SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN IDEATO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN IDEATO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

ABSTRACT

Over the years, Ideato North Local Government Area of Imo state has been experiencing a slow rate of development in the area. Based on this therefore, this work was designed to investigate the socio-economic and cultural factors militating against rural development in Ideato North Local Government Area. Two hundred respondents were randomly selected and used. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. The data collected were analysed using SPSS and chi-square, tables, charts and percentages were used to present the results. Several findings were made as regards socio-economic and cultural factors militating against rural development in Ideato North LGA. One major factor is that Ideato people are facing total neglect from the government which goes a long way in affecting their development negatively. Secondly, cultural belief system of the people also affects their development. Thirdly, inadequate planning of developmental projects caused by lack of collaborative efforts of the government and the youths also hinder development in Ideato North LGA. Finally it was recommended that government should focus more attention in the development of rural areas in order not to allow them fell neglected and rejected. Rural people should learn to welcome and harness development despite their cultural belief system and there should be a collaborative effort of the government and the people, more especially the youths in planning and implementation of rural development projects.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

In Nigeria, the rural areas are not progressing in line with urban areas or metropolitan states in term having sustainable development like good road, electricity, good telecommunication, transportation, good water supply, standard market and health centres, improved housing as well as improved agricultural and storage facilities that would help in sustaining the rural masses. McKnight (1995) defined the term rural development as the overall development of rural areas to improve the quality of life of the rural people. According to Ihumodu (2003), rural development is the process of economic and social progress aimed at eradicating poverty among rural populace through provision of life and satisfying the basic needs of the people. Eradicating poverty among rural people demands appropriate skill. Rural people are endowed with quantum of knowledge and traditional skills, but at their primitive levels, that needs development to fit in properly with the modern trends of thing (Stall & Stoecker, 1998). This can be achieved through capacity building programmes. Capacity building is the process of developing skill, ability and faculties individually and collectively, that is vital in comprehending rural development and its roles in ameliorating rural poverty, ignorance, low human skill and literacy (Castelloe, 2002). All these are done to sustain the development of rural setting. Sustainable development vector (i.e. elements of desirable social objectives or attributes which societies seek to achieve through conserving natural resources (Pearce & Barbier, 1999).
Most rural societies are not able to achieve development because they lack the basic resources that would bring development or they are not able to harness and utilize the existing resources that would enable them develop their society (Robinovitch, 1994). In Nigeria, this has been serious social issue in recent time.
Socioeconomically, infrastructure and basic amenities like good road, portable water supply, electricity, health centres, markets, transportation, telecommunication, sports centers etc. affect development. This is true because, when all these essential things are lacking, development can hardly come or occur. Other important factors are illiteracy, ignorance and poverty. On the other hand, government neglect can also affect developmental process that will take place in the rural areas.
Culturally, belief system of the rural people bridge development, for example, they find it difficult to release a particularland for development due to the belief that it is on that land sacrifices are being made for the gods of their land, secondly they find it difficult to release a particular land for development to avoid the destruction of their aesthetic values like trees and other things that bring about the beauty of their area. Another cultural factor is on land tenure system (ownership of land). This implies that some land owners in the rural areas do not like releasing or letting go of their land for building of factories, schools, market, churches, health centres etc. by the government or even private individuals who are capable of doing so. By so doing, development is swept under the carpet. Fear of terror and labelling are another vital cultural factor which affect development, for example, an individual who is financially capable can withdraw his intention to develop a particular rural area due to the fear of getting him killed by armed robber and evil men or being labelled a fraudster and also a ritualist.
Rural development is a multidimensional and comprehensive concept; it encompasses the development of agriculture and allied activities, village and cottage industries and crafts, socio-economic infrastructure, community services and facilities and above all, human resources in rural areas. As a phenomenon, rural development is the end result of interactions between various physical, technological, economic, socio-cultural and institutional factors (Isife, 1998). According to Igbokwe (2000), rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social wellbeing of a specific group of people, i.e., the rural poor. As a discipline, it is multi- disciplinary in nature, representing an intersection of agriculture, social, behavioural, engineering and management sciences (Kata Singh, 1999). Problems of rural areas could come as a result of the already stated factors, most importantly, on the area of deliberate neglect of the rural areas by the government. According to Prelleltensky (2004), rural development problems come as a result of governmental deliberate neglect or inability of the rural community to welcome development due to their cultural belief system etc. According to rural development strategies 2002, through rural development strategies, efforts of the people and that of the government are brought together to improve the economic social and cultural conditions of the rural areas, so as to integrate them into the life of the nation and allow them to enable their people contribute more to national growth. Falcoya, (1984) on the other hand stated that rural development strategies created an avenue for rural people to organize themselves for a planning actions, define their common individual plans to meet the needs of the community and solve their problems, execute these plans with maximum reliance upon community resources and supplement these resources when necessary with services and materials from government and non-governmental agencies outside their communities.
In addition, the issues concerning rural development should be government involved as well as rural dwellers involved so as to achieve a better solution to rural problems. That is to say that in order to achieve a better rural development in Ideato LGA, government and the rural people should integrate their efforts together. The study therefore tries looking into the socio-economic and cultural factors militating against development in Ideato Local Government Area of Imo State.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The issue of rural development is very challenging, considering that more than 70 percent of the population live in the rural areas, where they cultivate the soil to make a living. Looking at this poverty level it therefore becomes a social problem that demands urgent solution. One major factor affecting rural development is government neglect or government not showing concern towards rural development. According to Nwankpa (2001), government should play pivotal role to making sure that development occur in the rural setting. Another important factor is on lack of basic infrastructure and basic amenities needed for development such as transportation, good roads, electricity, good school, portable water, health centres, markets, telecommunication, churches, recreational centres etc. When all these infrastructures and basic amenities are not available in a particular rural area, development finds it difficult to occur. Illiteracy, ignorance, and poverty serve as another important factor militating against rural development in Ideato rural community, Illiteracy, poverty and ignorance make or flop the developmental process in the rural areas, so making them to move backward (Edeh, 2003). Rural dispute is another factor militating against rural development. This implies that when dispute comes between two communities due to land, government who has planned bringing development can decide to withdraw it till the dispute or conflict is settled. Land tenure system as well as inability of the rural people to harnessing the available resources contributes to the backwardness of the rural areas, especially rural, Ideato.
Furthermore, cultural beliefs of the people in the rural areas affect the development that will come therein, for example some rural areas always find it difficult to give government land for development due to the fact that the land is where sacrifices are mad for the gods of their land. Another fear they have is the destruction of their aesthetic values by the government while the development projects are going on. Some individuals due to their selfish interest, find it difficult to dispose their land to the government for them to build structures like hospitals, schools, churches, recreational centres etc. According to Iyiogwe (2005), in his work on economic theory says land is free gift of nature, such as land surface, soil, rivers, mountains, forest, mineral deposits etc. Okorji (2005) restated that land is therefore nature’s aid to production. Another cultural factor is the fear of terror and labelling. some private individuals avoid helping people in some developmental structures in the rural area in order not to get them killed or labelled as criminals, fraudsters or as ritualists by the rural people.
More so, the problem of gender segregation is another crucial factor to be considered while discussing on the cultural factor militating against rural development. The reason is that sometimes women in the rural areas are not allowed to contribute in the issues concerning rural or community development. By so doing, the ideas of development becomes one sided which in turn affects the developmental processes. Women should be allowed to contribute in the developmental issues, whether political, economic, social and cultural. (Egbule, 2006)
Based on statistics, 65 per cent of the lands in the rural areas are undeveloped due to total dominance by the owners. According to Ikpeama (2004), land is a free gift of nature, and development of any kind should be done on it, in as much as it will change the living standard of the people. 85 per cent of our rural dwellers are not living in comfortable homes, while 95 per cent of them are poor (Hossian, 2005). According to agricultural organization of the United Nations (2005), 95 per cent of the rural farmers cannot boast of using modern farming implements in their agriculture. All these hindrances have continued to put the rural communities under a shackle of underdevelopment, in spite of the abundant human talents there in. this unavailability of basic economic infrastructure in the rural communities, hinders their potentials, especially being unable to generate enough for themselves and contribute to the nation’s economic growth. Rural dwellers should be encouraged in their agricultural endeavours, which will in turn help in the nation’s economic building (Preben Kaarshelin, 1991). When all these socio-economic and cultural factors that affect rural development are put in place, there will be a rapid rural development, especially in Ideato Local Government Area of Imo State.

1.3 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the study
1. What are the socio-economic factors that hinder rural development in Ideato
Local Government Area?
2. What are the cultural factors that hinder rural development in Ideato LGA?
3. What are the reactions of people to development in Ideato LGA?
4. To what extent have rural dwellers helped in facilitating rural development in
Ideato LGA?
5. What are the consequences of improper rural development in Ideato LGA?

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate on the socio-economic and cultural factors militating against rural development in Ideato Local Government Area of Imo State. Its specific objectives are therefore as follows:
1. To evaluate the socio-economic factors that hinder rural development in IdeatoLGA.
2. To investigates the cultural factors that hinder rural development in Ideato LGA.
3. To ascertain the reactions of people to rural development in Ideato LGA.
4. To examine the extent rural dwellers have helped in facilitating rural development in
Ideato LGA.
5. To ascertain the consequences of improper rural development in Ideato LGA.

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KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS TOWARDS HOMOSEXUALITY

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS TOWARDS HOMOSEXUALITY

ABSTRACT

Juvenile delinquency is seen as one of the menace that destroys life and property in our society today. Because of the nature of crime committed by juvenile parents, guidance, sponsors and well wishers are worried and disturbed about our future leaders. Crime associated with juvenile include: rape, stealing, kleptomanism, burglary, disobedience, homicide, truancy, vandalization and robbery etc. therefore, this study seeks to look at the nature and consequences of juvenile delinquency. The objective of this study aims at finding out why juvenile engage in delinquent act, why juvenile offenders continue in crime after being punished or sanctioned, what Nigeria government needs to do inorder to improve or educate juvenile about crime and the negative impact of crime on individual and society at large. However, the expected outcome of this study is that to reduce or eradicate juvenile delinquency in our society government and voluntary organization should be involved in the following ways: Government should provide employment opportunities for youths, greater thought should be given to setting up more amenities in the rural areas, stoppage of pornographic films and some American films, where our youths learns techniques in stealing and destroying properties, parents should adopt method of positive and negative reinforcement and government should educate or enlightening parent on the effects of unmet needs like starvation (food), parental care and affection etc. on their children to enable them (parents) make adjustment. Method of data collection used in this study was only questionnaire.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Juvenile delinquency is that behaviour on the part of children which may, under the law, subject those children to juvenile court. Tappan (1972:12) assert that “the nature of juvenile delinquency sprang up from different abnormal behaviour such as stealing, drunkenness, burglary, robbery, rape, homicide, idleness, truancy, prostitution, disobedience, running away from home, kleptomanism and sexual promiscuity. Furthermore, it is nothing but a fact to say that juvenile offenders who after serving a good or complete numbers of his or her punishment in prison and still continue in deviance is because they are associated with adult prisoners. In this regard Mr. Sanusi, project Director of Lawyers continued Education Project (LAWCEP) maintained that “in our society, where the process of trial is delayed unduly, the young offender spends more time with hardened criminals than elsewhere.

Different forms of delinquency have been with man as far back as we can think but modern trends have made them take a very sharp rise. Glucks (1959) found out that juvenile delinquency is not a new occurrence during adolescent years but rather a continuation of anti-social behaviours from childhood due to environmental subjections or family problems affecting his mental development. That is to say that there exit a close link between delinquency and the home environment of the juvenile. The earliest known code of laws (the Code of Hammurabi) took specific note of the duties of children to parents and prescribed punishments for violations. As legal systems were elaborated, the age of offenders continued to be important in defining responsibility for criminal behaviour.
The Nigerian constitution of 1979 defines juvenile delinquency as “a crime committed by a young person under the age of 18 years as a result of trying to comply with the wishes of his peers or to escape from parental pressure or certain emotional stimulation’. Before a youth in Nigeria is classified a delinquent, he must have been arraigned before a juvenile court and proved to be guilty of some offences. Examples of such offences are habitual truancy, drug addiction, prostitution, stealing, cultism, armed robbery etc. The consequences that juvenile delinquency has caused to Nigerian society are not only devastating but numerous. They destroy both lives and property and they also retard the growth of this country.
Juvenile delinquency has also contributed to the bad image of our country (Nigeria). For the fact that most of the delinquent want to get rich quick, corruption and ritual killings has become the order of the day in coming to our political sphere, they have turn politics into a do or die affair where thuggery and fighting is the norm. This has made politics in our country (Nigeria) a dangerous venture.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

If an investigation or a study is carried out about juvenile delinquency in Nigeria, the result will definitely show that cases like rampant stealing, armed robbery, prostitution, manslaughter, drug addiction, vandalization, truancy, murder, rape, cultism, burglary and kleptomanism and many other crimes and delinquent behaviour are common among the youth.
Because of the alarming rate of juvenile delinquency in our country today, governments, parents, guidance, sponsors, teachers, moralists and well meaning Nigerians have all picked interest on its adverse effects in our society. Also the increasing waves of juvenile delinquency in our country place lives, properties and future of our youth at stake. For example, in 1989, records of crime as reported by the Lagos state police command revealed that youths between the ages of thirteen (13) and twenty one (21) were responsible for adult. 13,782 out of 26,259 crimes committed this year i.e. 1989 were juvenile. Such crime ranges from shop looting, drug abuse, fighting, raping and stealing etc.
The similar report also indicated that in the same year (1989) out of 43,000 prisoners serving in various Nigerian prisons, over 23,000 of them were aged between the ages of thirteen (13) and twenty five (25) years. Therefore, this study seeks to look at the nature, consequences and extent of juvenile delinquency in Nigeria among our youth.

1.3 Research Questions

The following research questions were used to guide this study:
1. Why do juvenile engage in delinquent acts?
2. Why do juvenile offenders continue in crime after being punished or sanctioned?
3. How can Nigerian government improve or educate youth or juvenile about crime?
4. What are the negative impacts of delinquent or crime on individual and society at large?

1.4 Objective of the Study

The objective of this study is as follows:
1. To find out the extent why juvenile engage in delinquent acts.
2. To ascertain the extent juvenile offenders continue in crime after being punished or sanctioned.
3. To find out what Nigerian government need to do in order to improve or educate juvenile about crime.
4. To determine the negative impact of crime on individual and society at large.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study looks at the nature and consequences of juvenile delinquency in Nigeria. In all ramifications, the study does not claim the fact that all Nigerian juvenile are criminals or culprits or law violators so to say.
The study is very beneficial to learning and development processes and helps our youth to be aware of those things that may lead them to delinquent acts and avoid them. The study will also help parents, guidance, sponsors etc to know those things they need to do in order to prevent their children from so called delinquent acts.
The study goes a long way to unleash those things our government needs to do in order to educate our juvenile and prevent them from future delinquent acts. In conclusion, this study is significant because it seeks to determine to what extent juvenile commit crime, why they continued in delinquent act and as well as the result of their delinquent acts to themselves and society at large.

1.6 Definition of Terms

Nature: This is defined as the usual way a person or an animal behaves that is part of their character.

Consequence: This simply means a result of something that has happened.

Juvenile: This refers to a person who has attained the age of 14 but is under 17 years. That is a young person who is not yet an adult (Oxford English Dictionary).

Delinquent: It is a person who deviates from or violated the stipulated law that guides code of conduct of a particular country or society.

Juvenile Delinquency: Andy (1960:30) defined it as any social deviation by a youth from the societal norms which results in his contact with law enforcement agents. It is an act committed by a young person which violated the stipulated law of that country or society.

Burglary: It is defined as a crime of entering a building illegally and stealing things from it.

Robbery: It is defined as a crime of stealing money or goods from a bank, shop/store, person etc especially using violence or threat.

Rape: This is simply a crime of forcing somebody to have sex with him/her especially using threat or violence.

Homicide: This simply means a crime of killing somebody deliberately.

Stealing: This means an act of taking something from a person’s shop/store, etc. without permission and without intending to return it or pay for it.

Truancy: This simply means a practice of staying away from school without permission. It is a crime to juvenile.

Disobedience: This is defined as a failure or refusing to do what a person, law, order etc. tells.

Kleptomanism: It is simply a mental illness in which somebody has a strong desire, which they cannot control in stealing things. It is common among juvenile.

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SOCIO ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN IDEATO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

SOCIO  ECONOMIC  AND  CULTURAL  FACTORS  MILITATING   AGAINST  COMMUNITY  DEVELOPMENT  IN  IDEATO  LOCAL  GOVERNMENT  AREA  OF  IMO  STATE

ABSTRACT

Over the years, Ideato North Local Government Area of Imo state has been experiencing a slow rate of development in the area. Based on this therefore, this work was designed toinvestigate the socio-economic and cultural factors militating against rural development in Ideato North Local Government Area. Two hundred respondents were randomly selected and used. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. The data collected were analysed using SPSS and chi-square, tables, charts and percentages were used to present the results. Several findings were made as regards socio-economic and cultural factors militating against rural development in Ideato North LGA. One major factor is that Ideato people are facing total neglect from the government which goes a long way in affecting their development negatively. Secondly, cultural belief system of the people also affects their development. Thirdly, inadequate planning of developmental projects caused by lack of collaborative efforts of the government and the youths also hinder development in Ideato North LGA. Finally it was recommended that government should focus more attention in the development of rural areas in order not to allow them fell neglected and rejected. Rural people should learn to welcome and harness development despite their cultural belief system and there should be a collaborative effort of the government and the people, more especially the youths in planning and implementation of rural development projects.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

In Nigeria, the rural areas are not progressing in line with urban areas or metropolitan states in term having sustainable development like good road, electricity, good telecommunication, transportation, good water supply, standard market and health centres, improved housing as well as improved agricultural and storage facilities that would help in sustaining the rural masses. McKnight (1995) defined the term rural development as the overall development of rural areas to improve the quality of life of the rural people. According to Ihumodu (2003), rural development is the process of economic and social progress aimed at eradicating poverty among rural populace through provision of life and satisfying the basic needs of the people. Eradicating poverty among rural people demands appropriate skill. Rural people are endowed with quantum of knowledge and traditional skills, but at their primitive levels, that needs development to fit in properly with the modern trends of thing (Stall & Stoecker, 1998). This can be achieved through capacity building programmes. Capacity building is the process of developing skill, ability and faculties individually and collectively, that is vital in comprehending rural development and its roles in ameliorating rural poverty, ignorance, low human skill and literacy (Castelloe, 2002). All these are done to sustain the development of rural setting. Sustainable development vector (i.e. elements of desirable social objectives or attributes which societies seek to achieve through conserving natural resources (Pearce & Barbier, 1999).
Most rural societies are not able to achieve development because they lack the basic resources that would bring development or they are not able to harness and utilize the existing resources that would enable them develop their society (Robinovitch, 1994). In Nigeria, this has been serious social issue in recent time.
Socioeconomically, infrastructure and basic amenities like good road, portable water supply, electricity, health centres, markets, transportation, telecommunication, sports centers etc. affect development. This is true because, when all these essential things are lacking, development can hardly come or occur. Other important factors are illiteracy, ignorance and poverty. On the other hand, government neglect can also affect developmental process that will take place in the rural areas.
Culturally, belief system of the rural people bridge development, for example, they find it difficult to release a particular land for development due to the belief that it is on that land sacrifices are being made for the gods of their land, secondly they find it difficult to release a particular land for development to avoid the destruction of their aesthetic values like trees and other things that bring about the beauty of their area. Another cultural factor is on land tenure system (ownership of land). This implies that some land owners in the rural areas do not like releasing or letting go of their land for building of factories, schools, market, churches, health centres etc. by the government or even private individuals who are capable of doing so. By so doing, development is swept under the carpet. Fear of terror and labelling are another vital cultural factor which affect development, for example, an individual who is financially capable can withdraw his intention to develop a particular rural area due to the fear of getting him killed by armed robber and evil men or being labelled a fraudster and also a ritualist.
Rural development is a multidimensional and comprehensive concept; it encompasses the development of agriculture and allied activities, village and cottage industries and crafts, socio-economic infrastructure, community services and facilities and above all, human resources in rural areas. As a phenomenon, rural development is the end result of interactions between various physical, technological, economic, socio-cultural and institutional factors (Isife, 1998). According to Igbokwe (2000), rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social wellbeing of a specific group of people, i.e., the rural poor. As a discipline, it is multi- disciplinary in nature, representing an intersection of agriculture, social, behavioural, engineering and management sciences (Kata Singh, 1999). Problems of rural areas could come as a result of the already stated factors, most importantly, on the area of deliberate neglect of the rural areas by the government. According to Prelleltensky (2004), rural development problems come as a result of governmental deliberate neglect or inability of the rural community to welcome development due to their cultural belief system etc. According to rural development strategies 2002, through rural development strategies, efforts of the people and that of the government are brought together to improve the economic social and cultural conditions of the rural areas, so as to integrate them into the life of the nation and allow them to enable their people contribute more to national growth. Falcoya, (1984) on the other hand stated that rural development strategies created an avenue for rural people to organize themselves for aplanning actions, define their common individual plans to meet the needs of the community and solve their problems, execute these plans with maximum reliance upon community resources and supplement these resources when necessary with services and materials from government and non-governmental agencies outside their communities.
In addition, the issues concerning rural development should be government involved as well as rural dwellers involved so as to achieve a better solution to rural problems. That is to say that in order to achieve a better rural development in Ideato LGA, government and the rural people should integrate their efforts together. The study therefore tries looking into the socio-economic and cultural factors militating against development in Ideato Local Government Area of Imo State.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The issue of rural development is very challenging, considering that more than 70 percent of the population live in the rural areas, where they cultivate the soil to make a living. Looking at this poverty level it therefore becomes a social problem that demands urgent solution. One major factor affecting rural development is government neglect or government not showing concern towards rural development. According to Nwankpa (2001), government should play pivotal role to making sure that development occur in the rural setting. Another important factor is on lack of basic infrastructure and basic amenities needed for development such as transportation, good roads, electricity, good school, portable water, health centres, markets, telecommunication, churches, recreational centres etc. When all these infrastructures and basic amenities are not available in a particular rural area, development finds it difficult to occur. Illiteracy, ignorance, and poverty serve as another important factor militating against rural development in Ideato rural community, Illiteracy, poverty and ignorance make or flop the developmental process in the rural areas, so making them to move backward (Edeh, 2003). Rural dispute is another factor militating against rural development. This implies that when dispute comes between two communities due to land, government who has planned bringing development can decide to withdraw it till the dispute or conflict is settled. Land tenure system as well as inability of the rural people to harnessing the available resources contributes to the backwardness of the rural areas, especially rural, Ideato.
Furthermore, cultural beliefs of the people in the rural areas affect the development that will come therein, for example some rural areas always find it difficult to give government land for development due to the fact that the land is where sacrifices are mad for the gods of their land. Another fear they have is the destruction of their aesthetic values by the government while the development projects are going on. Some individuals due to their selfish interest, find it difficult to dispose their land to the government for them to build structures like hospitals, schools, churches, recreational centres etc. According to Iyiogwe (2005), in his work on economic theory says land is free gift of nature, such as land surface, soil, rivers, mountains, forest, mineral deposits etc. Okorji (2005) restated that land is therefore nature’s aid to production. Another cultural factor is the fear of terror and labelling. some private individuals avoid helping people in some developmental structures in the rural area in order not to get them killed or labelled as criminals, fraudsters or as ritualists by the rural people.
More so, the problem of gender segregation is another crucial factor to be considered while discussing on the cultural factor militating against rural development. The reason is that sometimes women in the rural areas are not allowed to contribute in the issues concerning rural or community development. By so doing, the ideas of development becomes one sided which in turn affects the developmental processes. Women should be allowed to contribute in the developmental issues, whether political, economic, social and cultural. (Egbule, 2006)
Based on statistics, 65 per cent of the lands in the rural areas are undeveloped due to total dominance by the owners. According to Ikpeama (2004), land is a free gift of nature, and development of any kind should be done on it, in as much as it will change the living standard of the people. 85 per cent of our rural dwellers are not living in comfortable homes, while 95 per cent of them are poor (Hossian, 2005). According to agricultural organization of the United Nations (2005), 95 per cent of the rural farmers cannot boast of using modern farming implements in their agriculture. All these hindrances have continued to put the rural communities under a shackle of underdevelopment, in spite of the abundant human talents there in. this unavailability of basic economic infrastructure in the rural communities, hinders their potentials, especially being unable to generate enough for themselves and contribute to the nation’s economic growth. Rural dwellers should be encouraged in their agricultural endeavours, which will in turn help in the nation’s economic building (Preben Kaarshelin, 1991). When all these socio-economic and cultural factors that affect rural development are put in place, there will be a rapid rural development, especially in Ideato Local Government Area of Imo State.

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THE EFFECT OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG NIGERIA UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATES

THE EFFECT OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG NIGERIA UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

This research work is on the effects of Drug Abuse among University undergraduates in Nigeria. It appears that not only the use of drugs that create problems but rather their misuse. In other words the widespread use of drugs has not only turned our attention to the dynamics of drug use and its determinants but also made it necessary to weigh the impact of this process on social institutions and social charge in future generations.
Drug abuse according to Laver (1978) simply means the improper use of drugs to the degree that the consequences are defined as detrimental to the user and or the society. The World Health Organization (WHO (2006) also defined drug abuse as a “state” of periodic or chronic intoxication, detrimental to the individual and to the society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic).
Drug abuse patterns include all aspect of drug usage by the youths ranging from how much, how often and what sort of drugs, where who, with, what circumstances and so on. The analysis of contemporary social problem has consistently proved more and more controversial because of the variables involve in their analysis, with the incidence of drug abuse, being of utmost concern to the abuser himself, his family, the government and the entire society in which he lives. This situation seems to have caused a lot of embarrassment to the government including most especially the damage done to the image of Nigerian abroad. It is obvious that custom officials in the United States of America and indeed the entire Nations of Europe subject the people of Nigeria traveling to their countries to a more thorough and embarrassing checks. This type of degrading and humiliating examination of Nigerians according to them is because they want to crack down on smugglers of which Nigerians are the chief suspects due to the hard drug trafficking posture exhibited by some greedy Nigerians.
Furthermore, Nigerian societies has defined some drugs as acceptable while others as not acceptable without reference to their effects on mental and physical wellbeing of t the of the users, for example, society considers the use of alcohol and nicotine as acceptable, hence those of them who take these drugs do so freely in public without fear of arrest or society stigma.
To the society as a whole, crime, promiscuity, armed robbery and other vices are all linked to drug abuse. Therefore this study is motivated bythe controversy that surrounds the effect of drug abuse among University undergraduates in Nigeria.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Drug abuse in Nigeria in the contemporary time has become one issue that cast a gloomy shadow to the entire Nigerian society especially among University undergraduates. The height of drug trafficking in Nigeria was witnessed in 1985 under the military regime. During this period, it was mostly the University undergraduates that were caught and the first to be executed for drug offences under the “special tribunal (Miscellaneous Offences) Degree No. 20 of 1984. However, the abuse of drugs is not only limited to the University undergraduates as alien phenomenon is to distort its significance.
Nevertheless, the usage of drug either by University undergraduates or other members of the larger society in all its ramifications appears to be a social problem. This problem is widely spread and it affect all and sundry. In other words, this wide spread use and abuse entice people from all walks of life and beyond the human destruction caused by drug dependence is the damage to traditional values and lifestyles. Studies have also shown that drug abuse wrecks individual, shatter families and weakens entire society with its burden of economic looses, health cost and increased lawlessness and crime.

Also, drugs seem to undermine the ability of University undergraduates to learn. Drug also appears to contradict our values of physical wellbeing. People experiment with drugs because they seem to hold the promise of fulfillment. But the fulfillment is generally elusive, greater and greater quantities are consumed and ultimately the person suffers both physical and psychological deterioration. The drug abuser also experience problems of interaction and this interactional problem is encountered both inside his immediate family and stress invariably is created in the family situation of drug abuse (Hoffman, 1990).
To add to this, drug abuse may entail a lot of social problems ranging from lateness to lectures, family neglect, deviance behaviours, involvement in crime etc (Earl 2000). In terms of economic cost, it includes the more money required to deal with the undesirable effects of the drug abuse, the less money for services and programmes that enhances the quality of life (Earl 2000).
One of the factors militating against the eradication of drug abuse among our University undergraduates is that our security agencies, such as the police force, National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies among others have not done enough to check this scourge. Another factor militating against the eradication of drug abuse among Nigerian University undergraduates is the problem of corruption among the men and officials of these fore mentioned agencies.
To this end and judging from the problems outlined earlier, this research aims at ascertaining the effect of drug abuse among University undergraduates in Nigeria using the University of Calabar, Cross River State as a study area.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions will guide the study.
1. What are the common drugs likely to be abused by undergraduate students in the contemporary Nigeria society?
2. What are the major reasons accountable for engagement of undergraduate students in drug abuse in Nigeria?
3. What are the likely implications for undergraduate‟s involvement in drug abuse?
4. What are the measures that can be used to eradicate drug abuse among University undergraduates in Nigeria?

1.4 MAJOR OBJECTIVE

To determine the effect of drugs abused by undergraduates in Nigeria
1. To find out the drugs that is commonly abused by undergraduate students in Nigeria.
2. To find out the implications for undergraduates involvement on drug abuse.
3. To identify of this study also aims at looking at some of the measures aimed at eradicating the drug abuse problem among University undergraduates in Nigeria.
4. To ascertain the reasons why drugs are been abused by the University undergraduates in Nigeria.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

There is a great need for this study as it entails what the result for the findings would be used for.
The results of the study should help in creating awareness in the society on the general effects of drug abuse on their health most especially the University undergraduates. It will make the youths to realize that excessive or even small intake of this item (drugs) has inhibitory effects on their brain.
The result of this of this study will be used in making the consumers to have a second thought before partaking in the act. This will go a long way in modeling their behavior which the general awareness has created.

The study will go a long way in reducing the numerous health problems encountered as a result of the misuse of drugs or the intake of hard drugs. The study will also help young researchers or writers to solve some problems of drug abuse, thereby ensuring good health of the University undergraduates or youths in general and social harmony in the society.
Finally, all the social ills in the society as a result of the effects of drug abuse among the University undergraduates in Nigeria will be drastically minimized.

1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS

(a) Drug: A drug is a chemical substance capable of altering the physical and psychological function of the body.
(b) Abuse: This means the misuse of something. It can also be described as the illegal use of something.
(c) Drug Abuse: This is the misuse of drugs. It could be defined as the illegal use of substance which interferes with the human behavior.
(d) Effects: This could be defined as consequences. It is also the power to produce result.

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THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN ORGANISATIONS IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF WOMEN ORGANISATIONS IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This project analysed the contributions of women organisations in the community development in mbaise Local Government Area in imo state.semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 120 randomly selected women from the chosen communities. Data analysis were achieved using simple descriptive statistics as percentages, frequency tables and ranking. Result of the study shows that women organisations for the purpose of community development in the study area are formed at different levels (community and village) and along different ties (religious,family and social). There was a remarkable high involvement rate of women organisations in the provision of infrastructural amenities as renovation/furnishing of town halls/equipment of village schools and churches, and provision of communal environmental sanitation services. other development programmes include those aimed at economic and educational empowerment of women and community youths such as;provision of grants/loans for enterprise development of women award of scholarships to children of the community,awarness creation on HIV/AIDS,family health and child care programmes,and other general health matters. It was recommended among others that existing women organisations in the community development should be encouraged by way of adequate recognition,training and funding by the local government authorities

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

It is a truism the adage that says; behind every successful man is a woman. Women have been regarded as fragile and should be subordinate to the man but they can play very important role for the betterment of the society. This fragile nature has proved her taking domineering influence on many occasions in the history of mankind. Across the country, women have created innovative, comprehensive programs to meet the needs of their communities. Women have established themselves as leaders in the community development process and acquire the skills that have brought positive changes to their communities. As effective builders of social capital, Christian women leaders play key roles in establishing and maintaining important relationships and networks in their communities.
They are facing the challenges of racial, culture, economic and political barriers that exist in the community development process and in many cases overcoming those barriers become their motivation. While their comprehensive approach has influenced the evolution of the community development field, Christian women’s contributions have been neither widely acknowledged nor explicitly credited. The result of the Christian women groups in community development study provide deeper insights into women’s thinking about community development, the barriers they perceive to women’s leadership and the kind of efforts that should be made to facilitate and promote their status and roles in the field. Christian women groups demonstrate variety of effective ways women create social capital that is central to the existence of healthy communities. In fact, the contributions of Christian women groups in community development projects can bring about significant positive changes. Thus, Christian’s women groups have been proved to be one of the effective entry point for initiating activities or development projects in the community that are beneficiary to all the members of the community (Chiwendu, 1980). Therefore, for effective development to occur, their contributions need not be disputed.

1.2 Statement to the Problem

The cultural beliefs that the education of a woman ends in the kitchen, makes it almost impossible for males to see the immense contributions of women groups to the community development. For example, through picture books, girls are taught to have low aspirations because there are so few opportunities portrayed as available to them. It is believed that men’s work is outside the home and women’s work is inside the home. For example we see women at home washing dishes, cooking, cleaning, yell at the children, takes care of babies, and does the shopping, while men are store keepers, house builders, storytellers, monks, preachers, fishermen, policemen, fighters, soldiers, adventurers, judges, farmers and pilots. They were also the king and the gods.
Within the traditional African society, women from almost all the ethnic group were excluded from performing certain activities, especially those that concern leadership and other hand and significant activities like construction works and clergy roles, these were considered as men’s domain. The exclusion of women from some of these activities are due to the socio-cultural factors constraining them from participating in activities that were considered to be exclusively for men (William, 1973).
Furthermore gender inequality contributes to the low contribution of women to community development. Many a times, we hear the men ask, “Don’t you know you are a woman? This question is due to the systematic
gender bias in customs, beliefs and attitudes that confine women mostly to the domestic sphere and not in certain matters expected to be in the men’s domain. Also, the economic and domestic workloads deprived women of time to contribute to community development.
Finally laws and customs also impede women’s access to credit, productive inputs, employment, education, information and politics. These factors affect women’s ability and incentives to contribute in economic and social development activities in the community. The purpose of this research is to find out the contributions of Christian women’s groups to community development, since it is believed that “what a man can do, a woman can do better”. The challenges facing them in their bid to contribute will also be reviewed.

1.3 Research questions

1. What are the challenges facing the Christian women Groups in their contributions to community developments?
2. How do Christian Women Groups contribute to community development?
3. What are the ways in which Christian Women Groups could be encouraged to contribute to community development?
4. How do Christian Women Group generate their income for community development projects?
5. What are the objectives of Christian Women Groups?

1.4 Objectives of the study

This research work was an intensive field-based examination of the contributions of Christian Women Groups in community development activities. All its objectives include:
1. To find out the challenges facing the Christian Women Groups in their bid to contribute to community development.
2. To find out how Christian Women Groups contribute to community development.
3. To identify strategies for meaningful contribution of Christian Women Groups to community development.
4. To find out the extent Christian Women Groups generate their income for community development projects.
5. To find out the objectives of the Christian Women Groups.

1.5 Significance of the study

This study will be of help to future researchers in the area study. It will also add to the already existing knowledge on the contributions of Christian Women Groups to community development. The feminist will benefit from the study will help them advocate well on women rights and sexual equality.To politicians, it will help them to provide for their citizens the fact needs they have long waited for.
To policy that matches the rapid changes which exist in the community.Finally, to teachers, it will help them lay their hands on more materials to teach in respect of the topic in focus.

1.6 Definition of concepts

The basic concepts that will be defined in this research work includes: Christian, Community, Community development, Contribution, Development, and Group Women.

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THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

THE  INFLUENCE  OF  ENVIRONMENT  ON  THE  ACADEMIC  PERFORMANCE  OF  STUDENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

The influence of colonialism on Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. The influx of white explorers, traders and missionaries led to the development of settlements that differed from the traditional domestic environment. These new settlements were designed to reflect the norms, values and economic policies of the colonial masters.Africa, the land of blessed race, where the opportunists came to develop in order to colonize their resources for their good, was then left in vain hope(Allen, 2011).
Although primarily established for white settlers, the new settlements known as urban areas or township also served as a refuge for appreciable number of Africans who had in some substantial degree emancipated themselves from the constraints of traditional society. Among them were professional men, clerks and shop keepers with at least primary education, growing numbers of wage-earners and large number of farmers receiving cash income from growing crops for world market (Fage, 1978).

The projection of industrial capitalism in Africa produced well-defined urban classes’ people with technical skills. They wanted to lift themselves into the twentieth century world modestly symbolized by radios and bicycles and to enjoy freedom based on knowledge and a more advanced mode of production. These ambitions were feasible only in an urban settlement. Aba is reputed as a big commercial city. It is predominantly inhabited by businessmen of various persuasions traders, big – time technicians and craftsmen, importers and exporters transporters etc. Even the few professionals like Teachers, Doctors, Lawyers, Accountants, and Engineers etc. have unwittingly imbibed the commercial tradition of the dominant group.
In Aba you are either a businessman or you are nobody. In fact the influence of commerce is so pervading that the market unions have come to connote the defacto government or power broker in all of Aba. The defunct famous Bakassi Vigilante Group was composed of traders and craftsmen. The commercial nature of Aba has also influence the attitude and life style of most residents. The rat-race syndrome is very pronounced. Everything is measured in terms of its worth in money. People do not have time for anything else but money. Parents do not even have time for their children. In some cases the children are surrounded by paid cooks, drivers and house boy/maids who attend to their needs while their parents are busy making money. This creates room for child abuse through neglect and over indulgence by parents. We can observe that the environment regulates the social, religious, academic and cultural inclinations of the child as other less fortunate children are abused through exploitation. For example, those employed as shop assistants may sleep in the shops. The typical day starts for such children of about 5.30am. The business continues up to 9pm since there is no legislation on shopping hours in Nigeria. Children serving as house helps are in similar situation. They wake up about 5:30 am and do household chores up to 7:30 am or even later. Some of these servants who attend school go to school already very tired. In some cases they walk a distance to school thereby worsening the situation. About 2.00pm when the school closes they go home to continue the household chores or carry clothes to sell in the streets. They come back late in the evening tired and sleep off. This routine is performed almost daily at the expense of the children’s studies. The child who hopes to grow up and become a professional is subjected to social constraints that are likely to obstruct his progress. Some of the constraints are child labour, street hawking, street begging, early marriage, child abandonment, child prostitution, child battering, sexual and physical abuse and therapeutic abuse by fake traditional healers (Ebigbo, 1988, Echezona, 1991). The environment is characterized by models that cherish aggression act-rich syndrome, substance level ambition and disregard of Education.
It is also necessary to note that the surrounding or environment of a student influences their performance. Learning and reading begins in school but the first foundation of the child begins at home (Binkley 2008).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The poor academic performance of pupils in schools in Aba educational environment has recently become a cause for serious concern. It has been observed by the researcher that some senior primary school pupils cannot write or read a letter. Others attend as many as three schools within their primary school career due to constant failures in a bid to avoid the shame of repeating a class. It has also been observed by the researcher that in Aba and some other parts of Nigeria private school proprietors tend to boost the population of their schools by admitting students without a testimonial or statement of result and award fictitious results to ensure the promotion of such pupils to the next class.

This ugly development has been attributed to many factors such as teachers’ poor attitude to work; poor infrastructure, examination malpractice; lack of qualified teachers; truancy; poor motivation; Non-payment of salaries and the neglect of instructional media by teachers etc. The primary school features the highest number of impressionable learners and consumes a greater percentage of the government budgetary allocation to education, hence the need to investigate the influence of environment on the academic performance of pupils in Aba North L.G.A.

1.3 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the research.
1.) Does noise pollution hinder the development of memorization skills by pupils?
2.) Does the presence of rich but illiterate businessmen discourage excellent academic performance or behaviour in class?
3.) Do Pupils who indulge in so much domestic chores have poor academic performance than pupils who do not?

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to investigate the influence of environment on the academic performance of primary school pupils. The following specific objectives are to guide the study:
1. To determine the extent to which a noisy environment hinders the development of memorization skills by primary school pupils.
2. To find out how the presence of illiterate but rich businessmen affect the behaviour of primary school pupils towards learning.
3. To ascertain the ways in which the home environment affects the performance of primary school pupils at school.

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study on the influence of environment on the academic performance of pupils in primary school will facilitate learning by enriching the knowledge of parents on the adverse effect of child labour and hawking on learning. It will create awareness on the importance of interaction and co-operation between parents and teachers for the success of pupils in learning activities. It will improve the attitude of pupils towards academic work through internal and external motivation of teachers and parents. It will contribute to the volume of existing literature on the role of environment factors on pupils learning. It also will sharpen teachers understanding of the root causes of some academic problems in the primary school. The insight derived from that will help to prefer better solution to the problem. It will promote the development of the spirit of hard work, self-reliance and self-control among primary schools pupils.
The result gotten from this study will challenge the ministry of education to live up to her duty by making the infrastructure available for the creation of better learning environment. This study will highlight the importance of community participation through the P.T.A. in school affairs to check deviant behaviour resulting from the environment. Finally, it also will highlight the danger of monetized value system with its attendant; ‘corruption’ because money is only useful and valuable in the hands of an informed person.

1.6 Definition of Concepts
The following concepts were defined:

Influence:

According to the Sun Mobile Dictionary, the term influence is the “power to affect another”. The Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary defines influence as “the effect that somebody or something has on the way a person thinks or behaves or on the way that something works or develops”. The concept influence, as related directly to this study, refers to the power the environment has on the academic performance of pupils,more especially, in Aba North Local government area of Abia State.

Environment:

The Sun Mobile Dictionary defines Environment as “surrounding, things, conditions, etc.” The Oxford Advanced learner’s dictionary defines it as “the conditions that affects the behaviour and development of somebody or something; the physical conditions that somebody or something exists in”. In essence, the concept environment refers to the surrounding of primary schools in Aba North LGA. It can also be defined as the conditions that affect the behavior and development of pupils especially in primary schools.

Academy:

The Sun mobile dictionary refers to the concept academy as a “school”. A school on the other hand is a place of learning. A school is a place where children are thought (Oxford mini School Dictionary: 2007). A primary school can therefore be called an Academy.

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THE INFLUENCE OF REWARD ADMINISTRATION ON TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION A STUDY OF CARITAS UNIVERSITY AMORJI-NIKE

THE INFLUENCE OF REWARD ADMINISTRATION ON TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION A STUDY OF CARITAS UNIVERSITY AMORJI-NIKE

ABSTRACT

Consequent upon titanic competition that has beclouded business environment of all sorts, organizations have employed myriad of strategies. Positive reward to workers for good performance by management is among the motivational tools employed by management to enhance productivity and maintain high standard products. Organizations that are indifferent to motivational tool suffer lack of productivity and standard products. To achieve productivity and standard products, team work is imperative. To achieve teamwork, a system of reward administration and implementation is pertinent. To this end it is imperative to investigate the relationship between system of reward administration and its implementation to establish the influence of reward administration implementation. On this premise, this study seeks examine the impact of reward administration implementation has on total quality management (TQM). The object of this study aims at understanding the influence of reward administration on total quality management.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background To The Study

Consequent upon the myriad of changes which have beclouded the operations of modern business organisations in recent times, including the fundamental and core changes in the nature of work and organisations, the dynamic nature of the competitive environment and the need to ensure a convergence of shareholders interests in the way the organisations are run, a need for new approaches in human resources management has arisen.
The paradigm shift, in other words, includes “total”. Put differently, total quality management. This means that everyone in the organisation must be involved in the continuous improvement effort. The concept quality indicates a concern for consumer satisfaction. Management on the other hand refers to the people and processes needed to achieve the quality (Aragon, 2003).
Subsequently, reward management deals generally with the handling of workers needs, drives and motivations in a way that will elicit the desired behavior from employees. This becomes more reasonable going by the submission of Brian Tracy (a world class management expert) in Omotosho, (2002) that an average worker will only put in 40% – 50% of his capacity to any job-function at a point in time. Therefore, for us to induce and trigger off exceptional performance of 70% – 95% from workers we need to motivate
them using any or combination of the reviewed motivational theories as our foundation.
From the foregoing, it becomes one of the ethical issues in staff management in Caritas University, that is, stimulating reward to emerge with total quality management implementation. Some experts contend that total quality management can only be implemented when there is a critical need for remunerative justice in organisation irrespective of teamwork syndrome.
Again, the contradiction of an acceptable methodology in rewarding employees is both inevitable and not universal. Therefore, for total quality installation and implementation with a quest for objectivity (statistical tools) there is a need for identifiable and acceptable techniques of rewarding players in the total quality management mix. According to Dulewicz (2009), “there is a basic human tendency to make judgments about those one is working with as well as about oneself”. Appraisal, it seems, is both inevitable and universal. In the absence of carefully structured system of appraisal, people will tend to judge the work performance of others, including subordinates, naturally, informally and arbitrarily. The human inclination to judge can beat serious motivational, ethical and legal problems in the work place. Without a structured appraisal system, there is little chance of ensuring that the judgments made will be lawful, fare, defensible and accurate.
For organizations to toe “total quality management” (TQM) and rewarding variables for its implementation, astute methods of determining
the value of individuals not group needs to be delineated. Understanding the context of the research work, (de-unionized workers operating in a peripheral capitalist state, baptismal mission University), concentration on collective responsibility and collaborating effort is replaced by acknowledging individuals responsibility and achievement, even within the context of a team approach (Cole, 2002).
On the above premise, the mechanics of this work is articulated on rewards as stimulating performance/motivation which makes or mark the implementation of total quality management not in the absence of performance appraisal as a veritable tool in assessing rather than control of processes of walk of paradigm shift.
The thrust of TQM concept is mainly to help work organisation cope with changing environment and the need to integrate an organisations human resource strategy and it‟s cooperate strategy. There quality control should be conducted as an integrate part of management control.
Thus, the purpose of this work therefore, is to examine the origin and development of the reward valuation model in juxtaposition with performance appraisal as technique for evaluating employees.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Work relation concern the control of the process wherein worker‟s capacity to labour is translated into actual work. In pursuit of profitability those who own the means of production adopt control processes to ensure
that maximum effort is extorted from those who have to sell their labour for wages.
Control strategy in relations may be located in the dimensions of bureaucracy-hierarchy, specialization and division of labour, impersonality and formalized rules as well as in the system of discipline and reward as occurred in the workplace.
The direction of work, the procedures for evaluating workers performance and the exercise of the firms‟ sanctions and reward becomes subject with of the company policy work becomes highly stratified, each given its distinct title and description and impersonal rules govern promotion. Similarly the disciplinary system takes care of act of challenge, recalcitrance and resistance, which inherently threaten „order‟ whilst the pay system rewards compliance.
Paying people for performance or compliance to the procedure for the installation and implementation of TQM in organisations particularly Caritas University remains a mixture of paradoxes. The contradiction arises from the never abating controversy about objectivity of the appraisal process on one part and the link between individual‟s performance and corporate goals on the other hand.
Akata (2003: 211) argued that when objectives are stretched, employees easily become disenchanted but to otherwise is to encourage performance mediocrity. Akata further opined that different pay rate and bonuses to high performers of the quality implementation team and others who strive hard to attain average performance will feel aggrieved; Rewarding under performing executives with fat performance related bonuses and the work force would grumble.
On the above premise, it could be deduced that part from noting the human element in implementing TQM, other factors such as basic salary, cash allowance (housing, electricity, transportation, medical etc), fringe benefits (sale bonus/profit share, entrepreneurial reward, productivity bonus etc), cash awarded for loyalty, honesty, long service etc, and quality of leadership, workplace relationship and official recognition of employees ability and contribution to corporate growth and development has great influence on the level of quality expected from workers.
Taking cursory look at the reward variables, a process of determining who gets what, and how, in terms of income. Quality implementation in Caritas University however tends to be fixed on problems anchored on perceived trust, mediocrity religious ethic and appliance of viable oppressive apparatus on non mediocre workers. This translates into almost general silence by rank and file staff amidst so much important welfare and corporate issues to discuss. This is explained only in the context of fear of being sacked and driven back to swollen labour market. To many staff, half bread is better than none. Thus no matter the dehumanizing conditions of service it is better than none. This is against the view of Alwitt and Berger, (1993) that rewarding quality has been translated into economic vote which ultimately influence the purchase and investment decision of individuals.
Most academic staffs are beclouded by visible and invisible spies. The management system seems so operative that has attracted the slag hammer of the National Universities Commission (NUC). But still, it seems unabated. Student are not left out in this managerial mis-normed. History is empty with the record of academic and general behaviour stimuli in terms of reward of any kind.

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THE PROBLEMS OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND RURAL CRIME IN NGOR OKPALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

THE PROBLEMS OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND RURAL CRIME IN NGOR OKPALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE

ABSTRACT

The research project was carried out in Ngor Okpala L.G.A of Imo State on the problem of youth unemployment and rural crime. The research is aimed at providing vivid and extensive insight on a wide range of the fundamental aspects of youth unemployment and rural crime. In this light very decisive steps were taken to analyse as possible all manner of issues enshrined in the study and understanding of the problems of unemployment and rural crimes in the lives of Ngor Okpala youth. In carrying out this study survey research design was used. Four research questions and hypothesis were formulated. The sample of 150 males and females was selected by probability random sampling techniques. The instruments for the study where the interview method and questionnaire containing nineteen open question, which were validated by the supervisor, the mothers were the respondents. The analysis of data was by use of frequency tables, percentages and chi-square. The major findings of the study were:

Youth unemployment and armed robbery are related.

There is a relationship between youth unemployment and drug abuse.

The unemployment situation is the brain behind burglary in Ngor Okpala

Rural unemployment leads to youth gambling.

The government should provide job opportunities and also ensure an equitable distribution of resources. The gap between the rich and the poor can be narrowed by creating employment opportunities for the citizens, provision of cheap food and shelter and ensuring that education is no longer a privilege but a right in these rural areas.

2)       Achieving industrialization by establishing many industries in rural areas of Ngor Okpala, this will create more employment opportunities and reduce the high rate of rural crime.

3)       Social amenities should be provided to rural areas especially in this area of study (the people of Ngor Okpala) because this is also a way of creating jobs and it will make many school leavers in the area to accept to work and reside in their rural homes without thinking about committing crimes.

4)       There are empty lands in Ngor Okpala, what the government needs to do is to use them to encourage labour-oriented industries, production in the industries that will be established in order to achieve industrialization in our societies should be made labour-intensive instead of total use of machines. By so doing it will create an avenue for the rural youth to get employment and the rate of crime will be reduced.

5)       Restructuring our educational system, pre-vocational courses like mechanics, electronics, woodwork, metal work, etc should be taught; these will make our educational products to be job-creators instead of job-seekers.

6)       The government should ensure that there is equal distribution of wealth, political participation, economic activities and resources because there is a saying that “what is good for the goose is also good for the gander”. They should ensure that development is a multifaceted thing and not a one sided phenomena, the rural areas should be recognized to avoid crimes.

7)       Most rural areas especially Ngor Okpala is traditionally based on agriculture and they take agriculture as their source of economy. So, the government should make agriculture more attractive. This can be done by developing agriculture and those in it should earn more wages, salaries so that it can attract the youth and at least create rooms for more jobs and the high rate of rural crime will be a thing of the past in Ngor Okpala LGA of Imo State.

CHAPTER   ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

The problem of youth unemployment and rural crime has over the years become an Area of interest and great concern to most nations of the world. It is the intention of this nations to completely eliminate or at least minimize youth unemployment and rural crime in their various nations.

The menace of youth unemployment in Nigeria could be said to a recent occurrence because in the pre-colonial days great value and dignity was attached to labour as a means of acquiring wealth but now the end justifies the means. Even if unemployment existed it was not the intractable problem it is today.

According to Balogun (2010:82), he opined that of Nigerian’s 150 million population 40 million are unemployed. As 45% of the population is between the ages of 15 to 40 years this means unemployment mainly affect the youth. The Nigeria ruling class is incapable of solving this problem, only the working class can take on the task of eradicating youth unemployment and rural crime

Balogun   (2010), argued that it is estimated that over 3 trillion naira has been spent since 2003 just to combat youth unemployment and rural crime. The question is where has this money gone and why does the menace still persist  to  solve  the problem, the government buy a few thousand pepper grinding machines or five thousand bikes and distributes these to hungry youths numbering millions. These methods gives rise to massive corruption and provide room for political patronage. This methods also has been used for close to 10 years now and what has it been able to achieve or deliver?

With the extent of human and national resources Nigeria possesses, she ought not to know any poverty, let alone this extent of youth unemployment and rural crime.

According to Chigunta (2002:89) these large-scale unemployment among youths is encouraging the development of street youths in Nigeria. the street youths, denied of legitimate means of livelihood, grow up in a culture that  encourages criminal behavior in rural and urban areas where they engages in various activities such as petty trading, casual work, stealing, pick pocketing prostitution, touting  and other illegal activities.

Ngor Okpala is a local government area of Imo state Nigeria, its head quarters are in the town of Umuneke Ngor. It has an area of 56Ikm and a population of 159,932 at the 2006 census. Ngor-Okpala is a notable place in Imo state because of her locational position. Ngor Okpala is the largest local government in Imo state and one of the largest in Nigeria.

Ngor is the fastest developing local government in Imo state. Ngor Okpala is blessed with natural mineral resources which has not been tapped. This prominent status of Ngor Okpala as a state local government Areas and its consequent of population explosion and the problems of youth unemployment and rural crime makes it unique for this study.

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ETHNIC AFFILIATION AND RESOURCE CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA A STUDY OF IGBO ETITI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

ETHNIC AFFILIATION AND RESOURCE CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA A STUDY OF IGBO ETITI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT

This research work titled ethic affiliation and resource challenges in Nigeria with particular reference to Igbo Etiti Local Government Area of Enugu State. The researcher examined the effect of ethnic affiliation on the development of Nigerian economy. Four research questions and hypotheses were formulated in this project work. The research instrument used in this study includes oral interview and questionnaire. The population of the study was 209,248 while the samples size of 399 was determined by the use of Taro Yamanis formular. The sampling technique used in this study is simple random sampling. The questionnaire is structured as to contain both close and open ended question. Simple tables and percentages were used in treatment of data. Chi-square was used in testing the hypotheses.  At the end the researcher found out that Ethnic affiliation has significant effect on the development of Nigerian economy. It was also observed that the resource challenges of ethnic affiliation in Nigeria are Poor Revenue Allocation, Mismanagement of allocated funds and so on. The researcher equally discovered that the various ethnic affiliations in Igbo Etiti Local Government Area of Enugu State affects the area to a large extent. The study recommends that To build a virile state the ruling elites should encourage national discourse to enable the various groups’ air their grievances and fears.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the study

It is a commonplace fact that Nigeria is a multi-ethnic nation state with socio-cultural differences between its component ethnic groups all of which have resulted into cultural dissimilarity (Okafor, 2007). This cultural dissimilarity has been manifested by, for instance, the differences in language, diet, dress and types of social system. Shrewd observers have noticed that the recent event such as globalization have not significantly diminished these differences. This static situation has been due to a number of reasons.

The indigenous languages, which help to identify the various ethnic groups, are still spoken by almost the entire population of Nigeria.

The style of life has not, for the majority people, changed to such a degree as to produce appreciably greater uniformity. Against this diverse background, many ethnic problems abound in Nigeria, which arise principally from the hostility that derives from competition between ethnically different peoples for wealth and power (Okafor, 2007).

The establishment of ethno-regionalism had a significant impact in Nigerian political arena. Theoretically, Edlyne (2002) contented that, even the formations of political parties, their manifestos, system of leadership and campaign strategies were originated from ethnic and geographical dimensions. An ethnic nationality refers to people who agree to share a common language, their cultural ideology and self identity.

While Okafor (2007) observed that since the beginning of democratic system of government during the first republic Nigerian political parties were forms into regional position supporting the three major ethnic groups the Hausa/Fulani, Igbo and Yoruba. In similar vein, the third republic of Nigerian democracy follows the same train. Furthermore, the model indicates clearly that Nigerians are more loyal to their ethnic background than their state.

The phenomenon of ethnicity becomes the most essential aspect of national identity in Nigerian politics, because people are more prone to their identity than being a Nigerian (Ogundiya, (2010). Gilley (2009) observed that, majority of Nigerians in their survey prepare to be label by their ethnic background. However, Nigerians tend to cluster more readily around the cultural solidarities of kinship, traditional entity than the class solidarities of the workplace. They also opined that what is more, “religious and ethnic identities are more fully formed, more holistic and more strongly felt than class identities” as evidenced in the fact that “whereas those who identify with religious and ethnic communities are almost universally proud of their group identities…those who see themselves as members of a social class are somewhat more equivocal about their pride”. Edlyne (2002) concludes that looking at the historical antecedent of Nigeria and the effect of colonialism the challenges is not a point of surprise but to adhere into unity in diversity.

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FAMILY PLANNING METHODS IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF ENUGU STATE A STUDY OF AJI IN IGBO-EZE NORTH L.G.A

FAMILY PLANNING METHODS IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF ENUGU STATE A STUDY OF AJI IN IGBO-EZE NORTH L.G.A

ABSTRACT

This study is uniformed and designed to unveil and reveal Family Planning Methods in Rural Communities of Enugu State with particular References to Aji In Igbo Eze North L.G.A. the researcher assessed the acceptance of the different methods of family planning in Aji. Examined the extent of awareness of the existence family planning methods by the peoples of Aji community. Evaluated the effect family planning on the well-being of the family in Aji. The study also examined the relationship between family planning and the well-being of the family. Data for the study was sourced from two main sources which include Primary and Secondary sources of data Collection. Primary data: questionnaires and oral interviews were used to collect information from the respondents. Secondary data: journals, and other relevant materials relating to the area of my investigation will be review. Extensive literature review was carried out on the direct literature and indirect literature on books, journals and past works. The research instrument used in this study includes oral interview and questionnaire. The questionnaire is structural as to contain both close and open ended question. Simple tables and percentages were used in treatment of data analysis. At the end of the analysis the researcher observed that the method of family planning used by the people of Aji community are Traditional Methods, Contraceptive Measures, Conventional Methods and Withdrawal Methods. It was also observed that the people of Aji community are aware of the existing family planning methods. The study shows that family planning has positive impact on the well-being of the people of Aji community. It was also discovered that there is significant relationship between family planning and the well-being of the families in Aji community. Based on the findings the research her recommends that couples should plan their families by adhering to the practice prescribed by the planned parenthood federation and whose services are also given free in family planning clinics all over the country. Sex education should be encouraged in our community in particular and in our societies in general so as to minimize the rate of teenage pregnancies and child dumping.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background to the study

The term family planning has been on the lips of many in this nation for some time now but not much is known about it. The family is a social institution that unites individual into cooperative groups that over see bearing and raising of new children conventionally, the main aim of involving oneself into family life is for procreation, to bear and raise or socialize children into the society.

It is regarded that family exist in every society but in different forms. Family as a smallest may start in the form of courtship leading to the marriage life.

Family is a social institution that is responsible for procreation and raising of new brand of human being in the society.

According to Pope John Paul II (1981) the family is a common unity of person and the smallest unit. “As such it is an institution fundamental to life of every society” thus the family consist of a husband, wife and their children, the family live together, pools its resources and work together and produce offspring. The structure of the family varies from society to society. The stability of any nation is very much dependant on its families, it is therefore believed that future and progress of any society bear on the live and development of the young one’s in the family. It is generally felt that family planning is in the interest of development of the countries expiring high rate in order to avoid population explosion in the future.

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND PLACEMENT POLICIES OF ORGANIZATIONS IN NIGERIA ( A CASE STUDY OF KANO)

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RECRUITMENT, SELECTION AND PLACEMENT POLICIES OF ORGANIZATIONS IN NIGERIA ( A CASE STUDY OF KANO)

ABSTRACT

 Recruitments selection and placement function is an important task of personnel management. It is a function that determines who is employed and filled vacant position for the smooth running of the organization.

 In Nigeria the recruitment, selection and placement function is not justly done because of the complex nature of the society. It is being influenced by such factors as tribalism, neporism, favourtism etc. The employee of every organization serve as the engine that regulate the activities of such organization and the quality personal is such organization determine the effectiveness of the organization. However, with poor recruitment, selection and placement of workers, most organizations are not performing up to expectation.

 The research work has identified such factors e.g. religious factors, personal values, first impression, tribalism, nepotism etc. The influenced the recruitment, selection and placement functions and what management should do to dominate them if the organization interest will be considered first.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0        INTRODUCTION

Organization is a group of people with different roles that are co-ordinate to achieve its overall goal and objectives.

Organization try to seek for people whose skills, talents, experiences and abilities meet their requirement in terms of the job. However, this can only by ensured through recruitment exercise selection and placement policies. The recruitments, selection and placement policies must be objective. Objectivity is a good issue but is hardly achieved in the ordinary course of discharging our daily duties because of so many factors ranging from nepotism, tribalism, favoritism etc.

The greatest asset to any organization is its human resources since it determine the output of the organization in relation to quality. Ideology success in any organization is determined by how well the human resource fits in their various positions. Organization is like a human being that has various parts that are interrelated and the mal functioning of one part affects the well being of the other parts. So, when the ineffectiveness of a policy onsay recruitment is not corrected in good time, then the whole system will be rendered useless.

1.1        STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

The effectiveness of the recruitment selection and placement policies of organization plays a vital role in promoting and supporting its growth and development this is because of clear cases in dailies posters etc and announcement we hear in Radio and Television seeking for applicants to apply for job vacancy. However, therefore clear cases where applicants complain of not been successful in recruitments exercise because they lack what Nigerians term as “God Fatherism” and other factors that are negative to rational behavior. The some factor is also affecting the selection and placement policies of organization as the three concepts are well interrelated. Also, there are various policies ranging from government policy, qualification requirement catchment areas etc which organization must abide by and which might sometimes be considered good but wrong in some situations or circumstances.

In many circumstances also, organization are negligent in their discharge of recruitment, selection and placement function because of their inability to subordinate their interest to that of the organization.

Situations were seen where people are being placed based ion informal relationship with functional managers, sectionalism, nepotism etc all in the name of inability of people to subordinate their interest to that of the organization. It has become difficult for people to shun such negative behaviours and it is done at the expense of the organization.

Every organization objective is achieved through quality human resources thus, the recruitment, selection and placement policies should be primal and well implement.

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THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN IZZI LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF EBONYI STATE

THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN IZZI LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF EBONYI STATE

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to examine the Role of Women in Community Development in Izzi  Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. A total of six (6) communities in the study area were used for the study. 230 people were selected through simple random sampling techniques to complete the questionnaire. The instrument used for the study was a structured questionnaire designed by the researcher for the collection of data and the survey research design was adopted for the study. The questionnaire contained 20 items based on the research questions. The mean and frequencies were used for the method of data analysis. The data were analyzed and interpreted using mean scores. The results of the findings revealed that political and economic instability militate against effective role of women in community development because valued resources are not properly allocated to the appropriate quarters. Inconsistent policy formulation and programmes design as well as unpurposeful leadership militate against the Role of Women in Community Development. However, women are formidable productive force and a store of incredibly human resources which are required for community and national development. Therefore, women should not be discriminated and marginalized due to their potentialities in development sphere. Based on the findings, it was recommended that political and economic stability, review of government policies and programmes on the role of women, emancipation of women should be urgently and properly carried out completely, special child care/security allowance should be given to the women. Women should be heard, seen and involved in all ventures through their concerted efforts and all plans for the achievement of the objective of women development progress should be prudently designed and faithfully executed.

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It is pertinent to note that women are at the heart of development in various nations, state, local governments and even communities as they control most of the non-monetary economy (subsistence agriculture, bearing children, domestic labour etc.) and play vital role in the monetary economy (trading, wage labour, employment etc.) (Yawa,1995). Everywhere in the world, women work both around the home and outside the home. The most topical issue in international developmental programme is women.

In support of this, Eze (2008) asserted that the instrumental role of women in community development is obvious, hence, cannot be over-emphasized. The woman as an individual is an agent of production of life itself. This inevitable role places her in the position of the life blood of the entire humanity. Woman is the first teacher, the sustained and maintainer of the home, the peace maker, and the symbol of beauty as well as the major character molders of the child. She is the mother to human race. As mothers and wives, women do avert considerable impact on the productivity: male workers. As workers in their own rights, they can be linked to the rejected stone in the Holy Bible which has definitely become the corner stone of the house. By their sheer psychological and intellectual make up, women do perform more than mere complementary roles in the production process  Jerminiwa, 1995).

To be candid, most of the contributions by women globally had not been recognized until recently when the United Nationsdeclared:-the Decade for Women (1976-1985), making it mandatory on governments to focus on issue of women as an integral component national development.

To ensure the actualization of this noble objective, the United

Nations General Assembly in 1979 adopted the convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. Consequently, subsequent conferences on women were held in Copenhagen, Demark 1980, Nariobi in Kenya 1985, and Benjing in China, 1995.

Notwithstanding, an international news magazines “Africa Today” reported in July, 1995 that the full implementation of all the strategies and recommendations of the various conferences on omen issues had still not been achieved and enthusiasm was waning. According to the magazine, the United Nations itself reported that only six out of the 184 ambassadors to UN are women and only four out of the 32 UN specialized agencies and prgoramme are headed by women.

But in Nigeria the 1995 constitutional conferences has only eight women out of a total of 369 delegates.  Sadly, much of women’s work remains invisible, unremunerated and unrecognized.  But women are now challenging the status quo to right women are working for an improvement in their socio-economic statues and for recognition in national development (Amah, 1995).

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STREET HAWKING AND ITS IMPACT ON THE BEAUTIFICATION OF THE CAPITAL CITY-ACCRA

STREET HAWKING AND ITS IMPACT ON THE BEAUTIFICATION OF THE CAPITAL CITY-ACCRA

ABSTRACT

This study provides insight into the street hawking phenomenon and evaluates its impact on the beautification of the capital city of Accra.

There is a common saying that “where there is traffic, there is business” which reflects a characteristic of Ghanaian market hawkers. It is hard to image how hawkers do business for those who have never been to Ghana. They stand by the street, some of whom carry goods in hand and some on head. Anytime there is traffic, they rush to it and try to sell their goods to people in the vehicles. Owing to this selling methods, pedestrians and drivers can get goods what they need while walking and driving and it saves their time to go to stores or looking for parking place. Therefore street vendors earn good money most of the time.

The objectives of this study were to find out the various categories of street hawkers trading in the Accra Metropolis, to describe the nature of street trading activities in Accra. This study also sought to know the opinion of hawkers as to whether trading activities impact negatively on the beautification of the Metropolis and suggest solutions to these problems. The method used for data collection was questionnaires prepared and administered to hawkers. Also, non-participant observation was done.

The study is useful to the Government of Ghana, policy making institutions, the general public and all other stakeholders because it had provided recommendations such formation of association of street hawkers, modernization and acceptance of street hawking as an integral part of the informal economy and provision of both formal and non-formal education for hawkers. The only way that the Ghanaian government can effectively deal with the problem of street hawking is by creating jobs for the youth.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

Serious focus on street hawkers begun with the Bellagio International Declaration of street hawkers which called for national policies for street hawkers, and follow up action by individual hawkers, hawkers associations, city governments and international organization. The Bellagio Declaration identified six problems of street traders around the world, namely: lack of legal status and right to hawk, lack of space or poor location, restriction on licensing, cost of regulation, harassment, bribes, confiscation and evictions, lack of services and infrastructure and lack of representation or voice. Women in Employment Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO), an international network has spearheaded research and policy dialogue on street trade. In Africa, WIEGO has worked closely with Street Net in leveraging funds for research and policy dialogue in six African countries, namely South Africa, Ghana, Cote d‟ Ivoire, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and Kenya.

 

In all the case studies, women dominate street vending. This is due to the limited economic opportunities for women in both rural and urban areas, gender bias in education, and augmenting husband‟s income. Besides these facts, street vending has a special appeal for women due to its flexibility. Women can easily combine street vending with other household duties, including taking care of children. The Uganda case study points out those women participate in street vending as a way out of a predicament. Women have moved from being subsistence and commercial farmers to engaging in trade and informal employment. In most cases they vend when their husbands cannot sustain the family or to supplement the husbands income. The Kenya study covered Nairobi, Kisumu, Migori and Machakos. Both Nairobi and Kisumu are major cities with a population of 2.1 million and 322,734 thousand respectively. Machakos and Migori are smaller towns with a population of 143,274 and 95,446 respectively. Migori is on the boarder of Kenya and Tanzania and has cross border trade, while Machakos is quite close to the capital city, Nairobi, traders then can easily get their whole sale supplies from the city.

Street and roadside trade is an important economic activity that sustains a significant percentage of rural and urban dwellers, especially within the developing countries. The activity falls among the Small and Micro Enterprises [SME] that form the main thrust for economic development in developing countries. In Africa, the sector has operated outside the mainstream economic development, and falls within the informal economic activities. In view of the difficult economic situation that has faced Africa with reduced external support and increasing levels of poverty, many countries have began considering the sector as one of the channels of fostering the private sector‟s contribution to both growth and equity objectives of development. By 1995, International Labour Organisation (ILO) estimates had shown that SMEs account for 59 per cent of Sub-Saharan Africa‟s urban labour force [Ondiege, 1995]. Estimates indicate that in the developing countries 40 to 80 per cent of the urban workforce is in the informal workforce. Street vendors are the most visible among this workforce, although their activities, working conditions, relations with authorities, policies and regulations relating to their operations among others are not well researched and documented.

Apart from the above country studies, the review is based on secondary sources, including academic literature, statistical sources, government documents, media and civil society works. The review takes a thematic approach and covers: magnitude and composition of street trade, characteristics, working conditions, associations of street vendors, legal, regulatory and policy environment and programmatic responses to street trade. By “Street Trading” it is referred to the activities taken place in the first two types of market (in the open air), including the individuals who ply their trades in discrete locations. Street traders in Hong Kong are officially called “Hawkers” or “Shiu Fann” in Cantonese. The original terminology and definition of Hawker-itinerant trader in a western context is no longer relevant in most Southeast Asian cities. People who conduct business in public place (squares, streets, open ground, canals, etc) are named as “Hawkers”. However, as was shown by the study of Shiu Fann (Hawker) Images, the traditional Chinese concept of itinerant trading (the true sense of the word “Hawker”) was found embedded deeply in the modern image which hardly represents the norm for today‟s street traders. This may be due to ambiguity in people‟s mind arising from the mini-store-like fixed and well structured stalls which are so common in the hawking scene, and their general acceptance of street stalls as an integral part of the overall retail system. If an image is seen as an evaluated model of reality in which human behaviour is accorded, the popularity of street shopping in modern Hong Kong must have some relationship with this particular image of Shiu Fann (Hawker). A hawker is the name given to vendors in many areas of the world selling merchandise that can be easily transported; it is roughly synonymous with peddler or costermonger. In most places where the term is used, a hawker sells items of food that are native to the area. A hawker is a vendor of merchandise that can be easily transported; the term is roughly synonymous with peddler or costermonger. In most places where the term is used, a hawker sells items or food that is native to the area. Whether stationary or mobile, hawkers usually advertise by loud street cries or chants, and conduct banter with customers, so to attract attention and enhance sales. When accompanied by a demonstration and/or detailed explanation of the product, the hawker is sometimes referred to as a demonstrator or pitchman.

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EFFECT OF STREET TRADING ON TRAFFIC PERFORMANCE AND CONTROL

ABSTRACT

The solid base of this project is the effect of street trading on traffic performance and controls: a case study of Offa Town particularly, Owode Market and Oloffa Way.

            It comprises of five chapters in which each of the chapters analyzed the view of the project. Chapter one deals with the introduction of the project, the causes and the short comings of street trading, the aim and objectives, statement of the problem, justification, scope of the study and description of the study area. Also include in this chapter the methodology, that is, the methods employed to acquired information and data, Chapter two based on the literature review of the project, the causes and effect of obstruction of traffic flow, which is the effect of parking, street trading and delay on traffic performance, the description of the project areas, past effort made on the problem. Chapter three, this deals with the collection of data, the studies of the behavior of the parties involved, that is, the traders, drivers and pedestrians. Also included the opinions gathered through the questionnaires. Chapter four is totally based on the analysis and designs of data collected. Chapter five presents the conclusion and recommendation suggested for the problems.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                         iv

Abstract                                                                                                     v

Table of content                                                                                                  vi

List of figures                                                                                                   

List of tables

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                                                                    1

Statement of the problem                                                                                         2

Aim and objectives                                                                                                      2

Justification                                                                                                     3

Scope                                                                                                                      3

Project area description                                                                                             3

Description of study area                                                                                 3

Methodology                                                                                                               3

Primary source                                                                                                 4

Secondary source                                                                                                                    4

Presentation of report                                                                                             4

CHAPTER TWO

Literature                                                                                                               6

Some definition related to traffic engineering                                             7

Causes of street trading and their short coming                                           8

Past efforts made on the control of street trading                                           8

Causes of street trading                                                                                          8

Short coming of street trading                                                                            9

Causes and effects of obstruction of traffic flow                                             10

Effect of parking on traffic flow                                                                            10

Effect of street trading on traffic performance                                              11

Effect of delay on traffic flow                                                                                  12

CHAPTER THREE

Date collection                                                                                                    13

Questionnaires                                                                                                        14

Drivers’ characteristic and view                                                                      14

Pedestrians’ characteristics and views                                                                14 Traffic wardens’ characteristics and views                                                     15

Street traders’ characteristics and views                                                            15

Pedestrians’ movement studies                                                                               16

Traffic volume data                                                                                                 28

Speed data                                                                                                                  34

Traffic delay data                                                                                                       41

Roadway capacity                                                                                                    48

CHAPTER FOUR

Data analysis                                                                                                                49

Spot speed analysis                                                                                                      50

Traffic delay analysis                                                                                                 58

Roadway capacity analysis                                                                                    63

Road width analysis                                                                                                    64

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and recommendation                                                                      66

Conclusion                                                                                                              66

Recommendation                                                                                                       67

References                                                                                                                  69

Appendix A: Questionnaires for traffic wardens                                               70

Appendix B: Questionnaires for Pedestrian                                                       71

Appendix C: Questionnaires for Drivers                                                            72

LIST OF PLATE

Plate 3.1:-A, B Owode Market Area                                                                     17

Plate 3.2:-A, B street trading at Popo road                                                    18

Plate 3.4:-A, B street trading at Oloffa Way                                                          19

Plate 3.5:- A, B Street trading at GTBank Area                                                 20

LIST OF TABLE

Table 3.1.-3.14:           Average Journey Time For Pedestrian                      21-28

Table 3.2.1-3.2.12:      Traffic Volume Studies                                            29-34

Table 3.3.1-3.3.6:        Spot Speed Studies                                                        35-40

Table 3.4.1-3.4.6:        Traffic Delay Studies                                     42-47

Table 4.1-4.6:              Spot Speed Data Analysis                                     49-58

Table 3.5.1-3.5.5:        Delay Data Analysis                                      59-63

Table 4.1:                    Road Capacity Analysis                                        64

Table 4.5.1-4.1.2:        Road Width Analysis                                           65

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

Traffic performance under normal flow is affected by many conditions which include delay, when the traffic is impeded by some external factors, traffic demands on the capacity for the road, weather, Peak and off Peak period factor.  +

            With these conditions, it is mostly or usually a great problem for a smooth flow of traffic or traffic performance, because delay which is being caused by other vehicles on the road constitutes traffic congestion on its own. So, also is the problem of traffic, because with a bad weather like, hay, rainfall etc. Traffic is bound to be slow and also constituting to traffic congestion. The peak and off peak factor influences traffic flow, usually high at peak periods, because demand increases and becoming normalized at off peak periods, most especially the major roads. There is also, the problem of street trading which contribute to the problems of traffic performance (congestion).

            Street trading means selling, exposing or offering for sale of any article on a street.

            Also, street trading is an unauthorized act of carrying out trading activities on the open street, display stand, selling or offering of goods or any kind of services whatsoever, operating both sales and market stall that encroached on any public road. According to Cross J., (2000) (052 Glo.Adv. Res.J.Manager. Bus.stud)

“Street” includes any road, footway or other area to which the public has access without payment.

            Through street trading, a long established element of the populace was been repressed before, by harassment and prosecution by law enforcement agents, but of recent, it has flourished as it is allowed to operate, which is closely linked or connected to the process of urbanization and the unstable economic situation, used to be in a specified format in the olden days with the traders coming to the urban areas to sell their farm product from the rural areas on stipulated days. But, these days, the traders had established themselves around the key transportation modes and other sides of economics and social activities. 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Street trading has impeded easy movement and deteriorates traffic performance. This trading and other activity has led to a drastic reduction in the design width for traffic movement which is causing unprecedented traffic congestion on our roads. Besides this effect, other areas affected were assessed.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES  

            Aim of this project is to explore effect of street trading on traffic performance and controls: a case study of Offa Town.

Objectives of this project are:

  1. Inventory of traders and trading in Owode market area of Offa Town, Kwara State.
  2. Inventory of traders and trading along Oloffa Way, Offa, Kwara State
  3. To evaluate the effects of the street traders on traffic movement
  4. To increase the pedestrians safety within the study areas.
  5. Once those above listed aim and objectives can be achieved, there will be ease on traffic performance.
EFFECT OF STREET TRADING ON TRAFFIC PERFORMANCE AND CONTROL

AN INSIGHT ON THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A POWER LINE VANDALISM MONITORING SYSTEM USING ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This project gives the insight on the design and construction of a transmission power line vandalism detector system. Vandalism means destructive action. It is a hateful and deliberate defacement/destruction of somebody else’s property or national assets like thehigh-voltage transmission power lines, transmission towers and distribution transformers, etc.The high-voltage transmission power lines strung from support towers form the backbone of the nation’s electric power grid. Many of those 158,000 miles of lines, supported by nearly 800,000 towers, run through isolated areas as they deliver electricity from generating plants to cities. These high-voltage transmission power lines around the world are vulnerable to terrorism, vandalism, physical deterioration and extreme weather. Every year in Nigeria bad citizens vandalize the power line, towers, transformers, generators and other power transmission/distribution facilities. This causes frequent power failure and power surge that seriously affects over 50 million business firms and manufacturing industries in the country. These companies depend on electricity power supply from the power line for their productions. If the power line is vandalized, some of their machines cannot be powered on a generator then income, investments and commodities worth billions of Naira will be lost. If electricity is available during the power line vandalism incident, the lives and properties of the people within the area can be affected as a result of electric shocks, power surge and fire outbreak, etc. Vandalism is now largely driven by the soaring values of copper and aluminum in the international metals market due to increased world market demand fueled by China and India’s growth in industrialization. Consequently, the vandals now operate in wellorganized syndicates complete with offices and hierarchy and accumulate large volumes of stolen materials which they eventually consign for export as scrap. Transformer oil, copper and aluminum are the main targets of these vandals. The uses of the stolen transformer oil are:

  • Mixed with diesel and sold as fuel,
  • Used as fuel for industrial furnaces and as cooling for welding sets,
  • Mixed with vegetable oil and sold as cooking oil.
  • Used as a cosmetic and treatment for wounds.
  • On the other hand, copper and aluminum have been in the past been used on a minimum scale by the informal sector for welding sets but are now mainly exported as scrap. It is this later use that is behind the recent escalation of vandalism.
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AN INSIGHT ON THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A POWER LINE VANDALISM MONITORING SYSTEM USING ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE FERTILITY AND MORTALITY RATE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF OSOGBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN OSUN STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION

In statistical analysis and inference statistics is playing an important role nearly in all phases of human life. Formally dealing only with affair of the state and this account for its name statistics.  

The influence of statistics is now spread to manufacturing companies, agricultural sectors, bank, business communication, economic, education, political science, psychology, sociology and other numerous held of life. It’s therefore, a body of scientific method and theory of collecting, organizing, presenting and analyzing of data as well as drawing valid conclusion and making a reasonable decision. The application is found in all discipline of numerical form.

Furthermore, this project is to explain and to analyze more on fertility and mortality rate of people in “Osogbo Local Government”. This project cover four fiscal year from 2006 – 2009 and data is being collected at Lautech Teaching HospitalOSOGBO. Also computation would be determined from the total number of fertility and mortality rate and this will be use for information required for the actualization of facts.

1.2       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Lautech Teaching Hospital is owned by both Osun State Government and Oyo State Government. The hospital is situated at Idi-seke area in Osogbo Local Government. LAUTECH Teaching Hospital is equiped to standard that no other hospital in the state can complete with it. LAUTECH Teaching Hospital has many professional doctors and well trained and very efficient nurses.

1.3       AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To know if the economy can be predicted from the fertility rate.
  2. To predict the economy of Osogbo Local Government using the fertility and mortality rate.
  3. To know the nature of the relationship that exists amongst fertility rate and mortality rate the economy of Osogbo Local Government.
  4. To recommend ways of ensuring adequate documentation of fertility and mortality rate.
  1. Research Questions
  2. What are the challenges of proper documentation of the fertility and mortality rate?
  3. Can the economy of the Nigeria be predicted using the fertility and mortality rate?
  4. What is the nature of relationship that exists between fertility, mortality rate and the economy of Osogbo Local Government.
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A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE FERTILITY AND MORTALITY RATE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF OSOGBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN OSUN STATE)

WOMEN EDUCATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKALIKI EDUCATION ZONE OF EBONYI STATE 2017.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

All over the world, Education is recognized as cornerstone for sustainable development. According to the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004), the purpose of education is to equip the citizenry to reshape their society and eliminate inequality for national development that fosters the worth in socio-economic development of the individuals. In the last two decades, the status of women and need to integrate them into socio-economic development processes have dominated the discourse at National and International workshops, seminars, and conferences among others.  The problems of women opportunities for education looms larger at the turn of twenty-first century in Africa and they equally represent two thirds of the world illiterate adults while girls account for a similar proportion of world’s out of school population (Attamah, 2011; Abonyi, Nwocha, and Collins, 2014). However, for women to be integrated into development processes, they need quality education, in order to become co-partners in national and socio-economic development.

Based on the notion of our fore-fathers, in which they believed that women education end in the kitchen, it means that women should not go to school but we know that without formal education there will be no full development. Women should be recognized as human beings believing that women contribute about 45 to 50% of socio-economic development of any Nation. For Example; the former minister of information and communication Professor Dora Akunyili, who through her effort repositioned the Nigeria’s Health Sector as the Direct General, National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) these contributions are actually the fruits of education of the women.  The quantity and quality of education available to Nigeria women will invariably determine the developmental rate of Nigeria families, and Nigeria nation at large.

Women’s role in National and socio-economic development cannot however be overemphasized. The researcher believes on the saying that “behind every successful man there is woman”. This potently indicates that women contribute to the successes attained by great men all over the world. At the home setting women play domestic roles such as caring for children and the entire family, farming, petty trading, cooking of food, washing clothes and a host of others. In spite of these roles, the female is a disadvantaged sex in Nigeria. This is so because they are not given the opportunity to be part of decision making in the society that is to be elected into political position. (Durosaro, 1998; Nzeibe, 2008’and Esere, 2001).
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WOMEN EDUCATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKALIKI EDUCATION ZONE OF EBONYI STATE 2017.

TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Communication is a variety of behaviours, processes and technologies by which meaning is transmitted or derived from information. The team is used to describe diverse activities.

Communication is at the core of our humanness.  How we communicate with each other shapes our lives and our world. Human beings rely on their communicative skills as they confront events that challenge their flexibility, integrity, expressiveness, and critical thinking skills.

          Communication involves different forms which includes the intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, mass communication etc all these are different ways/means through which we interact, associate, communicate, relate, share ideas, views, opinion, information, norms and values with ourselves and others. Communication is regarded as the life blood of human existence which rapidly enhances unity that leads to the development of our society at large.

          Communication both modern and Traditional means has promoted peaceful co-existence, understanding and self-awareness among human beings. Both modern and traditional means of communication have certain common elements that together help define the communication process. These elements include the following people. In communication there must be individuals who are involved in the dissemination of the message and at the same time receiving the message inorder to make it lively and effective. In communication things are done simultaneously (sending and receiving] if we were just receivers, we would be no more than receptacles for signals from others, never having an opportunity to let anyone know how we were being affected, if we were just senders, we would simply emit signals without ever stopping to consider whom, if anyone is being affected. But, if we were able to achieve our goals of communicating it simply signifies that there is an effective communication between the sender and the receiver at the same level.

Messages- in communication, the message is the communication itself. A message is the content of a communicative act. Everything one does with his/her body, or with other medium such as what we talk about, the words we use to express the thoughts and feelings, the sounds you make, your gestures, our facial expressions and perhaps even our touch or smell all communicate information, this is to tell you how effective communication can be, it involves our every second activity/actions. There is no communication without a message being passed across.
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TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT
TRADITIONAL MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION AS TOOLS FOR EFFECTIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF WOMEN AND CHILD TRAFFICKING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background of the Study

Nigeria, the most populous black nation in the world with an estimated population of about 140 million people (2006, Census), is endowed with abundant human and natural resources like oil, tin, limestone, zinc, natural gas, good vegetation and climate which varies from being equatorial in the South, tropical in the centre and arid in the north. This great country, 3rd world largest producer of crude oil has about 5.3% annual growth rate but it is estimated that 70% of Nigerians live in poverty (Tola, 2008).

The above features are legacies of decades of prolonged military rules coupled with mis-management and corruption, which have daily impoverished the people and made them “beggers” of a sort amidst plenty. This act of misrule has increased anti-social behaviour amongst the populace. Sadly, the quest for material wealth at all cost has introduced a new dimension of wealth creation into the psyche of Nigerians-which is child

trafficking.

Women and child trafficking is the third largest criminal activity in the world after arms and drug trafficking (Tola, 2008). In the last decade, the phenomenon of women and child trafficking has considerably increased throughout the world and most especially in Nigeria. Every year, million of individuals, mostly children are misled by decot or forced to submit to servitude.

The UN convention Against Transnational orgainsed crime

(2000) defined women and child trafficking as follows;

“the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, of abuse of power, giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation”
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THE NEGATIVE IMPACT OF WOMEN AND CHILD TRAFFICKING