wealth to satisfy its citizenry. However due to inadequate ideological orientation, she is nowhere near the echelon of developed states. Though independent, she still moans under the burden of under development. Politically, she is the bedrock of instability as leaders want to perpetuate themselves in office. Economically, she is not better off as occasioned by the low standard of living of its citizens. In the technological circle, she could best be described as rich abroad while poor at home.

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ZIK’S NEO-WELFARISM: A VIABLE OPTION FOR THE NIGERIAN STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AKAN AND YORUBA CONCEPTION OF A PERSON. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AKAN AND YORUBA CONCEPTION OF A PERSON. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

Abstract

The concept of a person held by a group of people is fundamental in understanding not only how a person within such framework of thought views himself but also how other matters such as the idea of being, morality, knowledge and truth that are essential for the ordering of the society are viewed. This is emphasized by the fact that such a concept encapsulates the role the society expects the individual to play for the attainment of an orderly society and this makes it inevitable for African Scholars to write on the conception of a person from the Africans perspectives. The Yoruba of south western Nigeria, a person is believed to be made up of three important parts. These are the “Ara” which is the material body, including the internal organs of a person; the “Emi” which is the life giving element and the “Ori” which is the individuality element that is responsible for a person’s personality. In Akan ontology, a person is also made up of three parts namely the “Okra”, the “Sunsum” and the “Honam” or “Nipadua”, representing the soul (or life giving entity), the spirit that gives a personality its force and body respectively.

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AKAN AND YORUBA CONCEPTION OF A PERSON. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF J.S MBITI’S AFRICAN CONCEPTION OF TIME. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF J.S MBITI’S AFRICAN CONCEPTION OF TIME. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

ABSTRACT

J.S Mbiti contended that Africans perceive time composition of events which must be lived through. He contended further, that one can from such ontology, arrive at the understanding of African philosophical concepts.

This essay attempted a critical examination of Mbiti’s view on Africans’ conception of time, and to show that Mbiti’s Africans’ conception of time, is not key to the understanding of African philosophical concepts.

The method employed was an in depth analysis of concept of time in African cultures and philosophical argumentation.Mbiti’sAfrican Religions and Philosophy, Masolo’sAfrican Philosophy in Search for Identity, Ayoade’sTime in Yoruba thought, Oke’sFrom an Ontology to an Epistemology, and Gyekye’sAn Essay on African Philosophical Thought: The Akan Conception Scheme, were studied and analyzed.

The results of this essay included the following: first, that Mbiti’s claim that Africans lack the idea of an extended future is false, that there various time conception on the continent of Africa, and that the understanding of Mbiti’s African conception of time did not necessarily mean an understanding of African philosophical concepts.

This essay concluded that there is the concept of an extended future in Africa and Mbiti should not have based his conclusion from his understanding of the Kikamba culture only, which erroneously led him to the fallacy of hasty generalization with regard to the conceptions of time in Africa.

 

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A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF J.S MBITI’S AFRICAN CONCEPTION OF TIME. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

 A.J. AYER AND THE ELIMINATION OF METAPHYSICS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

 A.J. AYER AND THE ELIMINATION OF METAPHYSICS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

ABSTRACT

A.J Ayer a logical positivist and indeed at all his fellow logical positivists were moved by the achievements and clarities in science and as it were, they moved to bring these achievements and clarities in science into philosophy. They believed that there are ambiguities and confusion in philosophical languages and that such ambiguities and confusions would be a thing of the past in philosophy when they are all jettisoned. It was their view also that those ambiguities in philosophy gave rise to metaphysics. Metaphysics for these positivists was to be expunged because it contained no knowledge as it purports to give. They (positivists) termed its knowledge pseudo-knowledge. In this work therefore, I wish to show that no matter the amount of attack directed to metaphysics by Ayer and his co-positivists, metaphysics will never be eliminated because man must go beyond the physical to explain realities like: life, God, man, world and man’s place in it, justice etc

 

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THE ROLE OF THYMUS IN THE PROGRESS OF HISTORY IN THE LIGHT OF FRANCIS FUKUYAMA’S THE END OF HISTORY

THE ROLE OF THYMUS IN THE PROGRESS OF HISTORY IN THE LIGHT OF FRANCIS FUKUYAMA’S THE END OF HISTORY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

ABSTRACT

Human history has witnessed a course of events which some philosophers have argued is directional. Nike AIR Max 2017 Dames While some argue that this movement is random, Nike Air Max 2016 Dame others have argued that it is directional and is moving towards an end: the end of history. Nike Free 3.0 V4 Goedkoop Francis fukuyama in his book The End Of History and The Last Man argued that history is moving towards an end which is liberal democracy. Nike AIR Max 2017 Goedkoop This work therefore explores these movements made in the course of history with thymos as the basic propeller of history and critically analyses the role of thymos in this dialectic,

 

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THE ROLE OF THYMUS IN THE PROGRESS OF HISTORY IN THE LIGHT OF FRANCIS FUKUYAMA’S THE END OF HISTORY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

FEMINISM IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

FEMINISM IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

ABSTRACT

Feminism is one of the philosophical concepts that has raised a lot of controversies in all human societies. Nike AIR Max 2017 Goedkoop It is a theory, ideology and a humanistic philosophy that incorporate men and women for the upliftment and development of the society. Air Max Tailwind 8 Goedkoop To this end, Simone De Beauvoir, a French existentialist philosopher, applied existentialists’ ideas to the situation of the contemporary women. Nike Air Max 90 Bloemen Dame For ages, the woman is seen as a second class citizen, the “other”, an object who is lost and is losing her way, as such, this has doomed her to immanence since her transcendence has been overshadowed and forever transcended by another ego. Nike Air Max 90 Honeycomb Dame To her, a woman is a free and autonomous being like all human creatures who finds herself living in a world where men compel her to the status of the “other”. This work is therefore a critical analysis of feminism in the philosophy of Simone De Beauvoir using her Second Sex. Nike Air Max 90 Heren With the analysis of feminism, some of the possible findings include that De Beauvoir’s feminism is misogynic, anti-naturalistic and confrontational. This thesis therefore concludes that her feminism is inauthentic, unnaturalistic and is opposed to African feminism.

 

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FEMINISM IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CONCEPT OF GOOD GOVERNMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CONCEPT OF GOOD GOVERNMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

ABSTRACT

Albert Einstein, in a letter to a Rumanian friend Maurice Solovine from Princeton U.S.A. Nike Air Max 2017 Heren Goedkoop on April 10, 1938, says: “A fashion rule each age, without most people being able to see the tyrants that rule them” Although man as Aristotle opines is a political animal who desires and longs to live in a community with his species, he is the best of all the animals that rule and guided by laws. Nike Darwin Goedkoop In the same vein, man could be the worst of all animals when there is anarchy. Nike Air Max 90 Mid NO SEW Dame It is in the light of this that Aristotle opts for a government that would be beneficial to the people. Nike Free Run 3 Goedkoop The researcher would make an attempt to explain what a good government is, according to Aristotle, and also analyze them in the light of the Nigerian situation. Nike Air Max 90 JCRD Dame The question: Who should rule? For what purpose? And what is the best form of government are fundamental questions in Aristotle’s concept of good government that this thesis intends to answer.

 

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CONCEPT OF GOOD GOVERNMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

THE QUEST FOR POLITICAL POWER THROUGH VIOLENCE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

THE QUEST FOR POLITICAL POWER THROUGH VIOLENCE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Man is a being driven by an insatiable quest for dynamism. He has since the evolution of societies been preoccupied with how to effect changes in the society to maximize his well-being, man therefore, has never at any point abdicated the pressing responsibility of searching for, or evolving models of governance that would make for a better understanding and organization of the society, and one of the reasons for this conviction is to foster a blissful life for humanity devoid of rancor, violence, crisis and conflict. Thomas Hobbes insists that men decided to live under a civil society for their self-preservation and contented life such that the unfortunate and miserable situation of anarchy and conflicts would be ameliorated if not completely eliminated. The philosopher also points out that the fear of uncertainty and insecurity of lives and property prompted the formation of civil society. Jean-Jacques Rousseau also talks of preservation whereby the human race must necessarily change its nature of existence if it must continue to live and avoid violence. It is against this backdrop of social progress that Hannah Arendt points out that the glorification of violence is not restricted to small minority and eternity.

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In Nigeria basically violence has taken the central field in the democracy which involves the untimely death of wanton of her citizens in the pursuit of political power. We imbibe the ideas of  Georges Sorel  in his Reflections on Violence, he believed that power had to be shifted from the deteriorated middle class to the working class, and that power must be acquired through only a general strike that, to be effective, must be violence. Political conflict is an endemic feature of most of the world’s political systems. This is particularly true of the developing countries, including Nigeria, where political conflict, crises and even violence, became essential characteristics of the political process, especially after independence. It was perhaps Nigeria’s pride that she achieved her independence with a minimum of social disturbance and violence. Nigeria stumbled from crisis to crisis and near disintegration, as the country witnessed a marked increase in the bitterness of party, ethnic and region.

Consequently, Violence or the threat of violence is a universal phenomenon. Writing in the same vein, Charles Tilly remarks that Collective violence has flowed regularly from the political process… Men seeking to size, hold, or realign power the lever of power have continually engaged in collective violence as part of their struggle. Nigeria affords a good case for both the theoretical and empirical study of political violence.

 

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THE QUEST FOR POLITICAL POWER THROUGH VIOLENCE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A CRITIQUE OF WIREDU’S CONCEPT OF TRUTH. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

A CRITIQUE OF WIREDU’S CONCEPT OF TRUTH. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  THEORIES OF TRUTH

My essay centers especially on the epistemological conviction of Kwasi Wiredu with regards problem of truth.

My intention in this essay is to critically evaluate all the strands of Wiredu’s argument in support of his thesis that there is nothing called truth that is different from opinion. I contend that in arguing that truth is nothing but mere opinion, Wiredu fails in denying truth of its objective characters. I also submit that Wiredu fail in making truth subjective. This is in spite of his avowed attempts at clarifying the senses in which he uses such concepts as “Truth” and ‘opinion’.

Consequently, this essay has been divided into four chapters in order that I will be better placed to understand the background to Wiredu’s position and also his main thesis.

In chapter one, I shall discuss generally the notion of truth in traditional western epistemology. In this chapter, I shall try to briefly analyze the basic proposition of the main objectivistic theories of truth, that is the semantic and the correspondence theories of truth and also examine the two non objectivistic theories of truth namely, the coherence and the pragmatic theories of truth. And as we shall discover Wiredu’s position is neither wholly pragmatic nor wholly coherent. He simply affirms both theories to some extent. As we shall see in this chapter that Wiredu believe that truth is coherence, also following Deweyian pragmatic principles Wiredu asserts that truth is “Warranted assertibility “.

 

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A CRITIQUE OF WIREDU’S CONCEPT OF TRUTH. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

FRIENDSHIP OF UNEQUALS IN ARISTOTLE’S NICOMACHEAN ETHICS VIS-A-VIS GODFATHERISM IN NIGERIAN POLITICS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

FRIENDSHIP OF UNEQUALS IN ARISTOTLE’S NICOMACHEAN ETHICS VIS-A-VIS GODFATHERISM IN NIGERIAN POLITICS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Since inception of the current administration in Nigeria in 1999, a major political problem that has plagued the country and has become a socio-political problem is “Godfatherism.” Politics in Nigeria has become a business venture where everyone struggles to participate. To this, S. U. Togbolo opines, politics in Nigeria has become an investment where the investors are set to make profit at all cost, as a result, political brutality is pervading the society.[1]

This is so strong in Nigerian politics to the extent that the godfather is so strong to the extent of having a larger-than-life image in his area of influence. He determines appointments into state executive councils and where necessary, local councils. So this particular posture of the godfather is a new form of business which must attract huge financial returns at the expense of the democratic citizens. This is because the godfathers must be settled from the general coffer.

The relationship that exists between the godfather and godson points to what Aristotle in his Nicomachean ethics on ‘Friendship’ regarded as “unequal friendship.” This type of friendship involves the superiority of one of the parties where each should not expect to receive the same affection as he gives from the other.[2]

So, this particular relationship of the godfather and the godson requires that whenever the godfather sneezes, the godson catches cold and fever. In fact, the presence of the godfather literally dwarfs the godson. Moreover, to fear him is the beginning of wisdom for the godson.

Therefore, there must be a guide to check the excesses of the godfathers by instituting constitutional and legal checks on electoral and electioneering procedures that involve money, sponsorship and practices that undermine democracy and art of government. This will help to maintain decency in politics and check against the crisis of Godfatherism.

 

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FRIENDSHIP OF UNEQUALS IN ARISTOTLE’S NICOMACHEAN ETHICS VIS-A-VIS GODFATHERISM IN NIGERIAN POLITICS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

THE MORAL DECADENCE IN NIETZSCHE’S PHILOSOPHICAL WRITINGS (A Critical Approach). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

THE MORAL DECADENCE IN NIETZSCHE’S PHILOSOPHICAL WRITINGS (A Critical Approach). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

CHAPTER ONE

THE NOTION OF MORALITY

1.1  The Exact Definition of Morality

In making moral choices, the morality of one’s actions does not depend entirely on the sincerity of the intention or the evaluation of the motives, but it must be determined according to objective criteria drawn from the nature of the person and his acts. – Pope John Paul II to a medical-Moral Workshop, January 20, 1990.

Morality in the strictest sense of the word, deals with that which is innately regarded as right or wrong. This notion of morality is a known system of principles and judgements shared by cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which humans’ subjectivity determines whether a given actions are right or wrong. Through these concepts and beliefs, the society or group guides its members and regulate their behaviours. It can be descriptively refer to a code of conduct put forward by a society, or some other group, such as a religion, or accepted by an individual for her own behaviour. Normatively, it refers to a code of conduct that would be put forward by all rational persons under specified conditions.

There are certain actions which all of us would condemn as morally wrong and ought not to be done by anybody. For example, armed robbery, embezzlement of public funds, bribery and corruption, neglect of one’s duties, dishonesty, and so on. In the other way, there are also certain actions, which are fidelity to one’s duties, respect for human life, hospitality, kindness, helping those in need, honesty and so on.

Though according to Frederich Nietzsche, it is not good to refer some of the above listed virtues as right or good rather they are evil and could be seen among the inferior people. He said so in his explanation of master morality and slave morality. Equally, there are other kinds of actions above which opinions differ. Some say it is wrong while others consider it as right. For instance, such actions like abortion, contraception, euthanasia, masturbation and so on. The question of abortion is being morally permissible is a current issue in United States.

 

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THE MORAL DECADENCE IN NIETZSCHE’S PHILOSOPHICAL WRITINGS (A Critical Approach). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

JUSTICE AND ITS PRIMACY IN THE POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF ARISTOTLE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

JUSTICE AND ITS PRIMACY IN THE POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF ARISTOTLE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

The problem of the origin and harmonious organization of the state has been an age long problem for philosophers. They have varied opinions as regards the solution to this problem. The conventionalists and contractualists hold that the state originated out of convention or contract between individuals or groups.

However, Aristotle a master in ancient philosophical thought, whose influence has always rocked the philosophical defense of his contemporaries and successors, has it that the state is natural to man. Also, his refutation of the conventionalist notion of the state led him to redefine the state as an association of communities made up of citizens with the aim of achieving the highest common good. Having defined the state thus, he sets himself the task of investigating the activities of the state in order to find out its end and goal; to find out who and who are qualified to be citizens of the state; and if all the members of the state are qualified to enjoy the basic individual rights in the state.

It is in this context that he brought in the issue of justice as the central point on which the activities of the state revolves. Hence, I found it appropriate to treat as my project topic “Justice and its primacy in the political philosophy of Aristotle.” As the political philosophy of Aristotle is concerned mainly with the governmental order of the state, we shall be using the word ‘state’ more frequent in this work.

Furthermore, this work shall be divided into four chapters. Chapter one will deal with the meaning and notion of state and justice respectively, with special reference to Aristotle. Chapter two will deal with the application of justice in the state. Since man is naturally born in the state, there is the necessity for harmonious relationship between members of the state. This harmonious co-existence can only be achieved through the application of justice in the state.

 

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JUSTICE AND ITS PRIMACY IN THE POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF ARISTOTLE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ALIENATION OF LABOUR IN KARL MARX. (It’s Implications to the Condition of the Nigerian Workers). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ALIENATION OF LABOUR IN KARL MARX. (It’s Implications to the Condition of the Nigerian Workers). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The 17th century philosophy, the enlightenment period, is significant for so many reasons. Not only did it witness the emergence of many vigorous thinkers, but it also shifted the attention of philosophy from the cosmos (ancient period) and God (medieval period) to the appreciation of man as both the terminus a quo and the terminus ad quem of all reality. In a splendid way, the philosophies of the German idealist, Hegel and the materialist, Feuerbach respectively contributed to the shaping of the philosophical views of another great thinker, the founder of Historical Materialism, Karl Marx.

Hegel formulated the main principle, law and categories of dialectics, showing that ideas develop progressively from lower to higher form and that in the course of such development, there is a transformation of quantity into quality and internal contradiction are the source of development. This view in a special way depicts Marx’s methodology in exclusion of idealism, in place of the cognition and revolutionary transformation of the existing world. In the same vein, Feuerbach’s materialism, which portrayed that philosophy, should study nature and man as a product of protracted development of nature purged out of its metaphysical and contemplative approach, in place of socio-political sphere of human life. Hence, Marx puts man as

First of all a natural being…. and a living natural being, who is endowed on one hand with natural powers… these powers exist in him as aptitudes and instincts, on the other hand as an object, natural, physical, dependent and limited being… that is the object of his instincts exists outside him, independent of him, but as for the object of his need, indispensable and essential for the realization and confirmation of his substantial powers[1].

It is this natural power and its instinctive manifestation in man that explain historical movement in Karl Marx. But a pertinent question arises at this juncture: who is Karl Marx?

 

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THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ALIENATION OF LABOUR IN KARL MARX. (It’s Implications to the Condition of the Nigerian Workers). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHILOSOPHY