IMPACT OF PURCHASING STRATEGIES ON ORGANISATIONAL GROWTH PZ INDUSTRIAL PLC

IMPACT OF PURCHASING STRATEGIES ON ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH PZ INDUSTRIAL PLC

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 

The Nigeria economy got in power till 1986 a highly regulated economy with local, state and federal government owing a large value proportion of the national economy.
However, with the introduction of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in August 1986. The national economy was deregulated and most of the control were abolished while the price mechanisms system or the market force system was introduced to determine the price of goods and services. Before the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), the purchasing industry, like other sector of the economy was owned largely and controlled by the government.
The sector was dominated by those referred to as the Big four i.e. Intercontinental Company, Africompany, UBA and First Company. However with deregulation of the economy brought about the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), many private participants entered the industry. The competition brought by those company offered some basic services some of the service offered by company are receiving deposit of customers, collecting cheques of customers drawn on themselves. From this traditional function developed other services referred to as services purchasing. It is a related purchasing services and now purchasing activities.
A list of services offered by company include acceptance and safe keeping of deposits and other valuable, granting of loans and overdraft to customers, transfer of funds business services foreign exchange services, money creation, cashing credit facility, project financing service funds transfer outside and within Nigeria, letter of credit and foreign currency domiciliary account etc.
Finally, these services benefit both the provide (Company and the receive customers) as well as the economy without them company cannot be in business and the economy will not grow individuals and corporate activities will also be hampered. It is based on these facts that company services become very vital even before the advent of modern purchasing activities.
Paterson Zochoms (PZ) industries limited was incorporated on 4th December 1948, under the name of P.M Nicholas and company limited to take over the soap making activities of Mr. P.B. Nicholas who had some years prior to that data established a factory for that purpose.
Paterson Zochoms itself was incorporated in England in 1884, become a public company quoted in the London and Northern is that o general merchants in activity is that of interest now includes city in Nigeria, Ghana, sierra Leona and textile whole selling in the united kingdom.
In 1957, Mr P.B. Nicholas sold out his interest in the company to P.Z, two years later the company change it name to Alaghon industries limited, and in 1960 adopted the name associated industries 1976, the company change its name to Paterson Zochoms industries limited.
After incorporation in 1948, new factory buildings were erected and modern soap making equipment installed at Aba.
During the years 1967 to 1970, manufacturing operation at the Aba factory was disrupted, and in consequence the company operated in vented premises in Lagos, a factory which enabled it to its customers. The manufacturing buif and equipped factory premises near Logos. The company’s range of products include bar soap and tablet soap perfumery. Cosmetics, confectionery medicaments and pharmaceuticals, all which are distributed throughout Nigeria with butter stock held at strategic centers. The company (P.Z) is well known through its Duck, premier and joy soaps, Rubb ointment, mint super mint pomade, jet hair cream, Venus de Milo rage of cosmetics, Danfulani pomade, Elephant, Apc etc.
All these categories of product must be sold to enable organization attain its objectives that has already been set. It is when consumers are happy with the organization can make the employee happy. The big question therefore is can public relation serve effective as an instrument for attaining the entire corporate objective.

 

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IMPACT OF PURCHASING STRATEGIES ON ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH PZ INDUSTRIAL PLC

EFFECT OF STORE DESIGN ON MATERIALS HANDLING

EFFECT OF STORE DESIGN ON MATERIALS HANDLING

ABSTRACT
This research study is concerned with the effect of store design on materials handling a case study of Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) kaduna for better understanding of the work effort was made at the introduction stage to explain the general importance of store design with special consideration being placed on its impact in an industry especially Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) kaduna. The general problem was also emphasized on such problems as negligence of management of store activities, construction cost, poor storage design. Also discussed is objective of the study which include, to examine the effect of store design on materials handling to ascertain difficulties associated with store design on materials handling. The significant of the study to the academic, the organization, the entire populace and the researcher is also discussed research question was also derived which include to know if store design have effect on material handling and the difficulties associated with store design. The survey research designed is adopted simple sampling procedure was employed. The researcher used questionnaire, interview and documentary source techniques too retrieve data. The likert four rating scale techniques is adopted to analyse the data. Finding made among which are, that store design have a great effect on materials handling activities in the organization that the organization store design is often faced with difficulties and that engagement of professional will help to curb the difficulties faced by the store design. Also the researcher included that the design of store should be in accordance with the store operational activities of the firms, that the organization placed on importance consideration on store design and lastly amongst recommendation made are, the engagement of professional in the management of he store design activities of the organization, align the store design with the organization activities to effect the effectiveness of the activities and that the top management should give a considerable support to the design of the store activities to ensure its effectiveness.

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EFFECT OF STORE DESIGN ON MATERIALS HANDLING

EFFECT OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT AS A KEY TO ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

EFFECT OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT AS A KEY TO ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

ABSTRACT
          The study of the effect of inventory management as a key to organizational effectiveness in selected Grand Oak Ltd as a case study to assess the impact of proper inventory management on organizational performances.
          Research method especially case study were employed in carrying out the study. The population of the study is 100. Data were generated using questionnaire, interview, observation book, journal and the internet. Data are generated using percentage. The finding indicates that there is significant relationship between good inventory management and organizational effectiveness. The study concluded that inventory management is very vital to the success and growth of organization the entire profitability of an organization is tied to the volume of product sold which has a direct relationship with the quality of the product.
CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
          Inventories are vital to the successful functioning of manufacturing and service organization. They may consist of raw materials, work-in-progress, spare parts/consumables, and finished goods. It is not necessary that an organization has all these inventory classes. But, whatever way be the inventory items, they need efficient management as generally, a substantial share of its fund is invented in them. Different departments within the same organization adopt different attitudes towards inventory. This is mainly because the particular functions performed by a department influence the department’s motivation. For example, the sales department might desire large stock in reserve to meet virtually every demand that comes. The production department similarly would ask for stock of materials so that the production system runs uninterrupted. One the other hand, the finance department would always agree for a minimum investment in stock so that the funds could be used elsewhere for other better purposes.
          According to Temeng et al (2010:195), historically, however organizations have ignored the potential savings from proper inventory management, treating inventory as a necessary evil and not as an asset requiring management. As a result, many inventory systems are based on arbitrary rules. Unfortunately, it is not  unusual for some organizations to have more funds invested in inventory than necessary and still not be able to meet customers’ demands because of poor distribution of investment among inventory items. Based on the above analogy, therefore, this paper evaluates the inventory management and organizational effectiveness in manufacturing Organizations

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EFFECT OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT AS A KEY TO ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS

EFFECT OF ADVERTISEMENT ON CONSUMER PURCHASE DECISION IN FOOD AND BEVERAGES INDUSTRY

EFFECT OF ADVERTISEMENT ON CONSUMER PURCHASE DECISION IN FOOD AND BEVERAGES INDUSTRY

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.0  INTRODUCTION
The success of any business organization depends on the level and rate at which it can penetrate into the complex and dynamic market. They increasing complexity of modern business environment has made it possible without engaging in some kind of manipulation of some promotional mix especially advertising. Therefore advertising as an element of promotional mix become indispensable materials with which organization makes their products known to the consuming populace.
However advertising cannot be taken with levity in the marketing of an organization to create awareness about its product and to make its product well known and more acceptably by consumers. The above challenges in the business environment and some industries have prompted this research work.
1.1.         STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
 Effects of a advertising on consumers range from creating an awareness of the product or service to influencing a buying decision. Advertising can create a shift in thinking by consumers, which may take different forms.
 However, brand awareness future buying decision effects won’t likely influence consumers to buy the product immediately. Finally, advertising ignites viewers desires because of unimportant things and lead many into fraud
1.2.         OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
 To examine the justification for advertisement in an organization.
To ascertain various form of advertisement strategies adopted by industry.
To examine the impact of advertisement in purchasing decision of consumers.
1.3.         IMPORTANT OF THE STUDY
There are numerous importance that would be evaluated and generated from this study are the following.
 This study will benefit to business administration and marketing students by aiding and easing their learning.
For business people, it will help them to know the best way of advertising their products known to the people and to bring about more profit to them,
 Academically, the study will benefit the incoming students aiming at focusing on advertising as their research study. They will be able to retrieve useful information necessary for the study.
 To the society or economy generally this study improved sales and increase profit of industries which will in turn facilitate high rate employment as a result of increasing in product and revenue.

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EFFECT OF ADVERTISEMENT ON CONSUMER PURCHASE DECISION IN FOOD AND BEVERAGES INDUSTRY

EFFECTIVE PROCUREMENT AND PROFIT MAXIMIZATION IN A MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION

EFFECTIVE PROCUREMENT AND PROFIT MAXIMIZATION IN A MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER ONE
1.1     INTRODUCTION
          Effective procurement is one of the key functions of any manufacturing organization; profit is the excess of return over expenditure in any transaction or service of transaction especially the excess of selling price of goods over their cost or the net income for a given period of time. The word profit to the aforementioned fact, is the ratio of profit for a given year to the amount of invested or to the value of sales. In distance profit to some business experts is the compensation accruing to entrepreneurs for the assumption of risk in business enterprise of distinguished from wages or rent? However; in making the maximization of profit a reality in any business setup, the management team must be ready to harness her strength by making used of her available resources in maximum, implies the uses of the entire latent and uncultivated avenue for possible investment to suppress the environmental threats.
          Any cost incurred by a firm may be classed into two groups. Fixed cost and variable cost. Fixed costs are incurred by the business at any level of output, including none. These may include equipment maintenance, rent, wages and general up keep. Variable cost changes with the level of output, increasing as more products are generated. Materials consumed during production often have the largest impact on this category. Fixed cost and variable cost, combined, equal total cost. Revenue is the total amount of money that flows in to the firm. This can be from any source, including product sales, government subsidies, venture capital and personal find.
          Profit to an economist is the differences between total revenue and total cost or symbolically it is = TR – TC where represent profit. In view of these, business man, manufacture investors, marketers and what have you must ensure the effective validation of marketing tools and techniques through planning, implementation, monitoring and control to establish an equilibrium between the company(s) available and potential resources and the desire of the consuming populace towards profit maximization actualization.

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EFFECTIVE PROCUREMENT AND PROFIT MAXIMIZATION IN A MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION

IMPACT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ON CUSTOMERS’ SATISFACTION AND BANK PROFITABILITY

IMPACT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ON CUSTOMERS’ SATISFACTION AND BANK PROFITABILITY

ABSTRACT
         A research cannot be carried out if there is no missing link or lacunars or it there is no question unanswered. Total quality management has been seriously dealt with in this research work to know it impact on customer satisfaction and bank profitability to some unanswered questions as to give answer.
         Chapter 1 familiarized us with the meaning of total quality management, the purpose of the study; it even states the research hypothesis, limitation and constraints, significance of the study, it even made us to know the historical background of the case study (First Bank Plc. Sango Ibadan.)Etc. We can see in chapter 2 the series of literature we reviewed to know what the past authors have said about total quality management. The theories under total quality management were also reviewed. Chapter 3 and chapter 4 dealt with research methodology and data presentation and analysis respectively. Questionnaire was used to collect the primary data and d researcher employed the use of table and simple percentage for the use of presentation and analysis. The hypothesis stated in chapter 1 was also put to test.
CHAPTER ONE
1.0  INTRODUCTION
It was believed that a nation’s economy is at its financial system. The banking industry performs very important function in the economic development of any nation. The primary and the most important function of the banking sector is the financial intermediation functions in which banks act as the financial intermediaries, mobilizing funds from the surplus units and making them available for the use of the deficit units of the economy.
          In carrying out their various function in the economy, bank have responsibilities towards their customers’ shareholders, the Government and the society. The banking industry had gone through a number of changes over the years and the most prominent of these changes is the ending of the “arm chair” banking system.In their  words, the industry continues having the impact of competitions, which brought about the need to put in place more serious strategies and effort in the delivery of banking products and services. Other sources of changes include, recapitalization of bank, liberalization of the economy signaling the re-entry of global banks, advancement of technology and the rapidly increasing sophistication and the demand of today’s bank customers. Today’s banks customers are more sophisticated in terms of their taste and demand for products and services. The customers are becoming global in terms of their access to information world-wide as a result of improved technology and the increasing globalization of the economy.

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IMPACT OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ON CUSTOMERS’ SATISFACTION AND BANK PROFITABILITY

LEADERSHIP THEORY AND ITS EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEES’ JOB PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANISATION

LEADERSHIP THEORY AND ITS EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEES’ JOB PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER ONE
1.1     INTRODUCTION
          The theory of leadership is the principle upon which leadership is based. That is, the general truth which is the foundation of leadership. In any organization, planning, organizing, co-ordinating and controlling are very important. All play important roles in the achievement of the organization’s goals and objectives. Planning is seen as the ability to forecast the future. It will assist the organization to define its goals and guides it in the achievement of the goals. Organizing means arranging and structuring of the people, the work to be done and the facilities to do the job so that goals can be achieved and the separate units of the organization are brought together in order to achieve the organizational goals. Controlling ensures that there is no deviation from the set goals and objectives.
          All these are called the functions of management. These functions of management however need to be performed by individual (s) who will use them in manipulating the subordinates towards the achievement of the organization’s goals. Such individual(s) is/are known as leader(s). Whenever two or more people direct the efforts of others toward achieving some desired objectives, one of the actors or participants usually exerts more influence on the group behaviour than the other and which the group looks up to for direction and instruction. Such a person is regarded as the leader of the group. With this, one can see that the act of leading, that is, leadership can be termed as what makes up the organization itself because when leadership is faulty, the employees will be misguided and this will in turn have negative effects on the attainment of the goals and objectives of the organization.
          Leadership, being the most visible aspect of management, operates within and binds group together. Its role in human society is highly demanding, it requires leaders not only to be dynamic but efficient and resourceful. Leading is the process of influencing and motivating people to work effectively. A leader motivates people in the advancement of goals and objectives in such a way to get obedience of the subordinates willingly and enthusiastically. He must be able to inspire members to be dedicated and to contribute meaningfully to the development of the organization. A leader can thus motivate his followers by being considerate and exhibiting good leadership behaviour. A leader must not only be honest, he must be seen to be transparently honest. A dishonest leader has no moral justification preaching honesty to his followers. A leader is the pivot around which all other activities in an organization revolve. Implicit in understanding leadership are the concepts of power, people and influence. A leader possesses power to lead people and has influence (whether negative or positive) on the people under him.
          However, there are certain concepts of leadership which thus have effects on the performance of the employees. These concepts are styles of leadership to be adopted in a given situation, the qualities to be possessed by the leader, the ability of the leader to lead effectively, the ability of the leader to instil   discipline and sense of responsibility in the followers through implementing or changing their behaviour by guiding them to obey the rules ad to maintain acceptable performance.

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LEADERSHIP THEORY AND ITS EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEES’ JOB PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANIZATION

STOCKTAKING AND STOCKCONTROL AS AN AVENUE TO ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH

STOCKTAKING AND STOCK CONTROL AS AN AVENUE TO ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH

ABSTRACT
          There is absolute need for adequate stocktaking and stock control in an organization. The researcher lay more emphasis on stocktaking for efficient stock control of an organization. The project is divided into five chapters.
          Chapter one deals with introductory of the aspect of the project. This entails general description of the study, such as problems and its setting, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, limitation and definition of terms.
          Chapter two explicit more on the reviews of all materials that are related to the topic-stocktaking and stockcontrol as an avenue to organizational growth, the rationality of the research topic and relevant to its case study.
          Chapter three deals with the explanation of how the methodology is used by the researcher in his work. The research design, sample size, method of data collection, method of data analysis and research population.
          Chapter four explicit more on presentation, interpretation and analysis of data is mentioned in this chapter.
          Chapter five deals with summary, conclusion and recommendation of the research topic.
CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
          Business management has various branches and no business enterprise ever succeed without all of these branches coming together to work effectively and efficiently as they should. If a part of human body is not functioning well, then the whole body will suffer the pain. This explains the relationship between the various functional departments of any business organization. If one department is inefficient or not functioning as it should, it will strongly undetermine the efficiency of others. This is why it is very important for all the branches in any organization to be harmonized and galvanized so that they will see themselves as one and aiming progressively to actualize a certain goal.
          This is why materials management expert have confirmed it that materials are the heart of any organization, and because no human being can survive without blood, the organization cannot survive without materials, this is why conscious effort has to be made at acquiring materials in a way that will save the organization cost. These materials must be efficiently utilized.
          Stocktaking and stockcontrol are those activities performed which are aimed at ensuring the availability of material both in the right quantity and quality. This helps the organization not to witness a stock-out situation or capital tie down inform of heavy stock carrying. And the method that can help in avoiding these two abnormal phenomena is considered to be a good stocktaking and stock control techniques exercise in the organization like the Nigeria Breweries

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STOCKTAKING AND STOCK CONTROL AS AN AVENUE TO ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH

THE IMPACT OF SOURCING AS A SUPPLY CHAIN FUNCTION ON THE PROFITABILITY OF A COMPANY

THE IMPACT OF SOURCING AS A SUPPLY CHAIN FUNCTION ON THE PROFITABILITY OF A COMPANY

ABSTRACT
A visit to most production company as shows that sourcing now have a great impact on the profitability of a company. Such as lowering cost structures, maintaining the product quality of a company, ability to meet customer requirements, and lot of other benefits.
This study attempts to evaluate the impact of sourcing in the profitability of company using ZARTECH LIMITED as a case study. It seeks to examine the responses of the procurement department on how suppliers are selected during the process of procurement of materials, which will eventually help to increase the company’s profit.
This study drew literature on sourcing strategies and its benefits from several sources. Data were gathered from Zartech limited and also from other sources like internet, text books, journal e.tc. Results of analysis of the data collected show that the company contacted are convinced that sourcing is a necessity for the profitability of any company however they agreed that sourcing strategies should be effectively carried out. Other facts were elucidated by the study but generalization of the study findings cannot be total, due to certain limitations.
CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
Over the years, procurement function contains activities that have attracted the attention of many researchers and companies worldwide. However, most studies conducted focused only on the manufacturing industries and associated with functional indicator.
          This research presents and discusses some key points and noticed important changes recording the ways business are carried out. In connection with the market worldwide process managerial models have been customer constantly reviewed and improved, as well as new concepts and paradigms, such as the contemporary business and mass customization, have quickly emerged. It is this competitive context that the supply chains management (SCM) should be understood. A supply chain can be represented by a group of integrated logical process that originates from source of raw materials and comprises several companies, until products are delivered to final customers in form of goods and aggregated services.
          In the past, every layman in Nigeria were ignorant of what exactly purchasing and supply is all about. Most people believe that procurement of raw materials is non-task or a non-issue matter. Foremost, most manufacturing companies of which ZARTECH LIMITED MAYA happens to be one of them, dispose more than half of its income on materials, supplies and services. We would bear in mind that intensive sourcing is the rudiments of purchasing. Sourcing comprises of the identification or development of suitable sources. Sourcing decision indicates which supplier to patronize. How many suppliers are needed to supply a given item?
          How to allocate available business and in what term to do the business, the continuing relationship both with preferred sources which are still in the running although they have been passed over for the present. For its proper performance, sourcing requires supply market research. This is often undertaken informally by the buyers as part of their buying work, when they interview salesman, visit exhibition, read trade journals, obtain catalogues and research the market before placing an order. It is sometime undertaking formally by research personnel, in a purchasing services section as a support function to the buyers. Supply market research identifies the set of actual and potential supply sources which contribute the market, investigates their capabilities analyses the structural features of the market trends and long term supply prospects, and generally keep on ear to the ground.

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THE IMPACT OF SOURCING AS A SUPPLY CHAIN FUNCTION ON THE PROFITABILITY OF A COMPANY

THE IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM DEPORT TO SALES OUTLET

THE IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM DEPORT TO SALES OUTLET

ABSTRACT

          Transportation plays a key role in the development of a nation. This factor has long been seen as a major element helping the Economy to grow rapidly. It has recently been observed that transportation assist other sectors of the economy in carrying out their functions. In the course of this research work, it was discovered that much needed attention is not been given to transportation. In the course of this research work, NNPC depot is chosen as a case study for the research work. A theoretical analysis, backed by observations, oral interview at depot and review of so many authors contributed to the successful of this research work after which hypothesis were formulated and tested with response from the sample size.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
Development is made possible by many factors. Transport is the leading factor. Economic and social progress can only take place if the determinants of a satisfactory life that is food, health, education and employment are generally available.
          In recent years, transport have seen a revolution with the advent of mass air travel, high and rapidly rising of personal mobility based on car ownership as well as public vehicles and restructured distribution channel. All these have encouraged the growth of industries and commerce in a country. This can be summed up in this quote that say: transport provided the formative power of economic growth and the differentiating process” (Voigt 1967). The Economy is now looking at transportation to provide rapid growth.
1.1     HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) depot Apata was established in 1979. It is controlled by the products and pipelines marketing company (PPMC). This Company is a subsidiary company of the NNPC while NNPC is a Federal Government Corporation.

 

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THE IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM DEPORT TO SALES OUTLET

THE ROLE OF NEGOTIATION SKILLS IN PURCHASING AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

THE ROLE OF NEGOTIATION SKILLS IN PURCHASING AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

 

ABSTRACT
 A research cannot be carried out if there is no missing link or lacunars or it there is no question unanswered. Negotiation skills has been seriously dealt with in this research work to know it role on purchasing and contracts management to some unanswered question as to give answer.
Chapter one  familiarized us with the meaning of Negotiation skills, statement of problem, objective of the study, important of the study, limitations and constraints, Historical background of (Fan Milk Nigeria Plc, Ibadan), organization structure of Fan milk Nigeria Plc, Ibadan, research question etc.
We can see in chapter two the series of literature we reviewed to know what the past authors have said about Negotiation skills. The theories under Negotiation skill were also reviewed.
Chapter three and chapter four dealt with research methodology and data presentation and analysis respectively. Questionnaire was used to collect the primary data and researcher employed the use of table and simple percentage for the use of presentation and analysis. The hypothesis stated in chapter one was also put to test.
The summary of our findings, recommendation and conclusion were done in chapter five (5).
CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
Negotiation is a fact of life. Everyone negotiates something every day. Negotiation is a method by which people settle differences. Negotiation is one of the instruments employed by the buyer organization in order to reach a fair and reasonable price through sound discussion. Negotiation forms a substantial part of most purchasing officer or agent’s needs to be able to analyse and interpret information and be aware of danger involved  in any wrong decisions by the parties involved.
          It is also important to recognise that the main task of the purchasing manager in fulfilling and carrying out his operation of maintaining suppliers is negotiation. The purchasing manager is a specialist in satisfying the needs of the company by seeking suitable sources of supply and negotiating to secure the best terms and services possible. Negotiation involves two or more parties with the aim of reaching an agreement of their term dissemination. Whenever it is required or reconcile two or more differing opinions in order to initiate the action or continue in mutually agreed condition. It is very vital that all buying and selling transactions leave both parties satisfied and hence acceptance on any of the parties.

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THE ROLE OF NEGOTIATION SKILLS IN PURCHASING AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

THE ROLES AND IMPORTANCE OF PURCHASING AS A BUSINESS ACTIVITY IN AN ORGANISATION

THE ROLES AND IMPORTANCE OF PURCHASING AS A BUSINESS ACTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER ONE
1.0     INTRODUCTION
          Successful business management rely mostly on well co-ordinated function of activities, these include finance, personnel, production, marketing and purchasing. All of these functions form this activities that makes up a business organisation, however if one these functions is weak, it will definitely affect the overall efficiency of the other functions. Purchasing which is one of the   business activities is as old as the birth of business enterprise itself and it is considered to be the basic function of activity in an organisation.
          Purchasing is the attempt by business organizations to acquire goods or services or materials needed in order to accomplish the goals of the enterprise. This can be viewed from two perspective namely as a function and as a system.
          Purchasing as a function is that aspect of business enterprise which ensures the uninterrupted flow of needed materials into the organisation having in mind profitability and economy, while purchasing as a system involves the acquisition of materials, equipment goods and services which are essential for the operations of a business organisation.
          Unfortunately, since top management historically had focus on Marketing, Finance, Research and Development and Production, purchasing which is a basic function was not given much recognition, it was seen as a minor function and this led to the recruitment of clerks who were not skilled in the profession as purchasing officers. These created a lot of quality problems to the firms and led to the closure of some, but the Second World War, industrial revolution and the emergence of competition created a problem of scarce resources, then there was the need for tactical purchasing, this was when management started given more recognition to purchasing.
          Purchasing simply mean procurement and this include some processes which are sourcing, preparation of purchase order, expediting, receiving and inspection of order, invoice audit and invoice settlement, all of those will depend on the purchase requisition sent by the needing department to the purchasing department.
          The purchasing department is the heaviest spender of the organisation resources and contributes directly to the profit of the organisation through purchase discount and  efficient buying.
          The purchasing department is charged with the purchasing functions and any purchase made by this department is known as organizational purchasing.
1.1     DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
–        PURCHASE REQUISITION: This is a precise document generated by an internal organization to notify the purchasing department of items needed or the items it need to order.
–        PURCHASE ORDER: This is a commercial document issued by a buyer (i.e Purchasing department) to a seller (i.e Supplier) indicating types, quantities and agreed prices for products or services the seller will provide to the buyer.
–        SOURCING: This refers to a number of procurement practice aimed at finding, evaluating and engaging suppliers of goods and services.
–        EXPEDITING: This is a concept in purchasing for securing the quality and timely delivery of goods and services ordered for.
–        PURCHASE DISCOUNT: This is an offer from the supplier to the purchaser to reduce the selling price if the payment is made within a certain period of time.
–        PROCUREMENT: This concept purchasing mean to obtain or take possession of materials needed for smooth operation.

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THE ROLES AND IMPORTANCE OF PURCHASING AS A BUSINESS ACTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION

THE INFLUENCE OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON ORGANIZATIONAL FINANCIAL PERFOMANCE

THE INFLUENCE OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON ORGANIZATIONAL FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

ABSTRACT

A large majority of organizations worldwide commit large amounts of funds to inventory management which constitutes most significant part of their current assets. The organizations strive, through their departments of – purchasing, production, sales and finance, to manage inventories efficiently and effectively so as to avoid unnecessary tying of capital. The aim of inventory management is to minimize costs of ordering, carrying and not carrying sufficient inventory. Poor inventory effects include – remarkable differences between stock records and physical stock, inadequate records and recording, availability of obsolete and obsolescence stores, greater complaints from customers due to unfulfilled orders, disorganized stores, damaged stocks and loss of financial resources. This study assessed the influence of Inventory Management Practices on Organizational Financial at the National Micro finance Bank Headquarters Dar es Salaam.

The study conducted a survey of the National Microfinance Bank at the NMB Headquarters. The questionnaire targeted a selected sample of the NMB staff. Pursuant to that, the study strived to answer three questions – i) What are the factors that affect inventory management practices in organization?; ii) What is the effect of inventory management practices on return on equity?; and iii) What is the effect of inventory management practices on return on sales?

The study found out that, among crucial factors affecting inventory management practices in NMB were – skills and knowledge among staff; involvement of management in procurement planning; and existence of procurement policies which are adhered to by staff in the implementation of inventory management processes. The study also revealed corresponding growth in sales and profits in 2013 which resulted in constant growth of business with big value generated by NMB through its ROE and ROS. The results have led to shareholders earning TZS 34 billion in form of dividends while GoT received TZS 79.6 billion as income taxes, PAYE, SDL etc; NMB paid staff salaries and emoluments at TZS 99.7 billion; and spent TZS 1.05 billion in sponsorships, Public Relations donations etc. to other stakeholders and the public.

CHAPTER ONE
OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
1.0         Introduction
This chapter presents an introduction to the Influence of Inventory Management Practices on Organizational Financial Performance: The Case of The National Micro finance Bank Headquarters Dar es Salaam. It also casts some light on the financial performance of NMB. It provides background information to the NMB, its organization, structure and sheds light on the problem addressed by the study. The chapter goes on to present objectives of the study, the research questions that the study is answering together with its significance, scope, limitations, delimitations and it also shows how the study was organized.
1.1         Background Information on the Problem
Inventory is one of the real assets. It is the lifeblood of any business by ensuring that organizations keep customer by improving responsiveness to orders made by customers and improved in-house services to other employees. Therefore, organizations need to be keen when managing inventories to ensure that its doesn’t suffer by tying up working capital or fail to retain customers due to shortage of products or failure to provide a required service. But how many companies balance between the two objectives?
The current competition in Business World has lead to the organization to be very keen in managing their inventories and the means associated with inventory management practices. The inventories generally comprise of finished goods, semi finished goods and raw materials that together need effectiveness and efficiency in managing which later will guarantee the profitability in the organization (Jessop, 1999).

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THE INFLUENCE OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON ORGANIZATIONAL FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF NIGERIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF NIGERIAN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Academics and practitioners have been striving to establish and agreed upon definitions of the concept of corporate social responsibility for over 30 years. Davis (1960) suggested that social responsibility refers to businesses’ “decisions and actions taken for reasons at least partially beyond the firm’s direct economic or technical interest.”Eells and Walton (1961) also argued that corporate social responsibility refers to the “problems that arise when corporate enterprise casts its shadow on the social scene, and the ethical principles that ought to govern the relationship between the corporation and the society” (p.5).In today’s dynamic business environment, corporate organisations are faced with the needs to impact positively on the host communities, by taking upon themselves certain responsibilities in order to increase their societal and environment influence. Organisations also included social and environmental concerns in business operations rather than focusing on profit making only. Organisations have developed a variety of strategies for dealing with this intersection of societal needs, the natural environment, and corresponding business imperatives with respect to how deeply and how well they are integrating social responsibility approaches into both strategy and daily operations worldwide.Many organisations such as banks and some manufacturing companies in Nigeria are driven by the need to make more and more profits and that is the sole aim of every business. In a bid to meet this target, some companies do not adequately respond to the needs of host communities, employees’ welfare (cheap labour often preferred), environmental protection and community development. Research has shown that corporate social responsibility can increase profitability, sustainability, integrity and reputation of any business that includes it in its policy.Nkanga (2007) posited that corporate social responsibility involves the commitment shown by companies to contribute to the economic development of a local community and the society at large. The adoption of corporate social responsibility policy should not be driven or motivated by increased profit. Rather, giving back to the society that gave to the business first should be the motivating factor. It is a common practice by Nigerian organisations to put as one of their mission statements the provision of corporate social responsibility. The organisations must have realised that stating corporate social responsibility as one of their mission statements hold special appeal to the stakeholders. Hence, there is an increasing awareness and recognition accorded corporate social responsibility by corporations.Some critics according to Carpenter, et al. (2010) have argued that corporate social responsibility as implemented by some organisations is mere facade. It is widely believed by many that corporate social responsibility efforts are mere campaigns by organisations to promote corporate brands. Many Nigerians are ignorant of corporate social responsibility; hence, whenever an organisation does something ‘supposedly big’ for the society, such a company and its management are eulogized for being caring and philanthropic.Manufacturing companies in Nigeria are expected to manage the impacts of their operations by adopting corporate social responsibility (corporate social responsibility) programme.  Onwuegbuchi (2009) in his studies on corporate social responsibility among manufacturing firms reported that most manufacturing companies in Nigeria embarked on corporate social responsibility programme for the purpose philanthropic gesture and for government and public appraisal. He further stated that some manufacturing companies applied environmental and labour standards that suit them to satisfy basic requirements of the laws of the country.The Nigerian government should ensure that manufacturing companies’ corporate social responsibility policy entails self-regulation, adherence to rules and regulations, ethical standards, environmental responsibility and sustainability, consumers’ satisfaction, employee welfare, communities and stakeholders benefits.The problems of the environment in which an organisation operates cannot be ignored. Therefore, there is a need to examine the problems and prospects of corporate social responsibility in Nigeria. In its stronger form, the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (corporate social responsibility) asserts that corporations have an obligation to consider the interests of customers, employees, shareholders, communities, as well as the ecological ”footprint” in all aspects of their operations.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Despite the huge attention recently given to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Nigeria, anarea of concernstill remainorganisations in the manufacturing sector. Most manufacturing organisations still do not see any reason for corporate social responsibilitypolicy acceptability. Companies that reluctantly accepted and adopted the corporate social responsibility policy, do so for profit-making purpose.Another lacking area on corporate social responsibility is that most of the studies on corporate social responsibility were conducted on nations with developed economies and their findings were found out not to be applicable to some developing nation’s economy like the Nigeria. Therefore, this study will examine the problems and prospects of corporate social responsibilities in Nigeria using the manufacturing industry as a case study. It is ironic that these organisations take resources from the external environment and it is only natural to give back what has been exploited. Unfortunately, this anomaly is a norm in this part of the globe and this cankerworm can only be ameliorated through research thesis such as this, publication, media publicity, campaigns and awareness emphasising the importance of corporate social responsibility in our society.1.3

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The broad objective of this study is to examine the problems and prospects of corporate social responsibility in the Nigerian manufacturing industry. Specifically, the study is designed to:Investigate how corporate social responsibility (corporate social responsibility) influences organisationalreputation in the Nigerian manufacturing industry.Cross-examine the difference between level of perceived customers’ patronage and brand loyalty among companies that practices corporate social responsibility and organisations that donot practice corporate social responsibilityin the Nigerian manufacturing industry.Analyse how corporate social responsibility adoption influences organisational performance and profitability.Assess the economic, social and environmental factors influencing corporate social responsibility (corporate social responsibility) adoption among manufacturing companies in Nigeria.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The manufacturing industry plays a significant role in the growth and development of the Nigerian economy, and corporate social responsibility ought to be a voluntary act by the manufacturing companies. It should not have to be forced on organisations by the law, government, and civil rights groups or by the communities. Social responsibility should be a deliberate inclusion of public interest into corporate decision-making and the honouring of a triple bottom line of people and profit making.In this dissertation there are four specific research questions coined after the statement of the problem and they are listed below.

Are there differences between level of perceived customers’ patronage and loyalty among companies that practices corporate social responsibility and those that do not practice corporate social responsibility in the Nigerian manufacturing industry?

What extent would corporate social responsibility adoption influence organisational performance and profitability?

What are the economic, social and environmental factors responsible for the poor performance of corporate social responsibility (corporate social responsibility) adoption among manufacturing companies in Nigeria?

1.5   RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

To provide empirical answers to the research questions above, the following research hypothesis were developed. They are as stated below; Hypothesis I

H0:       Corporate social responsibility (corporate social responsibility) does not influence organisational reputation in the Nigerian manufacturing industry.

H1:       Corporate social responsibility (corporate social responsibility) influencesorganisational reputation in the Nigerian manufacturing industry.

 

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EFFECTIVE CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION AS A STRATEGIC TOOLS IN PURCHASING OF TECHNICAL GOODS A CASE STUDY OF JEWACO ELECTRONICS

EFFECTIVE CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION AS A STRATEGIC TOOLS IN PURCHASING OF TECHNICAL GOODS A CASE STUDY OF JEWACO ELECTRONICS

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
For any organization to be effective there should be effective distribution channel or process to convey finished products from the manufacturer to the final consumers. This is because without distribution the best product will not be delivered and the marketing mix will break down and fail. As a result of this, firms are increasingly adopting supply chain management to reduce cost, increase market share and sales, and build solid customer relations (Ferguson 2000). The idea of using an effective channels of distribution as a strategic tool in purchasing of technical goods can be viewed as a philosophy based on the belief that each firm in the supply chain directly and indirectly affects the performance of all the other supply chain members, as well as ultimately, overall supply chain performance (Cooper et al, 1997). The effective use of this philosophy requires that functional and supply-chain partner activities are aligned with company strategy and harmonized with organizational structure, processes, culture, incentive and people (Abell 1999).
Distribution channel consists of a group of individuals or organizations that assist in getting the product to the right place at the right time. Distribution plays a vital role, primarily because it ultimately affects the sales turnover and profit margins of the organization. If the product cannot reach its chosen destination at the appropriate time, then it can erode competitive advantage and customer retention. The retail industry is responsible for the distribution of finished products to the consumer as well as the public. The retail sector comprises of general retailers (managed by individuals/families), departmental stores, specialty stores and discount stores.
In practice, many organizations use a mix of different channels; in particular, they may complement a direct sales-force, calling on the larger accounts, with agents, covering the smaller customers and prospects. However, the major challenge now facing the retail industry is the power of the customers or buyers. This is because the customers are becoming increasingly knowledgeable, impatient, not wishing to wait for the suppliers’ products for any period of time. This coupled with the fact that firms are now trying to implement specific distribution strategy or practices based upon their unique set of competitive priorities and business conditions to achieve the desired level of performance, has led to an investigation into the various distribution strategies and practices available with the view to establish the strategy or practice which has the most influence on the purchase of technical goods in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Most producers use intermediaries to bring their products to market. They use a set of interdependent organizations in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption by the consumer or business user. This process is what has been known as distribution channel (Philip Kotler 2001).
Distribution describes all the logistics involved in delivering a company’s products or services to the right place, at the right time, for the lowest cost. In the unending efforts to realize these goals, the channel of distribution selected by a business play a vital role in this process. Well-chosen channel constitute a significant competitive advantage, while poorly conceived or chosen channel can doom even a superior product or service to failure in the market.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
To examine the processes involved in the effective channel of distribution.
To ascertain in effective channel of distribution can be used as a strategic tool in purchasing technical goods.
To identify the factors to be considered in purchasing technical goods.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What are the processes involved in the effective channel of distribution?
Can effective channel of distribution be used as a strategic tool in purchasing technical goods?
What are the factors to be considered in purchasing technical goods?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
The results from this study will educate business managers on the processes involved in the effective channel of distribution. It will also educate on how to use effective channel of distribution as a strategic tool in purchasing of technical goods.
This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover the approaches involved in using effective channel of distribution as a strategic tool in purchasing technical goods in Jewaco limited.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
REFERENCES
Abell, L. (1999) Cited in Piercy, N. (2002), Market-Led Strategic Change, 3rd edition, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Ferguson, R.H(2000) Business Logistics Management, 3rd ed. Englewood
Kotler, P(1999) Principles of Marketing, second edition, Prentice Hall USA

 

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IMPACT OF MATERIAL SOURCING IN ENHANCING THE ORGANIZATIONAL PROFITABILITY

IMPACT OF MATERIAL SOURCING IN ENHANCING THE ORGANIZATIONAL PROFITABILITY

 

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Material Sourcing is a set of tangible physical attributes assembly in an identifiable form. That is given the rapid changes in taste, technology and competition, organization will not rely solely on its existing supplier but look forward to get better sources of materials.
An organization can use three ways to minimize cost of sourcing materials, by interviewing her customers, by negotiation with the suppliers, by sourcing for better materials, we mean original material that can go into production and come out with quality product; and in the study, we will be concentrating on material sourcing as a way of increasing an organization’s profitability.
As a matter of fact, sourcing for the right material is like human being whose life span has to be treated to keep it working in order to add value, profit to the organization in the view that organization will not die subsequently. The death of organization lays on the fact that proper material are not acquired.
In the light of the above, it is necessary for organization will adopt the system of sourcing for materials to develop and grow their profitability, to achieve this successfully, sourcing strategies are required to be adopted, these are right material, right price, right negotiation, right place, right qualities, right quantities, right sources, right time etc.
In a nutshell, the study will dwell mainly on the impact of material sourcing to maximize organization profitability.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Most organization especially production oriented organization like Nigeria Breweries spent about 60% to 70% of its annual expenditure on the acquisition of raw materials. Some of the major problems confronting any manufacturing industries are: high cost of materials will affect profit margin of the organization and also incompetence of supplies, if the suppliers are not competent in making right qualities supply will become problem to organization in profitability area.
High cost involved in sourcing suppliers whole material needed for organization. Improper sourcing policy, sourcing for organizational profitability need to be proper that right material will be supplied.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The purpose or objectives of the study is to examine the impact of material sourcing in enhancing the organizational profitability, its importance, how effective and efficient it is to the overall achievement of the organizational goal and objectives. Under the aspect, the researcher hope to realize the following:
i) To determine the most effective sourcing policies adopted by Nigeria Breweries.
ii) To determine the criteria for selecting supplier in Nigeria Breweries.
iii) To determine the challenges of manager in material sourcing
iv) To determine the impact of material resource on the profitability of Nigeria Breweries.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This research work is conducted primarily to meet the requirements of obtaining the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in Purchasing and Supply in Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna abides being an academic research. The study will add to the knowledge of the interested individual or group on the subject matter.
The researcher chose this topic to highlight the inherent danger and consequence of adopting poor performance in material delays as problem associated with sourcing with a view of providing solution or applied to sourcing activities in the organization like Nigeria Breweries Plc. It will show the impact in the organization performance and profitability in Nigeria Breweries.
Another vital reason of the study is to contribute to the existing literature in the area of sourcing, types of sourcing, sourcing policy, sourcing process etc for future reference. It will enable a layman in the profession to have first hand information on bio sourcing activities is being carried out. Also the students of the department and other department will find this project an important relevant source of literature review in the area of sourcing ‘material sourcing’ further study will suggest ways that the organization can carryout its sourcing efficiently.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The research will be looking at improve on materials sourcing for organization profitability. This chapter will make use of population size of 100 staff and the research will use the sample size of 20 was adopted from the population of which describe the characteristics of the population.
Secondly, this chapter will strict to the procurement, production and administrative department. The study will take activities of materials and sourcing of Nigeria Breweries Plc in the last 5 years from 2009 to 2013.
1.6 Research Questions
The research question includes:
i) What are the determining factors affecting sourcing policies adopted by Nigeria Breweries?
ii) What are the criteria for selecting suppliers in Nigeria Breweries?
iii) What are the challenges facing managers in materials sourcing?
iv) What are the factors that lead to impact of material sourcing on the profitability of Nigeria Breweries?
1.7 Definition of Terms
§ Raw Materials: Are items, which are to be processed through production process to obtain desired finished goods.
§ Purchasing: it is the process of ensuring that all the materials required for production made available at the proper time, in the proper quality at a proper place and price.
§ Information: Data can be interpreted by an individual to provide meaning, a tangible or tangible entity that reduce uncertainty about a state or an event.
§ Sourcing: The event to which buyers search or suppliers to build long term relationship.
§ Outsourcing: An arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that choses not to perform them in house.
§ Negotiation: Is the art and science of arriving at a common understanding through bargaining with essentials of a control, such as price, quality, quantity, delivery, time, terms and condition of services.
§ Selecting: Is the process of selecting the right suppliers to source or outsource.
§ Bid/Tender: Is an offer made by a supplier, contractor or services provider to a buyer in a response to a direct “written” or indirect “advert” enquiry.
§ Biding/Tendering: Is a purchasing procedure by which potential suppliers invited without collusion to present to an organization, a firm and clear offer of price, terms and conditions which upon acceptance of contract.
§ Time: When organization cannot meet up with time or cannot complete the whole task within the specified period, the organization can outsource a part of the product in other to meet up with schedules.
§ Quality Specification: Is the description of an item, its dimension, analysis, performance or other relevant characteristics in sufficient detail to ensure that it will be suitable in all respect for the purpose it is wanted.

 

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EFFECT OF STORE DESIGN ON MATERIALS HANDLING A CASE STUDY OF POWER HOLDING COMPANY OF NIGERIA (PHCN) KADUNA

EFFECT OF STORE DESIGN ON MATERIALS HANDLING A CASE STUDY OF POWER HOLDING COMPANY OF NIGERIA (PHCN) KADUNA

Chapter I:
1.1 Background of the Study
A store is an essential limb of an organization. It is the depository of all materials required by the organizations in the organization and supplies materials as an when required.
It is important to note that the store is an area of great expenditure in manufacturing and assembling plant. It is true that store function is a major cost centre which make use of 70-75% annual budget of the firm (Dangana 2005) and thus it can affect saving and therefore contribute significantly and therefore contribute significantly to the profit of the organization.
However, in today’s highly competitive and globalized business world, store design is of great importance as a substantial number of instances have show that people charge with the function and responsibility of designing and managing the store are given little or no attention in the organization. This may be as a result of poor understanding store design or inappropriate application of it.
More so, the variety of items sometimes, store is so large that a planned system is necessary to keep the secured and in order. The stored items should be identified and issues with minimum effort and minimum time. Thus this calls for a store structure suitable to carry on various activities efficiently and productivity and developing a system that ensure safety of men and materials.
Most often the design of a store house determiners to a large extent the materials movement pattern and the limited type of handling equipment that can be used. This result in fact that most customers demand for goods and services within and outside the organization are incremental in nature as they opt for speedy, convenient and reliable delivery of materials and service.
However, the need to curtail the amount of waste and improve the level of customer’s service within such organization has brought the use of the term store design ad its impact in materials handling. It should also be noted at this junction that any knowledge of how a store should be designed must incorporate the knowledge of how a store should be designed must incorporate the knowledge of how materials would be moved.
Therefore, the research work develops the effective utilization of store design and it prospect in the organization with reference to enhancing and ensuring effective materials handling in the organization.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One vital decision that firms make is how to design and where locate their storage facilities. This decision goes a long way in determining the extent to which the firm will achieve its objectives. That is to get products and services to customer faster and at lesser cost to the firm and customers.
Neglecting to manage the activities effectively can result in inefficiencies that out weigh gains or benefit in good management of such vital activities as transportation materials handing, inventory management and maintenance and information flow.
However, organizations are faced with various problems to design a store house. Some of these problems may include; construction cost, cost of installation, cost of land, rate levied upon the new building by local authority and cost of survey, planning designing. Other problems may also include cost of materials handling i.e (equipment needed to load and off load materials and also for transporting materials), cost of storage equipment needed, and payment to building contact and for other incidental cost.
As a result, a poor storage design will result in poor performance such as materials damages and obsolescence, theft and pilfering, poor communication network, difficulties in the movement of materials within and outside etc regardless of the firms position in the industry or its product acceptability in other location.
1.3 Objective of the Study
i. To examine the effect of store design on materials handling
ii. To ascertain difficulties associated with store design on materials handing.
iii. To identify necessary solution to curb these difficulties.
iv. To determine the degree of importance of placed to store building in PHCN.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of the research will be useful to power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) Kaduna as it will enhance or improve the store design system and techniques effectively and efficiently.
Prospective researchers may find findings of the researcher as a reference point particularly for those who may wish to carry out further research on the related field under study.
To the entire populace, that come across this research work, the research work will provide them with the knowledge on the important store design on material handling is to an organization and it will also add value to their knowledge. Also it will serve as pre-requisite for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in Purchasing and Supply management.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research work is based on the effects of store design on materials handling with consideration to power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) Kaduna. Ali Akilu road Kaduna north local government. The research work will be centered on the effect of store design on materials handling in the organization with regard to the management and staff of PHCN.
The findings of this research work will primarily base on the data from the stores, distribution, marketing and production management of power holding company of Nigeria located at Ali Akilu road kaduna north local government kaduna.
1.6 Research Questions
i. Does store design have any effect on material handling?
ii. What are the difficulties associated with store design?
iii. What are the solution to curb these difficulties?
iv. What is the degree of importance placed on store building in PHCN?
1.7 Definition of Terms
Store: is a place where items may be accumulated or routinely kept. It is set up in order to receive, inspect, hold and issue all assets of an organization while helping to maintain its original quality and balance flow of materials as well as achieving the very important roles of store function.
Design: the way that something has been planned or made to draw or plan something that will be made, done or built in other to permit a smooth handling and storage of materials at the lowest possible cost.
Store design: could be described as the planning and layout of store house structure to permit smooth handling and storage of store at the lowest possible.
Material handling: as that operational activity involving manuals or automated movement of materials and other goods from one location to another within an organization or time in good condition and efficiently.
Shelves: a board for laying thing on or this is pieces of woods or iron that are placed on the wall where goods and other office materials are kept. In some places they are designed in cubes.
Pallets: a sample device that place mechanically operated forks under a load so that it can be raised up from grounds and are usually made of woods.
Gangways: this is a long and normally a narrow way in store house and environment for operating of handling equipment to facilitated movement of materials in and out of the store.
Stockyard: this is an open storage space with an organization in other words. It is a type of store not housed but segregated purposely for storage not of non perishable.
Receipt: is the process of accepting from all resource all materials and parts which are used in the organization including supplier for manufacturing, plant maintenance officer, capital installation and finished products.
Effect: change produced by an action or the result produced from the collusion of two or more variables.
Organization: are artificially continued structure with procedures and objectives defining responsibilities and highlighting who does what they of job task.
Dispatch: refer o terms being selected from stock and when marshaled documented loaded and subsequently delivered to their given destination.

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THE IMPACT OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT ON PURCHASING

THE IMPACT OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT ON PURCHASING

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction
Material Management was first discovered as very important function during the Second World War. After industrial revolution industries are sprining up in hundred everyday activities, raw materials and scare, production has become complex and the number of goods, components and raw materials have increased to thousand account head to be prepared and customer need to be attended to writing a short period of time. Alternative sources are required and new product need improvements and development with these problems in minds materials management in modern industries intends to have stated an attack these problem in a scientific manner to achieve optimum sources hence professionalism.
With the introduction of materials management into modern industries, the following advantages have accrued.
i) High sales
ii) Good records
iii) Low cost of requisition and processing
iv) Constituency of qualities
v) Favourable supplier relations
vi) Good storage facilities
Thus, the importance of materials management lies in the fact that any significant contribution made by materials management in reducing material cost will go long way in improving profitability and the rate of returns on investments. Today, material are the live hoods of any industries. No industrial concern can operate without them. They must be made available at the proper place, right source, right quality and at the proper price.
1.2 Objective of the Essay
The objective of the essay is to look at the significance of materials management on utilization source in manufacturing.
The objective of the study are as follows:
i) To discover problem facing store management in an organization.
ii) To discover and encourage the use of new techniques in the management in an organization.
iii) To determine the methods of coordinating its activities so that each function form an integral part of the whole organization.
iv) To estimate the degree of contribution of material planning to the efficiency of the organization performance.
v) To identify the various techniques used in solving various and problem that occurs in the organization so that corrective actions can be taken to achieve the goals and objectives.
1.3 Significance of the Study
Is a paramount important for researcher on the significance of the study and dope this extended essay will be of great important to store managers in an organization.
Which will be given in this study will go a long way to assisting the organization to improve their operation effective application of capital, human and material resources in the store department are no longer on option but a necessary pre-requisite survival and realization.
i) And also serve as pre-requisite for the award of National Diploma (ND) in Business Studies.
ii) To serve as reference for the store personnel, lecturers and students of various institutions for more information about material management.
Solution in the industry to take necessary corrective and realistic measure of materials. It will show the impact of in and organization efficiency and performance.
1.4 Scope of the Essay
The scope of essay will be centered on the material management on purchasing.
As a result of idea on material management, which cover a wide area, the project term intend to look into affair of the organization on material management and resource utilization from the past fourteen years 1992 to 2004. This research is restricted to specific area of materials management including invoice, Local Purchasing Order (L.P.O) purchase requisition note Bin Card, job order and form M.
This study cover the area, such as impact of materials, material handling etc which is the responsibility of management for the compute flow of materials to the satisfaction of users department in an organization.
1.5 Definition of Terms
Materials: In an industry it mean everything which is supplied to the production lines and so includes raw materials, components, sub assemblies, liquids powerest.
Organization: Is the grouping of related activities together and assigning those various activities or duties to various employees while at the same time giving them authority to perform those task.
Raw Materials: These combines all form of material that has to be converted into an end product.
Purchasing: Is the activity directed to securing by legal means, the materials suppliers, services and equipments required in the operation of an enterprise.
Quality: Is the totality of failures and characteristics of a product and services that bears on us ability to satisfy a given need.
Quantity: Refers to the value or amount of commodity required for a particular purpose or that can be economically purchased at a particular time.
Management: The word ‘management’ can be defined as control of human activities directed toward specific standard, which can be realized through the availability of resources such as men, machine, material and land.
Materials Management: Is the activities are frequently hand led by the local or officer level and involve regular communication with the suppliers concerning requirement such as order quantities and delivering data.

 

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The Impact of Material Handling Cost Reduction Effort In Public Institution(A Case Study of PHCN, kaduna)

The Impact of Material Handling Cost Reduction Effort In Public Institution(A Case Study of PHCN, kaduna)

CHAPTER I
1.1 Background of the Study
During the Second World War after the industrial revolution, industries sprang up in hundreds every day. As a result of the increase in industries, raw materials became scarce. This made production to be complex. Accounts needed to be prepared and customers needed to be attended to within a short period of time. Alternative sources were required and new product needed improvement and development. With this problem in mind, the material management concept was introduced with the view to solving them in a scientific manner to achieve optimal success and reduce production cost. By the 1950s and 1960s an uneven transition from the old concept of material management as clerical function to a newer function or concept of material management emerged which embraced inventory control, distribution and buying function. By late 1960s material management was recognized as an important function in an organization. Thus, the importance of material management lies in the fact that any significant contribution made by the materials manager in reducing material cost will go along way in reducing production cost and improving the profitability and the rate of return on investment. Today, materials are the livelihood of any industry, no industry can operate without them, they must be made available at the proper time, in proper quality, at the proper place and at the proper price.
Material handling is an integral aspect of material management that is concerned with the means by which materials move in the materials are moved from one stage of processing to the other in such a way that processing, safe movement and use of space is enhanced. Hence, it is also an integral part of a production process which does not really contribute to the value of what is being processed, but an integral part of a production process which does not really contribute greatly to the processing cost. It is for this reason that this research work tends to take a clerical look at the significance of material handling and its impact on production cost.
1.2 Statement of Problems
As it has been stated earlier, the impact of material handling on the production cost of an organization with particular reference to the PHCN industry, forms the basis of the research. This is not only because materials cost forms the overall 65% of the cost of running any organization according to some research in material management, but also because materials must be moved from one processing stage to another. Thus, there is always the need to effectively manage materials in order to curtail the amount of waste and also enhance maximum service in such organizations. This particularly calls for effective materials handling and maintaining a standard in the cost of production.
Another problem is the employment of unqualified personnel to handle the store activities. This problem often results to poor material handling, deterioration, pilferage, theft and redundancy. Now that store operation is beginning to receive attention of those in authority, the necessity to actively coordinate these activities for better performance to create more impact and subsequently more recognition can not be over emphasized. Effective material handling and its prime function is a matter of ensuring that sufficient materials are retained in the store to meet all requirement without carrying unnecessary large stock or too little to ensure efficiency and profitability in PHCN.
The researcher also gathers that there has been negligence of the store department and sometime brought under unrelated department which result in poor performance. This scenario depicts the existence of material handling deficiencies in the area of planning, replenishment, recording and inventory control which effect profitability in the organization.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The rationale for this study is to examine critically the application and to understand the impact of effective material handling which deals with the inflow and out flow of materials into within and right through to the consumer of the products in relationship to its operational performance and economic.
This study is specifically designed to
i. Investigate the current trend of materials availability in the organization under study.
ii. Establish the effectiveness in the material handling system in PHCN.
iii. Evaluate the impact of deficiencies in material handling system on profitability.
iv. Examine the factors responsible for dismal performance in material handling.
v. Suggest strategies for effective coordination and management of material handling system that can improve and provide constant and uninterrupted flow of materials which will invariably contribute to the profitability level of the organization under study.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The research work is carried out to be of benefit to individual, organizations and the society in general. Thus the significance of the study are:
The project work will be beneficial to subsequent researcher who will want to undertake a research into similar or related fields of study as it will provide them with relevant information on the subject matter.
The study will also provide the public with first hand information and knowledge on how stores or materials are managed and control in public establishment with regard to PHCN.
Similarly the research work has been undertaken to broaden the knowledge of the researcher and the society on how efficient material handling can contribute to the survival and profit level of an organization with particular reference to PHCN. Therefore the project will highlight the benefit which PHCN and other organization stand to gain if they employ and apply the right material handling system manned by qualified and trained professionals.
1.5 Delimitation of the Study
The scope of these study is restricted and confined to the material handling system in public institutions from 2007-2009 with the population of 250 staff drawn from production, materials management, power plant and utility units and a sample size of 50 which represent 20% of the population.
The study seek to established the impact of effective method of material handling on the profitability of PHCN putting into consideration the enormous materials that serve as input for the organization.
1.6 Research Questions
To measure the impact of material handling to the profitability of PHCN, the researcher has drawn up some research questions which are:
i. What is the rate of materials availability in the organization under study?
ii. Why is material handling system ineffective in PHCN?
iii. What are the effects of deficiencies in material handling system in profitability level in PHCN?
iv. What are the factors responsible for poor performance in material handling?
v. What are the remedies for improving efficiency of material handling system in PHCN?
1.7 Definition of Terms
Stock: All the tangible asset of a company other than the fixed asset.
Control: Standard set for checking the result of an activity.
Profitability: Adding or bringing to profit of an organization.
Stock taking: This is a complete process of writing the quantity balance of the entire range of items held in stock.
Stock Checking: This is any other check on physical quantity which may be applied either regularly or intermittently.
Redundant: Holding excess stock over normal equipment.
Materials: These are components, spare parts, semi processed goods in an organization.
Store: Is the place where all raw materials, component parts, are held for safe keeping.
Stock out: It is not having the required parts or materials on hand when and where they are needed.
Stock level: Is a predetermined quantity of stock to be held.
Obsolete: When an item is no longer usable by the organization concern because of a change in operational practice or method of production

 

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SOURCING DECISION AND ITS EFFECTS ON MATERIAL AVAILABILITY

SOURCING DECISION AND ITS EFFECTS ON MATERIAL AVAILABILITY

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background of the Study
Supplier selection is a procurement planning activity which allows managers to search for and find credible sources of supply that can ensure the availability of materials, equipments, fools, components, protects, consumables, and services at the right price, quantity, at the right tine and place.
In order to ensure contritely of supply purchasing officers must spend tine and effort in investigating and evaluating prospective sources or suppliers and continuously appraising the performance of current suppliers in order to aund the problem of overstocking, under stocking, or complete non availability of material in the organization.
In order to ensure accuracy in supply, uninterrupted flow of materials in and out of the organization, purchasing manager have to decide the kind of product or service that best fit needs, decide whether to but what they require or of produce (make or buy decision) whether to buy locally, nationally, or internationally, whether to use singly or multiple source of supply, whether to enter into partnership or reciprocity agreement, whether to engage in negotiation or bidding whether to buy from distributors or directly from the manufacturers. All these issues attract diligent and efficient decision that will aid the organization to attain its full potential.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Sourcing decision is very important because it properly conducted can move the organization to a greater height. Right sources of supply in most cases ensure steady availability of the right quality and quantity of materials in the organization. However, it the right source of supply is not contracted due to corruption personal interest or negligence, it may result in delay in supply of materials. This delay may result in pnice buying which may likely lead to purchase of low quality materials or making such purchases at an exorbitant price. This delay might also result to absohilte stock out of materials in the organization. Thus could result to break down of production activities in the organization other problems such as production of poor quality output, idle time labourers and machines, fall in sales turnover, diminished profit and name it. Will be experience in the organization for the organization to be able to address these problems, they have to decide the criteria for supplier selection, and the sourcing policy I decision to employ that will ensure steady availability of materials in the organization, that can improve their chances in the soft drink industry or probably make them leaders.
1.3 Objective of the Study
This research work is aimed at determining sourcing decision and its effects on material availability in 7up bottling company plc Kaduna plant. The study is specifically designed to study ways of ensuring continuous availability of the right quality and quantity of materials in the organization at the right time and place in order to avoid shortage in supply and even complete stock out of materials in the organization.
The following are the objective of the research work:-
i. Identify the criteria in use by the organization for supplier selection
ii. Examine the method employed by the organization
iii. Examine the method employed by the organization in evaluating suppliers.
iv. Examine the challenges the organization usually face when sourcing for materials.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The importance of this research will rest on the benefit that will be derived by venous section of the society including the organization under study and the researcher. This research work will increase the researcher’s knowledge of the topic. The researcher hope that 7up bottling company Plc Kaunda plant will be provided with meaningful and useful source of supply. Those who wish to research on this qeld will also benefit from this research work, as it will serve as a road map for them to write their own. Research work. Most importantly, it is a pre-requisite for the award of Higher National Diploma in purchasing and supply.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research work will focus on the effect of sourcing decision on material availability in 7up bottling company plc situated at Kakuri industrial area Kaduna plant .The study will focus on production and store department of the organization .The researchers scope will be limited to sourcing and supplier selection process, criteria for supplier selection ,sourcing decision, methods of supplier selection performance evaluation and management of supplier relationship .This research work was conducted using deceptive and case study design because it is the most situation for a research work for this nature and because questionnaire was use as an instrument for data collection. The population of this research work is 100 staffs of store and production departments of the organization. And 60 questionnaires was administered out of which 30 was given to senior staff of the department and remaining 30 to the senior staff out of which 45 questionnaires was return and valid for the research work. The researcher made use of documentary data, close-ended structured four point scale questionnaire and interview method for data collection. Random sampling technique was employed to conduct this research work. The technique was chosen because everybody in the population has equal chance of been selected. The research analyze data collected from respondents to the research question and interview using simple mean cut off point.
1.6 Research Question
The research questions that were adopted for this research work are:
i) What are the criteria in use for selection of suppliers in 7up bottling company plc?
ii) What is the sourcing policy in use by the organization?
iii) What method is employed by the organization in evaluating suppliers?
iv) What are the challenges faced by the organization when sourcing for materials?
v) When strategies the organization adjourned to be the most effective in managing supplier relationship.
1.7 Definition of Terms
– Sourcing: Is a process through which buyers seeks, survey and evaluate suppliers, and determine policies relating to those who will most suitably meet the requirements of the organization.
– Core Competence: Is the collective learning in the organization, especially how to coordinate diverse production skills and integrate multiple streams of technologies.
– Insourcing: Is the process by which an organization takes responsibility for providing services and conducting its operations in-house and in other location but by its own staff.
– Outsourcing: Is a process by which an organization contracts our services and operation that are usually done n-house to another firms that can be done them better, cheaper or faster.
– Negotiation: Is the art and science of arriving at a common understanding through bargaining on the essentials of contract, such as price, quality quantity, delivery time, terms and conditions of service etc.
– Bidding: Is a purchasing procedure by which potential suppliers are invited without collusion to present to an organization, a firm, a clear offer of price, terms and conditions which upon acceptance shall be the basis of the subsequent contract for the supply of the intended goods and services or the execution of projects.
– Quality: Kotler and Armstrong (2004) define quality as the ability of a product or service to perform its functions, which includes overall durability, reliability, precision, ease of maintenance and repair and other customer valued attributes.
– Quality: Kotler and Armstrong (2004) define quality as the ability of a product or service to perform its functions, which includes overall durability, reliability, precision, ease of maintenance and repair and other customer valued attributes.
– Quantity: This entails having the right amount of materials, tools components, parts required for replenishment of the store and production purposes.
– Performance: This relates to product’s operating/features and how well the product is able to the task it was originally designed to and how it is able to satisfy intended needs.
– Material: Is anything that can be offered to the market for attention, acquisition, use or for consumption purposes which might be capable of satisfying needs.
– Leasing: Leasing is a contract by which one party (lessor) gives another party (lessee) the use and possession of an asset or property for a specific period of time and for fixed payments.

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