A SURVEY OF THE LEVEL OF APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF SOME CONSTRUCTION FIRMS WITHIN ABUJA & KADUNA). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

A SURVEY OF THE LEVEL OF APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF SOME CONSTRUCTION FIRMS WITHIN ABUJA & KADUNA). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ABSTRACT

Effective planning of construction project is a fundamental of successful delivery and timely completion of project within assigned budget and time constraint . the greater the unplanned departures from logical course the greater the risk of control and possibly ah woks No doubt that application of information technology is progressing at a pace and their influence on working practice can be noticed in almost every aspect of the construction industry The potential of IT application is significant in terms of improving organization performance, management practice, communication and overall productivity.

The purpose of this research work has been to investigate the level of application of planning software in the Nigerian construction industry. Data was obtained through questionnaire administered to professionals in both public and private organization within Abuja metropolis, the information obtained from questionnaires serve as the data that was duly analyzed with simple statistical tools of bar charts, pie chart and graphical representation

The study reveal that there is very good awareness of planning the software but poor applied, also the study reveals that Microsoft project is the most widely used software by professionals. Limitations to application of planning software’s were identified as high acquisition and training cost as well as computer literacy. The research work recommend that an avenue should be created for training staff particularly on the usage and application of planning software, also undergraduate students in construction profession should be taught on how to use the software

 

 

CHARPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACK GROUND OF THE STUDY

The information technology survey and comparison has been used in some Nordic countries since 1997 with the aim to create method and to perform level maturity of information and communication in construction industries (Samuelson, 2002). As a long- term strategy the survey should be repeatable and comparable over time between countries and cover all categories of firms in the construction industries. The information barometer survey 2003, had been conducted in Singapore, the same strategy is applied which entailed a coverage of all categories of construction firms and a comparison of results between countries in order to draw meaningful conclusion about the degree or level of information communication system, current maturity as at the present level for different firms in the Nigerian construction industry. The Nigerian construction industry is hierarchical and fragmented in nature that some of the major participants do not consider themselves to be part of the same industry (Hindle, 2000).

This requires close coordination among a large number of specialized but interdependent organisations and individuals to achieve cost, time and quality goals of a construction project (Toole, 2003). Hence according to Maqsoods et al (2004), a major construction project demands heavy exchange of data and information between project participants on daily basis Rivard et al (2004), have identified the two vital roles information communication system plays in all construction projects as the specification of the resulting product (design information) and the initiation and control of activities required for constructing the facilities management information.

 

 

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A SURVEY OF THE LEVEL OF APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF SOME CONSTRUCTION FIRMS WITHIN ABUJA & KADUNA). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

A REVIEW OF THE CURRICULUM OF QUANTITY SURVEYING OF AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY ZARIA TO THE MODERN CHALLENGES OF THE PROFESSION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

A REVIEW OF THE CURRICULUM OF QUANTITY SURVEYING OF AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY ZARIA TO THE MODERN CHALLENGES OF THE PROFESSION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ABSTRACT

This paper seeks to review the current curriculum of Quantity Surveying of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria in tackling the modern challenges posed to the profession by the changing nature of the construction industry. Literatures reviewed shows that technological advancement and the complex nature of clients’ needs are some of the major factors causing these changes. The study is carried out via literature reviews and an interview survey with practicing Quantity Surveying Professionals. The result shows that the current Quantity Surveying curriculum cannot be categorized as totally insufficient for training students in the undergraduate Quantity Surveying programme of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Little modification is required to put the curriculum at a higher standard.

The research reveals that bid security and performance bond are important areas of the Quantity Surveying profession and hence, should be an integral part of the undergraduate Quantity Surveying curriculum. In addition, internet studies should also form part of the curriculum. The research also shows that natural sciences should be given more attention in the curriculum of Quantity Surveying given that it helps Quantity Surveyors to think logically and it also helps them in areas of Engineering Works.

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background of the study

Trisa (2004) mentioned that change is the dominant factor of the society today. It is in this line that Ashworth & Hogg (2007), Nkado, and Hasmawati and Johan all asserted that the construction industry is changing and the Quantity Surveying professional status quo is no longer applied to the challenges brought by the changes. Matzdorf, et al (1997) explains further by asserting that the Quantity Surveying profession is facing threats to its traditional roles and functions as a result of the changing client needs in the construction industry. Ashworth & Hogg (2007) went further to assert that if the profession did not adapt to change then it will not exist in the future. Due to rapid changes and diversification in both the profession and the construction industry, it has become more important to produce well qualified and competent graduates to meet the challenges of the profession. Anago (2006) in her paper “the Quantity Surveyor and road map to the future” contended that ‘our basic education and training should be an enhanced package of our current core competencies decorated with knowledge ‘pouched’ or acquired from professions/discipline.’ Education is one of the critical factors in the success or failure of the construction industry. Education is the backbone of the development of the innate potential of an individual. Knowledge, skills and belief (philosophy as end product of education) are acquired and developed through teaching and learning. The philosophy of professional disciplines acquired and developed at higher educational institutions goes a long way to determine the professional outcomes. (Olukayode, 2006).

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A REVIEW OF THE CURRICULUM OF QUANTITY SURVEYING OF AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY ZARIA TO THE MODERN CHALLENGES OF THE PROFESSION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

AN ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC TENDERING IN NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

AN ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC TENDERING IN NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

CHAPTER ONE

                                     INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background to the Study

Information and communication technology (ICT) have now made it possible for essential changes in the modes of operation of all businesses and industries throughout the world. It is now a fact that the much-anticipated global village is a reality. The amount of business conducted electronically has reached hundreds of billions of dollars, and there is little doubt that the emergence of the internet is continually revolutionising access to communication and information (Kajewski & Weippert, 2004). The construction industry has been one of the most impacted by these radical changes. Construction industry professionals now aim at paralleling the level of use of ICTs by other industries in the performance of their activities (Ibidapo, 2000). Tendering is one of the aspects of the procurement process where information technology is useful. In spite of the positive benefits e-tendering on the procurement process in the Nigerian construction industry, there are still countless shortcomings (Black et al, 2005).

On the other hand, a serious subject of doubt is that the availability of the facilities necessary for participation in e-tendering by industry practitioners is in question. Most professional practices in Nigeria make use of stand-alone computers running few application packages for word processing and spread sheeting. Stakeholders need to employ an accurate level of proficiency in the use of information technology and communication for effective use of e-tendering. This is necessary since several technicalities are usually involved in forming and managing electronic collaborative relationships between professionals with often-diverse interests and contributions. The necessary requirements in terms of proficiency are far from being met. This is indicative of a gap in skill as mapped out in the work of Oyediran & Kalu (2005).

The use of ICT is usually intended to enable collaboration in construction business processes but it effectively has almost no legal validity even in developed countries. The various forms of contract available for use within the construction industry usually give no indication of the admissibility of electronically exchanged documents in contracts.

 

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AN ASSESSMENT OF ELECTRONIC TENDERING IN NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ADHERENCE TO HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS ON CONSTRUCTION SITES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

ADHERENCE TO HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS ON CONSTRUCTION SITES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the study

Throughout the world, the construction industry stands out among all other industries as the main contributor to severe and fatal-work related accidents. In the United Kingdom, for example the industry accounts for one third of all work-related fatalities and, five construction workers are killed every two weeks. Emerging economies and less developed countries are no exception to high fatality rates. Construction workers are five times more likely to suffer a permanent disability than those in other industries (Chinda and Mohammed, 2008).

Health and Safety Executive (2002) asserts that, over the years a great deal of effort has gone in to reducing the number of people who were killed or injured as a result of construction work.

Initiatives from all sides of the industry have produced a long term reduction in the number of injuries and fatalities, but recently their effects have diminished and the number of deaths has increased (HSE, 2002).

The situation in developing countries like Nigeria is worst than what prevails in developed countries because of lack of statutory regulations on health and safety.

According to Grant (2002), safety legislation alone cannot change this situation. What is needed is a change in the inbred attitudes of all involved with construction operation, manual workers, management, designers and client. This change can be helped by implementing legislation but it also requires higher levels of awareness of safety problems and how they can be reduced.

 

Although several health and safety standards exist, the extent to which construction firms adhere to this standards differs. It is important to understand the extent to which they comply with the standards.

According to Lepe  et al (2008), accidents in the construction industry represent a substantial ongoing cost to the employers, workers and society. The costs of accidents incurred by contractors on account of accident are divided in to three (3) sections:

i. The cost of construction health and safety measures, that is expenses invested directly by contractors in safety measures to prevent accident.

ii. Direct costs: this define as those actual costs that can be directly attributable to injuries and fatalities. Is a cost caused by accidents arising from occurrence of accidents despite the fact that safety measure were in place. It refers to expenditure on insurance, damage to building and equipment or vehicles, cost of health or expenditure on medical care, cost of investigation, legal cost, death, permanent associated with accidents.

 

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ADHERENCE TO HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS ON CONSTRUCTION SITES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

AN APPRAISAL OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF COST PLANNING FOR BUILDING PROJECTS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

AN APPRAISAL OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF COST PLANNING FOR BUILDING PROJECTS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ABSTRACT

The importance of accurate estimates during the early stages of cost planning of capital projects has been widely recognized for many years. Even so, very few quantitative methods are available that enable estimators and business managers to objectively evaluate the accuracy of early estimates and planning.

The primary purpose of this study was to identify and examine the factors affecting accuracy of cost planning of building projects as it relate to the Nigerian construction industry. To accomplish this aim, quantitative data were collected from consultant Quantity Surveyors. Each of the respondents was asked to assign a one-to-ten rating for each of 10 potential drivers of estimate accuracy for a given estimate. The data were analyzed using simple statistical tools which include; mean, standard deviations and percentages were used to represent the information.  The study analysis identified 5 of the 10 factors that were most significant at the  level. In this finding the five factors, in order of significance were, Amount of information available, Time allowed to prepare the estimate, Experience of the consultant team, Complexity of the project, and bidding and Suitability/stability of the market.

Cost estimating and planning is a fundamental part of the construction industry. The success or failure of a project is dependent on the accuracy of several estimates through-out the course of the project. Construction estimating is the compilation and analysis of many items that influence and contribute to the cost of a project. Estimating which is done before the physical performance of the work requires a detailed study and careful analysis of the bidding documents, in order to achieve the most accurate estimate possible of the probable cost consistent with the bidding time available and the accuracy and completeness of the information submitted. Overestimated or underestimated cost has the potential to cause loss to local contracting companies.

 

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AN APPRAISAL OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF COST PLANNING FOR BUILDING PROJECTS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE APPLICATION OF CASHFLOW FORECASTING MODELS BY INDIGENOUS CONTRACTORS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE APPLICATION OF CASHFLOW FORECASTING MODELS BY INDIGENOUS CONTRACTORS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

 

1.1  Background

A positive cash flow is essential for the financial health and survival of any business and contracting is no exception. Cash flow refers to the study of flow of cash in to the business and the flow of cash out during the day to day trading activities. Forecasting is foreseen what will happen in the future. Cash is the most important of construction company resources.  Construction companies fail due to lack of liquidity for supporting their daily activities than because of inadequate management of other resources  More than 60% of construction contractor failures are due mainly to economic factors (Singh and lankanathan,1992;Navon,1994). In an attempt to analyze the real business environment in the construction industry, various forecasting methods have been developed to assist in forecasting. Numerous techniques for cash flow forecasting differ in their level of accuracy and details, degree of automation in compiling them.

1.2  Statement of Problem

Opanuga (1985), observed that the rate at which construction projects are being abandoned over the years within the industry due to contractors bankruptcy has been on a steady increase. Projects are procured late and above budgets. One of the best ways to improve on this is proper plan and management. Management entails monitoring and control of both material and financial resource. Cash flow has evolved to help achieve these objectives. Whether cash flow forecasting model is a major concern in the Nigerian sector is a question to answer.

 

 

1.3 Need for Study

Blyth and kaka (2006) said that cash flow forecasting is a necessary tool for construction companies, and is essential for the survival of any contractor at all stages of the work. Cash is the most important of a construction companies   resources, because more companies become bankrupt due to lack of liquidity for supporting their day-to-day activities than because of inadequate management of other resources. Cash flow forecast is of great importance to construction contractor as well as the client to prevent unsavoury consequences of liquidation and bankruptcy.

 

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE APPLICATION OF CASHFLOW FORECASTING MODELS BY INDIGENOUS CONTRACTORS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EXTENT OF USE OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EXTENT OF USE OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ABSTRACT

Construction projects are increasingly becoming complex, resulting in complex contract documents. Complex construction can likewise result in complex disputes. Disputes are inevitable in construction projects which predominantly arise from complexity and magnitude of works, multiple prime contracting parties, poorly prepared and/ or executed contract documents, inadequate planning, financial issues and communication problems. Depending on the nature of the relationship between the parties involved in the disputes and the circumstances under which the dispute is evolved, different methods of dispute resolution techniques may be preferable. The objective of this study is to identify the cause of dispute, to identify the existing practice of dispute resolution techniques in construction projects, to evaluate the prevailing dispute handling methods and recommend the most appropriate method. The method adopted for the study was through questionnaire survey where the target respondents were clients, consultants and contractors. Based on the analysed data, there are disputes caused by the clients, consultants and contractors which are capable of resulting to loss of reputation and sour relationship between the stakeholders and also loss of profit and business viability. Negotiation was observed as the most appropriate method of dispute resolution in construction projects in Nigeria as it non time consuming, cost effective and restores business relationship. From the findings it can be concluded that construction disputes are a cause of concern in every project and the solution to this problem is to avoid and cautiously manage them for smooth running of construction process.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 

Construction is plagued, perhaps more than any other industry, with disputes due to the inherent conflict of interest between the buyers of construction services (i.e. the owner or employer) and the sellers of the services (i.e. the contractor). The buyer wants to receive the most value for its construction finance whereas the seller wants to spend the least amount of money while meeting its contractual obligations. Unfortunately, these obligations are seldom, if ever, stated in clear enough language to preclude misunderstandings. Over the years, the industry has learned to rely on the design engineer or the architect, who formulates the construction documents, i.e. the most likely author of the misunderstanding, to clarify it and to decide on the corresponding responsibilities of the parties (Steve Revay, 1995).

 

Construction projects are among the most complicated of human enterprises. High levels of art and craft are required to translate an owner’s vision into plans and specifications, then into real structures, one that fits the needs of the individuals and the public. In addition to technical skills, the ability to coordinate the diverse efforts of many individuals is crucial to success.

The parties of a construction contract, the owner and contractor, are a society with a complex set of interrelated relationships requiring cooperation and collaboration to coordinate time, resources, and communication. The main goal of the parties involved in a project’s construction is to have a successful project. This is defined as a project that has been constructed in accordance with the plans and specifications, within the time and cost originally anticipated. The success of a project depends on a number of variables, not the least of which is how the organisations approach problems and conflicts (Diekmann et al. 1994)

 

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EXTENT OF USE OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ANALYSIS OF LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGES OF WARRI METROPOLIS USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

ANALYSIS OF LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGES OF WARRI METROPOLIS USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ABSTRACT

This project is based on design and construction of a microcontroller process batch counter using limit switch. The project is basically on microcontroller controls circuitry. The microcontroller controls the operation, decision and functions of the device. The system consist of a conveyor belt an electric control unit and switching unit, the system conveyor carries the load or item from one end “A” to another end “B” of which the load passes through the limit switch position thereby closing the contact to enable the system count the object and register it on the seven segment display board. The device is used in batch and mass production manufacturing and branding of products.

 

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ANALYSIS OF LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGES OF WARRI METROPOLIS USING GIS AND REMOTE SENSING. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ASSESSMENT OF VARIATION CAUSED BY BUILDING CONSULTANTS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

ASSESSMENT OF VARIATION CAUSED BY BUILDING CONSULTANTS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The living standard in Nigeria generated many development opportunities in the manufacturing and building sectors. The satellite towns have accelerated as a result of high population growth. Large and complex projects have been built attracting contractors from all over the world. Most of these contractors appear to lack sufficient understanding of social, cultural and physical environment of Nigeria. This situation coupled with inexperienced consultants has led to inadequate design resulting in many changes to plans, specifications and contract terms. A construction contract is a business that is subject to variability Variation quality or quantity of the works as shown upon the contract drawings and described by or referred to in the contract bills. This includes the addition, omission or substitution of any (minor) work or the alteration of the type or standard of any materials or good to be used in the works and the removal from the site of any work materials or goods executed or brought thereupon by the contractor for the purposes of the works.

Variation as contained in the standard form of building contract in Nigeria (SFBCN) is defined as the modification of design or quantity of work as shown upon the contract drawings and described by or referred to in the contract bills. It includes addition, omission or substitution of any works. Its importance in the preparation of final account is further ascertained by Agbo (1993) who claimed that variations would occur in virtually every contract. Even though it could arise from the client, designers, contractors among other, the condition of the contract only empowers the Architect to issue variation orders, hence the attribution of variation in most cases to the Architect. Under clause 11.2 of the SFBCN, 1990 variations may arise under

  1. Circumstances that could not have been reasonably foreseen before signing the contract.
  2. Additional requirement by the employer.

 

  1. Compliance with government order or legislation.
  2. Correction of errors or omission in the contract drawings and contract bills.
  3. Non-availability of materials and goods specified in the contract.
  4. Substitution of materials, goods and workmanship specified in the contract.

 

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ASSESSMENT OF VARIATION CAUSED BY BUILDING CONSULTANTS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

DETERMINATION OF LABOUR OUTPUTS FOR THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY; A CASE STUDY OF THE KADUNA CONSTRUCTION LABOUR MARKET. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

DETERMINATION OF LABOUR OUTPUTS FOR THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY; A CASE STUDY OF THE KADUNA CONSTRUCTION LABOUR MARKET. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ABSTRACT

The sustainability and success of the construction industry depends greatly on the level of accuracy in project estimates. The consequences of adopting inaccurate estimates are quite enormous and overwhelming. This research aims at using work study approach to empirically establish labour outputs of some selected trades for the Nigerian construction industry with the view of increasing the accuracy of construction cost estimates. A total of 15 construction sites were sampled within Zaria and Kaduna town. Physical observations and measurement of work outputs on block work, plastering/rendering and excavations were conducted through work study approach, particularly work measurement. Data collected were subjected to statistical analysis using both the descriptive and inferential data analysis techniques. The inferential tools made use of  T-test statistics to assess and examine the influence of the various labour productivity factors on the outputs of  the workers observed. The results of the analysis carried out established general average output values per day of; 10.68m2 30.85mand 19.04mfor block laying, plastering/rendering and excavating trenches i.e. 1.50m deep respectively. However, The test of difference conducted in order to analyze and investigate the extent of influence of the productivity factors discovered aconsistent significant difference in output of workers as the period of observation and the level and style of payment is varied. Also age as a productivity factor affected only the outputs of trench diggers excavating trenches n.e 1.50m deep. Similarly, even though differences existed between outputs in block laying and plastering operations, the tests conducted confirmed that they were quite insignificant. The level and length of experience of tradesmen observed had a tremendous effect on their outputs in block laying and plastering operations. Nonetheless, that did not affected workers in trench excavations operations. The additional qualifications obtained by the tradesmen in addition to their apprenticeship qualifications only affected the output of plasterers and was virtually insignificant to the other tradesmen in their trades operations.

The research concluded by recommending the outputs established to Contractors so as to exploit the output figures extracted according to productivity factors in order to optimize the productivity of their workers and profitability.

 

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DETERMINATION OF LABOUR OUTPUTS FOR THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY; A CASE STUDY OF THE KADUNA CONSTRUCTION LABOUR MARKET. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

EMPLOYER (CLIENT) CONTRIBUTION TO DELAY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

EMPLOYER (CLIENT) CONTRIBUTION TO DELAY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

A major criticism facing the Nigerian construction industry is the growing rate of delays in project delivery. Delay is a situation where the contractor and the project owner jointly or severally contribute to the non completion of the project   within the original or stipulated or agreed contract period (Aibinu and Jagboro, 2002).  Untimely completion of building projects has been found to be a major setback in the construction industry. This in most cases is normally due to delays that may have occurred during the execution stage of the project, (Odusami and Olusanya 2000).

Delay is the most common and costly problem encountered on public projects (Alkass et al 1995). states that delays on a construction site are normally inevitable and as a result many claims arise with few of them ending up in litigation. Thus the industry needs to develop methodologies and techniques to prevent and more efficiently resolve delay claims.  According to Mohammed (2008) delay can be broadly considered in three headings

i.            Delay caused by the contractor.

ii.            Delay caused by the employer.

iii.            Delay due to causes outside the both; concurrent delay and acts of God.

 Merzher et-al  (2000). Conducted a survey of the causes of delay in construction industry in Lebanon from the view point of owners/client, contractors and Architectural/Engineering firms, it was found out that owners had more concerns with regard to financial issues to be the most important, while consultants considered project management issues to be the most important causes of delay.

   Giwa (1987) in (shirinkpo 1999)  stated that projects suffer delay because of the clients over projection of revenue expectation during periods of project planning feasibility studies, cost planning etc, Mohammed (2008). Delay in construction projects may result from many circumstances and factors construction projects are works that have been set to be carried out at a designed schedule or period. But delay occurs in almost every construction project and the magnitude of these delays varies considerably from one project to another. Some projects are delayed over a year and some a few days behind schedule. Thereby it is essential to minimize and avoid delay in any construction projects.

 

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EMPLOYER (CLIENT) CONTRIBUTION TO DELAY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

INVESTIGATING MATERIAL MANAGEMENT IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

INVESTIGATING MATERIAL MANAGEMENT IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ABSTRACT

This study aims to propose the best practice in material management in building construction projects.  The primary research instrument used was the questionnaire which was distributed to professionals in both private and public organizations within Katsina state metropolis which contained varied questions on materials waste and management. The collected data was analyzed using simple percentage and presented in tables.  The investigation revealed that material wastage brings about additional cost to the construction project and also manual labour is more extensively employed in most firms surveyed than mechanical labour, considering the cost of storing and transporting construction waste along with the loss of revenue from not reclaiming waste. Also, most waste that occurs on construction sites is due to poor management and lack of effective material handling. The study finally recommends that incorporation of expert in construction projects and   Construction companies should adopt the use both coverage and hutted accommodation stores on sites, The federal government should come up with a policy on construction waste management which may include introduction of heavy tipping charges on construction wastes (particularly those that can be reuse or recycled) and taxes for dumping or disposing wastes carelessly

 

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INVESTIGATING MATERIAL MANAGEMENT IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

PERCEIVED CONTRIBUTIONS OF STAKEHOLDERS TO FAILURE OF BUILDING PROJECTS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

PERCEIVED CONTRIBUTIONS OF STAKEHOLDERS TO FAILURE OF BUILDING PROJECTS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

CHAPTER ONE 

   INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The rate of completion of construction projects falls below the rate at which they are perceived. This study focuses on 3 key stakeholders in the delivery of building projects. They are the client, contractors and consultants. Dlakwa and Culpin (1999) stated that, the main cause of this failure is the delay experienced in the delivery of the project.

Scott (1993) stated that the completion of construction projects within prescribed time scale is an important measure of project success. Basically, all the efforts of these persons involved in building project are directed towards completing the job within the estimated construction cost, period and quality. Hence, the actual construction cost, period and the quality of projects are measures of the success or failure of building projects. This study recognized the role of the stakeholders to the delivery of projects by categorizing the factors according to the stakeholders responsible for the failure.

Therefore, a failed construction project can be defined as that which is not completed within the estimated construction cost and construction period. Construction project failure is seen as a function of time and cost, meaning that for a project to fail at a particular period of time and cost, does not mean that it cannot serve its purpose in the near future.

The degree of project failure varies and has been classified as partial and total project failure.

Partially failed construction projects are considered to be any project which exceeds the estimated construction cost and/ or construction period with or without experiencing suspension for a period of time   (the forefront of this research). Totally failed construction projects are projects which commence on site but are not completed and there is no intention of completion (Idebi, 1990).

In as much as these stakeholders involved in construction projects wish that the project be completed within the estimated construction cost and period, they in their own way contribute to construction project failure. Other factors identified as responsible for project failure outside the stakeholders factors are government policies, inflation and force majeure. Therefore the study was focused at identifying the perception of the clients, contractors and consultants in failure of building project.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

Considering the view of various writers on construction projects, it is believed that a construction project is successful when it is completed within the estimated construction cost, construction time and construction quality.

Studies on project failure have been focused on the causes and have identified several causes of the failure which results into dispute in construction project. Therefore, time and cost overruns are seen as a conflicting tool that can lead to failure in construction projects. So, it is important to identify the key contributory issues that cause failure from the side of the client, contractors and consultants so as to proffer ways to reduce their incidents.

 

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PERCEIVED CONTRIBUTIONS OF STAKEHOLDERS TO FAILURE OF BUILDING PROJECTS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

STAKEHOLDERS’ PERCEPTION OF THE SEVERITY OF THE CAUSES OF DISPUTES IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING 

STAKEHOLDERS’ PERCEPTION OF THE SEVERITY OF THE CAUSES OF DISPUTES IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1 .1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Just like any other industry, the construction industry around the world contribute to the economic development (generation of employment and wealth) of countries with Nigeria not being an exception. This sector of the economy is unique in nature that calls into play proper handling of activities in the industry via the instrumentation of reliable dispute resolution techniques.

The existence of an atmosphere of risk is present in every form of construction project and no matter how small this is, it has the ability of becoming a fully blown out dispute if not checked. With a proper perception of dispute even the littlest of matter would not be taken lightly as it can pose a great threat to the construction works with time. Disputes should be seen as difference of opinion of each party. Dispute arises from a continuous injustice by one party or misinterpretation of meaning by the other. Many such disputes need never arise if the original decision causing disagreement had been made with adequate clarity of purpose and definition or recognition of a changing situation had been built into the decision. Any problem no matter how small should always be looked at and controlled so that it does not get out of hand. Only poor management would assume that a problem would disappear if left over a period of time.

The construction industry is a very competitive high risk business. Problems such as little cooperation, lack of trust and ineffective communication result in adversarial relationship. To overcome most threats that come due to the aforementioned reason for disputes project partnering was developed and proposed as a tool that would help. Partnering here refers to a technique used that generates an organizational environment of trust, open communication and parties’ involvement. Partnering in conventional business setting has been seen as a form of business organization accepted and recognized throughout the world. The Koreans in order to overcome hitches that had rocked their construction industry decided to try out partnership. It involves a long term commitment between two parties for the purpose of achieving specific business objectives by maximizing the effectiveness of each participant. This involves changing the traditional relationship to a shared culture without regard to organizational boundaries. The relationship is based on trust, dedication to common goal and an understanding of each individual’s expectation

 

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STAKEHOLDERS’ PERCEPTION OF THE SEVERITY OF THE CAUSES OF DISPUTES IN THE NIGERIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

 

THE EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE FIELD OF QUANTITY SURVEYING AND HOW IT AFFECT COST, LABOUR AND TIME. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

THE EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE FIELD OF QUANTITY SURVEYING AND HOW IT AFFECT COST, LABOUR AND TIME. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The construction industry has recently witnessed a paradigm shift from traditional paper-based method of service delivery to electronic information exchange using Information Technology (IT), at least in the western world like UK. It is now evident that the adoption of Information Technology can enhance construction productivity and improve communications for effective decision-making and coordination among construction participants. The ability of the industry to avail itself of technology depends on the level of usage by construction participants including the Quantity Surveyor (QS) who plays a major role in the management of project success determinants, such as cost, time and quality.

It is apparent that we live in a dynamic world characterized by incessant technology change. The explosive growth of information and communication technology (ICT) otherwise shortened as information technology (IT) has had unquantifiable impact on business systems and processes (Rivard et al., 2004). Advancement in information technology has made possible fundamental changes in the method of practice in all businesses and industries although at different levels (Li, 2000). The global acceptance and widespread adoption has accelerated the dimensions of competition not only among organizations globally but among professions locally (Hampson and Tatum, 1994).

The construction industry with the aim of leveling their colleagues in other industries have embraced the use of information technology such as internet, computing, telephoning, satellite communication and electronic mailing to perform most, if not all of their activities (Ibidapo, 2000). The quantity surveyors’ ability to avail themselves of these emerging opportunities provided by the advent of information technology depends on the adoption of new technologies (Castle, 2002). There is quite a lot of development in all areas of computer application to the industry. Of note are the expert systems, artificial intelligence, knowledge-base systems (KBS), artificial neural networking (ANN), robotics and computer aided design (Arif and Karam, 2001). Rivard et al. (2004) opined that the evolution of information technology will have a profound impact on how organizations in the architectural, engineering and construction industry operate in the way other industries such as manufacturing and banking have adopted and benefited from long ago. He noted that this is already the case in many of the developed countries around the world. In lieu of this, Honey (1998) reported that the turn of the last century has seen a reduction in paper-based operation in quantity surveying (QS) offices in UK while electronic led-processes are leading to less dependence on taking-off sheets and other ancillary stationery. The quantity surveying profession in Nigeria has experienced significant changes over the past decade in terms of the scope and type of services provided within the construction industry (Oladapo, 2006). These changes have occurred primarily in response to changing industry/client demands, information technology developments, increased levels of competition for services and the vital role of the quantity surveying in achieving improved service delivery.

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THE EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE FIELD OF QUANTITY SURVEYING AND HOW IT AFFECT COST, LABOUR AND TIME. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

THE EFFECT OF EFFECTIVE CONTRACT PLANNING ON CONTRACTORS PROFIT ( A CASE STUDY OF JULIUS BERGER, UYO OFFICE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

THE EFFECT OF EFFECTIVE CONTRACT PLANNING ON CONTRACTORS PROFIT ( A CASE STUDY OF JULIUS BERGER, UYO OFFICE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ABSTRACT
Effective contract planning in construction projects is not only crucial to attainment of project objectives but necessary if project failure is to be avoided, losses minimised and profitability enhanced by the Contractor. While research has shown general low usage of formal and effective contract planning in the UAE, Hong Kong, Kuwait, UK and Ghana, the practices used by Nigerian Construction Contractors to manage risk are not known. Available research in Nigeria on this subject only highlighted risk factors with most impacts on construction site and also the means of mitigating such risks. This study aimed to appraise contract planning practices used by Julius Berger Construction Company in Akwa Ibom State. The study utilised a qualitative approach with review of existing literature, semi-structured interview and transcription of data for conceptual content analysis.
The researcher used Julius Berger Nigeria PLC (Uyo Branch), as a case study to find out the effects of contract planning on cost and time, considering that the organization is involved in numerous contracts with suppliers, vendors and the government of Akwa-Ibom state.
Concerning methodology, data used in compiling this research were gathered from both primary and secondary sources. The management and employees of Julius Berger, Uyo were issued questionnaires. Text Books, Magazines and News Papers on contract management, planning and control were also used in compiling this research.
Based on the responses gotten form the respondents after the study might have been successfully conducted, the researcher will outline the findings and recommendations from the study.

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THE EFFECT OF EFFECTIVE CONTRACT PLANNING ON CONTRACTORS PROFIT ( A CASE STUDY OF JULIUS BERGER, UYO OFFICE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

INVESTIGATION INTO THE ADOPTION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (KM) IN THE NIGERIAN INDUSTRY CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

INVESTIGATION INTO THE ADOPTION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (KM) IN THE NIGERIAN INDUSTRY CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ABSTRACT

The main Aim of this research is to investigate the Adoption of knowledge management in the Nigeria construction industry. The research examined the area of the construction industry that will improve as a result of the contribution of knowledge management. Data for the analysis were collected through questionnaire Administration on construction professionals. 60questionnaires where administered, 50 were retrieved and analysed using simple percentile and relative Important index. The study revealed that the knowledge management adoption is being hindered the most in Nigeria by some major barriers which include funding with relative important index of 0.83, lack of cooperation among professionals with relative important index of 0.81, difficulty in generalizing and sharing knowledge with relative important index of 0.81 and the least barrier being difficulty in locating knowledge which have index value of 0.65.As there is no Adequate fund to carry it out in construction organization in conclusion it was observe that colleagues experience is the major source of knowledge available to construction professionals in Nigeria as most construction professionals in Nigeria don’t read much and not exposed to other methods of acquiring knowledge within the organization and fund is also the major problem hindering the adoption of knowledge management among professionals. It was recommended that project managers, Architects, Quantity surveyors supervisors, contractors and engineers should improve in the level at which they transfer and share knowledge with other construction professionals and that the federal government of Nigeria should inject more fund to the construction industry of the country as this is a very productive sector of the economy.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Background of the Study

According to Botha, D.F (2004) knowledge management is a process of systematic management of vital knowledge and its associated process of creating, gathering, organizing diffusion, use and exploitation. It requires turning personal knowledge into corporate knowledge that can be widely shared throughout the organisation. Projects are typically delivered by a temporary organisation comprising designers, consultants, contractors, supplier and others. The need for knowledge management (KM) is particularly relevant to the construction industry which now faces many challenges. These include economic swings, new markets emerging in the global economy, increasing competition, the impact of technology, new and increasing demands from clients, customers and society, and the requirement to maintain a highly skilled workforce at all levels (Egbu and Robinson 2005). Contracting firms are becoming increasingly involved in challenging and complex, knowledge-intensive procurement routes such as management contracting, design and build, joint ventures, public private partnerships as well as the traditional procurement route. According to Quintas (2005) there are two potentially conflicting objectives of Knowledge Management, to build knowledge bases cumulatively and to learn from past experience; and to ensure learning beyond core areas, generating the capability to assimilate new knowledge in order to be able to respond to change. In a study of American contractors, Fisher et al. (1998) identified a number of reasons for implementing Knowledge Management practices as: high staff turnover leading to loss of experience; and large size of organisations make sharing knowledge difficult. Construction organisations have garnered much attention in terms of the potential benefits of knowledge management, with little evidence of how to actually manage knowledge in practice.

A lack of understanding of both knowledge and its subsequent management within the industry indicates the need for further empirical research in the field (Robinson et al. 2005). The types of organisation which shall be given consideration in this research are main contractors.

 

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INVESTIGATION INTO THE ADOPTION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT (KM) IN THE NIGERIAN INDUSTRY CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

THE EFFECT OF TIMELY DELIVERY OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

THE EFFECT OF TIMELY DELIVERY OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Time impacts are inevitable on construction projects, primarily because of the uniqueness of each project and the limited resources of time and money that can be spent on planning, executing and delivering the project.
Time factors are inherent in all of project construction’s undertakings. Construction projects have long been recognized as particularly cost, time and risk-laden. Some of the time and cost factors associated with the construction process are fairly predictable or identifiable; others may be totally unforeseen. The constructed project may not perform as anticipated because the owner may have unrealistic expectations regarding the delivery time of construction forcing contractors into unrealistic gambles, corner-cutting or commitments that may not be realistic (Frimpong 2003).
Project success can be defined as meeting goals and objectives as prescribed in the project plan. A successful project means that the project has accomplished its technical performance, maintained its schedule, and remained within budgetary costs. Project management tools and techniques play an important role in the effective management of a project. Therefore, a good project management lies in the management tools and techniques used to manage the project. Project management involves managing the resources—workers, machines, money, materials and methods used. Some projects are effectively and efficiently managed while others are mismanaged, incurring much delay and cost overruns and negatively affecting the economy (Frimpong 2003).
Assessing construction projects’ delivery time is critical in today’s market-driven economy.
To improve the economy and maximize long-term return on this public investment, government agencies have recently started utilizing new types of contracting methods that are designed to achieve multiple project objectives, including minimizing construction cost and duration, while maximizing its quality.
In recent years, many departments of transportation, in various states have started to apply new highway contracting methods, including: Bidding on time i.e., to encourage competition among contractors to minimize project duration (Holt et al 2000), Incentive/ disincentive contract clauses that provide financial incentives to reduce construction duration, Night time construction that seeks to cut service disruption and project time by requiring contractors to work during off-peak night time hours, Warranty contracting that attempts to improve construction quality by making contractors liable for the performance of the facility after project completion. These new and emerging contracts place an increasing pressure on decision makers in the construction industry to search for an optimal/near-optimal resource utilization plan that minimizes construction time while maximizing its quality. This creates new and pressing needs for advanced resource utilization models that are capable of optimizing the multiple and conflicting objectives of construction time, cost, and quality.
Significant research advancements have been made in the area of optimizing construction resource utilization. This led to a number of optimization models. These models can be classified according to their optimization objectives into models that attempted to:
• Minimize project time and/or improve resource utilization;
• minimize time and cost for non-repetitive construction using time-cost trade-off analysis
• minimize time and/or cost for repetitive construction

While the above research study seeks to provide significant contributions to the area of optimizing construction resource utilization, there has been little or no reported research focusing on multi objective models for optimizing construction time, cost, and quality.

 

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THE EFFECT OF TIMELY DELIVERY OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

AN INVESTIGATION INTO RISK MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONGST QUANTITY SURVEYORS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

AN INVESTIGATION INTO RISK MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONGST QUANTITY SURVEYORS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Quantity surveying is concerned with controlling and managing construction projects. The Nigerian construction industry is faced with uncertainties. With construction targets not being met and high rate of abandoned construction projects, there is great need for proper risk assessment and implementation. Managing risks in construction projects have been recognized as a very important process in order to achieve project objectives in terms of time, cost, quality, safety and environmental sustainability (Mills, 2001). Project risk management is an iterative process: the process is beneficial when is implemented in a systematic manner throughout the lifecycle of a construction project, from the planning stage to completion.

Risk management has become an integral process in managing construction projects. Construction project activities are to be well calculated in-order for the deliverable to be of great use and benefit to its stakeholders. To complete most construction projects on time, minimizing cost and wastages proper risk management techniques must be employed (Tchankova, 2002). According to Mills (2001), systematic risk management is expecting the unexpected or in other words it is a tool which helps control risks in construction projects and its objective is to introduce a simple, practical method of identifying, assessing, monitoring and managing risk in an informed and structured way.
Normally, in risk management process, the first steps will involves risk identification process which includes the prioritization process in order to identify and rank the risk based on its impact and seriousness. Risk that will have a greater impact on a project normally will be handled first and low impact risk will be handled later.
Construction project team consist of professional such as the architect, engineer, and the quantity surveyor that will help to assist and advice the client in order to meet all the project objectives in term of time, quality and cost. Awareness and knowledge on risk management is very crucial so that they will deal with the risk properly which will directly leads to project success. Due to this scenario, this research aims to identify the level of awareness of construction professional specifically Nigerian quantity surveyors towards risk management. Apart from that, it will also aim to identify how risk management being implemented in the Nigerian construction industry and also the potential barrier and challengers in the implementation of risk management specifically from the quantity surveyor’s point of view.

 

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO RISK MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONGST QUANTITY SURVEYORS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF FEASIBILITY/VIABILITY STUDY ON CAPITAL PROJECT DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF FEASIBILITY/VIABILITY STUDY ON CAPITAL PROJECT DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Until relatively recently, the discipline of development appraisal has remained the provenance of surveyors and developers. It largely been ignored by other participants in the development process, particularly planners, architects and construction specialists. This is now changing. Close attention is now paid to the feasibility and viability (and profitability) of development proposals as government and other stakeholders seek to extract developer and/or landowner contributions to affordable housing, public services and infrastructure. Consequently the theory, application and outputs from development appraisal are under intense scrutiny from a wide range of users. Since Circular 05/05 proposed the submission of financial information‟ to provide a basis for negotiations between developers and local planning authorities about viable levels of affordable housing, tests of the financial viability of development projects have become an integral part of the planning process, both at the forward planning and development control stages. At the large-scale, macro-level Strategic Housing Land Availability Assessments require proposed plans to be achievable. However, the timeframe for development can be decades rather than years and, as a result, generating detailed and reliable cost and revenue projections can be impractical. At the other end of the scale, viability appraisals are carried out to inform negotiations about affordable housing levels for a scheme about which there may be a high level of information on permitted development and expected costs over a relatively short timeframe.

In terms of critical evaluation from the real estate academic community, development appraisal has remained something of a backwater. In contrast, often linked to market traumas, over the last four decades methods of appraising standing investment properties have been the subject of widespread academic and professional debate. Whilst the RICS monitors variance and accuracy of investment valuations, there is no comparative institutional evaluation of the performance of development appraisals. Nevertheless, conventional development viability models have been subject to some criticism, particularly their simplified composition, failure to mirror reality and theoretical weaknesses.

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
The general low usage of formal feasibility and viability appraisal techniques by contractors and developers globally often culminates into project failures, incessant claims for variations, huge financial losses and sometimes brings discomfort for people who came to enjoy themselves at these recreational centres. (Allan et al, 2007). This situation is more prevalent in redevelopment projects due to the inevitable problems of unexpected additional work, excessive requirements and scope management issues, project funding not aligned with project plans, delay, structural failure, cost overrun, etc (Naaranoja and Uden, 2007). These problems or uncertainties, among others, increase the project risk and make their management crucial if success is desired.

Some construction projects in Owerri Urban have been abandoned due to poor or no feasibility and viability appraisal on them, while some recreational developments Owerri Golf Club, Silver Bird Cinema etc have stood the test of time, due to proper planning and forecasting. This huge expenditure and apparent failure in the primary objectives of the project led to complaints, probe panels and subsequent abandonment of the project.
Research has shown that financial, political and physical risks are the most significant to Nigerian Contractors (Dada, 2010). However, of the different levels of risk (country, market or project), there is shortage of research as to how Contractors approach project planning at organisational level.

1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

To explore feasibility and viability appraisal techniques used by Contractors of capital projects in Owerri Urban.
To assess awareness and usage of formal feasibility and viability appraisal techniques by Contractors in Owerri Urban.
To examine the success or failure of the feasibility and viability appraisal methods by Contractors in Owerri urban.
To evaluate the impact of feasibility and viability appraisals on the development of capital projects in Owerri Urban.

 

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ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF FEASIBILITY/VIABILITY STUDY ON CAPITAL PROJECT DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  QUANTITY AND SURVEYING