THE ROLE OF CREDIBLE ELECTION ON THE CONSOLIDATION OF DEMOCRACY, NIGERIAN FOURTH REPUBLIC: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

In every democracy, election is the essential ingredient that allows transition from one regime to the other. It is the means and process by which the electorate decides who and which group administers the affairs of the country based upon their perceived conviction on the agenda and programme presented by the group (Aniekwe and Kushie, 2011). In today’s world, election is serving great purpose both in war torn, authoritarian as well as democratic societies.

It serves as a means of transition from bitter experiences of war to civility in former war torn states. It provides opportunity for freedom in previous authoritarian regimes and offer citizens the space for free expression. It offers a government a unique opportunity for legitimacy and is a recognized way of building trust in former authoritarian states and also a way to validate negotiated political pacts (Brown, 2003; Sisk, 2008).  Election also serves as a transitory process in stable democracies and a way of strengthening an already assumed perfect system (Majekodunmi and Adejuwon, 2012: 44). However, the history of elections in Nigeria has been characterized by threats to statehood based on the manipulation of ethnicity as divisive mechanism for the acquisition of political power by political actors; the fragile nature of political cum democratic institutions is acquainted with poor democratic culture among Nigerian citizens (Omodia, 2012; Ojukwu and Oni, 2016).

Nnamani (Cited in Onu, 2005) and Suberu (2007) assert that the fact that elections in Nigeria since inception of the fourth republic have continued to recycle in a ferocious violence and unthinkable manipulation especially from the political elites has attracted the attention of both local and international community.
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THE ROLE OF CREDIBLE ELECTION ON THE CONSOLIDATION OF DEMOCRACY, NIGERIAN FOURTH REPUBLIC: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES

THE ELECTORAL PROCESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY IN NIGERIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE 2011 AND 2015 ELECTIONS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Election is an integral part of a democratic process that enables the citizenry determine fairly and freely who should lead them at every level of government periodically and take decisions that shape their socio-economic and political destiny; and in case they falter, still possess the power to recall them or vote them out in the next election. This was Obakhedo, (2011) aptly defined election thus: Election is a major instrument for the recruitment of political leadership in democratic societies; the key to participation in a democracy; and the way of giving consent to government (Dye, 2001); and allowing the governed to choose and pass judgment on office holders who theoretically represent the governed Obakhedo, (2011).

In its strictest sense, there can never be a democracy without election. Huntington is however quick to point out that, a political system is democratic ‘to the extent that its most powerful collective decision-makers are selected through fair, honest and periodic elections in which candidates freely compete for votes, and in which virtually all the adult population is eligible to vote’ (Huntington, 1991). In its proper sense, election is a process of selecting the officers or representatives of an organization or group by the vote of its qualified members (Nwolise, 2007). Anifowose (2003) defined elections as the process of elite selection by the mass of the population in any given political system, Bamgbose (2012).

Elections provide the medium by which the different interest groups within the bourgeois nation state can stake and resolve their claims to power through peaceful means (Iyayi, 2005). Elections therefore determine the rightful way of ensuring that responsible leaders take over the mantle of power. An election itself is a procedure by which the electorate, or part of it, choose the people who hold public office and exercise some degree of control over the elected officials. It is the process by which the people select and control their representatives. The implication of this is that without election, there can be no representative government.
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THE ELECTORAL PROCESS AND NATIONAL SECURITY IN NIGERIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE 2011 AND 2015 ELECTIONS

THE 2015 GENERAL ELECTION: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0  Introduction

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Obviously, a credible electoral process is an absolute necessity for representative democracy, yet not every election meets this criterion. Across regions and climes of the world, it is generally agreed that elections are a hallmark of democracy. Little wonder, Anifowose (2003) refers to it as the process of elite selection by the mass of the population in any given political system. Election as a mechanism for peaceful transition of one regime to another has been a serious political event right from pre-independent Nigeria.

Since, Nigeria has practiced elective principle in 1992 in Nigeria political climate has changed and a series of elections have been conducted. However, majority of these elections have resulted in stalemate, contention, violence, legitimacy crises and has at one time or the other truncated democratic practices thereby paving way for military incursion in Nigerian politics.

Right from 1960, the challenge before Nigeria as a nation is to entrench an enduring democracy which could be facilitated through the conduct of a credible, free and fair election. The 1964/65, 1983, 1993, 2003, 2007 and 2011 elections ended in a disaster which we are still grappling with till today and if Nigeria`s continue existence is to be ensured then, we need to organize and conduct generally acceptable elections.

Electoral process in Nigeria since 1960 has been a very difficult task, to conduct a creditable, free and fair election. Some of the issues surrounding the conduct of the 2015 general elections borders on the conduct of free and fair elections, some of the factors/challenges of these are electoral fraud and electoral mal-practices in the country. Rigging is almost synonymous with Nigerians elections.

Indeed, electoral fraud pervades the political landscape. It is generally perpetrated by unproductive and criminally minded politicians who seek to frustrate the democratic aspirations of citizens who have voted or would have voted into offices someone other than the purported victor or winner.
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THE 2015 GENERAL ELECTION: ISSUES CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

ROLE OF LAWYERS AND POLICE IN ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

CHAPTER ONE

General Introduction

1.1              Background of the study 

The phenomenon, “crime” has been a major subject of private and public concern throughout human history. No society is free of crime. However, the question often asked is that even if crime is part of inevitable human behaviour, how much of it can a society tolerate? This question is linked to man’s natural instinct for survival, the ability to respond to any threat to his life and property. Crime poses such a threat, particularly in its violent form. 

 The recent upsurge in violent crimes in Nigeria has created enormous uncertainty in the security of lives and property of individuals and of social stability in general. The incidents of traditional crimes such as armed robbery, arson, drug trafficking and abuse, murder, kidnapping, rape, hired assassinations and ritual killings are examples of the most serious and violent crimes which have been on the increase in the recent past. Correspondingly, White Collar Crimes in the form of Advance Fee Fraud (popularly, known as 419), contract deals, embezzlement and mismanagement in both the public and private sectors are also on the increase. The aggregate of the traditional crimes mostly committed by the less privileged and white collar crimes mostly committed by the highly placed call for a change in the strategies for the prevention and control of crime in Nigeria,

 The existing patterns in criminal activities show that criminals are getting more organized, sophisticated and brutal in the manner they carry out their dastardly acts, either in the way they physically attack individuals with dangerous weapons or the method they use in taking advantage of their official positions to steal and stash away millions of public funds in foreign and domestic accounts. Equally worrisome is the new dimension in organized criminal behaviour in Nigeria involving acts of terrorism and sabotage against individuals and public places. Recent incidents, in which some individual were stalked and eventually trapped in the volley of bullets from assault weapons, depict the viciousness of violent criminals. These acts are usually well-planned, orchestrated, syndicated and organized in the mafia-type fashion. In addition to these new patterns of violent crimes against persons, there is also the equally disturbing criminal behaviour against the Nigerian economy leading to the collapse of financial institutions and government parastatals. In short, we are witnessing the emergences of dangerous trends in the nation’s social and economic well-being. 

Three bodies are responsible for the administration of criminal justice in Nigeria. These bodies are: the Courts, the Police and Prisons. This research focuses on the police functions in the administration of justice and the manner in which such functions are carried out.
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ROLE OF LAWYERS AND POLICE IN ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

RELIGION AND IDEOLOGY FISSURE AS A MAJOR FACTOR OF TERRORISM

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Ideology has often been implicated in violent, radical movements (Rapoport, 1984) and since 9/11, much attention has been devoted to the ideological underpinnings of violent Jihadist groups and others (Atran, Axelrod, & Davis, 2007; Habeck, 2006; Jurgensmeyer, 2004; Ranstorp, 2004; Schbley& McCauley, 2005; Stern, 2003). Scholars and other experts hardly agree on the role religious ideology plays in non-state violence. Is it cause or consequence, afterthe-fact justification, or simply a rhetorical rallying call? In this study, we will examine how anthropologists have defined religion and ideology, and consider its role in violent movements.  In this brief essay, we will make the case that the concept of religious ideology is imprecise and because of this analytical imprecision, its usefulness as an aid to understanding people’s shared thoughts and values is severely limited.  Furthermore, we will assert that the concept should never be used to account for or to explain people’s behavior.  we will suggest that a better way to think about different religious traditions and the groups of people immersed in them is derived from a research strategy in anthropology called “cultural materialism” (Harris 1979).  Cultural materialism avoids explanations based on ideology and concentrates instead on the pragmatic, day-to-day circumstances that condition people’s actual behavior.

The phrase “religious ideology” is often used loosely in anthropology and in casual conversation to refer to the set of socially shared ideas associated with a given religion.  Thus, people talk and write about the religious ideology of Islam or Christianity as if a distinctive set of ideas or beliefs characterizes the one religion in opposition to the other.  Furthermore, these imputed characteristic ideas and beliefs are often used by analysts to account for certain forms of behavior engaged in by followers of a religious tradition.  For example, people often say that Catholics have more children than Protestants because their religious ideology leads them to regard birth control as sinful and it is therefore avoided.  Major world religions such as Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism have features that make them relatively easy to identify. 
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RELIGION AND IDEOLOGY FISSURE AS A MAJOR FACTOR OF TERRORISM

PUBLIC RELATIONS AS A TOOL IN GOVERNMENT PARASTATALS (A STUDY OF AKWA IBOM HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY)

CHAPTER ONE

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In government parastatal, the present and the future advancement of such an establishment depends mostly on their public relations offices. This statement is a testimony of public relations as a tool in Government parastatals. This public relations constitute a very vital engine to the growth and development of cooperation within the establishment to enhance effective productivity.

    The word “PUBLIC RELATION” According to Stan L.U. Nwehinne is a firm’s deliberate or planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its public. Public relations activities are aimed out at maintaining and strengthening ties with the public that know and cherish you, wining the minds of those who know you but do not know you with information of your activities, and converting them to be your loyalists.

Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public. Public relations may include an organization or individual ghttps://www.modishproject.com/problems-and-prospects-of-state-creation-in-nigeria-a-comparative-study-of-ebonyi-state-and-abia-state/aining exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment. This differentiates it from advertising as a form of marketing communications. Public relations is the idea of creating coverage for clients for free, rather than marketing or advertising. An example of good public relations would be generating an article featuring a client, rather than paying for the client to be advertised next to the article. The aim of public relations is to inform the public, prospective customers, investors, partners, employees and other stakeholders and ultimately persuade them to maintain a certain view about the organization, its leadership, products, or political decisions. Public relations professionals typically work for government, government agencies and public officials Rubel, (2007).

Public relations specialists establish and maintain relationships with an organization’s target audience, the media and other opinion leaders. Common responsibilities include designing communications campaigns, writing news releases and other content for news, working with the press, arranging interviews for company spokespeople, writing speeches for company leaders, acting as an organization’s spokesperson, preparing clients for press conferences, media interviews and speeches, writing website and social media content, managing company reputation (crisis management), managing internal communications, and marketing activities like brand awareness and event management. Success in the field of public relations requires a deep understanding of the interests and concerns of each of the client’s many publics. The public relations professional must know how to effectively address those concerns using the most powerful tool of the public relations trade, which is publicity. Goldman, Eric (1948)

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Public relation is a function of all management, although the character and breath of public relation may vary with their authority and with the nature of policies and plans stated in the corporate objectives.  Public relation visualizes and anticipates future events and based on that sets actions and guidelines to actualize a desired future of affairs. However many government parastatal have ultimately failed in their services. Management of Akwa Ibom State House of Assembly, Uyo and its environs has neglected the very important of public relation. This has no doubt resulted in financial loss,  poor productivity in services and in some case led to the poor maagement of many government parastatals and hampered the rapid development of such parastatals. Therefore it is pertinent to examine the critical problem with the aim of providing solutions by way of recommendations.
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PUBLIC RELATIONS AS A TOOL IN GOVERNMENT PARASTATALS (A STUDY OF AKWA IBOM HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY)

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF STATE CREATION IN NIGERIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EBONYI STATE AND ABIA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

Nigeria is a plural society with different cleavages in terms of ethnic, religious, cultural, linguistic, as well as geo-political, social and economic development, but ethnic heterogeneity is inarguably, the most pervasive of them all (Vande, (2012). The development of Nigerian Federalism as a dynamic process can best be understood with reference to its ethnic configuration. Over the years, the process has involved the creation of more States to reduce political domination at the Federal level. It has also involved the attempt by minority ethnic groups to challenge the hegemony of the three largest ethnic groups: Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbo in the political, social and economic life of the country, each of which like some of the other ethnic groups, is also made up of a number of sub-ethnic groups (Vande, (2012).

From 1922 to 1960, modern Nigeria passed through series of constitutional and political developments that eventually made her a federation. Within this period, the quest for separate status within the federation also started. In fact, the earliest beginning of the issue of state creation can be traced to 1943 when Nnamdi Azikiwe recommended the division of the country into eight units. Four years later, Obafemi Awolowo recommended ten. The years between 1947 and 1960 witnessed intense agitations of minorities for their own state. In 1951, a movement was established under the leadership of the Oba of Benin, Akenzua II for the creation of Midwest State comprising Benin and Delta provinces. As the agitation was going on, the people of the Middle Belt area also began a call for the creation of the middle-Belt region under the championship of a party called the Middle Belt People’s Party. The minorities in the East were not also left out in the struggle for state creation. The Calabar, Ogoja and Rivers provinces also called for the creation of Calabar, Ogoja, Rivers State (COR) out of the Eastern Region (Ojiako, 1981). This quest for states by the various minority groups resulted from the fear of domination and the need for accelerated economic development. 
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PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF STATE CREATION IN NIGERIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EBONYI STATE AND ABIA STATE

POLITICS OF POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF THE ACTIVITIES OF EBONYI STATE COMMUNITY POVERTY REDUCTION AGENCY (EB-CPRA) IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

        The concern about poverty world wide dates back to 1944 when the International Labour Organization (ILO) in its historic Philadelphia declaration drawn up after the second world war, stated that “poverty anywhere constitutes a threat to prosperity”. It was this declaration that necessitated the crusade  for poverty alleviation world wide especially in the united states of America, where some segment of the society were identified as being in generally poor state of health and suffering from inadequate diet and poverty (Denis and Williams, 1973).

       Overtime, it has been discovered that reducing the menace of poverty remains one of the most difficult challenges facing most countries of the world especially the developing countries where on the average about 67,000 people join the legion of the poor on a daily basis, representing about 25 million every year (Okonkwo, 1998:24).

       Nigeria just like many other sub-saharan African countries is neck deep in poverty. The country is characterized by declining per capital incomes, increasing hunger, rising unemployment and environmental degradation. Despite all the various efforts made by various government in Nigeria, to improve the lots of the people through the various poverty alleviation or eradication policies and programme, it is evident that the proportion of people at poverty level has continued to increase. For example, the figure increased from 27% in 1980 to 46% in 1985, it declared slightly to 42% in 1992 and increased very sharply to 66% in 1996. By 1999, estimate had it that more than 70% of Nigerian were living below the poverty line  (National Planning Commission, 2004: 28).

       In the words of Farnsworth (1990), the problem of poverty in Africa (Nigeria inclusive) does not lie in the quality of individuals aspirations or mental and entrepreneurial endowments but with the structure of African society and its economy. Poverty is a crucial matter in Africa since its inhabitants not only began their independence from an extremely low level of economic and social development but are the only people whose situation is expected to worsen in the coming years.

       Specifically, in Nigeria today, more than 70% of a population of about 150 million people lives below the poverty line (Gbosi and Omoke, 2004). In recent years, the eradication of poverty has become major goals of Nigerian economic policy. People have become increasingly aware of the great difference that exists in the economic and social circumstances of the people in Nigeria. And some Nigerians have begun to ask whether Nigeria is really the land of opportunity. Throughout most of the Nigerian history, poverty was regarded as a reflection of personal inadequacy and people were expected to pull themselves out of poverty.
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POLITICS OF POVERTY REDUCTION IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF THE ACTIVITIES OF EBONYI STATE COMMUNITY POVERTY REDUCTION AGENCY (EB-CPRA) IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF THE STAFF OF ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA COUNCIL.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Organization is established to provide for the needs, yearnings, interest and desire of the employees within the work place or environment, to earn loyalty, dedication, involvement and commitment necessary to compete favorably and effectively to maintain and retain its innumerable staff and patronizers. Therefore, for any organization or institution such as the local government, some factors have to come into play through their availability and reliability. The factors in this context include manpower development and utilization, which would be extensively discussed in this study.

It will not be out of context to say that manpower is the strong pillar of private or public organization, just like Harbison (1973) aptly observed;

Human resources, not capital, income or material resources, constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations. Capital and natural resources are passive factors of production. Human beings are the agent who accumulate capital, exploit natural resources, build social, economic and political organization and carry out national development. The above score made it clear that as the world even turns to a global village, one cannot but attribute its possibility to the dexterity and intuitive nature of human thinking and ability. Another conviction of human ability and input in the work is the computer. What is computer if not the human brain since computer is ‘garbage in garbage out’. It becomes imperative to realize that one cannot do without manpower in an organization. In fact, the evolution of manpower in Nigeria can be traced back to the era of industrial revolution when the slave trade was abolished in favour of buying and selling of goods and services, establishment of industries and schools. It is at this period that the importance of development and utilization of human skills is felt in an organization. This view was supported by Adesua (1988), Fafunwa (1974) and Yesufu (2000) who opted that investment on human resources in Nigeria started in 1843, when different missionaries from European countries started with funding of schools introduced by them.
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MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF THE STAFF OF ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA COUNCIL.

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY IN THE CIVIL SERVICE: AN APPRAISAL OF KOGI STATE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION

Abstract

The Civil Service as the machinery of Government performsthe unique role of governance and National development as such government everywhere in the world have come to terms with the need to train and re-train it’s human resource for them to be better equipped to maximize productivity levels and meet the challenges of governance and management.

This work makes use of the system theory as the theoretical framework and data gathered from secondary sources.       My       chapter       one       began       with       the       general introduction where we have the background of study, statement of problem, objective of study, significance of study, literature review, significance of the study, theoretical framework, hypotheses, method of data collection and analysis, scope and limitation of study, operationalization of concept. In chapter two, we looked at human resource and productivity     in the     Nigerian civil     service: a historica perspective.   

   In        chapter       three,       we        looked       at        how impediments such as corruption, faulty implementation of the principle of federal character, inadequate fund and experienced     training     staff      all      impede     in      productivity. Chapter four dealt with the strategies for human resource development and productivity in Kogi State Civil Service.

Finally chapter five, ended this work with summary, conclusion and recommendation. Using Kogi State Civil Service as a point of appraisal, this work hopes to link human      resources      training      and      development     to      their productivity level.

In consequence I am of the view that lack of adequate training     and     re-training     of staff has     resulted to     low productivity. In view of this I recommend that impediments such as godfatherism, corruption, nepotism should be repudiated in order to increase the level of productivity and quality service delivery.
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HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY IN THE CIVIL SERVICE: AN APPRAISAL OF KOGI STATE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION

GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EBONYI STATE: A STUDY OF RELOCATION POLICY OF ABAKALIKI RICE MILL

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

            Nigerian government has over the years demonstrated concerted efforts towards the development of entrepreneurship and the nation’s economy. These efforts have been displayed via various policy actions at various periods and in various forms in the political and economic history of the nation. The historical under-pining of government policies towards entrepreneurial development in Nigeria can be traced according to Ofoegbu (2013) to the early post independence Nigeria when the government realized the need to empower indigenous entrepreneurs to own and manage business enterprise in the country and reduce foreign domination of the nations’ economy. As a mark off, government introduced the indigenization policy which was aimed at transpiring the ownership and management of wither to various foreign and multinational companies from the foreigners to indigenous Nigerians and at the same time, promote the spirit of entrepreneurship among Nigerians for more economic independence and development (Nwankwo, 2014).

In 1973, a more pragmatic effort was demonstrated by the government through the establishment of the Nigerian Bank for commerce and industry (NBCI) which was charged with funds lofty responsibilities of providing adequate funds for short and long term financing of entrepreneurial ventures, promoting entrepreneurial skills and maintaining favourable environment for entrepreneurship to boom among others (Nwafor and Ude, 2015). In their words, the bank was charged with various responsibilities ranging from the provision of equity and loanable funds to indigenous persons, institutions and organization for medium-and long term investment in industry-commerce and entrepreneurship. The bank therefore supported industrial, agro-based commercial and service entrepreneurships by providing them equity and loan services feasibility studies, management consultancy among others.

            Within the same period, government also channeled policy efforts towards the area of import substitution and export promotion (Ede, 2016). In his view, the export promotion and import substitution policies of government were geared towards promoting local production of goods, banning the importation of goods that are locally manufactured as a way of promoting local entrepreneurship and promoting domestic market. In view of this policy effort, government in 1977 introduced the Nigerian enterprises promotion Act which classified enterprises in Nigeria into three categories-those that most be wholly owned by Nigerians, those Nigerians where to have at least 10% of shares, and those which Nigerians were to below 60%. This policy motivated the spirit of entrepreneurship among Nigerians as at that time (Nwafor and Ude, 2015).
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GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EBONYI STATE: A STUDY OF RELOCATION POLICY OF ABAKALIKI RICE MILL

FACTORS AFFECTING THE VIABILITY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AS THIRD TIER OF GOVERNANCE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the study

Local government plays a very crucial role in the delivery of services to the citizenry. The success of any local government is its ability to utilize its human and material resources to achieve the desired goals set aside for the citizens i.e. rendering needed services to the community. Local government is a government in which popular participation both in the choice of decision makers and in its recognition of a third tier of government is made possible. Prior to 1976, however, Nigerian local government has passed through various transformations. These transformations and reorganizations have affected the system financially, administratively, politically and functionally.

Local government administration in Nigeria has had a tortuous history.  It is an important process of government with significant consequences for national development. It is about mobilization of human and material resources at the grassroots level for societal progress and development.

Modern local government administration in Nigeria began during the British colonial rule. But then the system was not uniform. The restructuring and provision of some level of roles, democratic existence and funding of local government administration began in 1976. The 1976 local government reform introduced a uniform system of local government administration throughout the country, recognized local government as third tier of government and granted financial and functional autonomy to local government administration in Nigeria. The reform was a major departure from the previous practice of local government administration in Nigeria (Oviasuyi, Idada&Isiraojie, 2010). During the period when the British colonized Nigeria and the mid 1970’s when a major reform initiative was launched, local government administration was essentially undemocratic and authoritarian, either directly colonial in nature, or in indirectly so, but indeed undemocratic, under various traditional governance authorities referred to as Native Administration by the British colonial rulers (Jega, 2006:1).
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FACTORS AFFECTING THE VIABILITY OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AS THIRD TIER OF GOVERNANCE

EFFECT OF BUREAUCRACY ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY: A CASE OF ENUGU STATE WATER CORPORATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

        Bureaucracy is an administrative or social system that relies on a set of rules and procedures, separation of functions and a hierarchical structure in implementing controls over an organization, government or social system. Although some form of bureaucracy is necessary for large, efficiently run organizations, there is much debate over whether the theory is every manifested in practice. The point here is that bureaucracy brings about delay in decision making, does not allow for innovation and response to emergency situation. There by showing that, the manner in which an organizational structure is set up and administered can have a direct effect on company productivity.

        Hence, it can be said that, employees’ participation in decision making and in the administration of an organization promotes employees productivity. Strict application bureaucratic principles brings about delay in service delivery, under exploration of employees’ talents, expertise and intellectual abilities. Thus, Igweobi (2009) stated that, the solid foundation of any successful company is its people. Employees represent a source of knowledge and idea, but oftentimes that resource remains untapped. Involving employees in the managerial, administrative process and decision-making processes not only empower them to contribute to the success of an organization, but also saves the company time and money, increase productivity and reduce outsourcing. Also, Oduma (2006) stated that,  the increase in responsibility expands employee skill sets, preparing them for additional responsibility in the future. Employees participation in decision-making process irrespective of their rank in an organization leads to job satisfaction, employees commitment and increase rate of circulation of information that can lead to the realization of the corporate objectives of an organization.         Observably however, some administrators and managers of some organizations believe so much in the strict application of bureaucratic principles that they do not allow employees  and subordinates to participate in decision making processes and in the day-to-day administration and management of the organization. Some of them hold the erroneous believe that allowing employees to carryout certain job responsibility will make them understand the secretes  of the organisation and which might result in the subordinate taking over their position from them.
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EFFECT OF BUREAUCRACY ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY: A CASE OF ENUGU STATE WATER CORPORATION

CORRUPTION IN THE NIGERIAN CIVIL SERVICE

                       CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

          Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country with an estimated population of about 140 million and more than one-fifth of the continents total population. It is also the second largest economy in sub-Sahara Africa after South Africa with Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of about $133 billion in 2005 (Abisoye, 2008). Potentially, Nigeria possess the human and material resources to make it one of the richest states on the African continent and a major player in the global political economy. Despite the country’s vast oil wealth and abundant human resources, endemic corruption and mismanagement of the nation’s resources have undermined Nigeria economic progress and resulted in about 60% of her population living in poverty.

Successive administration in Nigeria have succeeded in plundering the economy to the extent that as at 2007, the Transparency International ranked Nigeria among the five most corrupt countries of the world. (T.I. Corruption Perception Index, 2007). Sadly, corruption is now a major issue in Nigeria. Its perpetrators cut across politicians, judicial officers, state security apparatus, military and police, business executives, and bureaucrats. It has worsened to a state that it is now believed that one cannot successfully carry out any transaction in Nigeria without paying bribe.

In 1996, a study conducted by Transparency International (T.I.) and Goettingen University ranked Nigeria as the most corrupt nation among 54 nations listed in the study with Pakistan as the second highest (Moore 1997:4). In the 1998 Transparency International Corruption perception Index of 85 countries, Nigeria ranked among the most corrupt countries pooled (Lipset and Lenz 2000:113). In 2007, Nigeria slipped down in CPI as it ranked 2nd among 91 countries pooled with Bangladesh coming first. In 2007, out of 120 countries pooled Nigeria with a score of 2.2 ranked 5th with countries like Bangladesh, Azerbaijan, Buarus, and Congo Republic coming before it. From the above, no observer need to be told that Nigeria has ever fared better as far as corruption is concerned. Consequently, Nigeria’s image in the international commity of nations have been greatly tarnished. This is what led to president Obasanjo juncketing the globe in an effort to create a better international image for Nigeria during his tenure as president of Nigeria.
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CORRUPTION IN THE NIGERIAN CIVIL SERVICE

CONDUCT OF ELECTIONS IN NIGERIA – IMPLICATIONS ON NATIONAL SECURITY

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

1.    Over the years, nations have risen and fallen due to the deeds or misdeeds of its leaders.  Good leadership can determine the success or failure of a country as it inspires, directs and mobilizes the citizens to pursue a common goal. The role of leadership in the success of nations has necessitated the quest for a viable means of selecting leaders. Robert Art defines leadership as one of the most dynamic elements of organizational life such that the effectiveness of an organization depends on the quality of its leadership.1 Consequently, nations strive to select efficient and effective leaders through the consent of the governed. The mechanism for translating this consent into governmental authority is by the use of a democratic process.

2.     The democratic process of selecting a leader is referred to as elections.  Election is the process of selecting a few persons from a group as representative sample of the group. It is an essential element of democracy since it reflects the wishes of the people.2   Attesting to this, Bello-Imam a renowned political scientist define election as the process by which citizens choose their representatives in accordance with mechanism fixed by the constitution or established government of a state.3 The origin of elections can be traced to ancient Roman and Greek empires in the Twelfth Century.  In those empires, election is done with voting by show of hands and acclamation by voice. In some other situations, decisions were made by use of secret ballots in the form of white and black pebbles, marked or unmarked shell or carved wooden tablets.4
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CONDUCT OF ELECTIONS IN NIGERIA – IMPLICATIONS ON NATIONAL SECURITY

ASSESSMENT OF FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION POLICY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF EBONYI STATE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION

ABSTRACT

Theresearch centres on “the assessment of free and compulsory education policy in Nigeria a study of Ebonyi State Universal Basic Education Scheme. The broad objective is to assess the performance of free and compulsory education in Ebonyi State. The specific objectives are to identify the challenges militating against the implementation of free and compulsory education in Ebonyi State, to ascertain the reasons why there are pockets of school drop outs in Ebonyi State inspite of the ongoing free and compulsory education policy in the state and to evaluate the measures that are put in place by the government to ensure that all Ebonyi children are carried along in the free and compulsory education policy. Survey design was used and data were collected using the instrumentation of questionnaire and were analyzed by table, mean and pearson correlation coefficient. Hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted system theory as the theoretical framework of analysis.

The study came up with findings and recommendations: (a) Lack of teachers’ motivation is militating against the actualization of the goals of the Universal Basic education policy in Nigeria and in Ebonyi State in particular. (b) Child labour remains the major reason why there are pockets of drop outs of students and pupils in Ebonyi State inspite of the free education policy. (c) There are lack of effective mechanism put in place to ensure the appropriate appraisal, monitoring and evaluation of the UBE policy in the country especially, in Ebonyi State.           (d) Policy inconsistency negate the sustainability of the UBE programme.

Recommendations (1) In as much as Nigeria wants to eradicate illiteracy in the country come 2015 according to the MDGs target, government should demonstrate a strong political will to carry out this policy option otherwise, reverse will be the case.  (2) As a matter of urgent national issue all hands must be on desks in order to wipe out this national cankerworm (illiteracy) by all and sundry.              (3) Teachers salaries should be reviewed up wardly and adequate extra-compensatory measures put in place that conform to the present economic realities of time and so on.
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ASSESSMENT OF FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION POLICY IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF EBONYI STATE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION

“IMPACTS OF TRADE UNIONISM AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN PROMOTING JOB SATISFACTION IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM. A STUDY OF NATIONAL UNION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES (NULGE), ABAKALIKI L.G.A”

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

The relationship or the contract between employers and employees ought to be based on the principles of humanism and the respect for the sanctity of human integrity and aspirations. This is because, the employer aims at making sure that the corporate objectives of his firm or organization is realized through the activities and contribution of skills, ideas and expertise by the employees. Thus, Odimegwu .I. (2008:51) stated that, firms and business organization realize their corporate objectives and break even through the professional actions, employees. Employers achieve this thought strict processes of performance appraisal, staff disciplinary measures and effective monitoring.

On the part of the employee, he seek to achieve job satisfaction and high career growth in the employer and employee contract. Job satisfaction is a situation whereby the employee enjoys good condition of service and other benefits due to him by virtue of his performance and commitment towards the realization of the corporate objectives of the firm or organization where he works and also have the prospects of growing higher in his works and also have the prospects of growing higher in his career. According to Umeogu (2000:92), job satisfaction is the level of self-fulfillment and self-actualizing benefits satisfaction and prospects of career growth on employee enjoys in an organization or firm. In any organization where employees are not given the opportunity for job satisfaction, they often resort to collective bargaining and negotiation in order to achieve their goals. Realizing that employees can not achieve the goal of job satisfaction alone, they formed unions and groups or what is called labour unions in order to negotiate and bargain with employers and government agencies to improve the condition of service of employees. This is the beginning of trade unionism in employer and employee relationship. Trade Union is an organization of workers who have united together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, achieving higher pay, increasing the number of employees an employer hires, and better working conditions. According to Okoro (2005:61) trade union is an organization whose membership consist of workers and union leaders, united to protect and promote their common interests. Trade unions use such measures as collective bargaining, negotiation, strike actions, demonstration and industrial actions to achieve their goals.
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“IMPACTS OF TRADE UNIONISM AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING IN PROMOTING JOB SATISFACTION IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM. A STUDY OF NATIONAL UNION OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES (NULGE), ABAKALIKI L.G.A”

MILITARY RULE AND POLITICAL TRANSITION IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF SANI ABACHA

MILITARY RULE AND POLITICAL TRANSITION IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF SANI ABACHA

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes military rule and the political transition to democracy in Nigeria. It enquires into how military intervenes in the Nigerian politics in the recent time. The study also examines how corruption induces military intervention in Nigerian politics due to the embezzlement of public funds by our political leaders as well as mismanagement of government properties.

This study looks at the major challenges in Nigeria rule so as to establish the gap in the existing literature by examining the roles played by ethno-political organizations in the country and also the activities of some ethnic militias like OPC in the West, Arewa in the North and Youth organizations in the south.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

In this study, I examined the relationship between ethno political organisations and the transition from military rule to civilian rule (democracy) in Nigeria between 1993 and 1998. I also inquire into both how ethno political organizations affected the process of democratisation and how the process, in turn, influenced their roles in politics generally, and in exacerbating or ameliorating political conflicts.

Ethno political organizations are pan ethnic formations serving or out porting to serve the political interest of their members, their co-ethnics and ethnic homelands. They could be seen as specific movement organisations pursuing more diffuse and generalized ethnic interests. The political role of ethnic organisations has been well documented by observers of Nigerian politics.

In fact, by the 1920s southern Nigeria was awash with such organizations with immediate and remote political aims, taking their names from respective communities and clans of their members. Recognising their incipient political aspiration, a 1935 colonial report described them as young men‟s club By the middle years of coloniali club were speedily turned into pan- ethnic organisations. Ethno- political organisations such as the Igbo aged grades or unions, the Hausa Fulani Jamiuyar Mutanen (Arewa) and Yoruba Egba Omo Oduduwa, were the main ethno political organisations ravaging our country Nigeria, before the attainment of our independence on October, 1960. These pan ethnic organisations were to become important actors in the democratic struggle of Nigerian people against colonial rule, which culminated in independence in 1960. The salutary roles they played in the first were of democratization in Nigeria, including the dynamics of their relations with the colonialist and another has been articulated by some studies.

Nevertheless, the precipitate decline of Nigeria into authoritarian rule a few years after independence, characterised by nearly three decades of military rule, has also been blamed on the political intervention of these ethnic organisations.

Consequently, when the military seized power and banned all political parties in 1966, at least 26 tribal and cultural associations were also banned.

Still, ethno political organisations remained central in Nigerian politics generally, and in the recent process of ending authoritarian rule in particular. Some of the organisation that emerged in this process include the Egbe Afenifere, literally meaning persons wishing to protect their interest in association with others and Egba Ilosiwaju Yoruba (Association of Yoruba progressive) claiming to represent Yoruba

interest, the Mkpoko Igbo (union o for the survival of Ogoni people (MASSOP) for the minority Ogonis and the northern Elders Forum representing or perceived to represent Hausa Fulani interests. Some of them have coalesced into larger inter ethnic and regional ensembles like the southern Mandata Group with purports to represent all ethnic interest in the south of the country.

The primary objective of this study is to explain the roles of ethno political organisations, in the transition to democracy in Nigeria which began in 1986, when the then military government of General Babangida announced its transition programme. That attempts was botched, perhaps temporarily, with the annulment of presidential election on June 12th, 199 4. Three months later, the military led by General Sani Abacha, a prominent member of the Babangida administration, seized power and promised to return the country to a democratic government which he never did until he died in 1998.

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MILITARY RULE AND POLITICAL TRANSITION IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF SANI ABACHA

MAL ADMINISTRATION & CORRUPT PRACTICE IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA

EFFECT OF MAL ADMINISTRATION & CORRUPT PRACTICE IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to study

Corruption undermines the legitimacy of government, democratic values, human rights and respect for the rule of law (Nigerian experience 2003). The effects of corruption on development have left many African states grappling with what is today regarded as an international problem (Columbia Journal of Asian Law 2013). Indeed, corruption is viewed as an impediment to good governance and the rule of law in Africa.

Good governance entails accountability, transparency, enhanced public participation in decision making, strengthened public sector and civil society institutions and greater adherence to the rule of law (NEPAD 2005). Corruption results in grave violations of socio economic rights, condemns people to extreme levels of poverty and often leads to social unrest (Mboya, 2004).  Curbing corruption is therefore critical to the achievement of good governance and the rule of law in many countries such as Nigeria. Although most legal systems in Africa prohibit corruption, the practice is significantly different as is exhibited in this dissertation.

Some of these countries have even ratified international and regional conventions against corruption. Nigeria for example, which will be the main subject of this dissertation, was the first country to sign and ratify the United Nations Convention against Corruption in December 2003. The country has also signed the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption but has ‘unreasonably’ hesitated to ratify it (East African Convention 2006). The two Conventions seek to promote and strengthen the development of anti-corruption mechanisms. The observance of these Conventions entails that the principles of the rule of law and good governance be upheld. However, the extent to which the standards envisaged by these conventions are adhered to, remain a mirage for most countries in Africa.CORRUPT PRACTICE

In Nigeria, corruption has been a major social, political and economic stumbling block such that in 1998 corruption was said to have permeated the institutional beacon of democracy- the judiciary. Indeed, in October 2003, there was a major purge of members of the judiciary on allegations of endemic corruption.6 Other high-profile corruption cases in Nigeria include the infamous Goldenberg scandal and recently the Anglo-Leasing scandal. The Goldenberg scandal ‘involved a fictitious  export compensation scheme allegedly to export gold and diamonds while the most intriguing aspect of the matter is that Nigeria has little or no gold mines and diamond fields’ (Anassi 2003). The Anglo leasing scandal hinges on a government tender involving amounts in excess of 90 million Nigeria shillings allegedly awarded to a non-existent company.CORRUPT PRACTICE

Statement of problem

Nigeria is rich in natural and human resources, with a population of over 150 million people; the most populous country in Africa.  At the time of her  political independence, on 1st October 1960, Nigeria excelled in production of  agricultural produce such as groundnut, palm oil, cocoa, cotton, beans, timber and hides and skins

Then, during the oil boom period of the seventies Nigeria made headlines with her oil wealth, as a country richly endowed with oil and natural gas resources capable of financing a number of important projects to meet basic consumption and development needs (Salisu, 200:2).  With per capital income of around $1,100 during the late 1970’s Nigeria was regarded as the fastest growing country in SubSahara Africa (Salisu, Ibid).  Yet it remains predominantly underdeveloped due to the scourge of corruption that has corroded it.

Corruption denies the ordinary citizen the basic means of livelihood, it worsen unemployment and erodes our image as a nation and as individual (Danjuma Goje 2010:1).  It has undermined Nigeria’s economic growth and development potential, with a per capital income of $340, Nigeria now ranks amongst the least developed countries in the World Bank League table (Salusi, op.cit).  Nigeria’s higher education system once regarded as the best in Sub-Sahara Africa is in deep crisis.  Health services are woefully inadequate, graduate unemployment is rising and so too is crime rate (Salisu, Ibid).CORRUPT PRACTICE

This culture of corruption which is rampant at national level constitutes a threatening force to development at grassroots level.  It has been a significant factor leading to the general failure of local government as well as an excuse for suspending representative institution (Humes and Ola,  N.D:104).CORRUPT PRACTICE

Corrupt practices have been deleterious not only because they divert funds from public purposes to private purses but also they undermine the vitality of local government (Ibid).CORRUPT PRACTICE

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EFFECT OF MAL ADMINISTRATION & CORRUPT PRACTICE IN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN NIGERIA

EFFECT OF BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION OF VOTERS ON ELECTORAL PROCESS A STUDY OF LAGOS HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY ELECTION

EFFECT OF BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION OF VOTERS ON ELECTORAL PROCESS A STUDY OF LAGOS HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY ELECTION

ABSTRACT

Elections in Nigeria had often filled the air with apprehension and a high sense of trepidation. Stakes in elections are high. Under the zero-sum game which is in operation, winners take all and losers have nothing unlike the situation under proportional representation. In Nigeria, there are limited avenues by which individuals can benefit from states resources. By winning elections and getting recruited into the state sphere, an individual is assured of better life chances, so are close family members and ethno-religious constituencies. Elections are thus a matter of life and death. Electoral mal-practices are common. In 2011 but in the 2015 elections in particular, there was a marked shift in the electoral process. Those who had been used to thwarting the electoral process were checkmated by the use of election technology, more specifically, the introduction of electronic biometric authenticators. The introduction of election technology paved the way for a more credible and competitive elections in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to study

Election is the process of choosing a candidate for public office. Election is a critical component of any democratic society. As such, Nigeria‟s returned to democratic rule and engagement with the democratic process led to the conduct of its general elections in 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015. General elections are elections conducted in the federation at large for federal and state elective positions (The Electoral Institute, 2015).

The 2015 general election appears to be the most keenly contested in the history of elections in Nigeria because it was the first time about four major opposition parties came together to form a very strong party, All Progressive Congress (APC) in order to challenge the dominance of the ruling party, Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) in the polity. Indeed, according to Omotola (2013: 172), the election became the only game in town, shaping and reshaping public discourse and political actions.

Prior to the 2015 general elections, a number of technologically based reforms (e.g. biometric Register of Voters, Advanced Fingerprints Identification System) were embarked upon by the new leadership (headed by Prof Attairu Jega) of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), the election management body empowered by the 1999 Constitution (as amended) of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to organize, undertake and supervise all elections in Nigeria.

The more general use of biometric in African elections is on the rise. No fewer than 25 sub-Saharan African countries (e.g. Sierra-Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Malawi, Rwanda, Senegal, Somaliland, Mali, Togo, Ghana etc.) have already held elections employing a biometric voter register (Piccolino, 2015). The Automated Fingerprint Identification System was used in the 2011 general elections as a digital register to eliminate doubles from the list, and was not capable or verifying the identity of voters at the polling stations (Piccolino, 2015).

These technologically based reforms by INEC were further taken to another height in the 2015 general elections with the use of the Permanent Voter‟s Card (PVC) and introduction of Smart Card Reader technology, a device used to scan the PVC in order to verify the identity of a voter in a polling booth. The smart card reader was one of the greatest innovations of biometric verification technology and controversial crucial aspect of the 2015 general elections in Nigeria. African countries like Ghana, Kenya, Somaliland etc had adopted the biometric verification technology.

Concerned about the massive electoral fraud witnessed in the past general elections in Nigeria, INEC deployment of the card reader in 2015 general elections was to ensure a credible, transparent, free and fair election in order to deepen Nigeria‟s electoral democracy. However, the used of the electronic device in the 2015 general elections generated debate among election stakeholders before, during and after the elections.

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EFFECT OF BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION OF VOTERS ON ELECTORAL PROCESS A STUDY OF LAGOS HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY ELECTION