COMPARATIVE DETERMINATION OF THE PROTEIN CONTENTS OF BREADFRUIT, BROWN BEANS AND SOYABEANS SEMINAR

COMPARATIVE DETERMINATION OF THE PROTEIN CONTENTS OF BREADFRUIT, BROWN BEANS AND SOYABEANS SEMINAR

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body (Hermann, 2002). They are one of the building block of the body tissue, and also serve as a fuel source. As a fuel, protein contain 4kcal (17kj) per gram, just like carbohydrates and unlike lipids, which contain 9kcal (37kj) per gram. The most important aspect and defining characteristics of protein from a nutritional stand point is its amino acid composition (Laurence, 2000).

Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chain via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the synthesis of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body (Genton, 2010). There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition. They are phenylalanine, valine, lysine, leucine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, isoleucine and histidine (Laurence, 2000). There are five dispensable amino acids which humans are able to synthesize in the body. These five are alanine, aspartic acid, sernine, asparagines and glutamic acid. There are six conditionally essential amino acids whose synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions, such as prematurity in the infant or individuals in severe catabolic distress (Laurence, 2000). These six are argnine, cysteine, glycine, glutamine, proline and tryrosine (Laurence, 2000). Sources of protein include grains, legumes and nuts, as well as animal sources such as meats, dairy products, fish and eggs (Young, 1994).

African breadfruit (Treculia Africana Decne) belongs to the mulberry family. Moracceae, which is of African origin but now grown in the most tropical and sub-tropical countries (Agu and Nwabueze, 2007). African breadfruit or wild jack fruit in some areas, is a neglected and under exploited tropical tree (Osuji and Owei, 2010).

According to Okonkwo and Ubani (2012), it is a common forest tree called various names among different tribes in Nigeria, such as “Ukwa” (Igbo), “afon” (Yoruba), “eyo” (Igala), “barafuta” (Hausa), “Ize” (Benin) and “edikang” (Efik). The tree crop is widely grown in the southern state of Nigeria where it serves as low cost meat substituent for poor families in some communities (Badifu and Akuba, 2001; Ugwu, et al, 2001). the plant produced large, usually round, compound fruit covered with pointed outgrowths and the seeds are buried in the spongy pulp of the fruits (Nwokolo, 1996). the seeds are seldom eaten raw but can be baked, roasted or fried before consumption, or they can be ground into flour in bakery products (Agu et al, 2007; Ijeh et al, 2010). African breadfruit seeds are highly nutritious and constitute a cheap source of vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

Brown beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seeds (Known as just ‘Beans”) or unripe fruit (Green beans). It’s leaf is also occasionally used as a vegetable and the straw as fodder. It’s botanical classification, along with other phaseolus species, is as a member of the legume family fabaceae, most of whose members acquire the nitrogen they require through association with rhizoidal, a species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Edet, 1982). Beans are grown in every continent except Antarctica. Brazil and India are the largest producers of dry beans, while china produces by far, the largest quantity of brown beans. Worldwide, 23 million tones of dry common beans and 17.1 billion tones of green were grown in 2010 (Philips, 2010). Similar to other beans, the brown beans is high in starch, protein and dietary fiber, and is an excellent source of iron, selenium, potassium, molybdenum, thiamine, vitamin B6and folate (Paul, 1998) .

The soybean (Glycine max(L.) Merrill family Leguminosae, subfamily Papilionoidae) originated in Eastern Asia, probably in north and central china. It is believed that cultivated varieties were introduced into Korea and later Japan some 2000 years ago. Soybeans have been grown as food crop for thousands of years in China and other countries of East and South East Asia and constitute to this day, an important component of the traditional popular diet in these regions (William, 2003). Although the U.S.A and Brazil account today for the most of the soybean production of the world, the introduction of this crop to Western agriculture is quite recent. Soybeans are primarily, an industrial crop, cultivated for oil protein. Despite the relatively low oil content of the seed (about 20% on moisture-free basis), Soybeans are the largest single source of edible oil and account for roughly 50% of total oil seed production of the world (Singh, Nelson and Chung, 2008). With each ton of crude soybean oil, approximately 4.5 tons of soybean oil meal with a protein content of about 44% are produced. For each ton of soybeans processed, the commercial value of the meal obtained usually exceeds that of the oil. Thus, soybean oil meal cannot be considered by-product of the oil manufacture. The soybean is, in this respect, an exception among oil seed (Shurtleff; Steenhuis and Spiers, 2013). It can be calculated that the quality of protein in the yearly world production of soybeans, if it could be totally and directly utilized for human consumption would be sufficient for providing roughly one third of the global need for protein (William, 2003). This makes the soybeans one of the largest potential source of dietary protein. However, the bulk of soybean oil meal is used in animal feed for the production of meat and eggs. Despite considerable public and commercial interest in soybean products as food, the proportion of soybean protein consumed directly in human nutrition is still relatively small (Smith, 1972).

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EXAMINE THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR PERSEA AMERICANA MILL SEED

EXAMINE  THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN AVOCADO PEAR PERSEA AMERICANA MILL SEED

ABSTRACT

Phytochemical screening to determine the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids,sterols and cardiac glycosides in PerseaAmericana will be carried out. The sample will be prepared by cutting the seed into small pieces, drying and grinding with Thomas Willey milling machine. The ground sample will be stored in an airtight container for analysis. The presence of alkaloid will be determined by Wagner’s test, flavonoid and tannin by ferric chloride test, saponin by emulsion test and cardiac glycoside by glacial acetic acid test. The quantitative determination of alkaloid was carried out by the method of Harborne,(1993)and Obadoni and Ochuko,(2001). Flavonoid will be determined by the method of Boham and Kocipai,(1994). Tannin will be determined by the method of Pearson, while cordial glycoside will be determined by wang and filled method.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Phytochemicals are a large group of plant derived compound hypothesized to be responsible for much of the disease protection conferred from diets high in fruits, vegetables, beans, cereals and plant-based beverages such as tea and wine (Hollman, 2005). They are biologically naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants . They protect plants from disease and damage and contribute to the plants colour, aroma and flavor. They also protect plants from environmental hazards such as pollution, stress, drought, uv exposure and pathogenic attack. These Phytochemicals are known as secondary metabolities .

Recently it is clearly known that phytochemicals have roles in the protection of human health when their dietary intake is significant.

A wide range of dietary Phytochemicals are found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fungi, herbs and spices (Mathai, 2000). it is well known that plants produce these chemicals to protect themselves, but recent research demonstrate that many phytochemicals can also protect humans against diseases (Narasinga, 2003). The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, steroids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds. In recent years secondary plant metabolites previously with unknown pharmacological activities have been extensively investigated as a source of medicinal agents. Thus it is anticipated that phyto-antimicrobial efficacy will be used for the treatment of bacterial infection (Balandrin et al., 2005).

Perseaamericana is one of the 150 varieties of avocado pear. The seeds of Perseaamericana has a diverse application in ethnomedicine, ranging from treatment for diarrhea, dysentery, toothache, intestinal parasites to the area of skin treatment and beautification (Pamplona and Roger, 1999). P. americanaleaves have been reported to posses anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Adeyemi et al., 2002). The seeds are rich in tannins and carotenoids and tocopherols from the fruit were shown to inhibit the in-vitro growth of prostate cancer cell lines (lu et al, 2005) and “persin” from avocado leaves was shown to have antifungal properties and to be toxic to silkworms (oelrichs et al., 1995). The effect of P.americana extract was evaluated on in-vitro rat lymphocyte proliferation (Gomezflores et al., 2008). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of seeds of avocado pear was found to be greater than 70% (Soong and Barlow 2004).

Objective of the study

1)    To screen Perseaamericana seeds for the presence of some phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, sterols, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides etc.

2)    To carry out quantitative determination of some of these phytochemicals

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BACTERIAL ANALYSIS OF URINE POLLUTED ENVIRONMENT IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE, OWERRI

BACTERIAL ANALYSIS OF URINE POLLUTED ENVIRONMENT IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE, OWERRI

ABSTRACT

The bacteriological status of soil environment polluted with urine was analyzed, using standard microbiological methods.

The identification test of bacteria revealed the isolation of proteusspp. Pseudmonas spp, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteria and Staphylococcus aureus from the contaminated soil. Bacillus spp,Pseudomonas spp and Staphylococcus aureus were obtained from the polluted bathroom and klebsiella sppPseudomonas spp, and Escherichia coli were isolated from the cleaned bathroom. Pathogenicity test carried out revealed that while all isolates from the polluted bathroom except E. coli to be pathogenic, only proteus from contaminated soil was found to be pathogenic amongst the isolates from contaminated and uncontaminated soil. Susceptibility tests from contaminated and uncontaminated soil susceptibility test revealed that among the disinfectants used for the study namely, Detol, Izal, Lysol and jik, Lysol was found to be effective against all the test pathogens. The study showed the diversity of pathogens in polluted environment and the efficacy of Lysol in decontaminating the polluted environment that harbour pathogenic organisms, but can be controlled through disinfection.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   INTRODUCTION

Urine is a liquid waste product from the kidney of both animals and humans. It is collected in the bladder and excreted through the urethra. As a waste liquid product, it contains some dissolved substances such as ammonia, urea, uric acid, and creatinine. These constitute the organic solids in the urine. Urine also contains inorganic dissolved substances such as sodium chloride, calcium, potassium, phosphate and sulfates (Cobire and Wewedo, 2002)

The dissolved substances in the urine can be utilized by microorganisms of various groups as nutrients whenever urine finds its way into the environment. This is evidenced by the fact that urine polluted environments usually have very strong odour, signifying that the biological oxygen demand (BOD) is high. This phenomenon is observe in toilets, bathrooms, street corners and fallow grounds. (Deni and Pennick, 1999).

The different groups of microorganisms can represent different microbial functions and activities. Some can be harmful relating to public health risk, or beneficial relating to positive economic value. Urine leach into ground and surface waters often with much of the nitrogen intact. When microorganisms in lakes and other surface waters consume the nitrogen. It results into a great bloom of growth. When this dies and decomposes, it pulls oxygen from the water or euthrophies, which can suffocate fish and other aquatic life. Underground nitrogen can seep into drinking water, posing a potential health hazard.

Urine contains micro pollutants such as synthetic hormones, pharmaceuticals and their metabolites, that  is mainly excreted via urine (Alder, 2002) and may be harmful to the ecosystems and human health (Daughton and Ternes, 1999). Today, many micro pollutants reach the aquatic environments because their degradation in waste water treatment plant is poor (Barker and Jones, 2005).

More than just dirt hanging around the environment especially urine polluted is unhealthy.

This work plans to asses the level of bacterial building in urine contaminated campus environments and thus suggest  control measures to prevent the invasion of our environment by bacterial pathogens especially the campus female hostel bathrooms which are usually polluted with urine.

1.2   AIM OF PROJECT

The aim of this work is to isolate bacteria from urine contaminated environments in additions, this work would attempt to find out whether the contaminated environments harbour pathogenic bacteria and thus, pose hazard to health.

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PRODUCTION OF MOSQUITO REPELLENT

PRODUCTION OF  MOSQUITO  REPELLENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nearly, all insecticides have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem, many are toxic to human and others are concentrated in food chains. It is necessary to balance agricultural needs with environmental and health issues when using insecticides. It is crucially important that all the rural derive in Nigeria are  educated on the need to eradicate insects especially mosquitoes that might breed  in their environment and transmit malaria to people living within the enclave.

 If insects becomes a problem despite the measures that must have been taken, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) seeks to control them using the safest possible methods targeting the approach to the particular pest. Years now, effort are geared towards controlling malaria infestation both in urban and rural areas a lot of measures are being take to reduce the number of death as a result of malaria.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Recent studies showed that the smoke generated form burning mosquitoes coil is of certain health concerns. A person being exposed to the smoke coming from the coil may suffer severe headache, nausea and vomiting, the condition will be severe among asthmatic patients. The emission from one burning coil can be as high as that released from 51 burning cigarettes. This is because of the chemicals found in mosquito coils out of natural ingredients may remove these problems.

1.3     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

          The purpose of this work is to produce mosquitoes repellent using orange peels (cestrum) wastes perse, which will save the cost of production and purchase, thereby increasing it’s availability especially in the rural areas.

If the work is successful, production of mosquitoes repellents using orange peels will provide source of employment to our teaming youths.

Also make mosquito repellent within the reach of every body.

Thereby reducing the number of death due to malaria caused by mosquito bite.

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The importance of my project work is the producing of a mosquito coil that is not harmful to our health and killing mosquito that are vector carriers of malaria sickness and is environmental friendly.

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BIODETERIORATION OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICAL STONE

BIODETERIORATION OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL STONE

ABSTRACT

Stone is one of the most intenstly studied materials in conservation. Understanding the deterioration of stone requires knowledge of various mineralogical and physical characteristics  and of stone wealthering response in different climates and environment.  The alteration and weathering of stone is affected by natural and artifical elements, physical, chemical or biological damaging factors. Biodeterioration of stone is coupled with environmental factors that induce the decomposition of stone structure, either directly or indirectly as a form of catalysis.  Many elements contribute to the deterioration of stone monuments and others objects of cultural value such as pogudas and status of Buddha.  This report concentrates on action of biodeterioration factors including bacteria, algae and higher plants.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

       Biodeterioration, defined as damage caused by living organisms such as fungi and termites, endangers cultural property all around the world.  The destruction results in enormous economic loss” (Khadelwa, 2003) and the irreversible cultural and artistic loss of the information of the objects affected.  The loss is greatest among materials derived from plants and animals, since the food value of the cellulose or protein that comprise these materials make them particularly vulnerable to biological attack (Allsop et al, 2004).  As a result wooden objects and structures, bamboo artifacts, manuscripts, books, textiles leather, paper, basketry and various types of paintings are most at risk.  Stone and mansonry are also vulnerable however, and stone momuments and outdoor sculptures may become severally damaged.  Cultural property is even more endangered.  While kept under adverse environmental condition that invite biodeterioration, typically hot and humid surroundings.

       The importance of microbial activity in the alteration and deterioration of stone and concrete walls has been frequently neglected.  However, active biofilms are found anywhere where there are micro organisms and humidity and a complex biofilm system can develop in external walls of buildings.  The microbiota on building stones represents a complex ecosystem which develops in various ways.  Depending on environmental conditions and the physiocochemical properties of the material in question.  Some investigations have begun to elucidate the essential role biological agents play in the deterioration of stone [Bock and Sand, (1993), Warscheid and Krumbein (1996)], and it is clear that many physical, chemical and biological factors act in both synergistic and antagonistic association to affect the durability of the material [Koestler et al, (1994), Vatention (1993)].

       The colonization of external surfaces of building by unacceptable appearance of staining of the stone surface by biogenic pigments [Urzi et al (1992)] and the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that cause mechanical stresses to the mineral structure due to shrinking and swelling cycles of these collecdal biogenic stones inside the pure system [Dormeden et al, (2000), Warscheid (1996)].  This can lead to the alteration of pore size and distribution, together with changes in moisture, circulation pattern and temperature response [Warscheid (1996), Krumbern (1988)].

       Microorganisms may also alter the water permeability of the minerals by the deposition of surfactants [Gaylardie and Morton (1999)].  Last but not the least, it has been shown that the early presence of biofilms, on exposed stone surfaces accelerates the accumulation of atmospheric pollutants [Witheburg (1994)].  Thus microbial contamination acts as a precursor of the formation of detrimental crest on rock surfaces caused by acidolyptic and oxidoreductive (bio) erosion of the mineral structure [Blaschke, (1987), Krumbern and Peterson, (1987)].

       Organisms present on stone monuments can include photolithoantotrophs, such as algae, cynobacteria, moses and higher plants.  Also present are chemolithoantotropic bacteria that can release acid such as nitros acid (e.g. Nitrosomonas spp.) nitric acid (e.g. Nitrobacter spp). Or sulphuric acid (e.g. Acids thiobacillus spp) thus changing the local pH [Bock (1986), Bock et al (1989)] and chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi, that may release chelating organic compounds [Ascaso et al (1990), Palmer (1994)] or weaken the mineral lattice by the oxidation of metal cations such as Fe2+ or Mn2+ [Vourmen et al (1981), Eckhardt (1980)].

       Literature data show that the phototrophs dwelling on stone monuments are represented by a rather large number of genera and species in microbial consortia [Pantazidon and Theoulakis (1997)]. Although chemolithotrophic micro organisms have often been described in association with damaged inorganic materials [Bock and Sand (1993), Milde et al (1983)] and were first suggested to play a role in stone deterioration in the 19th century [Muntz, (1890)].  More recent studies have emphasized the significance of chemoorganotrophic bacteria and fungi together with photoantotrophs [Eckhardt (1988), Gorbushma et al (1993)].  Even in the absence of a primary colorizing film of phototrophs, heterotrophic bacteria and fungi can grow on painted surfaces using organic compounds from the paint as substrates and produce acids that cause degradation of the paint and the underlying surface [Shirakawa et al (2002)].  Because of their ability to survive repeated drying and rehydration cycles [Whitton (1992)] and high UV levels [Chazal and Smith (1994), Matsnnaga et al (1993)], the cyanobacteria are particularly important on exposed surfaces.

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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND NUTRITIVE COMPOSITION OF FLUTED PUMPKIN

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND NUTRITIVE COMPOSITION OF FLUTED PUMPKIN

ABSTRACT

The paper discussed the nutritive value and phytochemical contents of fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis HOOK F) vegetable grown with four levels of organic manure (turkey dropping). The effects of four levels of organic manue (0,100, 150 and 200kg/ha) on the vegetable were examined. The proximate composition, minerals, vitamins and the phytochemical contents of the vegetable were determined at six and eight weeks after planting (WAP). The results showed that moisture, crude protein, fat and ash content as well as vegetable yield increased while crude fiber, carbohydrates and food energy decreased significantly with increasing levels of manure application. Most of the proximate components are at their best at 150kg/ha. All the considered vitamins and major minerals were also found to have increased significantly with the increasing levels of manure application. Among the phytochemical contents considered flavournoids and saponins increased while alkaloid and phenols decreased significantly with increasing levels of manure application. The proximate compositions minerals, vitamins and phytochemical contents increased with level of manure application and have their peaks at 150kg/ha. Application of organic manure (Turkey droppings) up to 150kg/ha has been recommended, among others to increase the nutritive and phytochemical contents of the fluted pumpkin (Telfaria and occidentialis) vegetable in Southern Nigeria agro-chemical zone.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Cucurbita (Pumpkin) is one of the underutilized crops which belong to the family, cucu-bitacene. Its existence is presently been threatened due to neglect in Nigeria. Pumpkin is cultivated in Nigeria in subsistence level with virtually no commercial importance role in traditional setting as a cover crop and used control agent (DELAHAUT AND NEWENHOUSE 2006). In Nigeria, it is a traditional crop grown mainly for its leaves, fruits and seeds and consumed either by boding the leaves and fruits, or by roasting or baking the seeds (FACCIOLA 1990). The leaves, fruits, flowers and seeds are used as medicine in some developed world. The leaves are haematinic, analyzed and also used externally for treating burns. Traditionally, dyspepsin and stomach disorders (SENTU AND DEBJANI 2007). Pumpkin fruit is an excellent source of vitamin A which the body needs for proper growth, healthy eyes and protection from diseases. It is also rich in vitamin C, vitamin E, lycopene and dietary fiber (PRATT AND MATERIALS 2003; WARD 2007).

In Africa, traditional vegetables are an important source of nutrients and vitamins for the rural population, as many nutritional studies have shown (MNZAVA ET AL 1999; MOSHAND GAGA 1999).

Farmers have cultivated and collected these vegetables for generations as an additional food source. Natural selection and farmer based breeding practices have developed the genetic base of the most important vegetables like pumpkin. In recent decades, there has been formal research by national agricultural research programmes and international research organizations on cultivation methods of the vegetables to improve their yield (MNZAVA ET AL 1999). African leafy vegetables are increasingly recognized as possible contributions of both micronutrients and bio-active compounds to the diets of population in Africa. Available data on the more commonly consumed varieties point to antioxidants containing leafy vegetables that can also provide significant amounts of beta carotene, iron, calcium and zinc to daily diets (SMITH AND EYAGUIRRE 2007).

The difference between the world’s supply of quality foods and the growth of the global population continues to widen and ways and means of bridging this gap have become a matter requiring an urgent attention. The current surge in the search for nutritious foods is therefore not surprising. The ultimate has not been achieved and this is evidenced by the paucity of literature available on the subject. Several plants exist with very high nutritive value and yet remain unexploited for human and animal benefits (OLADELE AND OSHODI 2007). Although extensive research efforts have been made on the nutritional composition of cucurbita, the proximate composition, phychemical properties and mineral contents of Nigerian cucurbita species have not been comprehensively analyzed.

However, in Nigeria, the populace are unaware of the high nutritional and nutracentual values of cucurbita rather it is regarded as traditional food mainly for the low in care earners,thus has not benefited from the same level of research attention given to other vegetables crops like cucumber, fluted pumpkin etc. This has created an information gap that may have discouraged high income earners and urban dwellers from making this crop a part of their diet. In order to ascertain the nutritive value of the crop species and thereby stimulate interest in its utilization beyond the traditional localities, this study was designed to evaluate the nutritional value of the Nigerian pumpkin fruits.

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PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SPONDIAS MOMBIN (IJIKARA)

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SPONDIAS MOMBIN (IJIKARA)

ABSTRACT

Spondias mombin leaves are popular choices in traditional herbal medicine practice. The present study of the leave extract, therefore, shown the phytochemical constituents, of phenol content and the antioxidant activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Spondias mombin. Results from the phytochemical screening test on S. mombin extract revealed the presence of alkaloids saponnis, anthranoid, phenol and reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides, and tannins. Spondias mombin is a fructiferous tree that belongs to the family Anacardiaceae with about 14 species worldwide. In Nigeria, it is called with several local names, such as (Ijikara).

CHAPTER ONE     

1.0  INTRODUCTION

Spondias mombin is a tree, a flowering plant that belongs to the family of Anacardiceae. It is readily common in Nigeria, Brazil and other tropical forests of the world with high genetic variability among pollulations. The plant has been naturised in some parts of the Africa, Indians etc.

It is a fructiferous tree that grows in the coastal areas in the rain forest in a big tree of up to 15-22mm in height. However, the plant is known as Hog plum in English, Akika in Yoruba, Ijikara in Igbo, Isader maser in Hausa, Chabbuli in Fulani and Nsukakara in Efik.

The leaves bark and fruit of the plant have been widely used for both medicinal and non-medicinal purposes, thus the plant has been screened as an unconventional sources of vitamin A and C, and all parts of the tree are ethno pharmacologically importance. A tea of the flowers and leaves is taken to relieve various inflammatory conditions, stomach ache and has wound healing potential (Ayoka and Akomofela, 2008). The tree is commonly used for living fences, in farmlands and shelter by artisans. It has a deciduous, alternate, pinnate leaves (20-45cm long) and harry pinkish, pointed leaflets which are in equilateral and abique at the base. The fruits huaged in numerous branched clusters, are aromatic, ovoid and blong in shape. The wood is used for making huts, garden poles, axe and hoe handles in tropical Africa. It is also popular for carving amults, statuettes, cigarette holders and various ornamental  objects.

All parts of the plant are reported to be medicinally useful and its traditional use in reproduction have been reported for example, in peru, decoctions of the bark and or leavers as used as a ‘child birth aid’ (Igwe et al.,2008), the reported use of the plant’s leaf extract as an abortifacient or labour-inducing agent on one hand, and also for prevention of miscarriage in women. Women that are pregnant or those seeking to be pregnant are usually advise against the use of the leaf infusion/ decoction. In South eastern Nigeria, juice extracts from the leaves are used by the native to induce delivery in small ruminant with parturient complications aring from uterine inertia. In Nigeria Spondias mombin are commonly used as local medicinal plants for chewing sticks and for the treatment of dental disease (okwu et al2001), there seen to be paucity of information on the scientific screening of the effect of these local plants on prevention of the dental caries. Then there was a proper reporter in vitro activities of Spondias mombin are commonly used for chewing stick in the south eastern Nigeria on dental caries organism.

Spondias mombin is widely relied on various herbal remedies for numerous conditions and virtually avery part of the tree is used from its thickly corky bark, to its leaves, fruits and even its flower. It has been also reported that the plant extract has antibacterial (Ademolaet al., 2005), antiviral antihelmenthic and molluscidal activities.

1.1 SCOPE OF STUDY

This work sought to determine the antimicrobial potency of Spondian mombin (ljikara) against pathogenic organisms such E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Spergillus niger.

The tests carried out included antimicrobial sensitivity testing, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MlC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and phytochemical analysis.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

This work is borne out of the fact that certain bacteria and fungi develop resistance to certain synthetic drugs. This research was based on determining if the extract of Spondias mombin will inhibit the growth of certain bacteria and fungi.

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ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE IN TYPE II DIABETES

ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE IN TYPE II DIABETES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Of Study

The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly and electrolyte disturbances are common in patients with diabetes. According to World Health Organization, over 1.4 Nigerians are diabetic in 2017. Diabetes can be defined as a disease condition in which the body’s ability to produce or respond to the hormone insulin is impaired, resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevated levels of glucose in the blood. They are two major types of diabetes; Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

In Type 1 Diabetes, the body does not produce enough insulin. Diabetic patients with Type 1 are advised to follow a healthy eating plan, do adequate exercise, and take insulin, so they can lead a normal life. In Type 2 Diabetes, the body does not produce insulin for proper function. Type 2 patients need to eat healthily, be physically active, and test their blood glucose regularly. They may also need to take oral medication to control blood glucose levels. As the risk of cardiovascular disease is much higher for a diabetic, it is crucial that blood pressure and cholesterol levels are monitored regularly. Smoking might have a serious effect on cardiovascular health; diabetics are advised to stop smoking. Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) can have a bad effect on the patient. Hyperglycemia (when blood glucose is too high) can also have a bad effect on the patient. Hyperglycemia sets the internal environment for osmotic diuresis while causing a dilution effect on electrolyte concentrations. The osmotic effect of glucose results in decreased circulating blood volume and fluid shift from the intracellular spaces causing cellular dehydration. (Nabil, 2016) Then there is Gestational diabetes. This type affects females during pregnancy. It is the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure and lower limb amputations. The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet. (Goldberg, 2004)

After food consumption, the body breaks down every sugar to its simplest form (glucose) which is then carried into the bloodstream for further cellular activities. The production of glucose for body cellular activities is regulated by insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both. Patients suffering from diabetes have high blood sugar because their body cannot move sugar from the blood into muscle and fat cells to be burned or stored for energy, also because their liver makes too much glucose and releases it into the blood. This is because either: their pancreas does not make enough insulin or their cells do not respond to insulin normally. When there’s excess sugar (glucose) in the cell membrane, it disturbs that concentration of electrolyte in the cell and causes osmotic diuresis.

Osmotic diuresis refers to when there is excess glucose in the blood, and it passes through the kidneys for filtering, the excess glucose accumulates in the tubules within the kidneys. Once there, it blocks the re absorption of water, leading to an increased concentration of water in the bloodstream. The water in the bloodstream now distorts electrolytes in the body. Sodium for instance is an extracellular ion, when the excess fluid in the bloodstream it tends to follow down with water to the kidney causing two major diseases; Hyponatremia (occurs when there is low sodium ion the body) or Hypernatremia (when there is excess sodium ion in the body). In the case of hyponatremia, it could be the sodium ions gets excreted with water through the kidney. In hypernatremia, the excess sodium flows to the kidney where it is reabsorbed into the bloodstream thereby, creating unstable count of the ion in the body. The same thing applies to Potassium ion, which is an intracellular ion. Its movement is also not predictable as the body cells suffer from osmotic diuresis.

According to Webster Dictionary, electrolytes basically are any of the ions (sodium, chlorine, calcium, etc) that in biological fluid that regulate or affect most metabolic processes (such as the flow of nutrients into and waste products out of cells). Electrolytes are present in the human body. Fluid and electrolyte balance play important roles in maintaining the homeostasis in the body, and also in protecting cellular function, tissue perfusion, acid-base balance, nerve conduction, blood clottingand muscle contraction. Potassium, sodium, calcium, etc are all important for proper electrolytebalance. According to Husain (2009), the relationship between blood glucose and electrolytes is complex and electrolyte imbalance may affect the course of diabetes and its management.  Electrolyte imbalance resulting from kidney failure, dehydration, fever, and vomiting hasbeen suggested as one of the contributing factors toward complications observed in diabetes and otherendocrine disorders. Electrolytes play an important role in controlling the fluid levels, acid base balance, and regulation of neurological and myocardial functions, oxygen delivery and many other biological processes.(Deepti, 2017) Patients with Diabetes mellitus are more prone to develop electrolyte imbalance and complications.

Diabetes is very serious that some of the complications can be life threatening if not carefully managed before it grows to a very critical stage. Researchers have put together some facts about diabetes such as the fact that diabetes is a long-term condition that causes high blood sugar levels.

Diabetic nephropathy is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus, which ultimately leads to renal failure, which is also a cause of electrolyte imbalance in diabetic patients. Diabetes mellitus was identified as an independent risk factor for hyponatremia and hypomagnesaemia. Various path physiological factors like; nutritional status, coexistent acid-base imbalance, certain drugs, other co morbid diseases like renal disease or acute illness, alone or in combination, also play a key role in electrolyte imbalance (Liamis et al 2013).

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DETERMINATION OF THE PROXIMATE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE EDIBLE PULP OF FRUITS OF AFRICAN STAR APPLE (CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM)

DETERMINATION OF THE PROXIMATE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE EDIBLE PULP OF FRUITS OF AFRICAN STAR APPLE (CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM)

Abstract

This study set to investigate the proximate and phytochemical contents of edible parts of Chrysophyllum albidum fruit. Methods: The edible parts (fruit-pulp, fruit-skin and seed-shell pericarp) of C. albidum were separated, lyophilized and pulverized into powdered. The edible parts were evaluated for phytochemicals constituents, proximate, fibers, sugars, starch and mineral elements using standard methods. Results: The fruit-skin in comparison with the fruit-pulp and seed shell pericarp had the highest proximate (except for crude fat, crude protein, carbohydrate and moisture); fiber fractions (except lignin), starch, minerals (except for chloride and iron) and phytochemical (except for alkaloids, tannin and vitamin C) values. Fruit-pulp had the highest lignin (3.16 ± 0.07%), iron (7.66 ± 0.02 mg/100 g) and sugar (except arabinose) contents. Seed shell pericarp had the highest chloride (81.28 ± 0.56 mg/100 g), alkaloids (25.80 ± 0.51%), tannin (10.19 ± 0.12%) and vitamin C (0.12 ± 0.01%) contents. Results are significantly (p<0.05) different between samples for sugar, starch, fat, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride, alkaloid, tannin and flavonoid contents. The Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry analysis of n-hexane extract of the edible parts showed the presence of diverse phytochemicals which are mainly of antioxidants and fatty acid origins. Conclusion: The study established that the fruit-skin contained more essential nutrients composition than other samples investigated and with moderate bioactive compounds of diverse purposes.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Fruits have been shown to be one of the best sources of dietary fiber with lots of vitamins especially C, E and A as well as minerals. Frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a lowered risk of diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cancer, and stroke .Southon S (2000)]. Fruits give carbohydrates in the form of soluble sugars, cellulose and starch .Nahar N, Rahaman S, Mosiihuzzaman M (1990)] and serve as source of nutrient, appetizer and supplement for food in a world faced with problem of food scarcity.

Chrysophyllum albidum (Linn), also known as African star apple, belongs to the family Sapotaceae , is primarily a forest tree species (Figure 1a) with its natural occurrences in diverse ecozones in Uganda, Nigeria and Niger Republic Bada SO (1997)The fruit (Figure 1b) is seasonal (December-April) and has immense economic potential, especially following the report that jams obtained from the fruit-pulp could compete with raspberry jams and jellies while the oil from the seed has been used for diverse purposesOladapo MO (2003). In Nigeria, C. albidum is known as ‘‘agbalumo’’ in South Western Nigeria and “udara” in South Eastern Nigeria. Its rich sources of natural antioxidants have been established to promote health by acting against oxidative stress related diseases such as diabetics, cancer

Figure 1: Chrysophyllum albidum tree (A) and fruits (B) [17].

The fruit-pulp has been reported to contain significant amount of ascorbic acid , vitamins, iron and food flavors , fat, carbohydrate and mineral elements Adisa SA (2000) . The fruit-peel has been shown to be a rich source of fiber and mineral Ige MM, Gbadamosi SO (2007) while the seed shell pericarp has been reported to be a good source of carbohydrate and minerals [15]. The fruits are not only consumed fresh but also used to produce stewed fruit, marmalade, syrup and several types of soft drinks Bello FA, Henry AA (2015).

Proximate and photochemical analysis of edible fruits plays a crucial role in assessing their nutritional significance Anthony S (2009)  Freeze-drying method is a drying technique considered appropriate for the preservation of nutritional values of the dehydrated products due to the absence of liquid water and the low temperatures required in the process.

In spite of wide application of C. albidum plant and its great potential as good sources of fiber and carbohydrate, information on the fiber fractions and sugar contents of its edible parts seems to be scanty in the available literature has not been fully investigated. This study was designed to evaluate phytochemical constituents of C. albidumfruit. The results of this study may provide useful information on its nutritional potential and contributionves  to nutrient intake of the nation. It may also create public awareness of its utilization when in season.

Aim and Objective of the Study

The study was set to determine the proximate and phytochemical constituents of chrysophyllum abidum.

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THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF NEMATODE AFFECTING TOMATOES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF NEMATODE AFFECTING TOMATOES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT

Four (4) sites or area were sampled, using the”simple random sampling technique” to make up the study group namely; Malali, Ungwan Rimi, Stadium round about, Kawo for soil or root-not nematodes from tomatoes plant. Ten (10) plants uprooted randomly at each site(s) visited making a total of forty (40) plants were isolation and identification of nematodes was done at the Department of Crop Protection, Institute of Agricultural Research (I.A.R.) Ahmadu Bello University Zaria  base on movement action, tail, shape and a tutorial book. Result obtained shared occurrence of nematodes as follows; Malali, 342; Ungwan Rimi 40; Stadium Round About, 66; Kawo, 261; making a total of 708 nematodes. Of this number, Crieonemoides accounted for 7(0.990Co); Helicotylenchus 544 (76.840Co); Meloidogyne larva 62 (8.760Co); Pratylenchus 19 (2-680Co); Rotylenchus 64 (9.040Co) and Tylenchus 12 (1.690Co). the researcher; considering the negative effect of these on the yield/production of tomatoes, suggests/profers/and also, when transplanting, intercropping.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0            INTRODUCTION:

Nematodes are tiny, thread-like worms measuring 0.0 15 inch to 0.187 inch in length. They are either free living parasitic or saprophytic, identified on the basis of shapes, size and special structures. The females become swollen and flask-shaped as a result of accumulation of eggs with the anus virtually terminal in position, while the males are vermiform (Sherf and Macnah, 1986; Chitwood, 1949; Taylor and Sasser, 1978; Idowu, 1979 and Idowu, 1983)

Nematodes are known for causing destructive diseases of crops as they have a wide range of feeding habit, constitute about 80% of all multicellular animals, attacking nearly every crop that is grown in the field and as a result crop yields is greatly affected reducing quantity and quality of crops on field, orchard, home garden and green houses (Mai, 1985; Symth, 1994; Sasser, 1952). Among the favoured host in Nigeria as a whole include tomato, yam, tobacco, papaw, citrus and sweet potato (Sasser, 1954).

1.1      Tomato:

Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) belongs to the family Solanaceae and subilass polypetalae of the dicotyledenous group of plants. Tomato is a slight modification of tomato the name used by the Indians of Mexico, who have grown the plant for food since prehistoric times. Other names reported by early European explorers were tomato, tumatle and tomatas, probably variants of Indian words (Wener, 2004).

1.2      Origin:

The precise origin of tomato remains a mystery but there is reason to believe that the original tomato came from Peru called tomato, it was taken to Mexico by migrating Peruvians. It found its way to Italy through the explorations of Christopher Columbus. Tomatoes were taken back to Europe along with silver and gold and they were grown on the continent as a pretty curiosity (Fallagatter, 1999). Though, tomato has become one of the most popular and widely grown vegetables in the world (Chung, 1998), until the 19th century, it was grown chiefly as an ornamental plant for its colourful fruit (Villareal, 1980). This is because it was regarded with suspicion due to the reputation of Solanum-like fruits being poisonous (Philips and Rix, 1993)

 

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THE PREVALENCE OF CYSTICERCOSIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

THE PREVALENCE OF CYSTICERCOSIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

Cysticercosis remains as important health problem in developing countries. Its transmission is related to soil contamination with human faces. This parasitosis is found in African, Asian and Latin America, where the greatest incidences are seen in mexico and brazil.

Human cysticercosis is acquired from the ingestion of ova of T. solium, excreted by human carries in their faces, followed by the development of cyst in human tissue. The risk of contamination with taenia ova is related to the contact with T. solium carriers. Recently, it has been shown that in humans, the most common route of infection is ingestion of T. soliumeggs from contaminated food or water. In United States of American and Europe, the frequency of cysticercosis is increasing due to increasing immigration and more frequent travels to endemic regions. The infected individual becomes a carrier and source of infections by oral fecal contamination.

According to the world health organization (WHO), more than 2million people harbor the adult tapeworm and many more are infected with cysticerci (Garcia and Del brutto, 2000). These authors also indicated that neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem as it affects people of productive ages and causes an estimated 50,000 deaths every years and many times that number of patients are left with irreversible brain damage.

The disease also causes important economic losses in countries where it is endemic; more than 60millions dollars per year in Mexico only for contamination of parasitized carcasses (Fluzeby 1998). According to Zoli, et al., (2003), economic estimates indicate that the annuals losses due to porcine cysticercosis in 10 west and central African countries amount to about 25millions euros, among which 2million for Nigeria. Infected pigs and carcasses are sold cheaper in unofficial meat distribution channels in order to avoid losses from the contamination of infected carcasses (Pawlowski, 1990; Tsang and Wilson, 1995).

The cost of this parasitosis for humans is very high (treatment, hospitalization, loss of work days). In 1992, it was estimated at 195 million dollars in USA and 3700 dollars per cases in Mexico (Fluzeby, 1998). In addition, it also reduces the availability of proteins to human as a result of carcass contamination. The human population that is most exposed to the disease are those living in rural areas where sanitary condition are not the best. Djou (2001) quoted by Shey-njila, et al., (2003) reported that the cost of diagnosis, hospitalization and treatment of a human cysticercosis case in Cameroon is 170,000CFA (which is beyond the reach of most rural population.

 

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DETERMINING THE SERUM PROTEIN LEVELS AND CIC LEVEL IN CEREBRAL MALARIA PATIENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

DETERMINING THE SERUM PROTEIN LEVELS AND CIC LEVEL IN CEREBRAL MALARIA PATIENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

2.0 INTRODUCTION

Malaria is a febrile illness characterized by fever and related symptoms (WHO, 1990).

It is a disease caused by a blood borne protozoan parasite which is an intracellular parasite belonging to the class Sporozoa and of the genus Plasmodium and it is transmitted through the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito (CDC, 2002). There are four different parasites of this genus which may give rise to malaria in man.

Malaria is probably one of the oldest diseases known to mankind that has profound impact on our history. History of malaria and its terrible effects is as ancient as the history of civilization, therefore history of mankind itself (Ray et al., 1992). This ancient disease is still the scourge of the tropic and subtropics Africa, the Middle East, Asia and China and Central and South America are all endemic zones with tens of Ilion cases annually (Lucas, 1992).

Plasmodium falciparum is one of the genus and cause the most ere and virulent form of the disease and the only one to cause acute ality. In this study Plasmodium falciparum will be on focus since it is most prevalent in Nigeria. This genus of malaria spend a part of their cycle in the red cell of the host where the erythrocyticschizogony. They develop into merozoites and undergo a cycle producing schizonts.

Each cycle terminates when the red cell rupture releasing merozoites into the circulation to infect new red cells eliciting an immune response.

Malaria infection leads to the formation of circulating immune complexes (Mibeiet al., 2005). The importance of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and their relationship to various diseases has been the subject of investigation for number of years. Formation of immune complexes is a protective, on-going and usually benign process of a normally functioning immune system. However, in some individual CIC are deposited in the walls of blood vessels, especially in the glomerular capillaries where they cause tissue damage.

The biospecific binding between sites of the antibody and the determinant group of the antigen result in the formation of antigen-antibody complex (AgAb) known as immune complexes (McDougal and McDuffie, 1985). Since malaria has been known to cause mortality this study is aimed at assessing the magnitude of circulating immune Complexes and some biochemical parameters which include serum total rein, albumin and globulin.

1.1 JUSTIFICATION

The science of immunology have suggested the use of CIC to measure variety of clinically oriented condition, this current studies ,suggest that CIC determination can be important in the evaluation of in disease and sometimes in monitoring the efficiency of therapy.

Studies have suggested that plasma protein pattern is frequently abnormal in patients with acute malaria and disturbance in immune responses makes the disease a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with malaria.

There is therefore need to determine CIC and serum proteins in patients suffering from malaria with a view to understand the pathology of the infection.

 

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DETERMINING THE SERUM PROTEIN LEVELS AND CIC LEVEL IN CEREBRAL MALARIA PATIENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIUM AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIUM AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT

Studies on asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women attending antenantal clinic of the General Hospital Ekwulobia was undertaken, hundred urine samples were collected then centrifriged and 1ml of the supernatant was inoculated on the prepared Nutient Agar and Mac Conkey agar then incubated at 370c for 48 hours. Pure colonies were obtained by sub culturing. Morphological and biochemical characterization of the isolates identified bacteria of the general Staphylococcus, Streptococcus,Proteus and Escherichia. The result showed that 72(72%) of the pregnant women are asymptomatic. E. coli was sensitive to Reflacine but resistant to Tarivid, Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to gentamycin and resistant to Nalidix acid. There is need for routine screening of urine of pregnant women as part of antenatal health care for pregnant women in Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Asymptomatic bacteriuria refers to the presence of bacteria in Urine. It is a conduction in which urine reveals a significant growth of pathogens that is greater than 105 bacteria/ml, but without the patient showing symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) (Girbert et al; 2005).

This common during pregnancy. The apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women appears to encourage the growth of both commensal and non-commensal microorganism (Scott et al; 1990).

The physiological increase in plasma volume during pregnancy decrease urine concentration and up to 70% pregnant woman develop glucosurea, which encourage bacteria growth in urine (Patterson et al; 1987 luces et al; 1993).

Pregnancy enhances the progression from asymptomatic bacteriuria which could lead to pyelonephrintis and adverse obstetric out comes such as prematurity, low birth weight (Connotly et al; 1999) and higher foetal mortality rates (Nicolle, 1994, Delzell et al; 2000) the adverse effects of undiagnosed asymptomatic bacteriuria on mother and child have made researchers to suggest routine culture screening for all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (Kirlam, 2005) in order to prevent mother and child from any form of complication that may arise due to infection.

However, in many hospitals in developing countries including Nigeria, routine urine culture test is not carried out for antenatal patients. Probably due to cost implication and time factors for culture result (Usually 48 hour’s period) instead many clinicians opt for the strip urinalysis method for accessing urine in pregnant women.

The true picture of such urine specimen cannot be fully accessed as the strip cannot qualify the extent of infection in such a patient as well as provide antimicrobial therapy which is usually seen in the case of culture test. In many health centers in developing countries. The attention of clinicians and health care providers is usually on the presence of glucose and protein in urine specimens with less attention on possible asymptomatic infection.

 

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THE CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR DRYER USING CONVEX LENS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

THE CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR DRYER USING CONVEX LENS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Growth is the irreversible increase in volume (size) number of part, length and weight of an organism (Umeh, 2004). Growth can be defined as a process by which a plant increase in the number and size of leaves and stems (Rayburn, 1993). Growth is also defined as an irreversible change in the size of a cell, organ or whole organism (Janick; 1979). Growth is an irreversible increase in body size and weight due to incorporation of new protoplasm in the body (sarojini et al; 1991). Growth is a physiological activity involving the enlargement and elongation of an organism due to the incorporation of more protoplasm within the organism(Okeke; 2014). Cell theory states that new cells are formed from the pre-existing ones by division. When one cell divides by mitosis, two new cells results. The two new cells put together are equal in volume or mass of the cells even though growth takes place in the number of cells. It is when the new cell grows to the maximum size of the parent cell that growth in volume is achieved. If those two new cells are arranged linearly, there will be an increase in length. The growth of both plant and animals require energy. Animal get their energy by digesting the plant they eat while plants get their energy from the sun through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process where the green plant pigment in the plant leaf (chlorophyll) absorbs energy from sunlight and using the energy, water and carbon(iv)oxide to produce oxygen and simple sugar.

The plant then uses these sugars to make more complex sugars and starches from storage as energy reserves, to make cellulose and hemicelluloses for cell wall or with nitrogen, to make protein. The way these plants uses energy depends on the developmental stage of the plants and environmental conditions.

When leaves are removed from a grass or clover plant, new leaves develop and grow from buds on the crown or stems of the plants. This growth requires energy which comes from reserve carbohydrates (Sugar and starches) or from actively photosynthesizing leaves remaining on the plants. At some point, photosynthesis is great enough to produce more sugar than is needed for growth. This results in an increase in the reserve carbohydrate in the plant. As the leaf area increase further, leaves start shading one another and net growth shows as older leaves in shape do not get enough sunlight and begin to die. Root growth determines the ability of the plant to take up nutrient and water. Root growth determined by the plants activity photosynthesizing leaf area since the root depends on energy captured by leaves. Therefore roots receive energy only when more energy is produced by photosynthesis than is being used by top growth.

 

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CONTRACEPTIVES AND THEIR EFFECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CONTRACEPTIVES AND THEIR EFFECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The term contraception refers to any procedure or device intended to prevent pregnancy (the presence of an implanted conceptus in the uterus). (Kenneth, 1998).

Contraception allows couples to choose when and if to have a baby. Some forms of contraception also provide protection against sexually transmitted infection (STIs). There are several types of contraception, which works in different ways. Barrier methods such as male and female condoms, create a physical barrier against sperm. Women can also use hormonal methods of contraception, such as the pills, or mechanical contraceptive devices, such as an IUD (Intrauterine Device) that is placed in the womb. (Robort Finn, 2007).

No contraceptive is 100% reliable, and some have possible side effects. It is therefore important to consider Age, medical history, and sexual life styles when deciding what sort of protection to use. It’s worth remembering that the male condom is the only form of contraception that also protects sexually transmitter diseases. In all cases, contraceptives methods are more reliable if used properly. (Robort Finn, 2007).

1.1 HISTORY OF CONTRACEPTIVE USAGE

Through the centuries, women and men have been searching for the ultimate contraceptive. Many different methods have been tried and many have failed. Some have been painful, some comfortable, others ineffective and others effective.

Different methods have been passed own from generations.

The first methods is the natural method. In the past, women used to nurse their children for two or three years. This would suppress ovulation, thus preventing form pregnancy. (Jake, 2004).

Another effective natural methods is coitus interruptus or withdrawing before ejaculation. The process involves the male withdrawing the penis from the female before ejaculation occurs. (Jake, 2004).

The rhythm method is basically abstaining from intercourse during ovulation. Many oral contraceptives in the past were drinks containing oil, fruits, grains and other vegetable matter. Douches also were used as birth control. French prostitutes has been using syringes to douches since 1600. This was seldom on effective method of contraceptive unless the douche was acidic. Oriental women used oiled paper “capping the cervix” was effective while European women used beeswax. (Jake, 2004).

Historians attribute the intrauterine devices (UUDs0 to the Arabs. They would stick pebbles into the uteruses of their camels to prevent pregnancy on long trips across the desert. (Jake, 2004).

The females were not the only ones with a form of contraceptives. The males used a condom, a small covering used to cover the penis. In folk core, “Dr Condom” invented a condom for king Charles II in the 17th century. A man named Charles Goodyear developed the first rubber condom in the 19th century. In he 1990’s a condom for women was invented, which instead of fitting a penis fits inside the female virgina. (Jake, 2004).

 

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CONTRACEPTIVES AND THEIR EFFECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

OPTICAL FIBERS IN TELECOMMUNICATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

OPTICAL FIBERS IN TELECOMMUNICATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

FIBER OPTICS:-  This is a branch of Optics dealing with the transmission of light through hair – thin, transparent fibers.  LIGHT Signals that enter at one end of a fiber travel through the fiber with very low loss of light, even if the fiber is curved.  A basic fiber – optic systems consists of a transmitting device (which generates the light signal) An optical – fiber cable (which carries the light), and a receiver (which accepts the transmitted light signal) and converts it to an electrical signal.

1.1   HISTORY AND CURRENT RESEARCH

In the early 1950’s Abraham Van Heel of the Delft University of Technology in Netherlands introduced cladding as a way to reduce light loss in glass fibers.  He coated his fingers with plastic.  Even with cladding, however light signals in glass fibers would fade after traveling only a few meters.

In 1967 electrical engineers Charles Kao and George Hockham of Britain’s Standard Telecommunications Labs Speculated that those high losses were due to impurities in the glass that there high losses were due to impurities.  They were correct.  Impurities within the fibers absorbed and scattered light within two decades, engineers solved the impurity problem.  Today, Silica glass fibers of sufficient purity to carry infrared light signals for 100km (62ml) or more without repeater amplification are available.

The development of new Optical techniques will expand the capability of fiber optic systems.  Newly developed of new optical fiber amplifiers, for example, can directly amplify optical signals without first converting them to an electrical signal, speeding up transmission and lowering power requirements.  Dense wave division Multiplexing (DWDM) another new fiber – Optic technique, puts many colours of light spread into a single strand of fiber – optic cable.

Each colour carries a separate data stream.  Using DWDM, a single strand of fiber – Optic cable can carry up to 3 million bits of information per second.  At that rate, downloading the entire contents of the library of congress, a feat requiring 82 years with a dial-up modern, would take just 48 seconds.

OPTICAL FIBERS IN TELECOMMUNICATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

THE INCIDENCE OF SEXUAL ABUSE AND UNWANTED PREGNANCIES AMONG TEENAGERS

THE INCIDENCE OF SEXUAL ABUSE AND UNWANTED PREGNANCIES AMONG TEENAGERS

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Sexual abuse is defined as the involvement of dependent, developmentally immature children in sexual activities that they do not fully comprehend and therefore to which they are unable to give informed consent and/or which violates the taboos of society. (McDowell, M. 2002).

According to Finkelhor D. (2003). Sexual abuse is any misuse of a child for sexual pleasure or gratification. It has the potential to interfere with a child’s normal, healthy development, both emotionally and physically. Often, sexually victimized children experience severe emotional disturbances from their own feelings of guilt and shame, as well as the feelings which society imposes on them.

Sinal, S. H. (2000), refers to child sexual abuse as any sexual act that occurs between as adult or immediate family member and a child and any non consensual sexual contact between a child and a peer.

At the extreme end of the spectrum, sexual abuse includes sexual intercourse and/or its deviations. These behaviours may be the final acts in a worsening pattern of sexual abuse. For this reason and because of their devastating effects, exhibitionism, fondling and any other sexual contact with children are also considered sexually abusive. Sexual abuse of children and teenagers is widespread in virtually all societies. (Population Report, 1999).

This increase has posed a problem to the individual, society, government and nation laws generally consider this issue of sexual abuse as an important one.

Globally, both boys and girls can be a victims of sexual abuse, most studies report that the prevalence of abuse among girls is at least 1.5 to 3 times that among boys and sometimes much more (Population Report , 1999).

In Nigeria, for example 30% of women and 21% of men reported behaviour constituting sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence.

However,  the abuse among boys may be under reported compared with abuse among girls. In this research the researcher place more emphasizing on the sexual abuse affecting the females which leads to unwanted pregnancies sexual abuse can lead to a wide variety of unhealthy consequences, including behavioural and psychological problems, sexual dysfunction, relationship problems, low self-esteem, depression, thoughts of suicide, alcohol and substance abuse and sexual risk taking. Females who are sexually abused in childhood also are at greater risk of being physically and sexually abused as adults.

For instance, the incidence of sexual abused in Ikot Ekpeyak Ikono has become so rampant, this lead to the driving desire of the researcher to research on this menace. In most communities of Ikot Ekpeyak every teenage is seen with at least a child or toddler moving along with mother on the way and this leads to various negative effects on the individuals.

The government despite their involvement in eradicating this menace has succeeded in their little way. It is very difficult for most people to talk about sexual abuse and even more difficult for society as a whole to acknowledge that the sexual abuse of children of all ages including infants happens every day in the Nigeria. For example in Eket where we have Mobil Company and white men are working there and at their leisure time they will go around young girls abusing them sexually and at the end it leads to unwanted pregnancies.

The researcher’s interest in this topic emanated from personal encounter of so many incidence of sexual abuse in Ikot Ekpeyak Ikono community which leads to unwanted pregnancies on the teenager girls.

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The increase sexual abuse on teenagers in Ikot Ekpeyak Ikono community motivated the researcher to study the incidences. The situation leads to unwanted pregnancies among teenagers. The increase of unwanted pregnancies among teenagers in Ikot Ekpeyak Ikono is a menace not only to the community but to the state and the nation as a whole. The course of high incidence of this condition is one of the reasons for the study.

1.3    PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of this study is to find out the incidence of sexual abuse and unwanted pregnancies in Ikot Ekpeyak Ikono Community.

1.4    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The following objectives were formulated to help the researcher in this study:

 

  • To identify the incidence of sexual abuse on the teenagers in Ikot Ekpeyak Community.
  • To find out number of unwanted pregnancies from January 2001 to December, 2005.
  • To identify the parental economic background with highest incidence of sexual abuse and unwanted pregnancy.

To find out which level of education the parents of girls with the highest incidence of sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy belong from January, 2001 to December2005.

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will help the government to adopt a national policy on adolescent health, the need for advocate commitment and collaboration with other agencies to ensure effective implementation.

This study will help the teenagers of Ikot Ekpeyak, Ikono to get enlightened and also protect themselves from sexual abuse.

To help develop socially responsible telecommunication programme that depicts equitable and non violent relationships between and women.

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THE INCIDENCE OF SEXUAL ABUSE AND UNWANTED PREGNANCIES AMONG TEENAGERS

THE EFFECT OF AN ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG – NIFEDIPINE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS

THE EFFECT OF AN ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG – NIFEDIPINE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

Young people develop contain habits for the sake of acceptance in a group. They resort to dangerous habits such as smoking, alcoholism and drug taking for so many reasons such as; helping them to cope with the problems, fear and pressure of everyday life (Brook et al 2001). Some use drugs as s means of escape from realities in life, to reduce anxieties, out of curiosity, while some turn to it in a bid to challenge authority.

Teenagers may be involved with legal or illegal drugs in various ways. Experimentation with drugs during adolescence is common. Unfortunately, teenagers often do not see the link between their actions today and the consequences tomorrow. They also have a tendency to feel indestructible and immune to the problems that others experience. Using alcohol and tobacco at a young age increases the risk of using other drugs later. Some teens will experiment and stop or continue to use occasionally, without significant problems. Others will develop a dependency or addiction, often moving on to more dangerous drugs and causing significant harm to themselves and possibly others (Ibanga 2000).

As Jones, 2006 observes, excessive use of drugs and alcohol work to the determent of important social institutions, such as schools and threaten the smooth functioning of our social system. It is a well established fact that smoking is injurious to health and extensive studies have shown that smokers have an increase risk of disability, illnesses and death from a number of diseases on conditions.

Drug abuse has increased drastically in recent years and the problem is becoming more serious, especially among young teens that are predominantly found in the secondary schools (Anthony et al 1995). The average age of first marijuana use is 14, and alcohol use can start before age 12. The use of alcohol and marijuana in secondary schools has become common. Drug use is associated with a variety of negative consequences, including increased risk of serious drug use later in life, school failure and poor judgement, which may put teens at risk of accidents, violence, unplanned and unsafe sex, and suicide.

In the words of Kipke, (1999), teenagers at risk for developing serious alcohol and drug problems include those: with a family history of substance abuse, who are depressed, who feel like they do not fit in or are out of the mainstream. Teenagers abuse a variety of drugs– legal and illegal, such drugs include; tobacco, alcohol, inhalants, marijuana stimulants, cocaine, depressants, heroin, steroids, MDMA (ecstasy), GHB,rohypnol (rophies), ketamine, met-amphetamine, LSD, club drugs, etc. These drugs are either ingested, smoked, injected or snorted.

Adolescents who abuse drugs present these kinds of behaviours; Physical- fatigue, repeated health complaints, frequent flu-like episodes, chest pains, “allergy ” symptoms, chronic cough, red and glazed eyes, impaired ability to fight off common infections and fatigue, impaired short term memory, change in health or grooming; Emotional personality change, sudden mood changes, irritability, anger, hostility, irresponsible behaviour, low self-esteem, poor judgement, feelings of loneliness, depression, apathy or general lack of interest, change in personal priorities; Family Relationships-decreased interest in the family and family activities, starting arguments, negative attitude, verbal (or physical) mistreatment of younger siblings, breaking rules, withdrawing from family, secretiveness, failure to provide specific answer to questions about activities, personal time that is unaccounted for, lying and dishonesty, unexplained disappearance of possessions in the home, increased money or poor justification of how money was spent; School activities –decreased interest, negative attitude, unexplained drop in grades, irregular school attendance, truancy, discipline problems, not returning home after school; Peer Relationships- dropping old friends and picking new group of friends (new friends who make poor decisions and are not interested in school or family activities ), changes to a different style in dressing and music, attending parties with no parental supervision (Jones 2006).

Teenagers might tell themselves they will only try a drug once, but many teens find themselves under continual peer pressure to continue to experiment with drugs and “join the party”. Most teens do not start using drugs expecting to develop a substance abuse problem, and while most teens probably see their drug use as a casual way to have fun, there are negative effects that are as a result of these use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The biggest consequence to casual drug use can be that it develops unto a true addiction. Most teens do not think that they will become addicted, and simply use drugs or alcohol to have a good time and be more like friends. (Gullets et al 1994).

If the mentioned signs and problems are noticed in adolescents, help should be sought with immediate effect by talking to the teen about it and seeking to establish if they are actually into drug use, how they started and why, and encourage them to get help. Treatment programme should be found for them by consulting a physician to rule out physical causes of drug use, followed or accompanied by a comprehensive evaluation by a mental health professional (Johnson et al 2001).

As the days come by, incidents of youths dropping out of secondary schools for no just cause, becoming mentally deranged and behaving abnormally abound all over the streets in our society. This has given so much concern and a need for an urgent step to be taken to see how this ugly incidence could be addressed since the adverse effects of these drugs usage such as stealing, burglary, armed robbery and other violent and heinous crimes are felt here and there. This as a societal ill raises too many questions than answers, thus raising curiosity as a necessity to carrying out this research.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The indiscriminate or excessive use of drug of various kinds for various purposes by our youth is a vital problem facing our entire society today. It has impacted on all spheres of human endeavour, the schools, the medical world, the private sector and actually the entire nooks and crannies of our society, affecting our day-to-day activities in one way or the other. The relationship between drug abuse and the society is a complex one, each influencing the other, but there are certainly realities that are apparent cost to our society.

Therefore, the purpose of this research is to investigate, evaluate and determine the problems leading to drug abuse by adolescents, specifically taking Uyo local government area as a case study.

  • Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to:

  1. find out why young people take dangerous drugs.
  2. identify the factors contributing to the use of these drugs.
  3. assess the effects of drug abuse in the body.
  4. identity social and psychological problems relating to drug abuse.
  5. see how possible solutions and remedies could be provided to these nagging problems.
  • Significance Of The Study

Our society is experiencing dramatic changes in drug abuse patterns. Historically, adolescents have misused drugs just for ”kick” rebellion, escape and for relief of pains (emotional and psychological). Most of these adolescents develop these habits through sheer imitation from parents, friends, teachers and other elders in the society whom they come in contact or associate with in one way or the other.

The most concerned is their ignorance about the actions and the harmful effects of these dangerous drugs on the normal body function by using them indiscriminately without any advice from a physician.

Under this study, information on the factors contributing to the abuse of drugs, effects, social and psychological problems related to the abuse of drugs and drug addiction are provided.

It is hoped that this study will be of immense benefit especially to adolescents who are already in the habit of using dangerous drugs and to those who at one point or the other feel that they should start abusing drugs. The study shall also be very useful to students and other academic in and outside Akwa Ibom state who are intending to carry out research on a similar or related topic.

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THE EFFECT OF AN ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG – NIFEDIPINE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS

STRATEGIC PLANNING AND CONTROL IN A COMPETITIVE ECONOMY, EFFECTIVE CUSTOMERS ACHIEVEMENTS AND THE COMPANY’S PRODUCTIVITY

STRATEGIC PLANNING AND CONTROL IN A COMPETITIVE ECONOMY, EFFECTIVE CUSTOMERS ACHIEVEMENTS AND THE COMPANY’S PRODUCTIVITY

ABSTRACT

This research project attempts to synthesize the new strategic planning and control  thoughts into a framework that will be helpful to strategy managers to harmonize the objectives and resources of a firm with the available business opportunities. Owing to ignorance many firms do not apply strategic planning and control. They thus have been denied of the benefits they would have derived from the adoption of strategic planning and control. Even among some firms who appear to recognize the concept, little do they embrace the idea with requisite enthusiasm to increase profitability.

The idea of strategic planning and control in the enhancement of growth of a firm cannot be over emphasized. It serves as a compass to an organization especially in a competitive economy such as ours.

The research work is therefore aimed at finding out the impact which strategic planning and control plays or ought to play in the growth and survival of a firm. Seven-up bottling company Plc, Uyo plant is used as the case study.

The project is organized into five chapters. Chapter one is an introduction which gives insight into the background of the problem as well as the research problems, also it presented the statement of the problems, objectives of the study, the hypothesis, significance of the study as well as definition of terms.

On another hand, chapter two dealt with the preview of related literatures, which formed the backbone of the study. the research extensively reviewed various related books, journals from which facts and opinions of renowned authors were drawn.

Chapter three simply explained the research methodology to enable the reader appreciate the design and stages taken in making the findings.

The results of the findings were tabulated and presented in chapter four. Brief explanation were made for every table. In addition chi-square statistical tool was used to test the hypothesis.

Chapter five contains the discussion of results, summary of major findings, conclusion, recommendation, as well as the summary. It is important to remark that benefits of strategic planning for the survival and growth of a firm were highlighted.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Managements direction setting task involves developing a mission, setting objectives, and farming a strategy. Early on in the direction – setting process, managers need to farm a vision of where to lead the organization and to answer the question, “where our business is and what will it be? A well-conceived mission statement helps channel organizational efforts along the course management has charted and builds a strong sense of organizational identity. Effective visions are clear, challenging, and inspiring they prepare a firm for future, and they make sense in the market place. A well-conceived, well-said mission statement serves as a beacon of long term direction and creates employee buy-in.

The second direction-selling step is to establish strategic and financial objectives convert the mission statement in a specific performance targets (Andrews Kenneth R. 1987:2-5), the agreed on objectives need to be challenging but achievable and they need to spell out precisely how much by when. In other words, objectives should be measurable and should involve deadlines for achievement and must be needed at all organizational levels. The third direction-setting step entails farming strategies to achieve the objectives set in each area of the organization.

According to Kelly C. Aaron (1983:46-48). A corporate strategy is needed to achieve corporate level objectives; business strategies are needed to achieve business – unit performance objectives; functional strategies are need to achieve the performance targets set for each functional department; and operating- level strategies are needed to achieve the objectives set in each operating and geographic unit. In effect, an organization’s strategic plan is a collection of unified and interlocking strategies and different strategic issues are addressed at each level of managerial strategy-making. All the direction – setting steps are all elements of strategic planning.

Strategic planning according to Gluck, Federick (1999:5) is the establishment of organization’s goals and objective and the utilization of the strategic elements for the attainment of the organization’s goals. However, YIP George S. 1992:3 points that strategic planning consists of a set of underlying process that are intended to create or manipulate a situation to create a more favourable outcome for a firm in which case every on-going business must include short-range, medium range and or long-range for its survival. This then means that strategic planning is the process of deciding in the present what to do in the future, which requires that an organization reconcile its resources with its objectives and the attendant course of actions that are open to it. Typically, the strategy-making task is more top-down than bottom-up. Lower-level strategy supports and complements higher-level strategy and contributes to the achievement of the higher-level, company wide objectives.

Strategy is shaped by both outside and inside considerations. The major external considerations are societal, political, regulatory and community factors; – industry attractiveness and the company market opportunities and threats. The primary internal considerations are company strengths, weakness, and competitive capabilities manager’s personal ambitions philosophies, and ethics; and the company culture and share values.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Strategic planning and control which is done on a company wide bases is always a difficult task. This is because past and recent research studies have made it clear that there is an increase internal and external uncertainty due to emerging opportunities and threats, lack of awareness of needs and of the facilities released issues and environmental complexity and lack of direction.

Many organizations spend most of their time realizing and re-acting to im-expected changes and problems instead of anticipating and preparing for them (Henry 1999). This he called crisis management. Organization caught off guard may spend a great deal if time and energy playing catch up. They use up their energy coping with immediate problems with little energy left to anticipate and prepare for the next challenges. This vicious cycle locks many organizations into a reactive position.

This research study is to access the impact of strategic planning on organizational performance, which at the long run enhances organizational survival. It is a continuous and systematic process where people make decision about intended future outcome, how these outcomes are to be accomplished and how success is to be measured and evaluated. On how organizations should capitalized on their strengths over come their weakness take advantage of opportunities and defend against threats to the organizations, explains the difficulties encountered by strategy managers in strategic planning and control. However, the researcher is interested in finding out the impact which strategic planning and control has in the survival and growth of a firm in a competitive economy.

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

In a liberalized and competitive economy such as ours, consumer awareness is on the increase that they consumer are becoming very selective in their choice of goods and services they purchase.

This study is therefore aimed at helping firms especially seven-up bottling company Plc know how to effectively apply or adopt strategic planning and control in a competitive economy in order to satisfy the yawning of their customers and achieve the company’s objectives. For these reasons the study is designed to achieve the following objectives.

  1. To examine the impact of strategic planning and control in the survival and growth of a firm.
  2. To examine how strategic planning and control can be implemented

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STRATEGIC PLANNING AND CONTROL IN A COMPETITIVE ECONOMY, EFFECTIVE CUSTOMERS ACHIEVEMENTS AND THE COMPANY’S PRODUCTIVITY

THE INFLUENCE OF LABORATORY METHOD ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE IN GENERAL

THE INFLUENCE OF LABORATORY METHOD ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE IN GENERAL

    CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

This chapter introduces the work under the following sub-headings: background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, and significance of the study, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study and definition of terms.

  • Background of the study

The current shift in emphasis in science curricula objective reflecting student-centred process approach to science is a radical departure from the traditional emphasis on teacher-centred product approach. This new trend requires that the students should be actively involved in the learning process through adequate and meaningful hands- and- minds – on activities during every classroom instruction in science. However, research reports show contrary to the demands of the new science curricula in Nigeria, our science teachers still decide to split science instructions into theory and practical (Njoku, 2004 and Uzoechi, 2004). The results have been students’ persistent poor performance in science subjects, which necessitate laboratory teaching and Basic Science and Technology as a core science subject at the Basic Education level is not an exception.

The teaching of science in the laboratories has been a controversial issue. Laboratory work is both times consuming and expensive compared with other methods of instruction. Hence, the efficiency of such a method of learning should justify the additional time and cost of using it, especially in primary and secondary education (Sabri and Emuas, 2006). In other words, the increase in the educational budget for using laboratories as a model of teaching should be more efficient in accomplishing the objectives of teaching science through laboratories needs, therefore to be constantly evaluated using one or more of the following methods stated below according to Sabri and Emuas (2006).

There should be a comparison of the academic achievement of students who are taught through the laboratory method compared with the achievement of students taught with other models. Harty and Al-Felah (1983) in Sabri and Emuas (2006) indicated that students exposed to laboratory- based education exhibited significantly greater chemistry achievement than students in comparable lecture/demonstration groups on both immediate and delayed post tests. Zitoon and Al-Zaubi (1986) in Sabri and Emuas (2006) concluded that the laboratory teaching method is more efficient compared with traditional method in developing the skill of scientific thinking for science secondary school students. Low achieving students using laboratory method performed better than their counterparts who received the lecture method (Odubunmi and Balogun, 1991). In opposition to this, other studies have not found any significant differences in achievement between laboratory and lecture methods. There should be emphasis on the availability, functionality and accuracy of laboratory equipment in other to achieve the aims of using the laboratory. The Basic Science and Technology for instance, is facilitated by adequate supply of functional laboratory equipment. It requires practical to enhance conceptual understanding as this is crucial to students learning. The quality of functional laboratory equipment a school has is an important aspect for facilitating the knowledge of Basic Science and Technology among learners (Etiubon, 2010). As Wasagu (2008) puts it- “laboratories, workshops and studies blistering with technology and state of art equipment assisted with multimedia technology will boost academic progress”. Aladejana (2007), Balogun (2000) and Mayer (2004) in Etiubon (2010) opined that available functional laboratory equipment promote students’ participation during laboratory activities which in turn enable them identify problems, pose relevant questions, perform efficient and effective experiments, make judgements on alternative hypotheses and interpretation of data. Students therefore learn to discover, learn from discovery and learn by discovery.

The extent to which laboratory instruction, experiments, and textbooks are congruent with expected objectives of teaching sciences should be investigated. Tamir and Lunetta (1981), in Sabri and Emuas (2006) reported that laboratory handbooks do not provide students with expected opportunities to investigate and use the scientific inquiry method of teaching. Lunetta (2003) reported that laboratory instruction may play an important part in the achievement of some science teaching goals, but not incorporated laboratory goals in their instruction and evaluation systems. The discrepancies between teaching goals and laboratory handbooks instructions also were shown by Fuhrman (1982) in Sabri and Emuas (2006).

There should be investigation on gender inequality in science. Over the years, there exists gender inequality in science achievement among secondary school students (Olatoye, 2008). Chyton (1986) in Utuk (2006) reported that boys achieved better than girls in examinations involving laboratory work. Tamir (1988) in Utuk (2006) says that in Israel, boys performed better than girls only in Physics while their achievement in Biology and Chemistry were similar.

The management of student groupings and tasks in laboratory experiments should be examined for their effect on students’ performance. Niaz (1995) in Sabri and Emuas (2006) concluded that students who perform better on problems requiring conceptual understanding also perform significantly better on problems requiring manipulation of the data in chemical experiments. Lawrenz and Munch (1984) in Sabri and Emuas (2006) showed that grouping students in the laboratory on the basis of their formal reasoning ability affected the science content achievement of students and the relationship between individuals in a particular group. On the other hand, Kyle (1979) in Sabri and Emuas (2006) concluded that there is significant difference in the behaviours of students (listening, observation and writing notes) enrolled in introductory level and advanced laboratories in five science disciplines at the University of Iowa from the behavior of their cohorts who did not enroll in laboratory class.

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THE INFLUENCE OF LABORATORY METHOD ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE IN GENERAL