AN INSIGHT ON THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A POWER LINE VANDALISM MONITORING SYSTEM USING ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This project gives the insight on the design and construction of a transmission power line vandalism detector system. Vandalism means destructive action. It is a hateful and deliberate defacement/destruction of somebody else’s property or national assets like thehigh-voltage transmission power lines, transmission towers and distribution transformers, etc.The high-voltage transmission power lines strung from support towers form the backbone of the nation’s electric power grid. Many of those 158,000 miles of lines, supported by nearly 800,000 towers, run through isolated areas as they deliver electricity from generating plants to cities. These high-voltage transmission power lines around the world are vulnerable to terrorism, vandalism, physical deterioration and extreme weather. Every year in Nigeria bad citizens vandalize the power line, towers, transformers, generators and other power transmission/distribution facilities. This causes frequent power failure and power surge that seriously affects over 50 million business firms and manufacturing industries in the country. These companies depend on electricity power supply from the power line for their productions. If the power line is vandalized, some of their machines cannot be powered on a generator then income, investments and commodities worth billions of Naira will be lost. If electricity is available during the power line vandalism incident, the lives and properties of the people within the area can be affected as a result of electric shocks, power surge and fire outbreak, etc. Vandalism is now largely driven by the soaring values of copper and aluminum in the international metals market due to increased world market demand fueled by China and India’s growth in industrialization. Consequently, the vandals now operate in wellorganized syndicates complete with offices and hierarchy and accumulate large volumes of stolen materials which they eventually consign for export as scrap. Transformer oil, copper and aluminum are the main targets of these vandals. The uses of the stolen transformer oil are:

  • Mixed with diesel and sold as fuel,
  • Used as fuel for industrial furnaces and as cooling for welding sets,
  • Mixed with vegetable oil and sold as cooking oil.
  • Used as a cosmetic and treatment for wounds.
  • On the other hand, copper and aluminum have been in the past been used on a minimum scale by the informal sector for welding sets but are now mainly exported as scrap. It is this later use that is behind the recent escalation of vandalism.
    DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

AN INSIGHT ON THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A POWER LINE VANDALISM MONITORING SYSTEM USING ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE FERTILITY AND MORTALITY RATE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF OSOGBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN OSUN STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION

In statistical analysis and inference statistics is playing an important role nearly in all phases of human life. Formally dealing only with affair of the state and this account for its name statistics.  

The influence of statistics is now spread to manufacturing companies, agricultural sectors, bank, business communication, economic, education, political science, psychology, sociology and other numerous held of life. It’s therefore, a body of scientific method and theory of collecting, organizing, presenting and analyzing of data as well as drawing valid conclusion and making a reasonable decision. The application is found in all discipline of numerical form.

Furthermore, this project is to explain and to analyze more on fertility and mortality rate of people in “Osogbo Local Government”. This project cover four fiscal year from 2006 – 2009 and data is being collected at Lautech Teaching HospitalOSOGBO. Also computation would be determined from the total number of fertility and mortality rate and this will be use for information required for the actualization of facts.

1.2       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Lautech Teaching Hospital is owned by both Osun State Government and Oyo State Government. The hospital is situated at Idi-seke area in Osogbo Local Government. LAUTECH Teaching Hospital is equiped to standard that no other hospital in the state can complete with it. LAUTECH Teaching Hospital has many professional doctors and well trained and very efficient nurses.

1.3       AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To know if the economy can be predicted from the fertility rate.
  2. To predict the economy of Osogbo Local Government using the fertility and mortality rate.
  3. To know the nature of the relationship that exists amongst fertility rate and mortality rate the economy of Osogbo Local Government.
  4. To recommend ways of ensuring adequate documentation of fertility and mortality rate.
  1. Research Questions
  2. What are the challenges of proper documentation of the fertility and mortality rate?
  3. Can the economy of the Nigeria be predicted using the fertility and mortality rate?
  4. What is the nature of relationship that exists between fertility, mortality rate and the economy of Osogbo Local Government.
    DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE FERTILITY AND MORTALITY RATE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF OSOGBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN OSUN STATE)

WOMEN EDUCATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKALIKI EDUCATION ZONE OF EBONYI STATE 2017.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

All over the world, Education is recognized as cornerstone for sustainable development. According to the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004), the purpose of education is to equip the citizenry to reshape their society and eliminate inequality for national development that fosters the worth in socio-economic development of the individuals. In the last two decades, the status of women and need to integrate them into socio-economic development processes have dominated the discourse at National and International workshops, seminars, and conferences among others.  The problems of women opportunities for education looms larger at the turn of twenty-first century in Africa and they equally represent two thirds of the world illiterate adults while girls account for a similar proportion of world’s out of school population (Attamah, 2011; Abonyi, Nwocha, and Collins, 2014). However, for women to be integrated into development processes, they need quality education, in order to become co-partners in national and socio-economic development.

Based on the notion of our fore-fathers, in which they believed that women education end in the kitchen, it means that women should not go to school but we know that without formal education there will be no full development. Women should be recognized as human beings believing that women contribute about 45 to 50% of socio-economic development of any Nation. For Example; the former minister of information and communication Professor Dora Akunyili, who through her effort repositioned the Nigeria’s Health Sector as the Direct General, National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) these contributions are actually the fruits of education of the women.  The quantity and quality of education available to Nigeria women will invariably determine the developmental rate of Nigeria families, and Nigeria nation at large.

Women’s role in National and socio-economic development cannot however be overemphasized. The researcher believes on the saying that “behind every successful man there is woman”. This potently indicates that women contribute to the successes attained by great men all over the world. At the home setting women play domestic roles such as caring for children and the entire family, farming, petty trading, cooking of food, washing clothes and a host of others. In spite of these roles, the female is a disadvantaged sex in Nigeria. This is so because they are not given the opportunity to be part of decision making in the society that is to be elected into political position. (Durosaro, 1998; Nzeibe, 2008’and Esere, 2001).
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

WOMEN EDUCATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKALIKI EDUCATION ZONE OF EBONYI STATE 2017.

TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Communication is a variety of behaviours, processes and technologies by which meaning is transmitted or derived from information. The team is used to describe diverse activities.

Communication is at the core of our humanness.  How we communicate with each other shapes our lives and our world. Human beings rely on their communicative skills as they confront events that challenge their flexibility, integrity, expressiveness, and critical thinking skills.

          Communication involves different forms which includes the intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, mass communication etc all these are different ways/means through which we interact, associate, communicate, relate, share ideas, views, opinion, information, norms and values with ourselves and others. Communication is regarded as the life blood of human existence which rapidly enhances unity that leads to the development of our society at large.

          Communication both modern and Traditional means has promoted peaceful co-existence, understanding and self-awareness among human beings. Both modern and traditional means of communication have certain common elements that together help define the communication process. These elements include the following people. In communication there must be individuals who are involved in the dissemination of the message and at the same time receiving the message inorder to make it lively and effective. In communication things are done simultaneously (sending and receiving] if we were just receivers, we would be no more than receptacles for signals from others, never having an opportunity to let anyone know how we were being affected, if we were just senders, we would simply emit signals without ever stopping to consider whom, if anyone is being affected. But, if we were able to achieve our goals of communicating it simply signifies that there is an effective communication between the sender and the receiver at the same level.

Messages- in communication, the message is the communication itself. A message is the content of a communicative act. Everything one does with his/her body, or with other medium such as what we talk about, the words we use to express the thoughts and feelings, the sounds you make, your gestures, our facial expressions and perhaps even our touch or smell all communicate information, this is to tell you how effective communication can be, it involves our every second activity/actions. There is no communication without a message being passed across.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT
TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF WOMEN AND CHILD TRAFFICKING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background of the Study

Nigeria, the most populous black nation in the world with an estimated population of about 140 million people (2006, Census), is endowed with abundant human and natural resources like oil, tin, limestone, zinc, natural gas, good vegetation and climate which varies from being equatorial in the South, tropical in the centre and arid in the north. This great country, 3rd world largest producer of crude oil has about 5.3% annual growth rate but it is estimated that 70% of Nigerians live in poverty (Tola, 2008).

The above features are legacies of decades of prolonged military rules coupled with mis-management and corruption, which have daily impoverished the people and made them “beggers” of a sort amidst plenty. This act of misrule has increased anti-social behaviour amongst the populace. Sadly, the quest for material wealth at all cost has introduced a new dimension of wealth creation into the psyche of Nigerians-which is child

trafficking.

Women and child trafficking is the third largest criminal activity in the world after arms and drug trafficking (Tola, 2008). In the last decade, the phenomenon of women and child trafficking has considerably increased throughout the world and most especially in Nigeria. Every year, million of individuals, mostly children are misled by decot or forced to submit to servitude.

The UN convention Against Transnational orgainsed crime

(2000) defined women and child trafficking as follows;

“the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, of abuse of power, giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation”
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF WOMEN AND CHILD TRAFFICKING

THE PERCEIVED CAUSES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

In developing and developed countries, teenage pregnancy continue to receive increased attention because of early age at which adolescents engage in sexual activities and the result of unplanned and unintended pregnancies associated with the risk and problem of early motherhood. Lack of adequate information, education and communication on reproductive health services and the perennial concern in different parts of the world reveal that adolescents become sexually active at an early age which lead to a high number of teenage pregnancy today.

In many developing countries, about half the population is under 15 years. These age groups expose themselves into sexual habit which have led many of them into teenage pregnancy and at the same time cost the adolescent their educational background, (Gyan, 2013). Out of wedlock pregnancy and motherhood is not encouraged in Owerri North community at large. When teenage pregnancy is allowed to continue, at times it places the teenage mother’s health in danger because of inadequate parental care received by the teenage mother. So, after birth, the risk of the mother and her child will be high. Those circumstances may be responsible for increase in infanticide, baby abandonment and child abuse. For these reasons, pregnancies among teenagers are creating concern for many industrialized countries today WHO, (2000). Van, (2007), perceived economic factor as a cause of teenage pregnancy, he indicated that teenagers from lower income families are more likely to report having sexual intercourse regardless of the family structure or race. It is further pointed out that teenagers from single parent family homes are more likely to report having the family in combination with the high rate of schools fees in the present school system in Nigeria.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

THE PERCEIVED CAUSES OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE.

EXAMINATION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL CONSTRAINTS AGAINST WOMEN EDUCATION IN NKWERRE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

       There are three (3) basic components of human existence that man requires to satisfy. These to Osinulu (1994) are the physical, the spirituals and the mental. She stressed that physically man needs air, water, and food for survival, while spiritually, he requires religion and mentally, education for nurturing and developing natural intelligence.

       However, the perspective that have been used to study the women have been developed over-time, and are based on personality trails and characterizations and biological and social reactions. There characterizations only differ partially and from one period to the next. Studies on women are as old as history itself, but studies on consciousness are fairly recent, dating back to the suffragettes. Studies on women span through different area, ranging from women and society, the role of women, women and education, due role of women-culture and society, women and industrial society and women and labour market and so on. The different perspective reflect on the roles of women in the different economics.

       Women dedication has been a crucial aspect of gender issues since the latter part of the twentieth century and has attracted much concern and attention at the global, regional, sub-regional, national and even community levels. Indeed the desire to give a positive sense of direction to girl and women who lack education or left school early has necessitated the formulation of favourable policies and the implementation of bold actions in this regard.

       However, the thrust of these actions and available literature has been to promote equal educational opportunity for boys and girls, to increase enrollment figures of girls and women in school at all levels of education, to ensure access to education and eliminate obstacles to women education There is also the need to understand the educational ideas that shaped and influenced the development of women education in Nigeria Research conducted on women according to Amadi (2006) has shown that women are characterized by greater dependency, stronger social orientation and the tendency to become more easily discouraged by failure than men, this trait no doubt is very important in studying the socio-cultural constraint militating against women education in Nigeria.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

EXAMINATION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL CONSTRAINTS AGAINST WOMEN EDUCATION IN NKWERRE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

EFFECT OF CORRUPTIVE PRCTICES ON SUSTAINABLE GRASSROOTS DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

1.1     Background to the Study:

Corruption is a global phenomenon. It is not the exclusive preserve of any nation, race or section of the world but transcends national boundaries and frontiers and symbolizes phenomenal universal unwholesomeness politically (Aluko, 2009 in Iyanda, 2012). Corruption is no doubt a global phenomenon that has threatened and still continues to threaten the developmental efforts in many nations; particularly the developing countries of the world (Kayode, Adagba and Anyio, 2013).

In Nigeria corruption is a common word used by both adults and children because it is found in every aspect of Nigeria. This monster called corruption has now been nick named in most Nigerian languages especially in the three major languages! Ndokwu (2004) says: the Igbos call it Igbuozu, the Yorubas call it Egunje while the Hausas call it Chuachua. People no longer frown or feel ashamed to engage in corrupt practices! Chuachua/Egunje or Igbuozu is now acceptable and it is possible to hear someone openly complaining that there is no Chuachua, Egunje or Igbuozu at his or her place of work and as such a person might quickly resign if he or she finds another work where there is opportunity for Chuachua. It is as bad as that! (Iyanda, 2012).

This menance has led to situations like slow movement of files in offices, police exortion of toll fees, port congestion, queues at passport offices and petrol stations, ghost workers syndrome, election irregularities, among others (Dike, 2005, Ihenacho, 2004 in Aluko (2009).

The fundamental challenges battling grassroots development in Nigeria has been one of high level corruption and its twain demons of poverty and economic hardship which have continue in this 21stcentury to elude sustainable development at the grassroots (Ojo, 2014).

The need to catalyze balanced development touching the grassroots, maximize citizen’s participation, and arouse government responsive necessitates the creation of the grassroot. The grassroot serves as a form of political and administrative structure facilitating decentralization, national integration, efficiency in governance, and a sense of belonging at the grassroots. The grassroot is a unit of administration all over the world (Agagu, 2004 in Adeyemi, 2012).

Although it is a universal institution, it however exists in different forms and in different political systems. Whatever the form of existence, the grassroot has been essentially regarded as the path to and guarantor of administrative efficiency, effective service delivery and participatory development (Arowolo, 2005). According to Odo (2014) grassroot is a critical tier of government because of its closeness to the people. Grassroot appeals to both the people and government as a feedback institution that relays the opinions and demands of the grassroots to a higher government (Adeyemi, 2012).

In Nigeria, eradicating corruption has been a major concern of successive government in the country because of its association with sustainable development at the grassroots (Kayode et al., 2013). Odey (2002) opined that corruption in Nigeria is  as the air which every living person breathes in and out, According to him, nobody makes any effort to breathe in the air, it comes naturally. Corruption in Nigeria has become so naturalized that’ many of us simply become corrupt without making any effort and often even without knowing it.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

EFFECT OF CORRUPTIVE PRCTICES ON SUSTAINABLE GRASSROOTS DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

DETERMINANTS OF HIV/AIDS SPREAD AMONG YOUTHS (18-26) IN IKOT EKPENE LGA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

HIV/AIDS has in the past decades had devastating effects on the youthful population, especially, youths by causing deaths and stigmatization. Prevention of HIV/ AIDS is critical for creating a healthy and productive population. According to WHO[i], 95% of the world population should have accurate knowledge about HIV and AIDS to prevent new infections. However, in low and middle-income countries only 24% and 36% of young women and men respectively have accurate knowledge about the disease. Lack of adequate knowledge prevents individuals from taking preventive measures such as using condoms to avoid acquiring HIV and AIDS. 

A positive attitude towards HIV/ AIDS and the people living with it is required to enhance prevention. A positive attitude eliminates stigma and discrimination, thereby allowing individuals to go for HIV tests and seek medication. In the contrary, the negative attitude associated with the disease when it emerged in early 1980s still exists today. This is reflected in the stigma, fear, and discrimination that HIV/ AIDS patients face today. Individuals believe that HIV/ AIDS is a life threatening condition associated with death.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

DETERMINANTS OF HIV/AIDS SPREAD AMONG YOUTHS (18-26) IN IKOT EKPENE LGA OF AKWA IBOM STATE

[

THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN THE ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Empowering women has become an oftentimes cited goal of development intervention (Mosedale, 2005). In Nineteen Seventies once women empowerment was initial invoked by the collection feminist and women organizations, it had been explicably wont to frame and facilitate the struggle for social justice and women equality through a metamorphosis of economic, social and political structures at national and international levels (Bisath & Elson, 2003). The necessity to empower women looks to centre on the actual fact that girls have potentials to contribute to the event method however ar forced by some factors that render them engulfed. Whereas the explanations for any specific woman’s impotency (or powerfulness) ar several and varied, it should be necessary to think about what women have in common during this respect.

The common measure is that, they’re all forced by their generative responsibilities, social norms, beliefs, customs and values by that society differentiate between them and men (Kabeer, 2000). These constraints ar formed by male dominated social organization (patriarchy), high rate of impoverishment among women, and gender division of labour. Nonetheless, specializing in the authorisation of women as a gaggle needs an analysis of gender relations, that is, the means within which power relations between the sexes are made and maintained. In patricentric societies like African country, men have final authority over material resources within the house, like land and money crops, and over the labour of women and alternative house members. Women having no direct access to land and money crops or men’s labour, should request these resources from their husbands or from alternative males within the house to whom they’re supposed (Adams & Castle, 1994).
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN THE ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

APPLICATION OF EARLY MARRIAGE ON WOMEN EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BONYI STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

In the world all over, marriage is an institution which calls for a moment of celebration and a milestone in the life of the adult. In practice, marriage is not restricted to the adult; the girl-child may be forced into early marriage without recourse to neither her consent nor the consequences of such forced union. The impositions of a marriage partner upon a child means that the childhood is lost and never regained (UNICEF, 2001). When children are hurried through childhood, and rushed into taking on adult task (such as marriage at a very early age, the effects can be profound and long lasting. Bayisenge (2010) noted that young girls are robbed of their youth and required to take on roles for which they are not psychologically or physically prepared. Many have no choice about the timing of marriage or their partner. Some are coerced into marriage, while others are too young to make an informed decision.

Premature marriage deprives them of the opportunity for personal development as well as their right to full reproductive health, well being and participation in Civic life. It is imperative to say that education plays a particularly important role as a foundation for girls’ development towards adult life. Education is a human right that should be given to all human beings. There are lots of international human right instruments that provide for education as a fundamental human right which include the universal declaration of human right (1948), international convention on economic, social and cultural right (1960) etc. The relationship between education and development is well established such that education is a lay index of development.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

APPLICATION OF EARLY MARRIAGE ON WOMEN EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BONYI STATE

A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON SECONDARY STUDENTS SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN RURAL AND URBAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ETHIOPE EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

The term information technology is complex and difficult to define. However, information technology is as old as man, for instance, it affect and is affected by every aspect of human activities including counselling.

In counselling for example information technology means the application of computers and technologies in counselling process.

What then is a computer? According to Sawyer and Williams (2003:3) a computer is a programmable, multi-use machine that accepts data, i.e. raw facts and figures and process or manipulates them into information we can use, such as summaries, tools or reports. It therefore means that the result of the combination of computers and communications technology result to information technology (info-tech). Example of information technology includes personal computers, as well as new forms of telephones, television and various kinds of handheld devices for sending and receiving of information.

In business terms, information technology refers to the management and use of information using computer based tools. It includes acquiring, processing, storing and distribution of information. It is a term used in referring to business application of computer technology rather than scientific application.

The term is broadly in business for they cannot exists/operate without some kind of information technology. However, this study will be based on how information technology affects students’ sexual behaviour. Preventing HIV/AIDS risks and other killer diseases among young people has been identified as a public health priority in Nigeria. Hostels of secondary institutions has been labelled as “glorified brothels” as some students aided and abetted by the hall partners, the apparent freedom from parental control troll and undue pressure from peers engage in high sexual behaviour. This high risk of sexual behaviour is fuelled and unequal power in sexual relation and its alarming implication from both men and women’s ability to prevent the sexually transmission of HIV as unequal parties are unable to negotiate when and how they can protect themselves from STDs and HIV which has a negative effect on the individual affected.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON SECONDARY STUDENTS SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN RURAL AND URBAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ETHIOPE EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE

IMPACT OF ORPHANAGE HOME ON THE CHILD PERSONALITY

IMPACT OF ORPHANAGE HOME ON THE CHILD PERSONALITY

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1   Background of the Study

The orphanage home is one of the numerous social institution that have emerged over the year to carter for some of the social needs  of orphanage associated with such problems.

Motherless  babies  have nowadays  become common because of the moral decadence of the society young people who cannot cater  for themselves find themselves  put in the   family  way they end  up find abandoning those innocent helpless babies.  The increasing hardship because of the present economic recession  has  increased the incidence of burden  family relationship and  the consequent loss  of firm control of  family members.

This has tended as evidence  by the  increasing number of abandoned babies such babies have become the central focus of the orphanage home the impact of orphanage home on child personality development that is the behaviour pattern of social behariour on child personality  development.

The research try to compare children between the age of one (1) month to three (3) years that grows up in orphanage home  to those that grow-up with their parent children  from the orphanage behave  in a unique pattern thereby displaying some certain social behaviour attitude that could be associated with the up bringing in the orphanage home. I want to find out the positive and negative aspect of orphanage home on children personality development generally.  Any baby that  lost his or her  parent  especially the mother by what every means  become mentally ill once it is discovered the illness is taken from the mother by the  orphanage   children abandon  in hospital  or on the street are taken to the orphanage home.

Social welfare services and training of professional social workers of all categories social workers can  succeed out making their contribution towards realizing their objective of government  in improving people welfare only after they have keenly understood the problem.

The causes and the effect of those people on he community the desertation is an attempt toward such changes taking place and their documentation the study will focus on the impact of the orphanage home on  child personality  development in the  later parts of his life.

The Kaduna orphanage home is the birth child of Jammiyyar Matan Arewa.

The Jamiyar Matan Arewa itself is a social organization of northern women  established on the 27th May 1963 it  was aimed at unifying the women folk and  providing hem with a  forum of welfare activities.

The organization was to  be non-political  and it membership was to be opened   to all  tribes religions or social status at the very first meeting of the Jammiyar Matan Arewa which took place in the house of General Hassan Usman Katsina a steering committee was set up to carry on the task of mobilizing women for the association and also to plan and organize fund raising  activities to meet up the financial obligation of  the association.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Children brought up in the orphanage home cannot cope effectively with the outside world this display in their dispositions because most of them tend to be introverts and always want to keep to themselves in few causes they turn out to be backward in speed and verbal  intelligence.

According to Segmund Fraud (1945) children who grown  up in the orphanage home may likely to affected in their  culture tradition, and religion are  their interests  belief ambitions ideas and soon thus affecting the personality  development as their behaviors is not only more indiscriminate but more immature than those children who are with their natural parent. Hence the increase in various research as to find out the effectiveness and influence of these home (orphanage home) on the child personality development.

1.3   Purpose of the Study

1.     Find out the positive and negative

2.     Determine the effect of orphanage home on child’s personality development.

3.     Find out the morale and attitude of children raised in orphanage home.

1.4   Research Questions.

1.     What are the positive and negative impact of orphanage home on the child’s personality development.

2.     What are the likely effect of orphanage home on the child personality.

3.     What are the morale and attitude acquired by children raised in the orphanage home.

1.5   Scope of the Study

This study is limited to the orphanage home Kaduna.  Therefore the study is restricted to the impact of orphanage home on the child’s personality development.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

IMPACT OF ORPHANAGE HOME ON THE CHILD PERSONALITY

CUSHIONING THE EFFECT OF CULTISM IN NIGERIA TERTIARY INSTITUTION

CUSHIONING THE EFFECT OF CULTISM IN NIGERIA TERTIARY INSTITUTION

CHAPTER ONE

1.1   INTRODUCTION

Cult according to the long man dictionary of contemporary English is the group of people believing in a particular system of religious worship with its special customs and ceremonies.   Similarly the Oxford advanced learners dictionary of current learning defines same as a system of religious worship especially one that is expressed in ritual.   Generally cultism has been identified as an obvious and problematic issue that prevailed in most social and cultural set up in the world today. Because of its changed nature of operation, it is said to be a religious groups devoted to livings authority, a new teaching or in human practice, ranging in size from few followers living under the command of their higher authority to world wide organization directed by a complex chain of command. However, this work “cushioning the effects of cultism in Nigerian tertiary institutions” is concerned with the educational sector that is, how the scenario affects the lives and activities of higher institution of higher learning in Nigeria like the universities, polytechnics, and the college of educations.   Although, cultism in Nigeria tertiary institution started in the 1950`s specifically in the universities of Ibadan where it served as an organized resistance of tyranny and oppression, today it has turned to a deadly and blood thirsty group that has living leaders and promotes new occult or mysterious doctrines.   Apparently, one my be prompted to say that the root of violence in our institution of higher learning came as a result of the dangerous and inhuman dictrine which contributed in making our campuses unstable. Cultism has coursed a lot of unbearable damages on the psyche of innocent students just as the social life in some tertiary institutions has been earnestly marked by terror, crime of different kinds and uneasiness. Live of students, lecturers as well as the management have been stark by this act of anti-social activities all in the guise of cultism. It is more sympathetic and unpleasant that cultism in our various campus today has taken a murderous stand and has become an epidemic to the education sector, which in recent time had led to the distortion of academic calendar and closure of many tertiary institution. A case in point can be traced to the cultism acts in the Olabisi Onobanjo University, Ile-Ife in Ogun State, Obafemi, Awolowo University (OOU) in Ogun state and that of university of Jos Respectively, whose presence has ruined the future of many potential students, lecturers and the management of some institutions. This is because those whom much is invested in are busy fighting and shading the blood of one another as if the campus is a competition floor in which everybody will claim his power.   Nevertheless, the situation has over the years thrown a saddened and piteous mood on the federal government of Nigeria ministry of education. The authorities of this institution themselves and has rendered their efforts useless reviving the sector. Infact, cultism is a bye product or an element of one fall to a lower level in moral and socio-economic order. Consequently, despite the open condemnation of cult activities in the institution of higher learning via the instrument of law and administrative sanctions, the battle appears to be lost to cults doctrines practice   Therefore, this term paper, a thirty (“30”) minutes radio discussion programme in “cushioning the Effect of cultism in Nigeria tertiary institution” will dig deeply into the nature, causes, effect and finally look into the ways out of the given scenario.

1.2      STATEMENT OF PURPOSE

The idea of conducting this works dates to the confusions and restless pressure imposed on some of the Nigerians institutions by this anti-social act (cultism), which resulted to some extent where campuses were unstable and administrative efforts dangling to and fro.    A study of this nature is considered significant in at least three respects namely; personal, social and academic. The study will enable the researcher to sharpen his/her focus, and understanding of the basis of cultism, how it affects the education sector and its immediate and remote solution or recommendations. The study which has its primary aim of exposing the nature of cultism and help to nurture and sustain an atmosphere in which students will function and advance in their chosen pattern of any given social groups with a better understanding of the past. In the light of this, it will help the institutions management and other interest groups to add to their mapped strategies against cultism in order to eliminate it in their sphere of jurisdiction.   Furthermore, this study intended not only to add to the existing body of knowledge about cultism but to also stimulate future researchers in related areas and in brief serve as a reference material for the students, lecturers as well as the management  of concerned institutions.   1.3   Although, it is believed that several studies have been done in the area of cultism, but that does not mean that all have been done. As it is often said “No man is an highland” so no man can claim that he/she has accomplished a study on cultism and its relevance solutions because the world and the society we live in is changing every moments.   However, this term paper covers   in term of geographical spread, the education sector especially the universities, polytechnic and colleges of education , because it is the root of any developed and developing country and if therefore left to be ruined by certain groups of individuals, the consequences will not only fall great on the sector but the globe at large.   1.4  

PROGRAMME FORMAT

The term paper takes a thirty (“30”) minutes radio discussion programme and will be featuring four discussants among which are a lecturer, parent and two students of Kaduna Polytechnic. They will be answering questions such as, in few minutes can you justify the nature of the cultism, what are the causes of cultism, what are the effects and the imperative ways of the cultism in Nigeria tertiary institutions.   The programme will start with a sign tone to usher in the presenter. It will take only one break after fifteen (“15”) minutes of discussion for musical time out to ease the discussant and the listeners at home. Moreover, the programme will run out with a signtone fades under the presenter and later boost up to the end of the programme and fade out completely

1.5      THE LIMITATIONS

Basically nothing comes easy or being advantageous without some aches or shortcomings. As such one problem observed in the cause of this work is time constraint. The time available of the researcher disposal is limited and as such hindered any proper research. It   therefore, be noted that the findings of the research may have limited global application

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

CUSHIONING THE EFFECT OF CULTISM IN NIGERIA TERTIARY INSTITUTION

TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND HOW IT AFFECTS THE EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF OUR TEENAGERS (A study of Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.)

TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND HOW IT AFFECTS THE EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF OUR TEENAGERS (A study of Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

Baldwin (1950) viewed teenage stage, as a period where reactivation of the `sexual drives that has been inactive during the latency period. He said teenagers are on the boundary between childhood and adulthood and they are faced with the choice of a whole way of life in terms of their job, their ethics and so forth. He further said that to find this in the face of many alternative roles, individuals must decide what they want to do and whether they are able to do it, they must take responsibility for decisions that may shape the rest of their life or destroy it. And to take this independent step, persons need a real sense of identity of their own worth as individuals and their esteem and he said our culture does not make it easy for our teenagers to take this step in life.

Watson and Lindgren (1979) gave the definition of a teenager simply as the period or stage of development that separates childhood from adulthood. They said it is also difficult to indicate the limits of a teenager; at what point does it begins and what point does it end, they said the characteristics of a teenager first shows themselves about 10, 11, or 12 years of age with the subtle changes In behaviour and appearance, then it becomes most obvious at puberty with the start of the menstrual cycle in girls.

Longman dictionary of contemporary English (1995) gave a definition of pregnancy as the period of time when a woman is pregnant while pregnant on the other hand having an unborn baby growing inside an individuals body. So therefore, teenage pregnancy is a period of time by which a girl is carrying or having an unborn baby growing inside her womb.

World Health Organization (2004) opined that a teenager is a person between 15-19 years of age, they said it is a period where an individual is shaped and prepared for adulthood responsibilities they said also that there are advantages and disadvantages of teenage pregnancy or having a baby at ones teenage stage, they went ahead to say that when you are younger the benefits are usually associated with greater fertility a more healthy pregnancy and a quicker recovery after birth. But the down side is that your social life, education and training can be severely disrupted just when it might be taking off into an interesting direction. Moreso, they said some teenagers are much more capable of looking  after a child than the older women because late motherhood or late pregnancy has a greater risk of complications in the pregnancy and reduce fertility. Being older, they said can also be more exhausting looking after growing children.

1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study was concerned with the advantages and disadvantages of teenage pregnancy in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State. For clarity of purposes:-

–                     Teenage girls do not have adequate knowledge of protecting themselves from unwanted pregnancy.

–                     Given them out in marriage early and then using the benefits they get from the girls husband to train their male children in school.

–                      Their male counterparts taken advantage of them by abusing them sexually.

–                     Leaving school because of unwanted pregnancy.

–                     Giving them out in marriage early to prevent them from prostituting.

–                     Getting pregnant even when their reproductive organs have not fully developed.

1.2   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Teenage pregnancy has continued to be a major concern not to Kaduna teenage girls only but also to Nigeria at large. This study may then serve as a pioneer efforts towards the understanding of teenage pregnancy to Kaura Local Government  Area. The result of the study may help policy makers particularly, educational planners in Kaduna State to design more appropriate instructional Programmes on teenage pregnancy.

The result of the study may also help to highlight some of the diseases that are associated with teenage pregnancy like Vesico Virgina Fistular (VVF) and Rector Virgina fistular (RVF). The study may also provide the basis for further research on teenage pregnancy.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND HOW IT AFFECTS THE EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF OUR TEENAGERS (A study of Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.)

THE EFFECT OF STREET HAWKING AMONG TEENAGE GIRLS

THE EFFECT OF STREET HAWKING AMONG TEENAGE GIRLS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nigeria, the most populous black nation in the world with an estimated population of about 140 million people (2006, Census), is endowed with abundant human and natural resources like oil, tin, limestone, zinc, natural gas, good vegetation  and climate which varies from being equatorial in the South, tropical in the centre and arid in the north. This great country, 3rd world largest producer of crude oil has about 5.3% annual growth rate but it is estimated that 70% of Nigerians live in poverty (Tola, 2008).

The above features are legacies of decades of prolonged military rules coupled with mis-management and corruption, which have daily impoverished the people and made them “beggers” of a sort amidst plenty. This act of misrule has increased anti-social behaviour amongst the populace. Sadly, the quest for material wealth at all cost has introduced a new dimension of wealth creation into the psyche of Nigerians-which  is street hawking.

Street hawking is the third largest criminal activity in the world after arms and drug trafficking (Tola, 2008). In the last decade, the phenomenon of street hawking has considerably increased throughout the world and most especially in Nigeria. Every year, million of individuals, mostly female are misled by decot or forced to submit to servitude.

The UN convention Against Transnational orgainsed crime (2000) defined street hawking as follows; “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, of abuse of power, giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation” “exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs”

ANPPCAN (2010) sees street hawking as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, habouring or receipt of female by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power, a position of vulnerability or the giving or receiving of payments, benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over the child for the pupose of exploitation.

Research evidence shows that female are trafficked for the purpose of domestic services, prostitution and other forms of exploitative labour (UNICEF, 2007). These has been  a serious concern about the cause of street hawking in Africa as a whole and Nigeria as a country in particular.

UNICEF (2007) has identified poverty, large family size, rapid urbanization among others as the major factor why many Nigeria female are vulnerable to trafficking. Parents with large family are often prone to those traffickers deceit in giving away some of their female to city residents or even strangers promising a better life for them. Trafficking deprives child victims the privilege to exercise their wide range of rights, including the right to belong and identify, the right to freedom, education among others. ANPPCAN(2010).

As a result of this, the study on the causes, effects and remedies of street hawking in Nigeria is worth pursuing. It is hoped that the findings of this study will provide  meaningful information as to the stoppage of the act in Nigeria and Africa as a whole.

Female living in rural areas in Nigeria often lack access to quality education, good health and other basic needs which make their parents to entrust them in the hands of other family members who are financially upright to help them train their female.

However, this custom has been abused by those family members or relatives because of the exposure of these female to hazardous work, prostitution and other forms of inhuman activities.

This act posses a serious challenges to the growth of the Nigerian society, economically, socially and politically.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE EFFECT OF STREET HAWKING AMONG TEENAGE GIRLS

THE PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY SOCIAL WORKERS IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE (A case study of Selected social welfare centres)

THE PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY SOCIAL WORKERS IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE (A case study of Selected social welfare centres)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

Although social work practice in Nigerian is gradually growing group, the rate of development acceptance of any reformation is very slow, social work is still growing in Nigeria.

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

For years now, social work practice department in this country, had laid make emphasis on the correction of juvenile delinquents and vagrants, and sometimes organizers of youth clubs/association and sports, in fact this is part of their work but the function of social welfare department is to help the poor and the needy in their bit to survivor, it is also to help problems that brought about by environment of social change.

The welfare are therefore, meant toward those who cannot meet up with the challenges (new social changes), there are several services offered in the state and these include conciliation rehabilitation and general welfare, these includes married couples with marital problems, victims of mental and physical distress or handicapped etc. others includes services for children  is of service to children with social workers, investigation are carried out by social workers with the aim of helping the court to determine the type of treatments to be made. The social welfare agency also are responsible for looking after abandoned babies and making proper arrangement to find foster parents for them or placing them in children’s home services to family in distress is another and these involves family case work practice. The social workers tries to discourage family disintegration and endeavour when ever possible i.e. to affect matrimonial reconciliation, this involves many persuasion and many difficulties are often encountered, service for the handicapped, disable person and baggers and these also mainly rehabilitate the unfortunate people.

At present there are five rehabilitation centres in Kaduna state the centres and were they are situated are Kakuri, Barnawa, Sabon Tasha and Magajin Gari, within Kaduna metropolis, to the low recognition or piece meal given to social welfare services department in this country social workers can not provide these above mentioned services. Effectively thus most of our social policy and planning fails.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This research work is from observation and interaction with the staffs at the agency (social welfare magin gari Kaduna state) during my SIWES attachment and it became evidence that in the agency, work is slow, cases that suppose to be brought to social welfare are been taken to the police, also  there is need for workshops and seminars.

1.3     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is restricted to finding out the problems encountered by social workers in social work practice. The study limits the collection  of data to selected social welfare centre magajin gari and social welfare office magajin gari and also the social welfare office sabon tasha Kaduna state.

The findings of this study was gotten from observation and interaction with staffs of the agency during my industrial training fund (I.T.F) attachment social development encompasses, child welfare, rehabilitation etc. but it will only focus on the problems encountered by social workers in social work practice.

1.4     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The general objectives of this study is to identify the problems encountered by social workers in social work practice in magajin gari, local government social welfare office Kaduna and social welfare office Sabon Tasha Kaduna state.

The specific objectives includes

1.          To find out the range of service rendered by the agency

2.          To identify the problems with which the staffs of the agency had to contend

3.          To determine how client were informed about the agency and the type of problems the brought to the agency and whether the got the help or not.

4.          To know what strategies one could adopt to enhance the services

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.          What are the range of services rendered by the social welfare agencies

2.          what are the problems encountered by the staffs in the social welfare agency (magajin gari and sabon tasha)

3.          what are the problems been brought by client to the social welfare agency? And are these problem properly solve?

1.6     SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The pattern of social welfare work in Nigeria has witnessed many changes in the last decade. The inexperience men previously see social welfare agency as rendering family services alone such as children maintenance allowance. Child dispate and maltreatment or handling wives by their respective husbands. But due to rapid public awareness, many stored appreciating the scope of the services rendered by the agency. These include among others, child care, hospital services, probation, family welfare, youth and prison welfare services respectively.

This project will enable the authority concerned and the populace to understand and appreciate the importance and problems encountered by the social welfare agencies in this country.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY SOCIAL WORKERS IN SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE (A case study of Selected social welfare centres)

THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CORRELATION OF FEMALE CRIMINALITY IN NIGERIA [A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA PRISON]

THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CORRELATION OF FEMALE CRIMINALITY IN NIGERIA [A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA PRISON]

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Traditionally, it has been argued that there has been so little research interested in the area of female criminality due to the fact that the number of females offenders have been so small and insignificant. But statistics alone is not sufficient to explain why female offenders are not treated as a social problem, (Smart Carol, 1976). If women are for some reasons less prone to participate in deviant activities than men, there is hardly a reason to omit them from consideration (Giddens 1997).

The non-challant attitudes towards the investigation of female criminality could be that the male gender has always been associated with criminal acts.

Male criminals such as terrorists, drug users etc are treated as rational, autonomous adults who have reasons for engaging in deviant or anti-social activities. Thus, a female thief is mentally unbalanced or her chemistry is disturbed or her husband made her to do it (Delmont 1980).

However, recent researchers like Giddens, Datesman, and Scarpiti have shown that women also commit criminal acts. Most of what we know about crime is based on prosecutions and convictions and it is not impossible that women commit large number of crimes for which they are not persecuted or convicted.

1.1       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Female criminality and delinquency are becoming more serious and more of a threat to the social order in Nigeria. The rate at which women are involved in criminal activities makes one stop to wonder what is really happening to the women folk.

Women are known to occupy the natural position in inculcating moral values in children, but with the rising trend in involvement of women in criminal activities, one is left to wonder the kind of future generation we will have as the engagement of the women is criminal activities makes them fail in carrying out their roles as the guardians of morality in our society.

For example, what would a mother with criminal tendencies do to her children or wards who indulge in criminal activities, since she is into it herself? Of course she’ll not see anything bad in what the children or wards do, thus crime permeates the whole society.

1.2    GROWTH OF FEMALE CRIMINALITY

According to  Hauwau E. Yusuf, (2002) The general socio-economic condition that nurtured the increase in crime rates generally in the post independence era equally have the necessary impetus for the growth of female criminality in the country. Prior to that and amongst other factors, the difficulty in securing farmland in the rural areas brought about the migration of women to the urban centers. However, with the oil boom; this took a new dimension. It could be recalled that this phenomenon induced the expansion of the urban wage sector. The doubling of urban areas in the space of few years seemed to offer women more opportunities and hope for a better future. In addition to this, increased money in circulation in the urban areas have woman with no formal education the opportunity to take out a living form trading. What is more, expansion of infrastructure and the need for more manpower in the oil dominated economy resulted in women, who had formal education finding some employment in both the public and private sectors as clerical workers, secretaries, nurses and teachers. They even found their way into jobs which were exclusively male preserved such as lawyers, journalists, administrators, university teachers etc. (Oloruntimein, 1982). These increased opportunities, though still low when compared with those of men, contributed to the growth of female criminality. Inspite of this, it must be stressed that women formed a large chunk of temporary workers and are the first to be laid off in times of economic crisis and refreshment. Majority of them are employed in the service sector (both public and private), with only a minority employed in the manufacturing industry like pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food processing companies. They equally man the pumps at petrol stations, sorting of mails in post offices, cooking and serving the food at restaurants. (Hauwau E. Yusuf, 2002)

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study was to describe the extend and type of female involvement in crime and analyse the types of crime in which women have been most visible. Specifically the study tried to:-

i.        Determine the socio-economic attributes of women in crime.

ii.        Identify factor predisposing women to criminality

iii.        access if there is discernible pattern in the type of crime committed by women.

iv.        Make recommendation on the reduction or elimination of female criminality.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CORRELATION OF FEMALE CRIMINALITY IN NIGERIA [A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA PRISON]

THE EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY, MAKURDI

THE EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY, MAKURDI

ABSTRACT

The study examines the effects of drug abuse on the academic performance of Benue State University students. With the following specific set objectives: to find out the level of drug abuse among BSU students, to ascertain the types of drugs that are mostly abuse among students of Benue State University, the causes of drug abuse among students of Benue State University, the effect of drug abuse among undergraduate students of Benue State University and possible solutions to the menace of drug abuse among undergraduate students of Benue State University. The theoretical framework adopted was on differential association theory and structural strain theory. The study was a descriptive survey research. Findings from this study revealed that, majority of the respondents believe the level of drug abuse among students of Benue State University is moderate. On the drugs that are mostly abuse by students of Benue State University, the study findings reveals that, majority of the respondents believe that alcohol is the most common type of drug abuse by students of Benue State University. On the causes of drug abuse among students of Benue State University, study results shows that, majority of the respondents believe peer pressure is the cause of drug abuse among students of Benue State University. On the effects of drug abuse among students in Benue State University. The findings revealed that, majority of the respondents believe examination malpractice is the effect of drug abuse among students of Benue State University. On possible solutions to the menace of drug abuse among Undergraduate Students of Benue State University. The result findings indicates that, majority of the respondents believe proper orientation of students can help solve the problem of drug abuse among students of Benue State University. Base on the results of the study, it concludes that, Drugs are a source of medication and treatment for various illness and preventive disease if properly prescribe by medical professionals. But drugs wrongly use without medication prescription has negative consequences for the academic, social, psychological and physical development of students. Furthermore, the study recommends that, , there should be proper orientation of students on the dangers associated with drug abuse.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY, MAKURDI

PENSION REFORM ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA:A CASE STUDY OF EDO STATE CIVIL SERVICE

PENSION REFORM ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA:A CASE STUDY OF EDO STATE CIVIL SERVICE

The civil service of any nation is the centerpiece of its administrative activities and performance and its output mirrors the performance of the ruling government charged with the formation and implementation of public policies – i.e. a documented guide action.  In a nutshell, the civil service is the governmental bureaucratic organization that implements all public policies, which are properly and legitimately enacted by the government in power.
The Nigerian civil service is a creation of the British colonial Administration.  The structure and orientation, though, fine-tuned in correlation to some standards of colonial administration, was predominantly towards the maintenance of laws and order; the stability of colonial administration; pursuance of colonial interest, particularly the exploitative extraction of revenue.
According to Augustus Adebayo (1982), the civil service is not a
creation of modern regime, rather it has its roots in history and dates back to the time of ancient civilization.  The ancient Chinese Empire during the Han Dynasty, 202 B.C., recognizes the need to have a permanent official to implement government decisions.
In contemporary time the civil bureaucrats have become highly involved in policy making, a feature that has led Rourke (1976) to observe that:
Much of what ultimately comes to be regarded as the president’s legislative programme stems in the first instance from the advice of bureaucrats in the executive establishment. Located as they are in intimate contact with the everyday process of government, bureaucrats have an unexcelled vantage point from which to see the need for new legislative.
This perception of bureaucrats depicts their knowledge and expertise in handling social problems.  Hence the success of any government will depend to a large extent on the efficiency of the civil service.  In an address in support of pay increase for American Civil Servants, President J.F. Kennedy affirmed that the success of the American nation and his government “depend in the last analysis on the quality of our career service” (Rourke, 1976).  It is in apparent recognition of the prime importance of the role of bureaucrats that welfare package or fringe benefits are provided for in the initial employment contract of the career civil servants, which include allowances and pension rights.
The study with special focus on the Edo State Civil Service examines pension and its attendant reform administration in Nigeria.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In Nigeria the administration of pension and gratuities to pensioners has for several years been a nagging problem especially in the public sector.  The payment of pensions and gratuities to pensioners has been very erratic and irregular.  Thus pension liabilities have grown so much that government has not been able to meet them.  This situation has condemned many pensioners of the public service into untold hardship, abject poverty and squalor.  Many pensioners have resorted to begging for survival while some have died waiting for the payment of their pensions and gratuities (Gyamfi, 2003).  Saddened and weighed down by the pain and agony of the government inability to fulfill the responsibilities of paying their pensions and gratuities pensioners have for sometime embarked on protests in various parts of the country.  To protest their plight the pensioners, under the aegis of Nigeria Union of Pensioners (NUP), Edo State chapter trooped out in large number in May 2001 with the sick amongst them carried on stretchers and wheel chairs (Adekunbi, 2001).
The indication from the foregoing not only clearly depict that the public service pensioners in Nigeria as enjoying no peaceful retirement but also that the pension administration in the country’s public sector is in dilemma.  Premised on this, the following questions are posed to set the tone of investigation in this study.
What has been the nature and trend of pension and it’s attendant reform administration in the public service?
What are the problems associated with the new pension reform administration in the country?

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

PENSION REFORM ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA:A CASE STUDY OF EDO STATE CIVIL SERVICE