THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF NEMATODE AFFECTING TOMATOES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF NEMATODE AFFECTING TOMATOES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT

Four (4) sites or area were sampled, using the”simple random sampling technique” to make up the study group namely; Malali, Ungwan Rimi, Stadium round about, Kawo for soil or root-not nematodes from tomatoes plant. Ten (10) plants uprooted randomly at each site(s) visited making a total of forty (40) plants were isolation and identification of nematodes was done at the Department of Crop Protection, Institute of Agricultural Research (I.A.R.) Ahmadu Bello University Zaria  base on movement action, tail, shape and a tutorial book. Result obtained shared occurrence of nematodes as follows; Malali, 342; Ungwan Rimi 40; Stadium Round About, 66; Kawo, 261; making a total of 708 nematodes. Of this number, Crieonemoides accounted for 7(0.990Co); Helicotylenchus 544 (76.840Co); Meloidogyne larva 62 (8.760Co); Pratylenchus 19 (2-680Co); Rotylenchus 64 (9.040Co) and Tylenchus 12 (1.690Co). the researcher; considering the negative effect of these on the yield/production of tomatoes, suggests/profers/and also, when transplanting, intercropping.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0            INTRODUCTION:

Nematodes are tiny, thread-like worms measuring 0.0 15 inch to 0.187 inch in length. They are either free living parasitic or saprophytic, identified on the basis of shapes, size and special structures. The females become swollen and flask-shaped as a result of accumulation of eggs with the anus virtually terminal in position, while the males are vermiform (Sherf and Macnah, 1986; Chitwood, 1949; Taylor and Sasser, 1978; Idowu, 1979 and Idowu, 1983)

Nematodes are known for causing destructive diseases of crops as they have a wide range of feeding habit, constitute about 80% of all multicellular animals, attacking nearly every crop that is grown in the field and as a result crop yields is greatly affected reducing quantity and quality of crops on field, orchard, home garden and green houses (Mai, 1985; Symth, 1994; Sasser, 1952). Among the favoured host in Nigeria as a whole include tomato, yam, tobacco, papaw, citrus and sweet potato (Sasser, 1954).

1.1      Tomato:

Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) belongs to the family Solanaceae and subilass polypetalae of the dicotyledenous group of plants. Tomato is a slight modification of tomato the name used by the Indians of Mexico, who have grown the plant for food since prehistoric times. Other names reported by early European explorers were tomato, tumatle and tomatas, probably variants of Indian words (Wener, 2004).

1.2      Origin:

The precise origin of tomato remains a mystery but there is reason to believe that the original tomato came from Peru called tomato, it was taken to Mexico by migrating Peruvians. It found its way to Italy through the explorations of Christopher Columbus. Tomatoes were taken back to Europe along with silver and gold and they were grown on the continent as a pretty curiosity (Fallagatter, 1999). Though, tomato has become one of the most popular and widely grown vegetables in the world (Chung, 1998), until the 19th century, it was grown chiefly as an ornamental plant for its colourful fruit (Villareal, 1980). This is because it was regarded with suspicion due to the reputation of Solanum-like fruits being poisonous (Philips and Rix, 1993)

 

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THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF NEMATODE AFFECTING TOMATOES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

THE PREVALENCE OF CYSTICERCOSIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

THE PREVALENCE OF CYSTICERCOSIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

Cysticercosis remains as important health problem in developing countries. Its transmission is related to soil contamination with human faces. This parasitosis is found in African, Asian and Latin America, where the greatest incidences are seen in mexico and brazil.

Human cysticercosis is acquired from the ingestion of ova of T. solium, excreted by human carries in their faces, followed by the development of cyst in human tissue. The risk of contamination with taenia ova is related to the contact with T. solium carriers. Recently, it has been shown that in humans, the most common route of infection is ingestion of T. soliumeggs from contaminated food or water. In United States of American and Europe, the frequency of cysticercosis is increasing due to increasing immigration and more frequent travels to endemic regions. The infected individual becomes a carrier and source of infections by oral fecal contamination.

According to the world health organization (WHO), more than 2million people harbor the adult tapeworm and many more are infected with cysticerci (Garcia and Del brutto, 2000). These authors also indicated that neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem as it affects people of productive ages and causes an estimated 50,000 deaths every years and many times that number of patients are left with irreversible brain damage.

The disease also causes important economic losses in countries where it is endemic; more than 60millions dollars per year in Mexico only for contamination of parasitized carcasses (Fluzeby 1998). According to Zoli, et al., (2003), economic estimates indicate that the annuals losses due to porcine cysticercosis in 10 west and central African countries amount to about 25millions euros, among which 2million for Nigeria. Infected pigs and carcasses are sold cheaper in unofficial meat distribution channels in order to avoid losses from the contamination of infected carcasses (Pawlowski, 1990; Tsang and Wilson, 1995).

The cost of this parasitosis for humans is very high (treatment, hospitalization, loss of work days). In 1992, it was estimated at 195 million dollars in USA and 3700 dollars per cases in Mexico (Fluzeby, 1998). In addition, it also reduces the availability of proteins to human as a result of carcass contamination. The human population that is most exposed to the disease are those living in rural areas where sanitary condition are not the best. Djou (2001) quoted by Shey-njila, et al., (2003) reported that the cost of diagnosis, hospitalization and treatment of a human cysticercosis case in Cameroon is 170,000CFA (which is beyond the reach of most rural population.

 

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THE PREVALENCE OF CYSTICERCOSIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

DETERMINING THE SERUM PROTEIN LEVELS AND CIC LEVEL IN CEREBRAL MALARIA PATIENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

DETERMINING THE SERUM PROTEIN LEVELS AND CIC LEVEL IN CEREBRAL MALARIA PATIENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

2.0 INTRODUCTION

Malaria is a febrile illness characterized by fever and related symptoms (WHO, 1990).

It is a disease caused by a blood borne protozoan parasite which is an intracellular parasite belonging to the class Sporozoa and of the genus Plasmodium and it is transmitted through the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito (CDC, 2002). There are four different parasites of this genus which may give rise to malaria in man.

Malaria is probably one of the oldest diseases known to mankind that has profound impact on our history. History of malaria and its terrible effects is as ancient as the history of civilization, therefore history of mankind itself (Ray et al., 1992). This ancient disease is still the scourge of the tropic and subtropics Africa, the Middle East, Asia and China and Central and South America are all endemic zones with tens of Ilion cases annually (Lucas, 1992).

Plasmodium falciparum is one of the genus and cause the most ere and virulent form of the disease and the only one to cause acute ality. In this study Plasmodium falciparum will be on focus since it is most prevalent in Nigeria. This genus of malaria spend a part of their cycle in the red cell of the host where the erythrocyticschizogony. They develop into merozoites and undergo a cycle producing schizonts.

Each cycle terminates when the red cell rupture releasing merozoites into the circulation to infect new red cells eliciting an immune response.

Malaria infection leads to the formation of circulating immune complexes (Mibeiet al., 2005). The importance of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and their relationship to various diseases has been the subject of investigation for number of years. Formation of immune complexes is a protective, on-going and usually benign process of a normally functioning immune system. However, in some individual CIC are deposited in the walls of blood vessels, especially in the glomerular capillaries where they cause tissue damage.

The biospecific binding between sites of the antibody and the determinant group of the antigen result in the formation of antigen-antibody complex (AgAb) known as immune complexes (McDougal and McDuffie, 1985). Since malaria has been known to cause mortality this study is aimed at assessing the magnitude of circulating immune Complexes and some biochemical parameters which include serum total rein, albumin and globulin.

1.1 JUSTIFICATION

The science of immunology have suggested the use of CIC to measure variety of clinically oriented condition, this current studies ,suggest that CIC determination can be important in the evaluation of in disease and sometimes in monitoring the efficiency of therapy.

Studies have suggested that plasma protein pattern is frequently abnormal in patients with acute malaria and disturbance in immune responses makes the disease a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with malaria.

There is therefore need to determine CIC and serum proteins in patients suffering from malaria with a view to understand the pathology of the infection.

 

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DETERMINING THE SERUM PROTEIN LEVELS AND CIC LEVEL IN CEREBRAL MALARIA PATIENTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIUM AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

ASYMPTOMATIC BACTERIUM AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINIC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

ABSTRACT

Studies on asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women attending antenantal clinic of the General Hospital Ekwulobia was undertaken, hundred urine samples were collected then centrifriged and 1ml of the supernatant was inoculated on the prepared Nutient Agar and Mac Conkey agar then incubated at 370c for 48 hours. Pure colonies were obtained by sub culturing. Morphological and biochemical characterization of the isolates identified bacteria of the general Staphylococcus, Streptococcus,Proteus and Escherichia. The result showed that 72(72%) of the pregnant women are asymptomatic. E. coli was sensitive to Reflacine but resistant to Tarivid, Staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to gentamycin and resistant to Nalidix acid. There is need for routine screening of urine of pregnant women as part of antenatal health care for pregnant women in Nigeria

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Asymptomatic bacteriuria refers to the presence of bacteria in Urine. It is a conduction in which urine reveals a significant growth of pathogens that is greater than 105 bacteria/ml, but without the patient showing symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) (Girbert et al; 2005).

This common during pregnancy. The apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women appears to encourage the growth of both commensal and non-commensal microorganism (Scott et al; 1990).

The physiological increase in plasma volume during pregnancy decrease urine concentration and up to 70% pregnant woman develop glucosurea, which encourage bacteria growth in urine (Patterson et al; 1987 luces et al; 1993).

Pregnancy enhances the progression from asymptomatic bacteriuria which could lead to pyelonephrintis and adverse obstetric out comes such as prematurity, low birth weight (Connotly et al; 1999) and higher foetal mortality rates (Nicolle, 1994, Delzell et al; 2000) the adverse effects of undiagnosed asymptomatic bacteriuria on mother and child have made researchers to suggest routine culture screening for all pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (Kirlam, 2005) in order to prevent mother and child from any form of complication that may arise due to infection.

However, in many hospitals in developing countries including Nigeria, routine urine culture test is not carried out for antenatal patients. Probably due to cost implication and time factors for culture result (Usually 48 hour’s period) instead many clinicians opt for the strip urinalysis method for accessing urine in pregnant women.

The true picture of such urine specimen cannot be fully accessed as the strip cannot qualify the extent of infection in such a patient as well as provide antimicrobial therapy which is usually seen in the case of culture test. In many health centers in developing countries. The attention of clinicians and health care providers is usually on the presence of glucose and protein in urine specimens with less attention on possible asymptomatic infection.

 

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THE CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR DRYER USING CONVEX LENS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

THE CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR DRYER USING CONVEX LENS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Growth is the irreversible increase in volume (size) number of part, length and weight of an organism (Umeh, 2004). Growth can be defined as a process by which a plant increase in the number and size of leaves and stems (Rayburn, 1993). Growth is also defined as an irreversible change in the size of a cell, organ or whole organism (Janick; 1979). Growth is an irreversible increase in body size and weight due to incorporation of new protoplasm in the body (sarojini et al; 1991). Growth is a physiological activity involving the enlargement and elongation of an organism due to the incorporation of more protoplasm within the organism(Okeke; 2014). Cell theory states that new cells are formed from the pre-existing ones by division. When one cell divides by mitosis, two new cells results. The two new cells put together are equal in volume or mass of the cells even though growth takes place in the number of cells. It is when the new cell grows to the maximum size of the parent cell that growth in volume is achieved. If those two new cells are arranged linearly, there will be an increase in length. The growth of both plant and animals require energy. Animal get their energy by digesting the plant they eat while plants get their energy from the sun through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process where the green plant pigment in the plant leaf (chlorophyll) absorbs energy from sunlight and using the energy, water and carbon(iv)oxide to produce oxygen and simple sugar.

The plant then uses these sugars to make more complex sugars and starches from storage as energy reserves, to make cellulose and hemicelluloses for cell wall or with nitrogen, to make protein. The way these plants uses energy depends on the developmental stage of the plants and environmental conditions.

When leaves are removed from a grass or clover plant, new leaves develop and grow from buds on the crown or stems of the plants. This growth requires energy which comes from reserve carbohydrates (Sugar and starches) or from actively photosynthesizing leaves remaining on the plants. At some point, photosynthesis is great enough to produce more sugar than is needed for growth. This results in an increase in the reserve carbohydrate in the plant. As the leaf area increase further, leaves start shading one another and net growth shows as older leaves in shape do not get enough sunlight and begin to die. Root growth determines the ability of the plant to take up nutrient and water. Root growth determined by the plants activity photosynthesizing leaf area since the root depends on energy captured by leaves. Therefore roots receive energy only when more energy is produced by photosynthesis than is being used by top growth.

 

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THE CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR DRYER USING CONVEX LENS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CONTRACEPTIVES AND THEIR EFFECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CONTRACEPTIVES AND THEIR EFFECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The term contraception refers to any procedure or device intended to prevent pregnancy (the presence of an implanted conceptus in the uterus). (Kenneth, 1998).

Contraception allows couples to choose when and if to have a baby. Some forms of contraception also provide protection against sexually transmitted infection (STIs). There are several types of contraception, which works in different ways. Barrier methods such as male and female condoms, create a physical barrier against sperm. Women can also use hormonal methods of contraception, such as the pills, or mechanical contraceptive devices, such as an IUD (Intrauterine Device) that is placed in the womb. (Robort Finn, 2007).

No contraceptive is 100% reliable, and some have possible side effects. It is therefore important to consider Age, medical history, and sexual life styles when deciding what sort of protection to use. It’s worth remembering that the male condom is the only form of contraception that also protects sexually transmitter diseases. In all cases, contraceptives methods are more reliable if used properly. (Robort Finn, 2007).

1.1 HISTORY OF CONTRACEPTIVE USAGE

Through the centuries, women and men have been searching for the ultimate contraceptive. Many different methods have been tried and many have failed. Some have been painful, some comfortable, others ineffective and others effective.

Different methods have been passed own from generations.

The first methods is the natural method. In the past, women used to nurse their children for two or three years. This would suppress ovulation, thus preventing form pregnancy. (Jake, 2004).

Another effective natural methods is coitus interruptus or withdrawing before ejaculation. The process involves the male withdrawing the penis from the female before ejaculation occurs. (Jake, 2004).

The rhythm method is basically abstaining from intercourse during ovulation. Many oral contraceptives in the past were drinks containing oil, fruits, grains and other vegetable matter. Douches also were used as birth control. French prostitutes has been using syringes to douches since 1600. This was seldom on effective method of contraceptive unless the douche was acidic. Oriental women used oiled paper “capping the cervix” was effective while European women used beeswax. (Jake, 2004).

Historians attribute the intrauterine devices (UUDs0 to the Arabs. They would stick pebbles into the uteruses of their camels to prevent pregnancy on long trips across the desert. (Jake, 2004).

The females were not the only ones with a form of contraceptives. The males used a condom, a small covering used to cover the penis. In folk core, “Dr Condom” invented a condom for king Charles II in the 17th century. A man named Charles Goodyear developed the first rubber condom in the 19th century. In he 1990’s a condom for women was invented, which instead of fitting a penis fits inside the female virgina. (Jake, 2004).

 

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CONTRACEPTIVES AND THEIR EFFECTS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

OPTICAL FIBERS IN TELECOMMUNICATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

OPTICAL FIBERS IN TELECOMMUNICATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

FIBER OPTICS:-  This is a branch of Optics dealing with the transmission of light through hair – thin, transparent fibers.  LIGHT Signals that enter at one end of a fiber travel through the fiber with very low loss of light, even if the fiber is curved.  A basic fiber – optic systems consists of a transmitting device (which generates the light signal) An optical – fiber cable (which carries the light), and a receiver (which accepts the transmitted light signal) and converts it to an electrical signal.

1.1   HISTORY AND CURRENT RESEARCH

In the early 1950’s Abraham Van Heel of the Delft University of Technology in Netherlands introduced cladding as a way to reduce light loss in glass fibers.  He coated his fingers with plastic.  Even with cladding, however light signals in glass fibers would fade after traveling only a few meters.

In 1967 electrical engineers Charles Kao and George Hockham of Britain’s Standard Telecommunications Labs Speculated that those high losses were due to impurities in the glass that there high losses were due to impurities.  They were correct.  Impurities within the fibers absorbed and scattered light within two decades, engineers solved the impurity problem.  Today, Silica glass fibers of sufficient purity to carry infrared light signals for 100km (62ml) or more without repeater amplification are available.

The development of new Optical techniques will expand the capability of fiber optic systems.  Newly developed of new optical fiber amplifiers, for example, can directly amplify optical signals without first converting them to an electrical signal, speeding up transmission and lowering power requirements.  Dense wave division Multiplexing (DWDM) another new fiber – Optic technique, puts many colours of light spread into a single strand of fiber – optic cable.

Each colour carries a separate data stream.  Using DWDM, a single strand of fiber – Optic cable can carry up to 3 million bits of information per second.  At that rate, downloading the entire contents of the library of congress, a feat requiring 82 years with a dial-up modern, would take just 48 seconds.

OPTICAL FIBERS IN TELECOMMUNICATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON SCIENCE LABORATORY AND TECHNOLOGY

THE INCIDENCE OF SEXUAL ABUSE AND UNWANTED PREGNANCIES AMONG TEENAGERS

THE INCIDENCE OF SEXUAL ABUSE AND UNWANTED PREGNANCIES AMONG TEENAGERS

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Sexual abuse is defined as the involvement of dependent, developmentally immature children in sexual activities that they do not fully comprehend and therefore to which they are unable to give informed consent and/or which violates the taboos of society. (McDowell, M. 2002).

According to Finkelhor D. (2003). Sexual abuse is any misuse of a child for sexual pleasure or gratification. It has the potential to interfere with a child’s normal, healthy development, both emotionally and physically. Often, sexually victimized children experience severe emotional disturbances from their own feelings of guilt and shame, as well as the feelings which society imposes on them.

Sinal, S. H. (2000), refers to child sexual abuse as any sexual act that occurs between as adult or immediate family member and a child and any non consensual sexual contact between a child and a peer.

At the extreme end of the spectrum, sexual abuse includes sexual intercourse and/or its deviations. These behaviours may be the final acts in a worsening pattern of sexual abuse. For this reason and because of their devastating effects, exhibitionism, fondling and any other sexual contact with children are also considered sexually abusive. Sexual abuse of children and teenagers is widespread in virtually all societies. (Population Report, 1999).

This increase has posed a problem to the individual, society, government and nation laws generally consider this issue of sexual abuse as an important one.

Globally, both boys and girls can be a victims of sexual abuse, most studies report that the prevalence of abuse among girls is at least 1.5 to 3 times that among boys and sometimes much more (Population Report , 1999).

In Nigeria, for example 30% of women and 21% of men reported behaviour constituting sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence.

However,  the abuse among boys may be under reported compared with abuse among girls. In this research the researcher place more emphasizing on the sexual abuse affecting the females which leads to unwanted pregnancies sexual abuse can lead to a wide variety of unhealthy consequences, including behavioural and psychological problems, sexual dysfunction, relationship problems, low self-esteem, depression, thoughts of suicide, alcohol and substance abuse and sexual risk taking. Females who are sexually abused in childhood also are at greater risk of being physically and sexually abused as adults.

For instance, the incidence of sexual abused in Ikot Ekpeyak Ikono has become so rampant, this lead to the driving desire of the researcher to research on this menace. In most communities of Ikot Ekpeyak every teenage is seen with at least a child or toddler moving along with mother on the way and this leads to various negative effects on the individuals.

The government despite their involvement in eradicating this menace has succeeded in their little way. It is very difficult for most people to talk about sexual abuse and even more difficult for society as a whole to acknowledge that the sexual abuse of children of all ages including infants happens every day in the Nigeria. For example in Eket where we have Mobil Company and white men are working there and at their leisure time they will go around young girls abusing them sexually and at the end it leads to unwanted pregnancies.

The researcher’s interest in this topic emanated from personal encounter of so many incidence of sexual abuse in Ikot Ekpeyak Ikono community which leads to unwanted pregnancies on the teenager girls.

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The increase sexual abuse on teenagers in Ikot Ekpeyak Ikono community motivated the researcher to study the incidences. The situation leads to unwanted pregnancies among teenagers. The increase of unwanted pregnancies among teenagers in Ikot Ekpeyak Ikono is a menace not only to the community but to the state and the nation as a whole. The course of high incidence of this condition is one of the reasons for the study.

1.3    PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of this study is to find out the incidence of sexual abuse and unwanted pregnancies in Ikot Ekpeyak Ikono Community.

1.4    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The following objectives were formulated to help the researcher in this study:

 

  • To identify the incidence of sexual abuse on the teenagers in Ikot Ekpeyak Community.
  • To find out number of unwanted pregnancies from January 2001 to December, 2005.
  • To identify the parental economic background with highest incidence of sexual abuse and unwanted pregnancy.

To find out which level of education the parents of girls with the highest incidence of sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy belong from January, 2001 to December2005.

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will help the government to adopt a national policy on adolescent health, the need for advocate commitment and collaboration with other agencies to ensure effective implementation.

This study will help the teenagers of Ikot Ekpeyak, Ikono to get enlightened and also protect themselves from sexual abuse.

To help develop socially responsible telecommunication programme that depicts equitable and non violent relationships between and women.

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THE INCIDENCE OF SEXUAL ABUSE AND UNWANTED PREGNANCIES AMONG TEENAGERS

THE EFFECT OF AN ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG – NIFEDIPINE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS

THE EFFECT OF AN ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG – NIFEDIPINE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

Young people develop contain habits for the sake of acceptance in a group. They resort to dangerous habits such as smoking, alcoholism and drug taking for so many reasons such as; helping them to cope with the problems, fear and pressure of everyday life (Brook et al 2001). Some use drugs as s means of escape from realities in life, to reduce anxieties, out of curiosity, while some turn to it in a bid to challenge authority.

Teenagers may be involved with legal or illegal drugs in various ways. Experimentation with drugs during adolescence is common. Unfortunately, teenagers often do not see the link between their actions today and the consequences tomorrow. They also have a tendency to feel indestructible and immune to the problems that others experience. Using alcohol and tobacco at a young age increases the risk of using other drugs later. Some teens will experiment and stop or continue to use occasionally, without significant problems. Others will develop a dependency or addiction, often moving on to more dangerous drugs and causing significant harm to themselves and possibly others (Ibanga 2000).

As Jones, 2006 observes, excessive use of drugs and alcohol work to the determent of important social institutions, such as schools and threaten the smooth functioning of our social system. It is a well established fact that smoking is injurious to health and extensive studies have shown that smokers have an increase risk of disability, illnesses and death from a number of diseases on conditions.

Drug abuse has increased drastically in recent years and the problem is becoming more serious, especially among young teens that are predominantly found in the secondary schools (Anthony et al 1995). The average age of first marijuana use is 14, and alcohol use can start before age 12. The use of alcohol and marijuana in secondary schools has become common. Drug use is associated with a variety of negative consequences, including increased risk of serious drug use later in life, school failure and poor judgement, which may put teens at risk of accidents, violence, unplanned and unsafe sex, and suicide.

In the words of Kipke, (1999), teenagers at risk for developing serious alcohol and drug problems include those: with a family history of substance abuse, who are depressed, who feel like they do not fit in or are out of the mainstream. Teenagers abuse a variety of drugs– legal and illegal, such drugs include; tobacco, alcohol, inhalants, marijuana stimulants, cocaine, depressants, heroin, steroids, MDMA (ecstasy), GHB,rohypnol (rophies), ketamine, met-amphetamine, LSD, club drugs, etc. These drugs are either ingested, smoked, injected or snorted.

Adolescents who abuse drugs present these kinds of behaviours; Physical- fatigue, repeated health complaints, frequent flu-like episodes, chest pains, “allergy ” symptoms, chronic cough, red and glazed eyes, impaired ability to fight off common infections and fatigue, impaired short term memory, change in health or grooming; Emotional personality change, sudden mood changes, irritability, anger, hostility, irresponsible behaviour, low self-esteem, poor judgement, feelings of loneliness, depression, apathy or general lack of interest, change in personal priorities; Family Relationships-decreased interest in the family and family activities, starting arguments, negative attitude, verbal (or physical) mistreatment of younger siblings, breaking rules, withdrawing from family, secretiveness, failure to provide specific answer to questions about activities, personal time that is unaccounted for, lying and dishonesty, unexplained disappearance of possessions in the home, increased money or poor justification of how money was spent; School activities –decreased interest, negative attitude, unexplained drop in grades, irregular school attendance, truancy, discipline problems, not returning home after school; Peer Relationships- dropping old friends and picking new group of friends (new friends who make poor decisions and are not interested in school or family activities ), changes to a different style in dressing and music, attending parties with no parental supervision (Jones 2006).

Teenagers might tell themselves they will only try a drug once, but many teens find themselves under continual peer pressure to continue to experiment with drugs and “join the party”. Most teens do not start using drugs expecting to develop a substance abuse problem, and while most teens probably see their drug use as a casual way to have fun, there are negative effects that are as a result of these use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The biggest consequence to casual drug use can be that it develops unto a true addiction. Most teens do not think that they will become addicted, and simply use drugs or alcohol to have a good time and be more like friends. (Gullets et al 1994).

If the mentioned signs and problems are noticed in adolescents, help should be sought with immediate effect by talking to the teen about it and seeking to establish if they are actually into drug use, how they started and why, and encourage them to get help. Treatment programme should be found for them by consulting a physician to rule out physical causes of drug use, followed or accompanied by a comprehensive evaluation by a mental health professional (Johnson et al 2001).

As the days come by, incidents of youths dropping out of secondary schools for no just cause, becoming mentally deranged and behaving abnormally abound all over the streets in our society. This has given so much concern and a need for an urgent step to be taken to see how this ugly incidence could be addressed since the adverse effects of these drugs usage such as stealing, burglary, armed robbery and other violent and heinous crimes are felt here and there. This as a societal ill raises too many questions than answers, thus raising curiosity as a necessity to carrying out this research.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The indiscriminate or excessive use of drug of various kinds for various purposes by our youth is a vital problem facing our entire society today. It has impacted on all spheres of human endeavour, the schools, the medical world, the private sector and actually the entire nooks and crannies of our society, affecting our day-to-day activities in one way or the other. The relationship between drug abuse and the society is a complex one, each influencing the other, but there are certainly realities that are apparent cost to our society.

Therefore, the purpose of this research is to investigate, evaluate and determine the problems leading to drug abuse by adolescents, specifically taking Uyo local government area as a case study.

  • Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to:

  1. find out why young people take dangerous drugs.
  2. identify the factors contributing to the use of these drugs.
  3. assess the effects of drug abuse in the body.
  4. identity social and psychological problems relating to drug abuse.
  5. see how possible solutions and remedies could be provided to these nagging problems.
  • Significance Of The Study

Our society is experiencing dramatic changes in drug abuse patterns. Historically, adolescents have misused drugs just for ”kick” rebellion, escape and for relief of pains (emotional and psychological). Most of these adolescents develop these habits through sheer imitation from parents, friends, teachers and other elders in the society whom they come in contact or associate with in one way or the other.

The most concerned is their ignorance about the actions and the harmful effects of these dangerous drugs on the normal body function by using them indiscriminately without any advice from a physician.

Under this study, information on the factors contributing to the abuse of drugs, effects, social and psychological problems related to the abuse of drugs and drug addiction are provided.

It is hoped that this study will be of immense benefit especially to adolescents who are already in the habit of using dangerous drugs and to those who at one point or the other feel that they should start abusing drugs. The study shall also be very useful to students and other academic in and outside Akwa Ibom state who are intending to carry out research on a similar or related topic.

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THE EFFECT OF AN ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG – NIFEDIPINE ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RATS

STRATEGIC PLANNING AND CONTROL IN A COMPETITIVE ECONOMY, EFFECTIVE CUSTOMERS ACHIEVEMENTS AND THE COMPANY’S PRODUCTIVITY

STRATEGIC PLANNING AND CONTROL IN A COMPETITIVE ECONOMY, EFFECTIVE CUSTOMERS ACHIEVEMENTS AND THE COMPANY’S PRODUCTIVITY

ABSTRACT

This research project attempts to synthesize the new strategic planning and control  thoughts into a framework that will be helpful to strategy managers to harmonize the objectives and resources of a firm with the available business opportunities. Owing to ignorance many firms do not apply strategic planning and control. They thus have been denied of the benefits they would have derived from the adoption of strategic planning and control. Even among some firms who appear to recognize the concept, little do they embrace the idea with requisite enthusiasm to increase profitability.

The idea of strategic planning and control in the enhancement of growth of a firm cannot be over emphasized. It serves as a compass to an organization especially in a competitive economy such as ours.

The research work is therefore aimed at finding out the impact which strategic planning and control plays or ought to play in the growth and survival of a firm. Seven-up bottling company Plc, Uyo plant is used as the case study.

The project is organized into five chapters. Chapter one is an introduction which gives insight into the background of the problem as well as the research problems, also it presented the statement of the problems, objectives of the study, the hypothesis, significance of the study as well as definition of terms.

On another hand, chapter two dealt with the preview of related literatures, which formed the backbone of the study. the research extensively reviewed various related books, journals from which facts and opinions of renowned authors were drawn.

Chapter three simply explained the research methodology to enable the reader appreciate the design and stages taken in making the findings.

The results of the findings were tabulated and presented in chapter four. Brief explanation were made for every table. In addition chi-square statistical tool was used to test the hypothesis.

Chapter five contains the discussion of results, summary of major findings, conclusion, recommendation, as well as the summary. It is important to remark that benefits of strategic planning for the survival and growth of a firm were highlighted.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Managements direction setting task involves developing a mission, setting objectives, and farming a strategy. Early on in the direction – setting process, managers need to farm a vision of where to lead the organization and to answer the question, “where our business is and what will it be? A well-conceived mission statement helps channel organizational efforts along the course management has charted and builds a strong sense of organizational identity. Effective visions are clear, challenging, and inspiring they prepare a firm for future, and they make sense in the market place. A well-conceived, well-said mission statement serves as a beacon of long term direction and creates employee buy-in.

The second direction-selling step is to establish strategic and financial objectives convert the mission statement in a specific performance targets (Andrews Kenneth R. 1987:2-5), the agreed on objectives need to be challenging but achievable and they need to spell out precisely how much by when. In other words, objectives should be measurable and should involve deadlines for achievement and must be needed at all organizational levels. The third direction-setting step entails farming strategies to achieve the objectives set in each area of the organization.

According to Kelly C. Aaron (1983:46-48). A corporate strategy is needed to achieve corporate level objectives; business strategies are needed to achieve business – unit performance objectives; functional strategies are need to achieve the performance targets set for each functional department; and operating- level strategies are needed to achieve the objectives set in each operating and geographic unit. In effect, an organization’s strategic plan is a collection of unified and interlocking strategies and different strategic issues are addressed at each level of managerial strategy-making. All the direction – setting steps are all elements of strategic planning.

Strategic planning according to Gluck, Federick (1999:5) is the establishment of organization’s goals and objective and the utilization of the strategic elements for the attainment of the organization’s goals. However, YIP George S. 1992:3 points that strategic planning consists of a set of underlying process that are intended to create or manipulate a situation to create a more favourable outcome for a firm in which case every on-going business must include short-range, medium range and or long-range for its survival. This then means that strategic planning is the process of deciding in the present what to do in the future, which requires that an organization reconcile its resources with its objectives and the attendant course of actions that are open to it. Typically, the strategy-making task is more top-down than bottom-up. Lower-level strategy supports and complements higher-level strategy and contributes to the achievement of the higher-level, company wide objectives.

Strategy is shaped by both outside and inside considerations. The major external considerations are societal, political, regulatory and community factors; – industry attractiveness and the company market opportunities and threats. The primary internal considerations are company strengths, weakness, and competitive capabilities manager’s personal ambitions philosophies, and ethics; and the company culture and share values.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Strategic planning and control which is done on a company wide bases is always a difficult task. This is because past and recent research studies have made it clear that there is an increase internal and external uncertainty due to emerging opportunities and threats, lack of awareness of needs and of the facilities released issues and environmental complexity and lack of direction.

Many organizations spend most of their time realizing and re-acting to im-expected changes and problems instead of anticipating and preparing for them (Henry 1999). This he called crisis management. Organization caught off guard may spend a great deal if time and energy playing catch up. They use up their energy coping with immediate problems with little energy left to anticipate and prepare for the next challenges. This vicious cycle locks many organizations into a reactive position.

This research study is to access the impact of strategic planning on organizational performance, which at the long run enhances organizational survival. It is a continuous and systematic process where people make decision about intended future outcome, how these outcomes are to be accomplished and how success is to be measured and evaluated. On how organizations should capitalized on their strengths over come their weakness take advantage of opportunities and defend against threats to the organizations, explains the difficulties encountered by strategy managers in strategic planning and control. However, the researcher is interested in finding out the impact which strategic planning and control has in the survival and growth of a firm in a competitive economy.

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

In a liberalized and competitive economy such as ours, consumer awareness is on the increase that they consumer are becoming very selective in their choice of goods and services they purchase.

This study is therefore aimed at helping firms especially seven-up bottling company Plc know how to effectively apply or adopt strategic planning and control in a competitive economy in order to satisfy the yawning of their customers and achieve the company’s objectives. For these reasons the study is designed to achieve the following objectives.

  1. To examine the impact of strategic planning and control in the survival and growth of a firm.
  2. To examine how strategic planning and control can be implemented

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STRATEGIC PLANNING AND CONTROL IN A COMPETITIVE ECONOMY, EFFECTIVE CUSTOMERS ACHIEVEMENTS AND THE COMPANY’S PRODUCTIVITY

THE INFLUENCE OF LABORATORY METHOD ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE IN GENERAL

THE INFLUENCE OF LABORATORY METHOD ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE IN GENERAL

    CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

This chapter introduces the work under the following sub-headings: background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, and significance of the study, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study and definition of terms.

  • Background of the study

The current shift in emphasis in science curricula objective reflecting student-centred process approach to science is a radical departure from the traditional emphasis on teacher-centred product approach. This new trend requires that the students should be actively involved in the learning process through adequate and meaningful hands- and- minds – on activities during every classroom instruction in science. However, research reports show contrary to the demands of the new science curricula in Nigeria, our science teachers still decide to split science instructions into theory and practical (Njoku, 2004 and Uzoechi, 2004). The results have been students’ persistent poor performance in science subjects, which necessitate laboratory teaching and Basic Science and Technology as a core science subject at the Basic Education level is not an exception.

The teaching of science in the laboratories has been a controversial issue. Laboratory work is both times consuming and expensive compared with other methods of instruction. Hence, the efficiency of such a method of learning should justify the additional time and cost of using it, especially in primary and secondary education (Sabri and Emuas, 2006). In other words, the increase in the educational budget for using laboratories as a model of teaching should be more efficient in accomplishing the objectives of teaching science through laboratories needs, therefore to be constantly evaluated using one or more of the following methods stated below according to Sabri and Emuas (2006).

There should be a comparison of the academic achievement of students who are taught through the laboratory method compared with the achievement of students taught with other models. Harty and Al-Felah (1983) in Sabri and Emuas (2006) indicated that students exposed to laboratory- based education exhibited significantly greater chemistry achievement than students in comparable lecture/demonstration groups on both immediate and delayed post tests. Zitoon and Al-Zaubi (1986) in Sabri and Emuas (2006) concluded that the laboratory teaching method is more efficient compared with traditional method in developing the skill of scientific thinking for science secondary school students. Low achieving students using laboratory method performed better than their counterparts who received the lecture method (Odubunmi and Balogun, 1991). In opposition to this, other studies have not found any significant differences in achievement between laboratory and lecture methods. There should be emphasis on the availability, functionality and accuracy of laboratory equipment in other to achieve the aims of using the laboratory. The Basic Science and Technology for instance, is facilitated by adequate supply of functional laboratory equipment. It requires practical to enhance conceptual understanding as this is crucial to students learning. The quality of functional laboratory equipment a school has is an important aspect for facilitating the knowledge of Basic Science and Technology among learners (Etiubon, 2010). As Wasagu (2008) puts it- “laboratories, workshops and studies blistering with technology and state of art equipment assisted with multimedia technology will boost academic progress”. Aladejana (2007), Balogun (2000) and Mayer (2004) in Etiubon (2010) opined that available functional laboratory equipment promote students’ participation during laboratory activities which in turn enable them identify problems, pose relevant questions, perform efficient and effective experiments, make judgements on alternative hypotheses and interpretation of data. Students therefore learn to discover, learn from discovery and learn by discovery.

The extent to which laboratory instruction, experiments, and textbooks are congruent with expected objectives of teaching sciences should be investigated. Tamir and Lunetta (1981), in Sabri and Emuas (2006) reported that laboratory handbooks do not provide students with expected opportunities to investigate and use the scientific inquiry method of teaching. Lunetta (2003) reported that laboratory instruction may play an important part in the achievement of some science teaching goals, but not incorporated laboratory goals in their instruction and evaluation systems. The discrepancies between teaching goals and laboratory handbooks instructions also were shown by Fuhrman (1982) in Sabri and Emuas (2006).

There should be investigation on gender inequality in science. Over the years, there exists gender inequality in science achievement among secondary school students (Olatoye, 2008). Chyton (1986) in Utuk (2006) reported that boys achieved better than girls in examinations involving laboratory work. Tamir (1988) in Utuk (2006) says that in Israel, boys performed better than girls only in Physics while their achievement in Biology and Chemistry were similar.

The management of student groupings and tasks in laboratory experiments should be examined for their effect on students’ performance. Niaz (1995) in Sabri and Emuas (2006) concluded that students who perform better on problems requiring conceptual understanding also perform significantly better on problems requiring manipulation of the data in chemical experiments. Lawrenz and Munch (1984) in Sabri and Emuas (2006) showed that grouping students in the laboratory on the basis of their formal reasoning ability affected the science content achievement of students and the relationship between individuals in a particular group. On the other hand, Kyle (1979) in Sabri and Emuas (2006) concluded that there is significant difference in the behaviours of students (listening, observation and writing notes) enrolled in introductory level and advanced laboratories in five science disciplines at the University of Iowa from the behavior of their cohorts who did not enroll in laboratory class.

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THE INFLUENCE OF LABORATORY METHOD ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE IN GENERAL

NUTRITIONAL AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CALOTRPIS PROCERA BOMBOM (GIANT MILK WEED)

NUTRITIONAL AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CALOTRPIS PROCERA BOMBOM (GIANT MILK WEED)

ABSTRACT
To investigate in vitro anti microbial activity of aerial parts of Calotropis procera and Centellaasatica Linn., that have been popularly used as folk medicines. The organic solvent plant extracts are tested on the various micro-organisms including bacteria and fungi using agar well diffusion technique. The length of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters from the edge of the well to the edge of the inhibition zone. Calotropis procera showed significant to moderate activity against (14mm) Pseudomonas marginalis and (21mm) Streptococcus mutans with 100mg/ml DMSO plant drug concentration. The results of (MICs) values are lowest at 66 and highest at 152mg/ml for Calotropis asatica. The extracts were assessed in an effort to validate the potential activity of the medicinal plant plants against microbes.

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NUTRITIONAL AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF CALOTRPIS PROCERA BOMBOM (GIANT MILK WEED)

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL LOAD OF THE ENUGU MAIN WATER PRODUCTION AND WATER AVAILABLE TO IMT CAMPUS 2 HOSTEL

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL LOAD OF THE ENUGU MAIN WATER PRODUCTION AND WATER AVAILABLE TO IMT CAMPUS 2 HOSTEL

ABSTRACT

           Samples of water from the different hostels in campus II and other source of water production namely Ajali-owa water, from bore hole 9th mile and spring water from GRA water board were water collecterd and analysed using total plate count and multiple tube fermentaton techniques coliform.  The results shows no coliforms in production water from Ajali-owa and in GRA spring water reservaiour and no coliform in 9th mile bore hole water, 14 organism and 149 cfu/ml plate counts were obtained from tap water in IMT campus II hostel 7 coliform and Tocful / ml plate count from well water and 28 coliform and 280 cfu/ml plate count from spillage waste water.  These results obtained show that tap water  consumed in IMT campus II did not meet with NAFDAC and WHO standards.  Preventive measures such as proper treatment of these water should be encourage and all pipes in campus II should be checked for leakages

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.0       CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1       Aims / objectives of the study

1.2       Statement of problems

1.3       Hypothesis

1.4       Scope of limitation

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review

2.1              The major group of biological Pollutions of water

2.2       Source of water supply

2.3       Source of water pollution

2.4       Treatment of water sample

2.5              International standard for drinking water

2.6              Diseases from water

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Materials & methods

3.0       Materials

3.1       Media preparation

3.2       Collection of samples

3.3       Collection of samples

3.4       Methods of water analysis

3.5       Determination of PH

3.5.1        Determination of bacteria of the coliform

3.5.2        Culture techniques

3.5.3        Plate count technique

3.5.1        Presumption coliform (multiple tube fermebtation

3.5.4    Confirmatory test

3.5.5    Completed test

3.5.6    Test for indole

3.5.7    Methyl red test

3.5.8    Sugar test

3.5.9    Oxidase test

3.5.10 Catakase test

3.5.11 The slide cougulase test

3.5.12 Gram stain techniques

3.5.13 Detection of faecal stredtococci

3.5.14 Detection of escherichi coli test

3.5.15 Organism suspected after gram staining

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion

CHAPTER SIX

6.1       Conclusion

6.2       Recommendation

References

Appendix CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Water is a liquid mineral.  It consist of two atoms of hydrogen combined with one atom of oxygen. Water is a tasteless, odourless and colourless mobile liquid except in large volume where it appears blue.  It has a melting point of OoC (320f) and a boiling point of 1000C (2120f).  water is a basic necessity of life, in the absence higher animals survive only but a few hours or days.  It has several uses such  as  washing  cooking, food  processing ,swimming, and  among  others. Out  of   these  uses, drinking  of  water  seems  to  be  the  most   sensitive  as  it  could  have  a  direct   deleterious  impact  on  health  of  human  beings.

Therefore, drinking  water  should  be  potable  free  diseases, or  toxic  substance (Beren 1991) .

Water is portable when it is colourless.  Odourless, or tasteless and also free from poisonous, corroding, staining substances as well as disease casuiong oirganisms (Cruich 1972).  The problem of providing safe and adequate water is as old as life on earth.  Water can be made unifit or unsafe for drinking it contamination occurs either by nature or activities of human beings.

Perhaps the greatest danger associated with drinking water is contamination by human  excrement (Forest 1979).  In most cases, the pollution/contamination is hardly severe and is not particularly detrimental to health.

Thus a few substances and microbes that are health hazard do occur in water, and can cause illness or even death.  From microbiological point of view, the pathogens most frequently transmitted through water supply ranges from ultrasmall virus to the microspic bacteria and relatively large cysts entemoeba instolytica.  These organism cense infectrons of intestinal trach, when consumed censing amebic dysentery, and Gardia lamblia is a protozoa responsible for Giadiasis.  Defective plumbing for example was the cause of out break during the world fair in Chicago 1933 (Garelick 1987) water borne disease cause acute diarrhoe, often last 2-3 months.  The most common water borne disease can be by bacteria includes typhoid fever, paratyphoid.  Asiatic cholera and bacteria dysentery.

Other disease that may be transmitted by water include brucellosis, shige /losis, these disease are consuming.  Untreated water (Hetolett 1921) various countries of the world and the world Health organisation (WHO) has set up standards for water quality against which the level of pollution can be assessed.  The world Health organization (WHO) National Agency for food and Drug Administration control (NAFDAC), standard for potable water include the following, that in 100ml of water coliform bacteria should be absent, total plate count of bacteria growth should be 100 CFU/ML of water.  Hence the sanitary Quality of water should not be over looked since  contaminated water can cause health hazards when consumed.

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL LOAD OF THE ENUGU MAIN WATER PRODUCTION AND WATER AVAILABLE TO IMT CAMPUS 2 HOSTEL

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MICRO-ORGANISM ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPOILAGE OF BANANA

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MICRO-ORGANISM ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPOILAGE OF BANANA

ABSTRACT

The comparative study of microorganisms associated with the spoilage of banana. “Banana is a general term embracing a number of species or hybrid in the genus musa, family bacteria organisms, small pieces of decayed tissue from the leading edge of the lesion was transferred, by means of sterile techniques, to the SDA contained in covered dishes and incubated at room temperature (28-370c).  The fungal and bacterial growth visible within 2-7 days.  Each observed fungal and bacterial growth based on their  morphological and cultural microscopic examination and this microscopic examination was done using the lactophenol  staining technique.  Some organisms like Erwinia species has been incriminated as pathogen, saprophyte or constituent of epiphyic flora of plants.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE          

1.1       INTRODUCTION

1.2       AIM AND OBJECTIVE

1.3       SIGNIFICANCE OF STDY

1.4       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

1.5       LIMITATION

1.6       HYPOTHESIS

CHAPTER TWO                                                                                                    

2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW

2.2       MOLDS

2.3       YEAST

2.4       BACTERIA

2.5       BACTERIAL SPOILAGE OF BANANA

2.6       FUNGAL SPOILAGE OF BANANA

2.7       OTHER FUNGAL SPOILAGE OF BANANA

2.8       CONTROL OF BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL DISEASES

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.1       STERILIZATION OF MATERIALS AND MEDIA USED

3.2              PREPARATION OF SABORAUD DEXTTROS AGAR (SDA)

3.3              PREPARATION OF NUTRIENT AGAR

3.4              BACTERIAL/FUNGAL ISOLATION BANANA FRUIT

3.5              BACTERIAL ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION

3.6              FUNGAL ISOLAATION AND IDENTIFICATION

3.7              STAININMG TECHNIQUE FOR BACTERIAL ISOLATES

3.8              ISOLATION OF YEATS AND MOLD

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       RESULTS

4.1       BACTERIAL EXAMINATION

4.2       FUNGI EXAMINATION

CHAPTER FIVE    

5.0       DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCES

LIST OF TABLES TABLE I:        BIOCHEMICAL ISOLATES FOR BACTERIAL TABLE II:      FUNGI ISOLATE

TABLE III:     BIOCHEMICAL TEST FOR YEAST ISOLATED

TABLE IV:     SOURCES OF COLLECTION OF THE FRUITS

TABLE V:      ORGANISMS ISOLATED AND THEIR FREQUENCIES

LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE I:      HOW ERWINIA SPECIE IS THE HIGHEST OCCURRENCE

FIGURE II: HOW ASPERFILLUS SPECIE IS THE HIGHEST OCCURRENCE

FIGURE III: THE LEAST OCCURRENCE IS CHROMOBACTERIUM SPECIE

FIGURE IV: THE HIGHEST AND ATHE LEAST OCCURENCES WERE ASPERGILLUS SPECIE AND RHODOTORULA SPECXIE

FIGURE V: THE GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF THE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF THE MICROORGANISM FOUND IN THE TESTED BANANA.

FIGURE VI: SHOWS THE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF THE MICRO-ORGANISM FOUND IN THE SPOILT BANANA FRUITS.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION

Banana may be defined as a personal seed plant that produces an edible fruits, usually seedless, belong to the species M.  acuminata, or are hybrids M. acuminata, M. balbisnna.  They are perennial herbs with long, the bases of these leaves (petioles) remain tightyly fused and form the trunk (Pseudostem) of a plant 2-9m (6-30-ft) in height (Ploetz, 1994),

“Banana” is a general term embracing a number of species or hybrids in the genus musa, family musceae. In some areas of the world bananas are grown only as ornamental plants or for fiber.

It is found in tropical regions.  The banana is monocarpic, flowering and setting fruit once before sit dies.  The inflorescence protective flag leaf.  The flower stalk of most banana varieties  is positively geotropic and bends from the vertical until its stip points towards vertical flower stalks are from 30 – 90 cm (1-3ft) along, tapered and covered in a sheath of over- lapparing bracks the flower are parthenogenic (self-fertile).  And occur in group of 12-20 beneath the bracks.

At first, individual fruiots called fingers, make up the groups (hands) which are arranged in a spiral around the flower stalk, forming a bunch.

At fruit set, a healthy banana plant will have 8-12 leaves, fruits mature in 60-100 days after flowers first appears depending on the season and cultivan.  New banana plants arise as suckers from an underground rhizone.  As old planted die and new sucher are formed the rhizome expands and is called a mat.  Banana are propagated by suckens, pieces of the Bluzome and by tissue culture  (Ploetz 1994)

USES

Bananas contain about 74% waterm 23% carbohydrate, 1% protein and 0.5 %.  A 4 – ounce banana without the peel is a good source of  vitamin Bb, Potassium, and fiber.

Banana fruit may be   eaten raw or as a cooked vegetable.   The fruit can also be processed for a number of food products.

Ripe fruits can be pulped for puree for in a variety of products including ice cream, yoghurt, cake, bread, nectar, and baby food.  Ripe banabas can be dried and eaten, or sliced canned with syrup, and used in bakery products, fruits salads and stoppings.  Green (unripened) bananas can be sliced and fried as chips. Whole green fruits can also be dried and ground into flour. Vinegar and alcoholic beverages can be made from fermented ripe bananas. Other parts of the banana plant are consumed besides the fruits. The heart of the growing pseudostem is eaten in India.   In Southeast Asia, the male bud is eaten as a boiled vegetable.

The banana leaves are not eaten but may be used for wrapping food in cooling. The banana foliage and pseudostems are used as cattle feed during dry periods in some banana producing areas.  Culled bananas are used sto feed cattle and hogs.  Bananas are a good energy source but need to be supplemented with  protein.  But not all micro-organisms associateeed with fruits are harmless”.  This  includes the lactic acid bacteria, coryne forms, pseudomonads, xanthomonads  micrococci, amny fungi and coliforms.  These microorganisms do play an important role in the spoilage of food and dictate the shelf life of fresh fruits. Most healthy raw produce will have on them anywhere from a  few thousand to millions of miucroorganisms per gram.  The presence of many of these microorganisms is a concern for causing product spoilage.

Food spoilage is a major problems in all societies especially fruits, because  they provide nutrients for us, also are excellent environment for the growth of micro-organisms.  Microbial growth as  well as spoilage is controlled by factor related to the food itself or intrinsic factor and also to theenvironment where the food is being stored or what are described as    extrinsic factors.  Food composition is critical intrinsic factor that influences microbial growth, if a food consider primarily  of carbohydrates, spoilage does not result in major odours.  Thus, foods such as some fruits e.g. banana show spoilage by fungal growth.  Also, PH of a food also is critical because a low PH a food also is critical because a low PH favours the growth of yeasts and mold.  This is the case in banana fruit because it has PH of 2-5 physical structure of a food also can affected the course and extension of spoilage.  Banana fruits has outer  skin (peels) that project them from spoilage.

Often, spoilage micro-organisms have specialized enzymes that help them weaken and penetrate protective peels, especially after the fruits has been bruised.  Temperature and relative humidity are important extrinsic factors in determining whether a fruit (banana) will spoil.  At higher relative humilities, microbial growth is  initiated more rapidly even at lower temperatures.

The atmosphere in which the fruit is stored is also important as this plays a crucial role in its spoilage.  Because fruits are such excellent sources of nutrients, If the intrinsic and extrinsic conditions are appropriate, micro-organisms grow rapidly and make what once was an attractive and appealing fruits into a sour, foul-smelling or fungus – covered mass suitable only for the garbage car.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MICRO-ORGANISM ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPOILAGE OF BANANA

BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS ASSOCIATED WIT COMMERCIAL POULTRY FEED FROM THREE DIFFERENT COMPANIES

BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS ASSOCIATED WIT COMMERCIAL POULTRY FEED FROM THREE DIFFERENT COMPANIES

ABSTRACT
The bacterial contaminants associated with commercial poultry feeds from three companies in Nigeria (vital, Guinea and Top) were studied using streak plate techniques. The culture media used were Nutrient agar and Mac Cokey agar. The aim/ objective of the study is: To ascertain the microbial safety of commercial poultry feeds produced by companies. To isolate microorgaisms that are contaminants of poultry feeds, to identify the bacterial types and to determine the microbial load of poultry feed. The microbial mean count was highest in vital feed as 166 per ml with pH 7.80, followed by Guinea feed having mean count of 153 per ml with pH 6-46 and the least microbial mean count was got in Top feed, having 105 per ml withpH 6.00. The study revealed Staphylococcus aureus as the msot predominant bacterial organism with 52cfn (33%) followed by salmonella typhin with 48cfu (30%), The next bacterial organism isolated was Bacillus cereus with 40cfn (25%) and the least was Pseudomonas aeruginosa with 18cfu (12%). Also vital feed had the highest isolation of stapohylococcus aureus, as 60cfu per ml followed by Guinea feed having 57 cfu per ml and least isolation was obtained from top feed as 40cfu per ml. While the highest isolation of salmonella tipphi was obtained also from vital feed as 57cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed with 50cfu per ml. The highest6 isolation of Bacillus cereus was still from vital feed as 50 cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed as 43cfu per ml and least in Top feed with 28cfu per ml. The highest isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was from vital feed with 25cfu per ml, followed by Guinea feed with 19cfu per ml while least isolation was from top feed as 10 cfu per ml. The results showed that the poultry feeds in general had bacterial contaminants. But the microbial load was minimal increasing with decrease in acidity (i.e. high pH).

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of content

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction

CHAPTER TWO
Literature review

CHAPTER THREE
3.0Materials and method
3.1Materials
3.2Methods
3.2.1Sterilization
3.2.2Source of samples
3.2.3Preparation of culture media
3.2.4Determination of pH
3.2.5Plating Technique
3.2.6Bacteria count, Gram staining and Microsoft work
3.2.7Biochemical test for identification
i.Indole test
ii.Methyle Red Test
iii.Voges – Proskaver test
iv.Oxidase test
v.Citrate utilization test
vi.Hydrogen sulphate production/sugar fermentation
vii.Motility test

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0RESULTS
4.1Table 1
4.2Table 2
4.3Table 3
4.4Table 4
4.5Table 5
4.6Table 6
4.7Table 7

CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion

CHAPTER SIX
Conclusion and Recommendations
Reference
Appendix.

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BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS ASSOCIATED WIT COMMERCIAL POULTRY FEED FROM THREE DIFFERENT COMPANIES

PRODUCTION AND CHEMICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF ASPIRIN

PRODUCTION AND CHEMICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF ASPIRIN

ABSTRACT

The question on whether aspirin has any important role to play or not has generated a lot of controversies over years especially among the individuals that fakes the drug, and the pharmaceutical industries that produces it.  This question that seemed to be half way answered gave rise to carrying out of this study. This work is in such a way as to help the readers understand the role of aspirin in human health and the chemical component of the drug in reaction.  It also deals extensively with the definition and background of study, the statement of some problems, the aims and objectives, the limitation and hypothesis. And for the work to be neatly done, there are some books we searched so as to gather more information as is stated in the literature review.  It also deals with the uses or importance of the drug, the side eff3ects, and the solution to the problems and the definition of some terms.  The result of the work is also analysed and the conclusion was drawn.  It is also finally recommended to everybody that has the need to take it and some references were also done.

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PRODUCTION AND CHEMICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF ASPIRIN

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI COLI ISOLATE FROM WOUND INFECTIONS

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI COLI ISOLATE FROM WOUND INFECTIONS

ABSTRACT

The antibacterial activity of sweet orange(citrus smensin) on staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli isolated from would infection was studied. A total number of 100 wound sample were collected form different individual from different age range within 5-8years and examined,. The test organisms S auras and E coli were cultured separately on Nutrient and macconkey agar plate and incubated for 24 hrs at 37)c. the highest isolation of bacterial organisms was obtained in staphylococcus auras as 100 (32%) followed by Escherichia coli as 92 (29%) there were isolation of other organisms, Klebsiella species was 76 (24%) followed by pseudomonas 44 (14%) the average zone of inhibition of orange extract on S aureus    was 1.8 mm and E. coli was 1.9mm also out of 100 person with S. aureus 72 showed sensitive to orange extract and out of 92 person with E coli 77 were sensitive to orange extract. The average zone of inhibition  exhibited by these drug on S. aureus were 8.95mm for Drovid 6.74 mm for ciprofloxacin while on E coli the average zones of inhibition  were 8.63mm for Drovid 6.67mm for Enythrompcin 4.47mm for anbtpicillin and 6.57mm for ciprofloxacin. The  result of the sensitivity pathen of both orange extant and antibiotics on S aureus and E coli showed that some of the isolated organisms were susceptible  while some were resistance to both orange extract and antibiotics. The result should that the zone   of inhibition of the orange extract were minimal on both S. aureus and E coli when compared to the zone of inhibition of the tested antibiotics on both organisms through the inhibition level of orange  extract invitro (outside the body) is minimal, its active ingredient vitamin  C boosts the immune system invivo (insove the body) by increasing the production of B and T cells and other white blood cells including those that destroy micro organisms.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.O      Introduction

CHAPTER TWO

2.0              Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE

3.0              Material and methods

3.2.1           sterilization

3.2.2           procurement of sweet oranges

3.2.3           extraction of orange juice

3.2.4           preparation  of ourture media

3.2.5           plating technique (streak method) for the isolation of bacterial organisms.

3.2.6           Microbial containing and microscopic work

3.2.7           Biochemical tests for identification of bacteria’s isolates

3.2.8           Preparation of disc or sensitivity testing o the orange extract.

3.2.9           Sensitivity disc testing using sweet orange extract on isolated organisms.

3.2.10       Antibiotic sensitivity disc testing on isolated bacterial organisms.

CHAPTER OUR

4.0              Result

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Discussion

CHAPTER SIX

6.0              Conclusion and recommendation

7.0              Reference

8.0              Appendix

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1

Plate court according to sex and age of population sampled.

TABLE 2

Number of groups of bacterial organisms isolated according to sex and age of population sampled.

T5ABLE 3

Perlimical test carried out for the identification of bacterial isolates

TABLE 4

Biochemical test carried out for the identification of bacterial isolates

TABLE 5

Age distribution and number of isolated organisms from both sexes of population sampled

TABLE 6

Age distribution number and percentage occurrence of staphylococcus auraus Escherichia coli Klebsiella and pseudomonas

TABLE 7

Age distribution number sampled, total percentage of s auraus and e coli and percentage of other organisms.

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1

Plate count according to sex and age of population sampled

TABLE 2

Number of groups of bacterial organisms isolated according to ex and age of population sampled.

TABLE 3

Preliminary identification of bacterial isolates

TABLE 4

Biochemical test carried out for the identification of bacterial  ISOLATES

TABLE 5

Age distribution and number of isolated  organisms from both sexes of population sampled.

TABLE 6

Age distribution number and percentage occurrence of staphylococcus auraus Escherichia coli, Klebsiella and pseudomonas

TABLE 7

Age distribution Number sampled, total percentage of S auraus and E coli and total percentage of other organisms.

TABLE 8

Sensitivity disc testing of staphylococcus aureus and  Escheriche coli using orange extract.

TABLE 9

Age range, number sampled and the average zones of inhitction of s aureus and  coli on orange extract..

Table 10

Antibiotics sensitive disc testing on staphylococcus auraus and Escherichia coli.

  CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Sweet orange is a strum belonging to the plant family ruracea with a botanical name citrus simrnsia. They are berries but because or their unusual structure, they are called fresperidiums. Sweet oranges originates in southern China thousands of yeast’s ago. Now they are most popular and wide spread of the citrus fruits. Citrus saneness (sweet oranges) can be grown is most parts of the tropics where than five months and where there is fairly even distribution of  rainfall  throughout the year. The  trees can be grown from seed but its more usual to buy  budded citrus sincensis from private nursery men or form official Agricultural sources. Citrus saneness  is a spreading  ever  green, some time spiny trees up to  12m  fall with ovale elliptic leaves which are commonly 7-10cm long dark green and routed at the base. They are carried on short articulated petioles with very narrow wins. The leaves are strongly scented the white sweet smelling flowers are  smaller than those of the group. The rounded fruits are up to 12cm in diameter. Deep yellow to orange or in humict climate remaining green when ripe. Sweet oranges (citrus saneness) are trotrical crops. They are also annual crops (Cobley 1976)

In a typical sweet orange, the excerpt and mesa carp are leathery and protect the juicy inner tissue deceived from the endocarp from damage and desiccation. The epidermis of the fruit has a thick cuticle and varying number of stomata, the excerpt or flavedo is a layer of irregular photosynthctically active parenchyma cells which is green in young fruit and becoming orange or greenish when they nature. The mesocarp is thicker than the exocarp and consists of inter cellular space. The mesocarp is know as the albedo. It is rich in vitamin C sugar cellulose and in pectin. The mesocarp and excarp together form the bird  of the fruit. The center of the fruit is occupied by the development  carpels of the ovary which are disposed around the pithy axis in form of several closely packed segments. Each segment develops from a single carpal and is surrounded by thin, transparent endocarp or “ray” form which multi-cellular hairs grow to fill each segment. Each huge cell or pulp vesicle of these hairs fills with juice and they form the edible part of the fruit for which the crops are grown. The  seed lies on axle placenta close to the central axis and in the nature fruit is about 40- 45 percent juice 30 percent rind and 30 percent pulp and seeds which taken together consists of about  90 percent water 5-10 percent sugar 1-2  percent petunias various acids, essential oil proteins and minerals.

Generally the fruit contains 80-90 percent of sugar and acids with relative proportion  varying between other species of citrus. Citric acid  is the abundant acid in the sap. Pectin in the juice gives it a  cloudy colloidal  appearance. Cilrus nsinensis contain mineral salts,  glycosides, small amount of protein and vitamin (cobley 1976) it is a good source of cirus are citrus paradisc (grape fruit) citrus limon (lemon) citrus  aurantatifolia (lime) citrus aurantinum (sour orange) citrus reticulate  (tangermie and maudanine) citrus grandis (pummelo) and citrus medical (citron) The sugar and acids vary between species.

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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS) ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI COLI ISOLATE FROM WOUND INFECTIONS

AN EPIDEMOLOGY SURVEY FOR SCTRISTOSOSOMIASIS AMONG PUPILS

AN EPIDEMOLOGY SURVEY FOR SCTRISTOSOSOMIASIS AMONG PUPILS

ABSTRACT

The survey of urinary sehistomiass in Ishele in Amagunze, Nkanu East local Government was carried out using two methods of diagnosis i.e combination of questionnaire on clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory microscopy using primary school children in the area as test samples. A total of fifty samples were randomly collected reveals the prevalence of urinary Sdristomisis is 62 %. The risk factor attributed was found to contain the sried of the type Bulinus (physopsis) globusus and Bulinus fruncatus that are responsible because children play and swum in Afavu River. The sample were collected from pupils within the age of 6-12 years.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction                                          

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review                               

CHAPTER THREE: Materials and methods                               

3.1       Areas of study

3.2 Collection of Specimen

3.3 Method Involved

3.4 Experiment

CHAPTER FOUR  

Results

CHAPTER FIVE         

Discussion

CHAPTER SIX       

Recommendation and Conclusion

References

Appendixes

LIST OF TABLE

TABLE I : Time scale in the development of schistosome species

Table II           Age specific prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis from 50 urine samples analyzed.

LIST OF FIGURES

TRASMISSION LIFE CUCLE                                                                                 10

DIFFERENT ON A OF SCHISTOSOMES                                                             21

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of urinary and intestinal tracts by schistosome. A specie which infect the urinary bladder is caused by schnstosome haematobuim widely  found in Africa and was first discovered by bilharza in 1851 in Egyptian mummies and He also carried out an urogential tract autopsy. About 20million people are infected with schnstosome parasite, those  who get heavy infection are especially or death. Billaries modify dictimery (1998) defined Schistosomiasis as infection disease of man caused by blood flukes of genus schnstosome. It is one of the most serious parasitic infection of man, affecting millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, Asia and west Indies.

Schistosomiasis  presents a constant threat to as many as 600millons people as they perform daily activities related to water, such like swimming, washing and bathing ( Bayers 1984) this Schistosomiasis affect for different prpolation from as a result of human contact with infected water, they includes (a) occupational  (b) recreational (c) domestic (d) socio- cultural (Ukoli 1984) The three main species of schnstosome responsible for human infection are schnistasoma japonicum. Four other species occurring much less commonly are interculum, S matter, S bovis and S meking

The blood flukes in schnstosome is a long narrow known as Schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. schnstosome that livers in the urinary bladder of man is known as schisotosoma haematobium while that in the intestine is . schistosoms mansm, and also schistosnma japonicum,

Ramsay (1934) reported that male and female worms are separated individual but the female is smaller and is carried in a groove on the under surface of the male and lives in the vein of the host. The female lays eggsin the walls of the bladder and intestine causing inflammation and bleeding. The eggs are excreted with body wastes and find their way to water contaminated by several different water snail example bulinus which is the intermediate host of  schrostome haematobium. Schistosomiasis is very wide spread and associated with poverty, poor housing and inadequate sanitary facilities and unsanitary human behavior.

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AN EPIDEMOLOGY SURVEY FOR SCTRISTOSOSOMIASIS AMONG PUPILS

MICROBIAL EXAMINATION OF SPOILT AVOCADO FRUIT

MICROBIAL EXAMINATION OF SPOILT AVOCADO FRUIT

ABSTRACT

Microbial examination of spoilt Avocado fruits was carried out to obtained the causal organism. A total of 60 avocado from Ogbete Main market and New market Enugu were examined by culturing on nutrient agar and sabourand dextrose agar (SM), for bacteria and fungi causing post – harvest spoilage on the fruits; six bacterial species and six fungal species were isolated. The bacteria include Erwinia SP (66.7%), Streptococcus sp, *25%), E. Coli (18.9%) and staphycoccus sp (33.3%), Pseudomonas sp(20%) and Chromobacterium sp (5%) has the lowest percentage occurrence, Erwinia sp, Pseudomonas sp and chromobacterium sp were found to be absent in the control. The fungi species, includes Aspergillus sp (50%), Pericillium sp (25%), Fusarium sp (16.6%), Rhisopus sp (13.3%), currularia sp (8.3%) and Rhoctorula sp (3.3%), were also kolated Avocado fruits from Ogbete main market were more contaminated than the avocado form the new market.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1 Background of study

1.2 Statement of problem

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study

1.4 Hypothesis

1.5 Significance of the study

1.6 Limitation of the study

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review

2.1 The origin of Avocado fruits

2.2 Uses of avocado fruits

2.3 Preservation of avocado fruits

2.4 Ways avocado fruits can be prone to contamination

2.5 Microbial spoilage of avocado fruit

2.6 Control of bacterial and other disease of avocado fruits and fruits products

2.7 Some biochemical test for bacterial isolates

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and methods

3.1 Sample collection

3.2 Sterilization of media an material used

3.3 Preparation of media

3.4 Bacteria and fungi isolate from avocado fruits

3.5 Bacterial isolation and identification

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MICROBIAL EXAMINATION OF SPOILT AVOCADO FRUIT

PRODUCTION OF SOAP AND DETERGENT THROUGH COID PROCESS

PRODUCTION OF SOAP AND DETERGENT THROUGH COID PROCESS

ABSTRACT

Today in every market exists different types of soap and detergents.  Some of them are not efficacious as advertised because the ingredients of such soaps are not always in right proportion and as such the efficacy of active ingredients is not rendered.  It is now generally accepted that soap produced using linear alkyl benzine sulphonate has a high brodegralbility effect.  Based on this a high quality soap and detergent has been produced using L.A.B.S. the soaps and detergent produce compared with that of large scale industrial products (Omo) in terms of foam ability and wash ability showed relatively equal degree of wash ability and foam ability.

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PRODUCTION OF SOAP AND DETERGENT THROUGH COID PROCESS