THE CURATIVE EFFICIENCY OF DRUGS AND HERBS AGAINST MALARIA (A CASE STUDY OF ABA – NORTH L.G.A)

THE CURATIVE EFFICIENCY OF DRUGS AND HERBS AGAINST MALARIA (A CASE STUDY OF ABA – NORTH L.G.A)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page—————————————————-

Approval Page———————————————–

Dedication—————————————————

Acknowledgement——————————————-

Table of Contents——————————————-

Abstract—————————————————–

Chapter One

  • Introduction——————————————–
  • Background Of The Study—————————–

1.3  Statement of the Problem—————————–

1.4  Research Questions————————————

1.5  Justification of the Study——————————

1.6  Scope of the Study————————————

1.7  Objective of The Study——————————–

Chapter Two

2.0  Literature Review————————————–

2.1  Introduction——————————————–

2.2  Malaria————————————————-

2.3  Malaria Life Cycle————————————–

2.4  Malaria Symptoms————————————-

2.5  ‘Western’ Diagnosis And Treatment——————-

2.6  Traditional Diagnosis and Treatment——————

2.7  Immunity———————————————-

2.8  Prevention and Control——————————–

2.9  Placebo Effect——————————————

2.10 History of Malaria————————————–

2.11 Dr. Marcola’s Comments——————————-

Chapter Three

3.0  Methodology——————————————-

3.1  Introduction——————————————–

3.2  Nature of the Population——————————-

3.3  Sample Size and Why———————————-

3.4  Sampling Method Adopted—————————–

3.5  Resource Material————————————–

3.6  The Research Design Adopted————————-

3.7  Limitations of The Study——————————

3.8  Definition of Terms————————————

Chapter Four

4.0  Presentation and Analysis Of Data———————

4.1  Introduction——————————————–

4.2  Data Analysis Technique——————————-

4.3  Data Presentation————————————–

4.4  Data Analysis——————————————

4.5  Hypothesis Test —————————————

Chapter Five

5.0  Summar, findings, conclusion, and recommendation-

  • Introduction——————————————–
  • Summary ———————————————-
  • Findings ———————————————–

5.4. Conclusion ———————————————

  • Recommendations ———————————–

References—————————————————

Appendix (Questionnaire)      ——————————

ABSTRACT

This research work is about the curative efficiency of drugs and herbs against malaria. For centuries ago, people have been suffering malaria till date, due to parasite transmitted by female mosquitoes of genus anopheles which have resistant to some anti-malaria medicines and insecticides. However, the anti-malaria medicines, drugs and herbs had been researched for the remedy of the affects of the parasite.

The challenges that led the researcher into this research topic was the individual efficiency of drugs and herbs,  the effects, how it is diagnosed, prevention and control and its characteristics at large. These are objectives measures under consideration this research work. The research were conducted in Aba North L.G.A, through sampling of the population under study with drafted questionnaire, interview and observation methods to gather data for the analysis Chi-square tests were the test statistics used to test the independence of the medicines regards to their efficiency and patients’ day of recovery.

On the synopsis of findings, conclusions and recommendations, drugs and herbs are independent of the curative efficiency and dependent of days of recovery with respect to medicine used and recommendation were drawn for the improvement of human health.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • INTRODUCTION

This research is about the curative efficiency of drugs and herbs against malaria. This parasite; malaria is a very common disease in tropical and sub-tropical regions. It has killed millions of people and still on the realm of the livings causing abnormality in human health. However, this research  has about five chapters and each chapter revolves on the subject matter. The subsequent chapter is the review of literature about malaria.

Moreover, the procedure with which the research were carried out successfully were therein for the readers, followed by the presentation and analysis of the research. In the last chapter, it’s about the summary, conclusions, findings and recommendations as regards to the whole work.

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

With the number of trials and tribulations in the life, it is often difficult to remember that people living in this nation are suffering from misfortune as well. Amidst the concern is the incessant flu there is much larger crisis at large in this country Nigeria; Malaria.

Malaria is defined in African Encyclopedia as “an infectious disease that is caused by parasite that live in the liver and red blood cells of human being. The disease is very common in tropic and sub-tropic countries and is spread by female mosquitoes of the genus anopheles. The effects of this disease ruins human life and put many to early death. The disease results to dangerous complications, such as cerebral malaria (which affects the brain and makes the patient unconscious), black water fever (which damages the kidney and makes the urine dark in colour) and also reduce the functions of the immune system and many more. To effect of this disease, researchers were motivated and went proclaimed to be effective to fight malaria disease. Regards to the two anti-malaria medicines discovered, individuals that suffer the disease were in dilemma.

The medicine doctor will lay hold on drugs and herbalist will also depend on herbs for treating malaria. Both professioners regard their individual medicine superior to their opponent. The primarily circumstance circumferenced this issue becomes that, the patients do not have reliable facts as to the individual efficiency of drugs and herbs for treating malaria. They only rely on what their mindset or consultants tells them as best medicine for malaria, unknowing if there would be after effect which may crop up should the particular  medicine were used for the treatment.

1.3  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Today, we have drugs and herbs for the treatment of malaria. But in a critical appraised to this work, problems necessitated follows the way people diagnose malaria prior treatment, the side effects associated to both medicines (drugs) and herbs), the particular medicine patients rely mostly to treat malaria, the curative efficiency of drugs and herbs and how do people resist to malaria infections.

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THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF IDEMILI L.G.A. OF ANAMBRA STATE)

THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF IDEMILI L.G.A. OF ANAMBRA STATE)

ABSTRACT

This study was motivated by the observation of the researcher that instructional materials were not being utilized by secondary school teachers in Idemili L.G.A. while teaching their students. The researcher was convinced that instructional materials can stimulate the sensory experience of the learners in teaching of mathematics. Worried by the facts that non-utilization of instructional resources could result to teachers resorting to frontal teaching thereby compelling their students to memorize and regurgitate facts and principals which is utter negation of the educational planners idea. The researcher decided to investigate the effect of instructional materials in the secondary schools in Idemili Local Government Area. To execute the project, several hypotheses were formulated. Data were collected through a questionnaire administered in a random sample of 27 principals and 110 teachers. Data wee analyzed through the use of means, percentage, t-test and chi-square statistics. The result of the study revealed that:

  1. There is an object lack of instructional resources of secondary schools.
  2. Teachers do not often competently utilize the available instructional materials in their classroom lessons
  3. There are no resources personnel and resource centre in Idemili L.G.A.

Based on the findings, the educational implication were printed out and a number of recommendation was proposed by the researcher which they believe that if implemented would go long way.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page —————————————————–i

Approval page ————————————————ii

Dedication——————————————- ———-iii

Acknowledgement ——————————————–iv

Abstract ——————————————————-v

Table of contents ———————————————-vii

Chapter one

  • Introduction ———————————————-1

1.1   Background of the study ———————————1

1.2   Statement of the problem ——————————-7

1.3   Purpose of the study ———————————— 8

1.4   Significance of the study———————- ———- 9

1.5   Scope of the study —————————————-10

1.6   Research questions ————————————— 10

1.7   Research hypothesis ————————————– 11

Chapter two

  • Introduction ———————————————– 12

2.1   Meaning of instructional materials ———————- 13

2.2   Brief history of instructional materials —————— 14

2.3   Type and nature of instructional materials ————– 15

2.4   Source of instructional materials—————— ——- 17

2.5   The need for providing instructional

materials for teachers————————————- 18

2.6   Rationale for improvisation of instructional

materials —————————————————- 22

2.7   Utilization of instructional resources ———————– 23

2.8   The reaction of educational planner

towards the improvisation of instructional material —-24

2.9   The available instructional materials for the

teaching of mathematics in Anambra state

secondary schools—————————————–25

2.10  The importance of instructional materials—————– 26

2.11 The implication of teaching without instructional

materials—————————————————- 27

  • problems militating against the use

of instructional materials in teaching mathematics——- 28

Chapter three

Research methodology———————————————29

  • Introduction ————————————————-29

3.1   Research design ———————————————29

3.2   Area of study———————————————— 29

3.3   Population of the study ————————————-29

3.4   Sampling techniques and sampling———————— 30

3.5   Instrumentation ——————————————– 30

3.5.1 Validation of instrument ———————————–  31

3.5.2 Reliability of the instrument ——————————- 31

3.6   Procedure of data collection ——————————- 31

3.7   Scoring procedure of the instrument ——————— 32

3.8   Method of data analysis ———————————- 33

Chapter four

Data analysis and results ————————————– 34

  • Introduction———————————————– 34

4.1   Hypothesis one ——————————————- 34

4.2   Hypotheses two ——————————————35

4.3   Hypothesis three——————————————39

4.4   Hypotheses four ——————————————41

4.5   Hypotheses five ——————————————42

4.6   Hypotheses six ——————————————-43

4.7 Hypotheses seven——————————————-44

4.8   Summary of data from free opinion on reason for

lack of instructional materials in the secondary schools-46

4.9   Data from opinion on the reasons for non utilization

of instructional resources for teaching mathematics

in the classrooms ————————————————–47

4.10  Summary of major findings——————————— 48

Chapter five

Interpretation and discussion of findings ————————50

  • Introduction ————————————————-50

5.1   Discussion of findings —————————————50

5.2   Educational implication of the findings ——————- 60

5.3   Recommendations —————————————– 61

5.5   Limitation of the study ————————————–63

5.6   Conclusion ————————————————— 64

References —————————————————66

Appendix (a) questionnaire for the study ——————68

Appendix (b) mathematical problems solving (tables)— 74

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY / PROBLEM

        Teaching as the name implies could be seen as the process of giving knowledge or skill in a particular subject, Longman dictionary of contemporary English (1984:1137). To enhance effective communication and transfer of knowledge, the process of teaching needs the provision of certain tools or materials – otherwise referred to as aids to teaching. Instructional resources are teaching and learning resources. According to Adeweyi (1991). Instructional resources can be categorized broadly into human and material resources. There are so many kinds of instructional materials; some are visual for instance pictures, graphs, diagrams, posters, chalkboard, models to mention but a few.

Apart from the visual materials, Maduabum (1984:64) indicates audio-acid as another kind of instructional material. The visual materials have to do with helping the children to learn through the medium of sight, while the audio materials enable teaching and learning to take place through the medium of sound. Examples of these include radio, tape recorder, gramma-phone and wireless. They provide training and listening and consist largely of the spoken word. The third category of instructional materials consists of the audio-visual materials, some of which include television sets, video sets and firm. The application of educational technology, otherwise instructional resources at all levels of education sector of the economy. The aim of this is to improve instruction at all levels to enable the child learn with interest and ease. Also the insidious of instructional resources increases teaching and learning effectiveness, making learning become more real, concrete and immediate. Gariba (1973) asserted that the effectiveness utilization of various communication media in education provide guidelines for solving the current problems of mass enrolments, shortage of teachers and rapid growth in new knowledge. Akude and Ofoena (1990) on their own side argued that the use of instructional resources help teachers to simplify their teaching so as to make the exercise more meaningful, concrete, natural aid permanent. A combination of human and material resources improve and extend knowledge to a greater, number of learners. It further creates impressions that are so vivid and powerful that the learner hardly forgets the experience into which he was exposed. Odili (1989) posits that instructional materials, as useful devices for teaching and learning help the teacher to teach without much talking and the learner to learn by observation. The usefulness of instructional resources to facilitate teaching and learning has been declinated by studies by many scholars.

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THE MODERN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY AND THEIR IMPACT ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

THE MODERN COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY AND THEIR IMPACT ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Abstract

The research work is about the modern computer technology and their impart on statistical analysis. Some works have been done concerning approaches to the analysis of survey data and modern approaches to the analysis of experimental data. Previously users were often distracted form their direct needs   of learning how to process their data, by the more pressing software. There was much to lean because of the varied methods that depended on the types of data.In this “new world’ we hope that users will find both the statistical ideas and the analysis of their work. We hope this guide has indicated when project objectives and data might benefit form these methods despite the considerable challenge in using them unaided.On the major side of findings, conclusion and recommendation, modern computer technology has a great impact on statistical analysis, this is because it makes data easier to process and recommendations were drawn for the improvement of statistical analysis.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page————————————————-      i

Approval page——————————————- ii

Dedication———————————————– iii

Acknowledgement————————————–  iv

Table of contents————————————— v

Abstract————————————————- vii

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction————————————– 1
    • Statement of the problem———————- 3
    • Research Questions—————————– 3
    • Justification of study—————————           3
    • Scope of the study—————————–           4
    • Objective of the study————————-            4

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review—————————— 5

2.1  Introduction————————————            5

2.2  Exploratory methods—————————            5

2.3  Multivariate methods————————–             7

2.4  Cluster analysis——————————–             9

2.5  Principal component analysis—————–       12

2.6  Generalized linear Methods——————-       14

2.7  Multilevel models——————————             17

CHAPTER THREE

  • Methodology———————————- 20

3.1  Introduction———————————-        20

3.2  Sample size and why————————         20

3.3  Resource material—————————         21

3.4  The research design adopted—————          21

3.5  Limitations of the study——————–          22

3.6  Definitions of terms————————          22

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation and analysis of data———           24

4.1  Introduction——————————–          24

4.2  Data analysis technique——————-            24

4.3  Data presentation————————-                   24

4.4  Data analysis—————————–                    28

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary, Findings, Conclusion

and Recommendation——————-                    31

5.1  Introduction—————————–              31

5.2  Summary——————————–              31

5.3  Findings———————————               32

5.4  Conclusion——————————               33

5.5  Recommendations———————-               34

References——————————               36

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

This is the third guide concerned with the analysis of research data. The ideas apply whatever the method of data collection. They extend the methods described in the basis guides titled Approaches to the Analysis of survey data a modem approaches to the analysis of experimental data.

The previous guides were both concerned with methods of analysis that researchers should be able to handle themselves. They showed that a large proportion of the analysis often only involved descriptive methods. But research studies do normally includes some elements of generalizing form the sampled data to a larger population. This generalization requires the notions of “statistical inference” which are described in the guide confidence and significance key concepts of inferential statistics.

We first distinguish between “the modern approaches” that are outlined in the basic guides and the “modern methods” that we describe here. The former consists mainly of methods that were already available in pre-computer days some were not easy to apply without running into computational difficulties. Current computing software has taken away the strain and the methods can now be used easily.

The methods described in this guide are technically more advanced and are not practical without modern computer software. They are rarely applied in non- statistical research. We describe the most important of these methods and illustrate their uses. Our aim is to permit users to asses whether any of this method would be of valued for their analysis. We concentrate on two areas. These are modern exploratory tools applicable at initial stages of the analysis. Descriptive multivariate techniques, extensions of regression, modeling to generalized linear, models and multi level modeling techniques.

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THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CURATIVE EFFICIENCY OF DRUGS AGAINST MALARIA

THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CURATIVE EFFICIENCY OF DRUGS  AGAINST MALARIA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page—————————————————-

Approval Page———————————————–

Dedication—————————————————

Acknowledgement——————————————-

Table of Contents——————————————-

Abstract—————————————————–

Chapter One

  • Introduction——————————————–
  • Background Of The Study—————————–

1.3  Statement of the Problem—————————–

1.4  Research Questions————————————

1.5  Justification of the Study——————————

1.6  Scope of the Study————————————

1.7  Objective of The Study——————————–

Chapter Two

2.0  Literature Review————————————–

2.1  Introduction——————————————–

2.2  Malaria————————————————-

2.3  Malaria Life Cycle————————————–

2.4  Malaria Symptoms————————————-

2.5  ‘Western’ Diagnosis And Treatment——————-

2.6  Traditional Diagnosis and Treatment——————

2.7  Immunity———————————————-

2.8  Prevention and Control——————————–

2.9  Placebo Effect——————————————

2.10 History of Malaria————————————–

2.11 Dr. Marcola’s Comments——————————-

Chapter Three

3.0  Methodology——————————————-

3.1  Introduction——————————————–

3.2  Nature of the Population——————————-

3.3  Sample Size and Why———————————-

3.4  Sampling Method Adopted—————————–

3.5  Resource Material————————————–

3.6  The Research Design Adopted————————-

3.7  Limitations of The Study——————————

3.8  Definition of Terms————————————

Chapter Four

4.0  Presentation and Analysis Of Data———————

4.1  Introduction——————————————–

4.2  Data Analysis Technique——————————-

4.3  Data Presentation————————————–

4.4  Data Analysis——————————————

4.5  Hypothesis Test —————————————

Chapter Five

5.0  Summar, findings, conclusion, and recommendation-

  • Introduction——————————————–
  • Summary ———————————————-
  • Findings ———————————————–

5.4. Conclusion ———————————————

  • Recommendations ———————————–

References—————————————————

Appendix (Questionnaire)      ——————————

ABSTRACT

This research work is about the curative efficiency of drugs and herbs against malaria. For centuries ago, people have been suffering malaria till date, due to parasite transmitted by female mosquitoes of genus anopheles which have resistant to some anti-malaria medicines and insecticides. However, the anti-malaria medicines and drugs like Artesunate, Waipa and Laridos  had been researched for the remedy of the affects of the parasite.

The challenges that led the researcher into this research topic was the individual efficiency of drugs and herbs,  the effects, how it is diagnosed, prevention and control and its characteristics at large. These are objectives measures under consideration this research work. The research were conducted through sampling of the population under study with drafted questionnaire, interview and observation methods to gather data for the analysis Chi-square tests were the test statistics used to test the independence of the medicines regards to their efficiency and patients’ day of recovery.

On the synopsis of findings, conclusions and recommendations, drugs and herbs are independent of the curative efficiency and dependent of days of recovery with respect to medicine used and recommendation were drawn for the improvement of human health.

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

This research is about the statistical analysis of curative efficiency of drugs against malaria. This parasite; malaria is a very common disease in tropical and sub-tropical regions. It has killed millions of people and still on the realm of the livings causing abnormality in human health. However, this research  has about five chapters and each chapter revolves on the subject matter. The subsequent chapter is the review of literature about malaria.

Moreover, the procedure with which the research were carried out successfully were therein for the readers, followed by the presentation and analysis of the research. In the last chapter, it’s about the summary, conclusions, findings and recommendations as regards to the whole work.

payment

THE STATISTICAL APPRAISAL ON THE UTILIZATION AND AVAILABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF IDEMILI L.G.A. OF ANAMBRA STATE)

THE STATISTICAL APPRAISAL ON THE UTILIZATION AND AVAILABILITY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING OF MATHEMATICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF IDEMILI L.G.A. OF ANAMBRA STATE)

ABSTRACT

This study was motivated by the observation of the researcher that instructional materials were not being utilized by secondary school teachers in Idemili L.G.A. while teaching their students. The researcher was convinced that instructional materials can stimulate the sensory experience of the learners in teaching of mathematics. Worried by the facts that non-utilization of instructional resources could result to teachers resorting to frontal teaching thereby compelling their students to memorize and regurgitate facts and principals which is utter negation of the educational planners idea. The researcher decided to investigate the availability and was of instructional materials in the secondary schools in Idemili Local Government Area. To execute the project, seven hypotheses were formulated. Data were collected through a questionnaire administered in a random sample of 27 principals and 110 teachers. Data wee analyzed through the use of means, percentage, t-test and chi-square statistics. The result of the study revealed that:

  1. There is an object lack of instructional resources of secondary schools.
  2. Teachers do not often competently utilize the available instructional materials in their classroom lessons
  3. There are no resources personnel and resource centre in Idemili L.G.A.

Based on the findings, the educational implication were printed out and a number of recommendation was proposed by the researcher which they believe that if implemented would go long way.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page —————————————————–i

Approval page ————————————————ii

Dedication——————————————- ———-iii

Acknowledgement ——————————————–iv

Abstract ——————————————————-v

Table of contents ———————————————-vii

Chapter one

  • Introduction ———————————————-1

1.1   Background of the study ———————————1

1.2   Statement of the problem ——————————-7

1.3   Purpose of the study ———————————— 8

1.4   Significance of the study———————- ———- 9

1.5   Scope of the study —————————————-10

1.6   Research questions ————————————— 10

1.7   Research hypothesis ————————————– 11

Chapter two

  • Introduction ———————————————– 12

2.1   Meaning of instructional materials ———————- 13

2.2   Brief history of instructional materials —————— 14

2.3   Type and nature of instructional materials ————– 15

2.4   Source of instructional materials—————— ——- 17

2.5   The need for providing instructional

materials for teachers————————————- 18

2.6   Rationale for improvisation of instructional

materials —————————————————- 22

2.7   Utilization of instructional resources ———————– 23

2.8   The reaction of educational planner

towards the improvisation of instructional material —-24

2.9   The available instructional materials for the

teaching of mathematics in Anambra state

secondary schools—————————————–25

2.10  The importance of instructional materials—————– 26

2.11 The implication of teaching without instructional

materials—————————————————- 27

  • problems militating against the use

of instructional materials in teaching mathematics——- 28

Chapter three

Research methodology———————————————29

  • Introduction ————————————————-29

3.1   Research design ———————————————29

3.2   Area of study———————————————— 29

3.3   Population of the study ————————————-29

3.4   Sampling techniques and sampling———————— 30

3.5   Instrumentation ——————————————– 30

3.5.1 Validation of instrument ———————————–  31

3.5.2 Reliability of the instrument ——————————- 31

3.6   Procedure of data collection ——————————- 31

3.7   Scoring procedure of the instrument ——————— 32

3.8   Method of data analysis ———————————- 33

Chapter four

Data analysis and results ————————————– 34

  • Introduction———————————————– 34

4.1   Hypothesis one ——————————————- 34

4.2   Hypotheses two ——————————————35

4.3   Hypothesis three——————————————39

4.4   Hypotheses four ——————————————41

4.5   Hypotheses five ——————————————42

4.6   Hypotheses six ——————————————-43

4.7 Hypotheses seven——————————————-44

4.8   Summary of data from free opinion on reason for

lack of instructional materials in the secondary schools-46

4.9   Data from opinion on the reasons for non utilization

of instructional resources for teaching mathematics

in the classrooms ————————————————–47

4.10  Summary of major findings——————————— 48

Chapter five

Interpretation and discussion of findings ————————50

  • Introduction ————————————————-50

5.1   Discussion of findings —————————————50

5.2   Educational implication of the findings ——————- 60

5.3   Recommendations —————————————– 61

5.5   Limitation of the study ————————————–63

5.6   Conclusion ————————————————— 64

References —————————————————66

Appendix (a) questionnaire for the study ——————68

Appendix (b) mathematical problems solving (tables)— 74

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY / PROBLEM

        Teaching as the name implies could be seen as the process of giving knowledge or skill in a particular subject, Longman dictionary of contemporary English (1984:1137). To enhance effective communication and transfer of knowledge, the process of teaching needs the provision of certain tools or materials – otherwise referred to as aids to teaching. Instructional resources are teaching and learning resources. According to Adeweyi (1991). Instructional resources can be categorized broadly into human and material resources. There are so many kinds of instructional materials; some are visual for instance pictures, graphs, diagrams, posters, chalkboard, models to mention but a few.

Apart from the visual materials, Maduabum (1984:64) indicates audio-acid as another kind of instructional material. The visual materials have to do with helping the children to learn through the medium of sight, while the audio materials enable teaching and learning to take place through the medium of sound. Examples of these include radio, tape recorder, gramma-phone and wireless. They provide training and listening and consist largely of the spoken word. The third category of instructional materials consists of the audio-visual materials, some of which include television sets, video sets and firm. The application of educational technology, otherwise instructional resources at all levels of education sector of the economy. The aim of this is to improve instruction at all levels to enable the child learn with interest and ease. Also the insidious of instructional resources increases teaching and learning effectiveness, making learning become more real, concrete and immediate. Gariba (1973) asserted that the effectiveness utilization of various communication media in education provide guidelines for solving the current problems of mass enrolments, shortage of teachers and rapid growth in new knowledge. Akude and Ofoena (1990) on their own side argued that the use of instructional resources help teachers to simplify their teaching so as to make the exercise more meaningful, concrete, natural aid permanent. A combination of human and material resources improve and extend knowledge to a greater, number of learners. It further creates impressions that are so vivid and powerful that the learner hardly forgets the experience into which he was exposed. Odili (1989) posits that instructional materials, as useful devices for teaching and learning help the teacher to teach without much talking and the learner to learn by observation. The usefulness of instructional resources to facilitate teaching and learning has been declinated by studies by many scholars. Duke (1987). Onyejemezi (1988). Mkpa (1988). Akude et al (1990). Adowayin (1991) yet there is a conspicuous lack of the materials are well as use of instructional materials in teaching in our schools. As rightly observed by Onyejemezi (1988), our schools and colleges in Nigeria lack educational technology materials. This is evidence by the absence of those resources in the classrooms could with the fact that the dominant method of teaching has been frontal  teaching oral  expositions, she observes that teachers talk alone average 90% of all lessons. But research in education Akudo et al (1990), shows that knowledge is absorbed through the five senses assessed in the following proportion. Sight 75% hearing 13%, touch 6% smell 3%, taste 3%, for a normal human being. This implies that the Nigerian primary and secondary school child is subjected to hearing 90% of his lessons, absorbed 13% and losses the remaining 77% of learning due to non-absorption by the senses of hearing.

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TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM MALARIA, TYPHOID AND CHOLERA (A CASE STUDY OF ABIA STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL)

TIME SERIES ANALYSIS OF PEOPLE SUFFERING FROM MALARIA, TYPHOID AND CHOLERA (A CASE STUDY OF ABIA STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL)

ABSTRACT

This research project is  time series analysis of people suffering from malaria, typhoid and cholera, a case study for Abia State teaching hospital Aba. It was motivated by the necessity to improve the data of people suffering from malaria, typhoid and cholera in Abia State from 1991- 2006.

The chapter one of this project gives an insight on the objective of the study which include determing if there is increase in the average number of patients suffering from malaria and to know whether this has any existing relationship among the average people suffering from typhoid the approaches to illness, its significance on patients

The chapter two reviews so many literatures on the time series analysis of the various sickeness.

The data used for this project was a secondary data gotten from the Abia State teaching hospital Aba and a simple on malaria, typhoid and cholera was taken to analyze using time series and regression analysis.

Finally, the research recommended that teaching should organized enlightment programme on the need to have a regular routine check up against in the state.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1  History background of the study

1.2  Aim  Objectives of the study

1.3  Significance of the study

1.4  Statement of the problem

1.5  Statement of Hypothesis

1.6  Purpose of the study

1.7  Limitation of the study

1.8  Scope of the study

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature review

2.1  Introduction

2.2  Definition of time series

2.3  Component of time series

2.4  Time series model

2.5  Estimation of linear trend

2.6  Time series application of the study of disease

2.7  Historical background of the case of study

2.8  Definition of term.

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research Methodology

3.1     Introduction

3.2     Sources of data

3.3     Sampling procedures

3.4     Method of data analysis

3.4.1   Time series analysis

3.4.2.   Regression analysis

3.5      Simple regression

3.6      Depersonalization of time series

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data presentation and analysis

4.1  Introduction

4.2  Data analysis

4.3  Estimating parameter

4.3  Regression analysis

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

This project deals with the peculiarity that human health is extremely important in every society. This is because of the fact that a society filled with unhealthy people cannot excel both in society development and otherwise.

After the creation of Abia State in 1991, the state government put much of their attention on agriculture, education, health service industries and other institution of finance.

In the health sector, the government major duty is to provide enabling environment in such a way to equip health center and hospitals in other to maintain or achieve good and for her citizens. Available audience from health care auathorites has it that the rate of admission into hospitals is on the increase of people suffering various illness, which are numerous to mention. Some of these disease has contributed to the loss of human life even the life of those who could have reshaped the economy or the society. The situation is not safe for the future leaders because they are likely to suffer from these deadly disease which will be prevented or controlled. The fact is that many researcher has been to avail the cause of this disease and some lasting solution to some of them. However, some statistical work has been carried out to ascertain the occurance of these disease which follows specific pattern or procedure over the year. And this will enable us to know what this sudy will   achieve.

1.1  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       Abia State university Teaching Hospital was established in the year 1994 by Col. Ike Chinyere Nwosu (RTD) who was the military administrator of Abia State. Abia State university Teaching Hospital was formerly known as the Abia general hospital for training or medical doctors for the Abia State college of Medical and health science, Uturu. The decision was seen by many as a grant to strive in provision of quality tertiary health care service for our citizens in the eastern heartland including Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Ebonyi, Imo and some part of Bayelsa and Rivers.

In 1995, when the second management board of teaching hospital was appointed, the board was specifically changed to Ngoro pursue and achieve the accredited both by National University commission (NUC) and the Medical and Neutral Council of Nigeria (MNCN) for the award of agree and graduation of medical doctor. Since then, the teaching hospital has grasped with commitment mission and challenge which include the provision of high level tertiary health care, training of medical and para-medical personnel and research. In June 1996, with the collaboration of the college of medical and health science of Abia State University, Uturu, it graduated its pioneer batch medical doctor numbering nine and since then, subsequent other batches of medical doctor have passed out of the institution. ABSUTH was designated as a baby friendly hospital by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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THE APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF 7-UP BOTTLING COMPANY PLC, ABA)

THE APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL QUALITY CONTROL TECHNIQUES IN INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF 7-UP BOTTLING COMPANY PLC, ABA)

                           ABSTRACT

The level of technical effort devoted to quality control in the industries in Nigeria is quite low, very few firms carry out two control measures in production that is, measurement by which risk international specification of ensuring that the product conforms to the specification . It was done by taking a sample rejecting the null hypothesis. Today, this is beginning to change in some industry like bottling companies, the research project looked into the taste of a particular 7up bottling company product to find out if there is significant different in taste and sugar mixing irrespective of different location . The related work done on this project provided some vivid point that can determine impressive bottling company performance, good quality control lab and protection of workers to avoid hazard in the industry. Among the major findings were the uses of statistical quality control in the industry. The statistical control in industry whether there is significant difference in taste and brix (sugar) mixing. The data was obtained from the quality control department and 7up bottling company production -manual volume one and the data was analyzed using quality control charts.

     TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page-       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ii

Dedication-     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Acknowledgement- –      –      –      –      –      –      iv

Abstract- –      –      —    –      –      –      –      –      v

Table of content-    –      –      –      –      –      –      vi

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction- –      –      –      –      –      –      1
    • Historical background- –      –      –      –      1
    • Statement of problem- –      –      –      –      4
    • The significant if study – – –      –      –      5
    • Aims and objective- –      –      –      –      –      6
    • The scope of study and limitation- – –      6
    • Limitation of study – –      –      –      –      7
    • Research questions – –      –      –      –      7
    • Statement of hypothesis- –      –      –      –      8
    • Definition of terms- – –      –      –      —    8

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  Introduction-  –      –      –      –      –      –      11

2.1  Literature Review-  –      –      –      –      –      11

CHAPTER THREE

  • Methodology- –      –      –      –      –      –      14
    • data presentation – – –      –      –      –      14
    • method of data collection- —    –      –      15
    • scope and limitation of the study- –      –      16
    • Method of data analysis- – –      –      –      16

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data analysis and interpretation- –      –      17

4.1  Analysis 1 or Appendix 1-      –      –      –      17

4.2  Analysis   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      23

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Summary, Findings, Conclusion and recommendation- –      –      –      –       –      –      –      –      32

5.1   Summary findings- –      –      –      –      –      32

5.2 Conclusions-   –      –      –      –      –      –      33

5.3 Recommendations- –      –      –      –      –      34

Reference-       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      35

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1  HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF 7UP BOTTLING COMPANY

The company started bottling beverage in 1926. At about 1948, Mr.  Abraham I; a Muslim met with some Hebrews who has franchise or right to bottle 7up, there after the chance to produce the product was bottled in Nigeria on 1st October 1960 (Independence day). It is a Multiplan entity comprising of Nine plant in Nigeria located at Ikeja, Abuja with it’s administrative head quarters located at IJORA Lagos.

However, the Abuja plant was founded in 1989. brand of product: 7up bottling company bottle has following drinks.

7up

Soda

Team

Mirinda orange

Pepsi

Mirinda soda

Mountain dew e.t.c.

ADMINISTRATION

i      the General Manager

ii     Departmental head

iii     production manager

DEPARTMENT

i      account department

ii     Inventory

iii     marketing department

iv     sales Manager

v     sales officers

iv     sales supervisors

vii    sales men and sales assistance.

QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT

i      water treatment sector

ii     carbon dioxide

iii     syrup room

iv     Boiler room

v     Laboratory

vi     Line (production hall)

The seven up bottling company have quality control programmes focused on four view areas of plant operation.

PRODUCTION LINE TESTING: to ensure that the Individual limits such as the bottle washer, Mix processor, carbonator, fullers, cooling system are working efficiently and that the syrups, carbon dioxide and water are being proportional erectly.

WATER TESTING: To ensure that the water treatment equipment is operating correctly.

TESTING OF INGREDIENCE: Modification of chemical and packaging materials are received to conform Quality.

THE USES OF STATISTICS IN INDUSTRY

DECISION MAKING: the science of statistics deals with making decision based on observed data in the face of uncertainties, the scientific study and industrial work.

IN MANAGEMENT: scientific management is basically management on the basis of precise numerical Information without using statistical aid, such Interpretative fail to use one of  the major tool for efficient management the complementariness of modern Industrial production and management makes it compulsory that management will be furnished with statistical data as raw material labour sales e.t.c.

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STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE OF MALARIA IN IMO STATE (CASE STUDY OF OWERRI NORTH L.G.A)

STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE OF MALARIA IN IMO STATE (CASE STUDY OF OWERRI NORTH L.G.A)

ABSTRACT

This research work is about the statistical analysis of curative efficiency of drugs and herbs against malaria. The work was conduct at Owerri North Local Government Area, Imo state. It is about the introductory of the research work. On the review of related literatures; it was reviewed that for centuries ago, people have been suffering malaria till date, due to parasite transmitted by female mosquitoes of the genus anopheles which have resistant to some antimalaria medicines and insecticides. However, the antimalaria medicine (drugs and herbs) had been researched for the treatment of the effects of the parasite. But the challenges that led the researcher into the research work is the effect of two medicines, how malaria is diagnosed, prevented and control and its characteristics.

The methodology of the research work; it comprises the nature of the population under study, sample size, sample method adopted, resource materials, research design adopted, limitations, definition of terms, instrument for the data analysis and decision rule. In the presentation and analysis, Chi-square test statistics was used to test the dependent of the drugs of recovery. Finally, the summary, conclusion, findings and recommendations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page…………………………………………………………………………………. i

Approval page…………………………………………………………………………. ii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………….. iii

Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………………….. iv

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………… v

Table of contents…………………………………………………………………….. vi

 

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      1

1.1 Background of the study-       –      –      –      –      –      –      1

1.2 Statement of the problem-     –      –      –      –      –      2

1.3 Aims and objectives of the study-  –      –      –      –      3

1.4 Research questions- –      –      –      –      –      –      –      4

1.5 Significance of the study-       –      –      –      –      –      –      4

1.6 Scope of the study- –      –      –      –      –      –      –      5

1.7 Definition of terms- –      –      –      –      –      –      –      6

Chapter two

2.0 Literature review-    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      7

2.1 Introduction-   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      7

2.2 Malaria-    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      7

2.3  Life cycle-       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      8

2.4 Symptoms-     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      10

2.5 Western Diagnosis and treatment- –      –      –      –      12

2.6 Traditional –     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      14

2.7 Immunity-       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      —    16

2.8 Prevention and control-   –      –      –      –      –      –      18

2.9 History of malaria-   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      21

2.10 Dr. Mar cola’s comments-    –      –      –      –      –      23

 

Chapter three

3.0 Methodology-   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      25

3.1 Introduction–  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      25

3.2 Nature of the population-       –      –      –      –      –      –      25

3.3 Sample size —  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      26

3.4 Sample method adopted-       –      –      —    —    –      –      26

3.5 Resource malaria-    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      27

3.6 The research design adopted- –      –      –      –      –      27

3.7 Limitation of the study – –      –      –      –      –      –      28

3.8 Instrument for data analysis-  –      –      –      –      –      29

Chapter four

4.0 Presentation and analysis of data-  –      –      –      –      32

4.1 Introduction –  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      32

4.2 Presentation of data-      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      32

4.3 Analysis of data-     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      32

 

Chapter five

5.0 Summary, findings, conclusion and recommendations- 36

5.1 Introduction-   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      36

5.2 Summary-       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      36

5.3 Findings-  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      37

5.4 Conclusion-     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      38

5.5 Recommendations-  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      38

References-   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      40

Appendix-       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      42

CHAPTER ONE

1.1  INTRODUCTION

This research is about the statistical analysis of curative efficiency of drugs and herbs against malaria. This parasite, malaria is very common disease in tropical and subtropical region.  It has killed millions of people and still on the realm of the living causing abnormality in human health.

However, with the number of trials and tribulations in this life, it is often difficult to remember that people living in this nation are suffering from misfortunes as well. Amidst the concern is the incessant flu, there is much larger crisis in this country, Nigeria; malaria.

Malaria is defined in African encyclopedia is an infectious disease that is caused by parasite that lives in the liver and red blood cells of human beings.  The disease is very common and is spread by female mosquitoes of the genus anopheles

The effect of this disease ruins human life and put many to early death. The disease results to dangerous complications such as cerebral malaria (which affects the brain and make the patients unconscious) black water fever (which damages the kidney, and make urines dark in colour) and also reduce the functions of the immune system and many more. To the effect of this disease, researchers were motivated and came up with anti-malaria drugs and herbs, to fight malaria disease.

Moreover, this research has about five chapters, chapter one deals with the introductory aspect of the malaria, background of the study, statement of the problems, research questions, justifications, the scope and the objective of the study. In the subsequent chapters, chapter two is on the literature review, followed by the methodology (chapter three), the chapter four is the presentation and analysis of the data and finally chapter five is about the summary, conclusion, findings and recommendations.

1.2  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:

Owerri-North local government area is one of the local government areas in Imo state created on 27th August, 1991 under Ibrahim Babangida. In almost all local government areas in Abia state, the population of females is more than that of males except in Aba area (Aba north and Aba south LGA’s) where the population of males is more than that of females. The people are good farmers and keen businessmen.  The the functions of the immune system and many more. To the effect of this disease, researches were motivated and came up with anti-malaria drugs and herbs, to fight malaria disease.

However, this research has about five chapters, one deals with the introductory aspect of the malaria background of the study, statement of the problems, research questions, justifications, the scope and the objective of the study. In the subsequent chapters, chapter two is on the literature review, followed by the methodology (chapter three), the chapter four is the presentation and analysis of the data and finally chapter five is about the summary, conclusion, findings and recommendations.

1.2  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Owerri North Local Government areas in Imo State, the population of females is more than that of males except in Owerri West and Owerri  Municipal L.G.A. where the population of males is more that that of females.

The people are good farmers and keen business me. The dispersed of village settlement is traditional among the Igbos.

The local government is situated on a plain with Capital (UTCH) in Owerri North is a local government area of Imo Stat, Nigeri.

Its headquarters are in the town of Oria Uratta. It has an area of 198 km2 and a population of 175, 395 at the 2006 census. The portal code of the area is 460

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STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL LOANS ON FARMING ACTIVITIES.(A CASE STUDY OF CENTRAL BANK FROM 2000-2009)

STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF AGRICULTURAL LOANS ON FARMING ACTIVITIES.(A CASE STUDY OF CENTRAL BANK FROM 2000-2009)

ABSTRACT

It is commonly said that money is the life wire of any business, agriculture by every standard, qualifies as a business ventures. One can summit that agricultural credit are financial resources made available to farmers against which they may draw for farming together with repayment arrangement.

This is particularly true when it is called to mind that until the mid1970s agriculture accounted for more than 60% of the national income and 70 percent of total employment.

Striking future of the Nigeria economy is the general poverty of the people. In the face of this, it becomes obvious that deliberate Government integration is inevitable. Thus, the government has demonstrated over the years through the employing of both fiscal and monetary machineries.

It is therefore, the intention of this study to view the nature and the relationship between monetary policy and agricultural output, effectiveness of implementation of the policies, problems encountered which are also responsible for low agricultural output and therefore, suggest solutions.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1  statement of the problem

1.2  Aims and objective of the study

1.3  The research questions

1.4  The hypothesis

1.5  The significance of the study

1.6  The scope the study

1.7 definitions of terms

CHAPTER TWO    

  • Literature review

CHAPTER THREE

  • Data collection and method of analysis

3.1 data collection and limitation

3.2 data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data analysis and interpretation

4.1  data analysis

4.2  interpretations of results

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Conclusion and recommendation

5.1  conclusions

5.2  recommendations

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Prior to the establishment of the central bank of Nigeria, the government Held its accounts with expatriate commercial banks. Currency issue functions were performed by the then back of British West Africa on behalf of the West African currency Board, whose notes & coins continued in Nigeria until 30th June, 1959. However, the pressing needs for the creation of a central bank was a principal priority in government plan then. This culminated into the setting-up of the LOYNES commission of 1957 to study the feasibility of setting up the central bank of Nigeria.

The commission came out with favorable report which led to the enactment of the central bank of Nigeria. The central bank of Nigeria then swing into operation though not immediately, but in July 1, 1959. Government among the function of the central bank of Nigeria are:

  • Issuing of legal tender, it is the central bank that has sole right of issuing currency (notes & coins), throughout the federation.
  • Banker and financial adviser to the government,  central bank serves as banker to government & responsible for government financial transaction
  • Promotion of monetary stability & sound financial structure.

1.1  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Agricultural being our major source of employment and food supply to Nigeria cannot be gain said. Yet it’s rather rate of growth and output levels is a thing of wrong. This became more aggravated when one imagines its available potentials in the nations. Thus, with the ever renew efforts at encouraging its growth by government through its main arm of monetary policy implementation. The central bank of Nigeria. The project is poised to look at the affects of central bank lending guided or the lending institution on the development of farming activities. A lot of problems were meant in studying the cause of the exercise, among which are, inadequate record keeping Reluctance of bank officials which prolonged time of interview Financial constraint.

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE ATTITUDE OF MARRIED COUPLE TOWARDS BIRTH CONTROL IN ABA SOUTH L.G.A

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE ATTITUDE OF MARRIED COUPLE TOWARDS BIRTH CONTROL IN ABA SOUTH L.G.A

ABSTRACT

The issue of over population has been a problem in which no defined solution has been found to solve. This study was to investigate the attitude of Aba south couples towards birth control. The objective is to find out the level and usage of birth control method in the area and then conclude that the attitude of couples towards maintaining a target population. The instrument used in this research was a questionnaire and it covered such areas as age, number of children born to each woman, definition of birth control, awareness of birth control programme, and effects of birth control devices, how they get information that lead to the knowledge of birth control methods, how birth control studies are got. Level of attitude towards birth control and suggestion on how to improve the best control programm in the area. A total of 240 questionnaires were distributed to the number of married couple in Aba south. Bearing in main that not enough desired attitude of married couples in Aba south local government area has been made by the birth control programm, thereby papering married couple attitude towards birth control, much work still have to be done as to improved the couple attitude it recommended that the state and local government should alleviate the plight of not only the married couples but all the inhabitant of area as the regards birth control programme in Aba south.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page…………………………………………………………………

Approval page…………………………………………………………

Dedication…………………………

Acknowledgement …………………………………….

Abstract ……………………………………………

Table of content…………………………………………………..

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………………….

1.1 Aims and objective of the study……………………………….

1.2 Statement of problem ………………………………………………..

1.3 Significance of study ……………………………………………………

1.4 Scope of study ……………………………………..

1.5 Limitation of study…………………………………………………………..

1.6 Statement of hypothesis…………………………………………..

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review…………………………………………….

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Research methodology ………………………………………………….

 3.1 Method of data collection……………………………………..

3.2 Sampling techniques ……………………………….

3.3 Method of data analysis………………………………………

3.4 Data presentation …………………………………..

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Analysis of result…………………………………..

4.1 Data analysis ……………………………………………

4.2 Interpretations of results………………………………

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation……………..

5.1 Summary……………………………………………………………………….

5.2 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………..

5.3 Recommendations…………………………………………………………..

References………………………………………………………………………

Appendix…………………………………………………………………………

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Birth control has being an old scientific practice that is adopted voluntarily upon, the basis of knowledge, decision by individual and couples in order to promote the health and welfare of the family and thus contribute effectively to the social development of a country and the world at large. Some of the factors that affect the attitude of married couples towards birth control are-psychological factors which involves the manner in which women perceive their sex roles sex-role refers to the expectation of the society as regards what role a females or male should play. And the socio-cultural factors which include-the educational level, income level and the impact of residential background.

Onukogu and Onyewenjo (2007) portrays some of the natural birth control methods, these are-the basal body temperature, the cervical mucous on the billings ovulation method and the symptom- thermal method. These methods are means by which the couple uses the daily observation of signs and symptoms of the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle to guide the timing of intercourse according to their desire to achieve or avoid pregnancy.

Many children are languishing in untold suffering of hunger; poor education and poor place of bode. These problems led the researcher in carrying out this study in order to enable married couples give birth to the number of children they can take care –of.

1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

I).To knows the level of awareness of birth control among Aba south, married couples.

2).To knows whether the level of education affects birth control practices.

3) To know if income level of married affect their participation in birth control planning.

4) To know if it can be possible to reduce the rate of population growth through birth control.

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF STATE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE(A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OWERRI)

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF STATE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE(A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN OWERRI)

ABSTRACT

This project was motivated by the fact that few or no research work has been done in the statistical analysis of student poor performances in English Language. The researcher having observed the rate of failure of state secondary school students in English Language was motivated into investigating the causes of this shrubby performance.

Owerri was chosen as a case of study for the purpose of this study it is hoped that the result of this project will throw light on the weakness interest in our educational system. This will be of great help to the school authorities principals and government in tackling those problems.

State secondary schools in Owerri were stratified and proportional allocation was used in collecting information from each system (school) this work consists of five chapters. The method of analysis were applied the chi-square test and ratio test. The work ended with some recommendations based on the finding and conclusions

LIST OF TABLES

  • Stratification of schools with the students

Population.

3.1.2 Showing allocation of questionnaires and valid returns for pilot survey.

3.1.3 Showing computation of the variance for each stratum for estimating the samples

3;1;4 Allocation of questionnaires to each strata and percentage response for the students

3;1;5 Allocation of questionnaires to teachers

4;1;1 Table showing computation of  x 2 statistics (RXC) contingency

  • Contingency table of the schools opinions on the coverage of English Language syllabus
  • Contingency table of the level of interest of student in English Language
  • Table showing ratio of teachers who specialized in English Language
  • Table showing computation of ratio of students to teachers in English Language

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page———————————————–  i

Approval page——————————————  ii

Dedication———————————————– iii

Acknowledgement ————————————– iv

Abstract————————————————–       v

List of tables———————————————       vi

Table of contents—————————————-       viii

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction————————————— 1
  • Need of the study——————————— 4
  • Aims and o objectives—————————– 5
  • Scope of the survey——————————– 6
  • Significant of the study—————————- 6
  • Limitations—————————————— 7

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature review———————————– 9

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 research methodology—————————— 15

  • Sources of data———————————— 15
  • Sample frame————————————– 15
  • Pilot survey—————————————– 15
  • Determination of sample size——————— 16
  • Sampling technique——————————- 17
  • Reason for stratification————————— 18
  • Problems encountered dung data collection—— 20

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Assumptions and conditions for chi-square test— 22
  • To test whether students and teachers opinion

on the courage of syllabus is dependent on school-       26

  • To determine whether students opinion on the

students level of interest on the subject is

dependent in class———————————-        29

  • To find out the ration of students and teachers on mathematics————————————         31

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Discussion and findings———————— 34
  • Conclusion————————————– 37
  • Recommendation——————————- 37

Bibliography——————————————           40

Appendixes——————————————-           55

Questionnaire—————————————-            56

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic invaders and/or settlers from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Netherlands. Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the  Anglo-saxon kingdoms of Britain. One of these dialects. late West Saxon, eventually came to dominate. The English language underwent extensive change in the Middle Ages. Written Old English of AD 1000 is similar in vocabulary and grammar to other old Germanic languages such as Old High German and Old Norse. And completely unintelligible to modern speakers, while the modern language is already largely recognizable in written middle English of AD 1400. the transformation was caused by two further waves of invasion: the first by speakers of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic language family, who conquered and colonized parts of Britain in the 18th century in the 8th and 9th centuries. The second by the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke old Norman and ultimately developed an English variety of this called Anglo-Norman. A large proportion of the modern English vocabulary comes directly from Anglo-Norman. Close contact with the Scandinavians resulted in a significant grammatical simplification and lexical enrichment of the Anglo-Frisian core of English. However, these changes had not reached South West England by the 9th century AD, where Old English was developed into a full-fledged literary language. The Norman invasion occurred in 1066, and when literary English rose anew in the 13th century, it was based on the speech of London, much closer to the center of Scandinavian settlement. Technical and cultural vocabulary was largely derived from Old Normans, with particularly heavy influence in the church, the courts, and government. With the coming of the Renaissance, as with most other developing European languages such as German and Dutch, Latin and Ancient Greek supplanted Norman and French as the main source of new words. Thus, English developed into every much a “borrowing” language with an enormously disparate vocabulary.

The languages of Germanic peoples gave rise to the English language (the Angles, Saxons, Frisii, Jutes and possibly the Franks, who traded, fought with and lived alongside the latin-speak peoples of the Roman Empire in the centuries –long process of the Germanic peoples expansion into Western Europe during the Migration Period). Latin loan words such as wine, cup, and bishop entered the vocabulary of these Germanic peoples before their arrival in Britain and the subsequent formation of England.

Tacitus Germanic, written around 100 AD, is a primary source of information for the culture of the Germanic peoples (The ancestors of the English) in ancient times, Germanies were in contact with Roman civilization and its economy, including residing within the Roman borders in large numbers in the province of Germania and other serving in the Roman military, while many more retained political independence outside of Roman territories.

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RECORD OF PATIENT ADMITTED INTO FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE OWERRI, IMO STATE

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RECORD OF PATIENT ADMITTED INTO FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE OWERRI, IMO STATE

ABSTRACT

This project deals with the records of patients admitted into federal medical centre Owerri from 2002 – 2009. The data was obtained from the statistics unit of the hospital with analysis showing the records of patients admitted per month over the period of the years. The researcher used the mean and percentage value in order to determine the increase or decrease in the record of patient admitted. Chapter one discusses about the introduction of the concept, chapter two the literature review while chapter three is the research methodology. Chapter four deals with data presentation and analysis and chapter includes the summarization, conclusion and recommendation which will help in solving this problem.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

1.1     Aims and Objectives of Study

1.2     Significance of Study

1.3     Scope of Study

1.4     Purpose of Study

1.5     Limitations of Study

1.6     Statement of the Problem

1.7     Historical Background of the Case Study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research Methodology

3.1     Method of Data Collection

3.2     Population of Study

3.3     Sample Size

3.4     Problems Encountered

3.5     Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1     Table 1

4.2     Table 2

4.3     Table 3

4.4     Graph 1

4.5     Graph 2

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1     Summary of the Findings

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

Reference

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Health of the people they say is the first part of every aspect of life. A society filled with unhealthy people cannot achieve any economic or meaningful development project. This is the reason behind the Imo state government relentless effort to provide sound health care services to her citizens. It has been observed that the rate of admission into hospitals is on the increase which people now suffer from various and different kind of illness such as AIDS, diabetes, hepatitis and other diseases like river blindness, malaria, typhoid, tuberculosis etc.

It can be seen that such illness are instant killers while some could take some time before it is cured. One thing that is obvious is that scientist world over have not relented in their effort to discover and find cures to these ailments. Regrettably, despite this effort in finding lasting solution to most of these diseases very sound  statistical analysis have not be undertaken to seen if the occurrence of these disease follow a specified pattern over a given period. This forms the major interest of this work.

  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The objectives of study of the work are:

  1. To analyze the data collected on the record of patient admitted in Federal Medical Centre (FMC) Owerri from 2002 – 2009.
  2. To see if there is a basic pattern of growth in the data collected
  • Analyzed the 2010 admission on patient in the hospital
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
  1. The result of this project work will enable the personnel in charge of health government and other people to know the rate of diseases as well as whether the rate of patients admitted in the hospital is increasing or not.
  2. It will go along way to provide a practical approach for health insurance programme planners on the nature and rate of people suffering different illness.
  3. This research work will also serve as a sample study which can be used to generalize the population of people who are ill in Imo state, to the incumbent government of Imo state and Imo state hospital management board.
  4. The work will provide information to the federal government on how to approach this illness in the future.
  5. It will help the National Population Census officers and Federal Office of Statistics in studying the rate at which people are admitted.
  6. The study will help to ensure an intensive campaign to enlighten the public to keep their environment clean so as to avoid diseases that may lead to illness.

Generally, the result of the study can be used as a reference for further studies that may from time to time be embarked upon by other researchers.

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This work covers all the patients that were admitted into Federal Medical Centre Owerri in Imo state from 2002 – 2009. If there is any linear relationship between the numbers admitted with respect to the years and it is set to examine or cover Imo state with the capital, Owerri.

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT RATE AMONG AGE GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS IN NIGERIA

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT RATE AMONG AGE GROUPS AND GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATIONS IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to analyze the rate of unemployment among age groups and geographical locations in Nigeria. In the process of carrying out this research work, three methods of analysis were applied. The population for the research work is made up of unemployed people in geographical locations and their age groups. According to the analysis of the data collected from National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) Owerri Imo state many results from the research were shown which confirmed the insignificant difference in the rate of unemployment among age groups and geographical locations in Nigeria and also reveals that people employed yearly depends on age group and their geographical locations. The research made some recommendation and possible suggestion to reduce the rate of unemployment.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      i

Approval page-       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ii

Dedication-     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Acknowledgement- –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iv

Abstract- –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      v

Table of Content-   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vi

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction- –      –      –      –      –      –      1
    • Statement of Problem- –      –      –      –      4
    • Aims and Objectives –      –      –      –      –      5
    • Research Questions – –      –      –      –      5
    • Statement of Hypothesis- –      –      –      6
    • Scope of the Study- –      –      –      –      –      7
    • Significant of the Study- – –      –      –      7
    • Definition of Terms-      –      –      –      –      7

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review- –      –      –      –      –      8-10

CHAPTER THREE

  • Data Collection and Methods of Analysis- – – – 11
    • Data Collection and limitation-      –      –      –      11
    • Method of Analysis- – –      –      –      –      11
    • Validity of Instrument- –      –      –      –      16

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data Analysis and Interpretation- –      –      17
    • Data Analysis- – –      –      –      –      –      17
    • Interpretation of Result And Analysis- –      33

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Conclusion and Recommendation- – –      34
    • Conclusion- –      –      –      –      –      –      34
    • Recommendation- –      –      –      –      –      35

BIBLIOGRAPHY-     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      37

APPENDICES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Unemployment could be defined as a condition whereby one that is willingly and capable of working actively is seeking for job but is unable to secure any. The unemployment rate is expressed as the percentage of the total number of persons’ available for employment at any time.

Unemployment is a problem that each society faces. The society that faces this problem must find a way to beat it. It is important to note that before a person is considered unemployed, the person must be an active member of the labour force. While a person is completely unemployed some are underemployed. Underemployment describes a situation whereby a person is able to secure a job only for a shorter period of time e.g. partime workers, seasonal workers, day or casual workers etc.

Unemployment is defined by the international labour organization as when people are without jobs and they have actively looked for jobs within the past four (4) weeks and also unemployment rate can be defined as the proportion of labour force who were available for work but did not work in the week preceding the survey periods for at least 39 hours.

Statistics on unemployment are collected and analyzed by government labour force in most places but hare in Imo state the work are being done by the national integrated survey of household (NISH) which covers all the 36 states of the federation and the federal capital  territory (FCT) Abuja which is the emphasis of my project work, which trends to fight against unemployment and also to evaluate the rate of unemployment based on available data from national bureau of statistics (NBS) Owerri Imo state.

Further in discussing the term unemployment it is important and necessary to note and discuss about the various types of unemployment, negative effects of unemployment, possible ways and suggestion for solving the problems of unemployment in Nigeria.

TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT

STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT:

This occurs when there is a change in structure of an industry or the economic activities of the country. As an economy develops over time, the type of industries may as well change because there’s a change in people taste or the products and services Is no longer in demand.

FRICTIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT

This type of unemployment is caused by industrial friction such as immobility of labour, ignorance of job opportunities, shortage of raw materials and brake down of machinery etc.

SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT

This is due to seasonal variation in the activities of particular industries caused by climatic change; change in fashion or by the inherent nature of such industries. For example the ice factories are closed down in winter throwing the workers out of their jobs because there is no demand for ice during winter and also the sugar industries is seasonal because the crushing of sugar cane is done only in a particular season which  is  the raining season.

CYCLICAL UNEMPLOYMENT

This type of unemployment is due to the operation of the business cycle. This arises at a time when the aggregate effective demand of the community becomes defficient in relation to the productivity capacity of the country. For example when the aggregate demand fall below the full employment level, it is not possible to purchase the full employment level of output.

1.1                STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

From the annual abstract of general household survey report 2007 edition, the rate of unemployment among age groups and geographical locations have increased greatly in Nigeria over years.

Consequently, the researcher now wants to find out the causes of this high rate of unemployment in Nigeria.

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CONSUMPTION OF CIGARETTE AND ALCOHOLIC DRINKS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS. (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE)

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CONSUMPTION OF CIGARETTE AND ALCOHOLIC DRINKS IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS.  (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page———————————————-   i

Approval Page—————————————–   ii

Dedication———————————————-  iii

Acknowledgement————————————–  iv

Abstraction———————————————- v

Table of contents————————————— vi

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction—————————————- 1

1.1  Need for title study———————————      2

1.2  Aims and objectives——————————–       3

1.3  Scope of the study———————————-      4

1.4  Problems encountered during data collection——       4

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • Review of Related Literature————————-   6

2.1  Introduction——————————————-      6

2.2  Historical Background of Alcoholism

and cigarette smoking—————————   6

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research Methodology—————————- 16

3.1  Introduction—————————————-         16

3.2  Sources of Data———————————–      16

3.3  Sample Frame————————————–         17

3.4  Method of Data collection—————————        18

3.5  Reason for stratification—————————–        18

3.6  Pilot survey——————————————-      19

3.7  Determination of sample size————————       22

3.8  Methods Used in Distribution of Questionnaire

for the main survey———————————–    24

3.9.0 Theoretical frame work————————–          25

3.9.1 The General format for chi-square using

contingency Table————————————-    25

3.9.2  Conditions for the use of chi-square test——–        26

3.9.3       Assumption for the use of chi-square test——-   30

3.10 The Normal Distribution——————————-     30

3.11 Use of Frequency Distribution And Bar Charts–   31

3.12 Estimation of population proportion————– 32

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Data Analysis————————————– 33

4.1  Introduction—————————————-       33

4.2  Analysis Involving Frequency Distribution of Bar

and Pie Charts————————————–      33

4.3  Estimation of population proportion of those

that drink Alcohol———————————–      39

4.4  Estimation of the population proportion of

those that smoke cigarette————————-      41

4.5  Estimation of students Average Weekly

Expenditure on smoking—————————-     43

4.6  Estimation of students Average weekly

Expenditure on Drinking—————————–  43

4.7  Determine whether the expenditure Rate on

smoking is due to Age——————————-      45

4.8  Determine whether the Expenditure Rate on

Drinking is due to age——————————       45

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary of the Findings from the survey—— 52
  • Conclusion—————————————– 53
  • Recommendation———————————- 54

References—————————————– 56

Questionnaire—————————————      57

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

This project work is about the statistical analysis of the consumption of cigarette and alcoholic drinks in tertiary institution (A case study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede). It consists of five chapters. Chapter one deals with the preliminary part, which includes needs for title study, aims and objectives, scope of the study, sources of data and problem encountered during data collection.

Chapter two deals with review of related literature that is previous researches relating to the study.  Chapter three deals with  research methodology which includes sources of data, sampling frame, method of data collection, reason for stratification, pilot survey, method of distributing questionnaires for main survey, the general format for  Chi-square using contingency table among others.

Chapter four deal with analysis involving frequency distribution bar and pie charts, estimation of the student average weekly expenditure on drinking and smoking, to determine whether the expenditure rate on drinking is due to age, to find out if the  student opinion on the effects of smoking is independent of drinking  habits and so on. Chapter five deals with summary, conclusion and recommendation.

  • NEEDS FOR TITLE STUDY

Despite all the advertisement from the Federal Ministry of Health, television programmes and lectures from seminars about the dangers of alcoholism and cigarette smoking, a reasonable number of people in the society still indulge in this habit.

This study will investigate the extent of student indulgence in smoking/drinking as well as examine the students’ expenditure on consumption of these consumer items.

The out come of this investigation will serve as a deterrent factor to non-consumer students who have the intention of starting it.  It will also help the school authority to avoid setting up kiosks around the school premises where such items are being sold.

  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The following are what the researcher work intends to achieve.

  1. To determine the extent of alcoholism and cigarette smoking among the students of Federal Polytechnic Nekede.
  2. To determine the popularity of various brands of alcohol and cigarette Among the students consumer of the products.
  3. To estimate students average weekly expenditure on drinking and Smoking.
  4. To determine whether the rate on drinking and smoking is due to age.
  5. To find out if the students opinions on the effects of smoking and Drinking is independent of their habits.
  6. To determine it students drinking and smoking habits are independent.
  7. To make suggestions and recommendation based on the findings.

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF REPORTED CASES OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN IMO STATE (2005-2011)

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF REPORTED CASES OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN IMO STATE (2005-2011)

Abstract

This project is to determine the level and rate of road traffic accidents in Imo state Data from Federal Road Safety Commission was used to find out the prevalence of Road Traffic Accidents over a years period (2005-2011) and to know if there were any dedication to be made.It was discovered that over the selected period of study, the number of road traffic accidents that occurred within each year did not follow any significant trend. The trend equation is y=a + bt, based on the equation the projection for 4th quarter of 2007 will be 132.6319. Also the season noticed that majority of the road users that involved in road traffic accidents were on motorcycle. It was noticed also that on the whole, more males were victims of road traffic accidents than females.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval Page                                                        ii

Dedication                                                             iii

Acknowledgement                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                vi

Table of contents                                                    vii

CHAPTER ONE     INTRODUCTION

  • Introduction 1

1.1  Statement of the Problem                                 2

  • Objectives of the Study 2
  • Scope of the study 3
  • Significance of the study 4
  • Causes of road traffic accidents 5
  • Effects of road traffic accidents 7
  • Defintion of terms 9

CHAPTER TWO            LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Introduction 11

CHAPTER THREE  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND

DATA PRESENTATION

3.0  Research methodology                                     15

3.1  Sources of data used                                        15

CHAPTER FOUR    ANALYSIS OF DATA   

  • Introduction 25

4.1  Method of data analysis                                    25

CHAPTER FIVE    SUMMARY      , CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATION

5.0  Summary , Conclusion and recommendation        31

5.1  Summary                                                       32

5.3  Recommendations                                           34

5.3  Conclusions                                                    35

Reference                                                       36

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The incidence of road traffic accidents is raising world wide. Road traffic accidents, like all other forms of accidents, are unplanned, however those involved are the roads user viz; pedestrians, cyclists and motorists, therefore, the factors include the man the vehicle and the road, the outcome of road traffic accidents may vary from meld injuries and bruises to loss of life in extreme cases depending on the group of road users involved.

Alcohol and drugs intoxication accounts for large proportion of road traffic accidents world wide. In the developing world, roads are poorly built and maintained as a result the roads have become death traps, vehicles are also poorly maintained due to poverty, ignorance and corruption.

In recent times, the rate of road traffic accidents seems to be on the increase especially in the urban areas, one begins to question why this is so and if possible, come up with suggestions to alleviate this growing problem that constitutes a drain to the economy through loose of manpower.

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

May people worry about the increasing rate of road traffic accidents on our roads in Imo state. However, there has not been a clear statement as to the trend in the accidents.

1.2  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  • To determine the area of imo state with the highest prevalence of road traffic accidents
  • To determine the age group mostly involved in road traffic accident
  • To determine the causes and effects of road traffic accidents
  • To determine the significant linear relationship between periods and rate of accidents occurrence over the selected year of study
  • To determine the significant linear association between periods and the rate of accidents. Occurrence over the selected year of study.

1.3  SCOPE OF THE STUDY

To obtain the data needed for my study over the selected. Year of study, that is from (2005-2011).

The General Hospital in Owerri, federal medical center as well as some hospital. That specializes in trauma, especially due to road traffic accidents, this is because as I learnt that most other hospitals to not receive road traffic accidents cases, especially those that involve the police,

Also data required for my study will be obtained from police records, road safety commission files as well as the federal office of statistics (FOS) annual report. For literature review, data from magazines, journals, Newspapers, the internet and past work of others will be used.

The factors of accidents being man, vehicle and road, the main focus of this study will be to find out, the commonest factor that causes accidents, or the pedestrian? This study will also find out ages of these victims, their sexes, so as to draw appropriate statistical method to illustrating relationship or significant findings.

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF READING HABITS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCED OF STUDENTS (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEDKEDE, OWERRI)

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF READING HABITS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCED OF STUDENTS  (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEDKEDE, OWERRI)

ABSTRACT

This study is aimed at determine the statistical Analysis of reading habits and academic performance of polytechnic students, Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri that was used as a case study. Questionnaire were administered to the students in all the text conducted, using chi-square test of independence which shows that the performance of students is dependent on their reading habits and also that the sex of student is independent of their performance. Recommendation however were made based on these findings some of them were that lecture rooms should be provided and libraries developed to enhance effective reading. Specially in chapter four it analysis the information of reading habit of students in relation to their performance. Meanwhile, the last chapter reveals some factors, which led to the inability of students to comprehend easily.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page————————————————-      i

Approval Page ——————————————-       ii

Dedication ———————————————–      iii

Acknowledgment —————————————-      iv

Abstract ————————————————-       v

Table of Contents————————————— vi

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction and General Background ———– 1
  • Statement of the Problem————————- 4
  • Scope of the study——————————— 5
  • Aims and objective of the study —————— 5
  • Significant of the study ————————— 6
  • Problems encountered during the study——— 7
  • Statement of the hypothesis ——————– 7
  • Limitation of the study————————— 8
  • Definition of terms——————————- 9

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature review ——————————– 11
    • Definition of reading —————————- 11
    • Conceptual modern of the reading process—- 12
    • Reading habit———————————— 15
    • Causes of reading habit ————————- 16
    • Relationship between reading and

academic performance————————–           20

  • Comprehension and academic performance — 21

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research methodology————————– 23
    • Data source————————————- 23
    • Sampling procedure—————————- 23
    • Method of data collection———————– 24
    • Method of data analysis———————— 24
    • Chi – square test of independence ———– 25
    • Characteristics of chi-square test ———— 26

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data presentation and analysis—————– 28
  • Testing the reading habit of students in

relation to the performance———————    30

  • Testing the sex of student and their

performance————————————-    35

  • Performance of female students and place

of residence————————————-          39

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary and findings ———————— 47
  • Conclusion ————————————- 48
  • Recommendation—————————— 49
  • Suggestions for further study ————— 50

Bibliography———————————–              51

Questionnaire ———————————             54

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL BACKGROUND

Attention has been given to the reading problems of students in Nigeria. One major reason for this is that there has been a lot of misconception and lack of understanding and agreement about what reading is and how it should be done.

In Nigeria, reading is perceived as verbalization of the written symbols. This perception of reading underscores the belief that whoever can read is acquiring knowledge. it is assumed that skills for activity has been learnt during the primary education when people were taught alphabets and how to read word recognition. This category of people have failed to realize that reading is more than mere reading of printed words on a page of paper.

Thus narrow perception of what reading is does not give direction to the appreciation of reading as response orientated.

English language is the official language of Nigeria and Nigerians learnt it, as a second language. This, no doubts has affected many individuals capacities for reading and performance in academic studies. Students are faced with volume of work that should be read with comprehension and speed if they have to pass well in their examination but quiet often students in most schools bring with them reading habits/skills which have hardly been develop and some with bad reading habits which have not been corrected. This problem is compounded by the fact that after the secondary education most people never again have a formal reading lesson even though the ability to learn a clearly significant factor of developing reading increase with maturity.

A person proficiency in reading to generally judge by the fluency, speeding word recognition and the ability to comprehend the reading materials.

The need for a proper guidance becomes necessary for lecturers to help their student develop those skills that could be for them such skills include:

  1. Ability to identify main ideas
  2. The ability to identify the topic sentence
  3. The ability to follow verbal direction links between words and ideas
  4. The ability to follow organizational pattern for the students to attain these skills. They need to develop the right attribute towards reading.

A lot of scholars have emphasized the importance of reading.

Reading is a part of everyday living that one can hardly imagine modern life without it. The recognition of this fact was ascertained by Thomas Jefferson, one time president of America who writes in one of this letters that people who read can be free because reading banishes ignorance and superstition. He went further to say where the press is free and every man is able to read, then all is safe.

Reading is the care of language learning. It is the central able to read printed materials, he or she begins to communicate with deals of information. However depends greatly on his reading skill which needs to develop since it is not natural.

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FOSTER CARE AND ADOPTION RATE IN ABIA STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ABIA STATE MOTHERLESS BABIES HOME)

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF FOSTER CARE AND ADOPTION RATE IN ABIA STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ABIA STATE MOTHERLESS BABIES HOME)

TABLE OF CONTENT

CONTENT                                                                                     PAGE            

TITTLE PAGE ——————————————————–

APPROVAL PAGE ————————————————-

DEDICATION ——————————————————–

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT——————————————-

TABLE OF CONTENT———————————————

ABSTRACT ———————————————————-

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION ——————————————-
  • STATEMENT OF PRBLEM——————————-
  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY———–
  • SIGNIFICANT/IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY—–
  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY———————————-
  • RESEARCH QUESTION———————————-
  • LIMITATION OF STUDY———————————-
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS———————————

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  LITERATURE REVIEW ——————————————-        

CHAPTER THREE

  • METHODOLOGY————————————————
  • SOURCE OF DATA———————————————
  • POPULATION OF STUDY————————————
  • SAMPLE SIZE————————————————–
  • SAMPLE TECHNIQUES————————————-
  • METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS—————————
  • LIMITATION OF THE STUDY—————————–

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1   DATA————————————————————–

4.2   DATA ANALYSIS———————————————-

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    SUMMARY——————————————————

5.1   CONCLUSION————————————————–

5.2   RECOMMENDATION—————————————–

REFERENCE———————————————————-

ABSTRACT

The case of abandoned children was the order of the day in many decades ago. This was due to single ladies who fell victims of unwanted pregnancy, death of parents, killing of twins and so on.

As a result of this, the Federal Ministry of Health and Human Services in Nigeria saw it as a challenge which led to their devising a means through which such children can be taken care of.

They introduced what is called foster care and adoption in Nigeria in 1965 with the passing into law of the adoption Act of No 12 in the then Eastern region of Nigeria. This work is aimed at examining cases of babies in two age groups to know whether adoption of babies was dependent on sex of babies.

This project work on statistical analysis of foster care and adoption rate in our society takes Abia as case study.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

In every year there are cases of abandoned children born by single ladies who fell victim of unwanted pregnancy and most a times with failed attempts to terminate the pregnancy. There are also other cases of abandoned children due to death of parents. These children are being taken of at motherless baby home.

Therefore, foster care means the temporal stay of a child in a home that is not his/her for certain period of time while adoption is the permanent placement of a child in another home for care and up bringing.

Nwankwo (1979) described foster care and adoption as when a woman has an unwanted child who could abandon the child at the social welfare office for them to take care of his/her in order to avoid problems in future. But before she abandon  the child she will sign an undertaken making it clear that she is handing the child over to be adopted permanently by anybody  who wish to have the child. She would be required to take an oath that she would never ask for the child again in her life time.

Eze Okafor (2004) said that foster care and adoption takes place when parents who have children wanted either male or female child or feel like rendering help to humanity by adopting an abandoned child comes for adoption.

The probation officer gives them guidelines to write letter specifying the sex they want.

The application is to notify the officer of their intention. The officer will give them four forms to fill.

The probation officer will also interview the prospective parents, supervise their homes and if the condition of the home is conducive or favorable then, he will hand over the child with sex and age duly specified after approval by a medical doctor to the prospective parents. The prospective parents take care of the child for short time of about five or six months and then send the child to the probation officer who in turn will send the child for another medical check up.

The officer will also recheck the home of the prospective parents and if it is still conducive he will recommend that after careful investigation on the ability and fitness based on the application to adopt, the couple are therefore recommend fit to adopt the child permanently.

Eze Okafor (2004) said in continuation that after the recommendation by the probation officer, the prospective parents will appear in court with the approved information from the probation officer and interpret it in a lay man’s language to the prospective parents.

The chief magistrate will quote Mathew 7:7 to them. If they find out that they are Christians “ask and it shall be given to you, seek and you shall find and knock and it will open unto you.” The court will remind them about love and charity. The chief magistrate will give final order that the court is satisfied and that the application is qualified to adopt this child having fulfilled all the necessary condition in accordance with laid down law of adoption Act No 12 of Eastern Nigeria 1965.

Foster care and adoption was introduced by the Federal Ministry of Health and Human Services in the year 1965 in Nigeria. This was later shifted to the state Ministry of Health when the work load was too much on them. So, foster care and adoption were said to have formally started in Nigeria in 1965 with the passing into law of Adoption Act No 12 in then Eastern Nigeria which include Abia, Imo, Cross River and Ebonyi State.

Prior to the Nigeria civil war government paid huge amount of money to foster parents for care and up bringing of children they adopted. This was because only few parents were willing to adopt motherless babies by them. The reason was that prospective parents were afraid of what their kinsmen, relations neighbor e.t.c. would say. Glory be to God that today revise is the case as a result of the light ushered in by civilization and a new dimension of reasoning.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

It was being on media, television and other national dailies that some people who adopt these babies keep them under some dehumanizing treatment such as child abuse, use them for rituals, sold them  into slavery, engage them into prostitution for money making, to mention but a few. The researcher was worried on the state of the abandoned babies and what happens when they leave the motherless homes.

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STASTISTCAL STUDY OF CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION BY OPEC MEMBER COUNTRIES (2001-2010)

STATISTICAL STUDY OF CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION BY OPEC MEMBER COUNTRIES (2001-2010)

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes crude oil production by OPEC member countries between 2001 and 2010, using the method of simple regression analysis, the work is aimed at predicting the future situation in terms of crude oil production by OPEC member countries. The data for this study was collected from the internet (www.indexmund.com/energy) Minitab and Microsoft excel are used to run the complete regression analysis of the data. After the analysis, a prediction was made for about three years. It was observed that there is year to year increase in production of crude oil by OPEC member countries. A correlation analysis was also employed to know the strength of relationship between the crude oil production (quantity) and time (yearly) which indicates a very strong positive relationship between the crude oil production and time

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                              i

Approval page                                       ii

Dedication                                             iii

Acknowledgement                                 iv

Abstract                                                 v

Table of contents                                   vi

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                             1

1.1   Statement of problem                        5

1.2   Aims and objective of the study          6

1.3 Research questions                              7

1.4 Test of Hypothesis                               7

1.5 The significance of the study                 8

1.6 The scope of the study                         9

1.7 Definition of terms                              9

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review                                       10

CHAPTER THREE

Source of data                                          18

Method of analysis                                    18

Limitation of study                                    20

Validation of the data collected                   20

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Analysis and interpretation                  22

Interpretation of result                              22

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Conclusion and recommendation          29

5.1  Conclusion                                        29

5.2  Recommendation                               29

Reference                                         30

Appendix                                          31

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) is an intergovernmental organization of twelve developing countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lisbya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.

Venezuela and Iran were the first countries to move towards the establishment of OPEC in the 1960s by approaching Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia in 1949, suggesting that they exchange views and explore avenues for regular and closer communication among petroleum-producing nations. The founding members are Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. Later members include Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Libya, Qatar, Nigeria, and the United Arab Emirates.

OPEC was founded to unify and coordinate members’ petroleum policies. Original OPEC members include Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela. Between 1960 and 1975, the organization expanded to include Qatar (1961), Indonesia (1962), Libya (1962), the United Arab Emirates (1967), Algeria (1969), and Nigeria (1971). Ecuador and Gabon were early members of OPEC, but Ecuador withdrew on December 31, 1992 because it was unwilling or unable to pay a $2 million (two million dollars) membership fee and felt that it needed to produce more oil than it was allowed to under the OPEC quota, although it rejoined in October 2007. Similar concerns prompted Gabon to suspend membership in January 1995. Angola joined on the first day of 2007.

OPEC has maintained its headquarters in Vienna (capital of Austria) since 1965, and hosts regular meetings among the oil ministers of its Member Countries. Indonesia withdrew in 2008 after it became a net importer of oil, but stated it would likely return if it became a net exporter again.

According to its statutes, one of the principal goals is the determination of the best means for safeguarding the organization’s interests, individually and collectively. It also pursues ways and means of ensuring the stabilization of prices in international oil markets with a view to eliminating harmful and unnecessary fluctuations; giving due regard at all times to the interests of the producing nations and to the necessity of securing a steady income to the producing countries; an efficient and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations, and a fair return on their capital to those investing in the petroleum industry.

According to the Energy Information Administration, in 2008 roughly 43% of the world’s oil production was attributed OPEC member countries. Furthermore, OPEC member countries have

approximately 70% of the proven oil reserves in the world.

Furthermore, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) project an increase in global demand for oil over the next several decades which raise the question on whether this increased demand can be met by OPEC oil production.

By the early 1970s, in addition to the oil embargo, OPEC oil production was influenced by the change in the oil pricing system from multinational oil companies to OPEC with the halt on

authorizing new concessions by OPEC governments, movement towards equity participation in the existing concessions, and in some cases the nationalization of the oil industry. As a result by the late 1970s, multinational companies diversified their oil supply sources in the development of oil reserves outside of OPEC. In response to higher oil prices by the early 1980s, the discovery of oil reserves in non-OPEC countries in conjunction with advances in new technology brought forth an increase in the supply of oil to the international market resulting in downward pressure on oil prices with OPEC losing market share. With the infusion of non-OPEC oil producers and their prices more responsive to competitive market conditions, OPEC abandoned the administered oil pricing system by the mid-1980s instead moving to market-reference pricing based on the price quotes provided by oil price reporting agencies. However, the limited liquidity of the spot market gave way to the use of the futures market which provided greater liquidity and price transparency.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BUYS-BALLOT PROCEDURE AND LEAST SQUARE METHOD IN TIME SERIES ANALYSIS

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BUYS-BALLOT PROCEDURE AND LEAST SQUARE METHOD IN TIME SERIES ANALYSIS

ABSTRACT

Trend parameters and seasonal indices for least square estimation and Buys-Ballot procedure were obtained in this work. The results show that both methods (Buys-ballot procedure and least square estimation) are approximately the same. For instance, the B.B procedure gives b = 0.114 and â =19.183 while least square estimate gives b = 0.139 and â =18.58.

It is therefore recommended that when short series are involved with trend-cycle components joined together, the Buys-Ballot procedure be used since it is faster.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction
    • Background of the study
    • Traditional method of time series decomposition
    • Statement of problems
    • Sign9ficance of study
    • Scope of the study

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature review
    • Buy’-Ballot estimation procedure
    • Uses of the Buys-Ballot

CHAPTER THREE

  • Methodology
    • Source of data
    • Data presentation
    • Method of analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Conclusion and Recommendation
    • Conclusion
    • Recommendation

Reference

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
    • BACKGROUND

One of the aims of time series is description of a series. Description includes the examination of trend, seasonality, cycles, turning point, changes in levels and so on that may influence the series. This is an important preliminary to modeling, when it has to be determined whether and how to de-trend seasonally adjust, to transform, to deal with outliers, and whether to fit a model to the entire history or only part of it.

In the examination of trend, seasonality and cycles, a time series is often described as having trend, seasonal effect, cyclic patterns and the irregular or random components. Since emphasis in time series analysis is on model building, the additive model and multiplicative model are usually considered. Symbolically, the models are respectively written as:

Additive Xt= Tt+St+Ct+et, t=1,2,…,n…………………….(1.1)

Multiplicative Xt= TtStCtet, t=1,2,…,n…………………….(1.2)

For time t, Xt denote the observed value of the series, Tt is the trend, St seasonal variation, Ct is the cyclical variation, and et is the irregular component of the series.

Trend or secular trend may be loosely defined as long-term changes in the mean or the general direction in which the graph of a time series appears to be going over a long interval of time. Trend may be upward (growth) or downward (decline) but its major characteristic is that it maintains a regular pattern for long period.

Seasonal variation refers to the regular periodic movements in time series associated whit the time of the year. Such movements are due to recurring event which take place annually.

Cyclical variation refers to long term oscillations or swings about the trend. Only long period set of data will show cyclical fluctuation of any appreciable magnitude.

Irregular or random variation refers to variation due to some sporadic movement that occurs at some time. It is usually what is left of a set of data after the systematic components (trend, seasonal and cyclical components) have been moved.

If short period of time is involved, the cyclical components are superimposed into the trend [Chatfield (2004), Kendal and Ord (1990)] and we obtain a trend-cycle component denoted by Mt. in this case, equations (1.1) and (1.2) may be written as:

Xt = Mt+St+et, t=1,2,…,n………………………………………(1.4)

Xt = MtStet , t=1,2,…n……………………………………………(1.5)

Using (1.4) or (1.5), we can decompose the series into its components parts. A summary of the traditional methods of time series decomposition will be given in section 1.2.

  • TRADITIONAL METHOD OF TIME SERIES DECOMPOSITION.

The methods available for analysis of seasonal time series data in the time domain include the descriptive method and fitting of probability models [see Box et-al (1994), Chatfield (2004)]. In the descriptive method, the traditional practice is to estimate and isolate the components existing in a study series. Usually, the curve fitting by least squares, which is adjudged the most objective method, is used to estimate the trend. The de-trended series is then used to estimate the seasonal effects. Methods for estimating the seasonal effect include monthly or quarterly average, ratio-to-trend, ratio-to-moving average method and link-relative method. Using the de-trended and de-seasonalized series, the estimates of the cyclical component are obtained by calculating a moving average of appropriate order among other methods.

The whole process of (a) fitting a trend curve by some method and de-trending the series (b) using the de-trended series to estimate the seasonal indices involved in the traditional method are laborious. In order to address these problems, which are associated with traditional method (i.e. de-trending a series before computing the estimates of the seasonal effects), lwueze and Nwogu (2004) proposed the Buys-Ballot procedure for time series decomposition .The development of the Buys-Ballot estimation procedure was based on the table proposed by Buys-Ballot in(1847).

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Observations have been made that people find it difficult to analyze time series data. The question is why?

The researcher is therefore motivated by this observed problem and decided to find out easiest procedure or method of analyzing time series data.

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A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF REVENUE ALLOCATION IN IMO STATE FROM 1999-2005 (A CASE STUDY OF MINISTRY OF FINANCE)

 A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF REVENUE ALLOCATION IN IMO STATE FROM 1999-2005 (A CASE STUDY OF MINISTRY OF FINANCE)

ABSTRACT

The importance of revenue allocation from the federal government is necessary to help the state government meet their financial obligations. The research survey on statistical; analysis of revenue allocation to states in Nigeria from (1999-2005) with Imo state as a case study was carried out in order to determine the rate of revenue allocation and expenditure in Imo state. Data was collected at central bank of Nigeria Owerri Imo state. Method of analysis used is simple correlation analysis to ascertain whether there is a significant increase in the trend of revenue allocation to the state and its local government areas, as well as to investigate whether there is a linear relationship between the revenue allocated to the state and its 27 local government area.

From the observation made:

  • There is a weak relationship between revenue allocated to the state and its local government area in Imo state.
  • The state ministry of finance should convince the federal government to ensure that revenue allocated to the state and its local government is equal.

The researcher made the following recommendations:

  • The principle of federal presence should not also be used in allocating revenue to states because the state without federal presence will eventually suffer when the allocation is made leaving them behind.
  • The principle of equity should be applied in allocating revenue to the states and its local government areas.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page———————————————i

Approval page—————————————-ii

Dedication ——————————————–iii

Acknowledgement————————————iv

Abstract———————————————–vi

Table of contents————————————-viii

  • chapter one :Introduction————————1
    • Statement of problem and definition————–3
    • Aim and objectives of study———————–5
    • Significance of study——————————-6
    • The research question/statement of hypothesis-7

2.0 Chapter two: review of pertinent literature——–9

2.1 The principles of vertical and horizontal

allocation of revenue——————————-10

2.2 The derivative principle of revenue allocation——12

2.3 The principle of need of revenue allocation ——-17

2.4 managing fiscal federalism ————————18

3.0 Chapter three: Methodology———————- 20

3.1 Data collection and limitation———————–20

3.2 Scope of study—————————————21

3.3 Method of analysis———————————–21

3.3.1 Simple correlation analysis ———————– 21

3.3.2 Linear equation method —————————25

4.0 Chapter four: Analysis of result——————-26

4.1 Data analysis—————————————–26

4.2 Interpretation of results—————————–39

4.3 Application of results——————————–40

5.0 Chapter five: Conclusion and Recommendations-42

5.1 conclusions ——————————————42

5.2 recommendations ———————————- 43

Bibliography———————————————-45

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

In a federation, responsibilities are shared between the component parts of the federation, so also are tax strength which are the source of revenue to carryout these responsibilities, but unfortunately there is always a divergence between the criteria for sharing these constitutional responsibilities and which is used to share the tax powers.

The essence of revenue allocation therefore is to attempt to correct this unbalance between the expenditure obligation and the revenue services. In view of these, revenue allocation therefore refers to the criteria, process and method o f sharing federation’s financial resources among the various tier of government in the federation in such a peaceful way that guarantees development, progress and enhances unity.

The case of Nigeria involves sharing the federal revenue and other resources, firstly among the three tiers of government in a vertical allocation which deals with the sharing of the revenue among the three level of government, where it determines what share goes to the federal government, state government and local government and then among the units of a particular tier in a horizontal allocation, where it involves how to share the allocation to each level of government to its members. For instance how to share the allocation for state to the states in the federation.

The critical issues involved in revenue sharing in Nigeria include, to determine how much independent source of revenue should be given to a tier of government to enable it execute its responsibility and to determine how the federation accounts should be shared, the distribution of federation finance is not restricted to direct allocation to government, there is also special funds for specific projects or programs. The majors issues involved in horizontal allocation include the criteria for sharing.

The principles and criteria for these allocation are determined by the National Assembly for vertical allocation between various layers of government and horizontal allocation among the state government on their own behalf and on behalf of the local government and the state house of assembly (for horizontal distribution among local government within the state) or any other similar bodies vested with such responsibility, such principle when established become the basis for revenue allocation. Though these could vary from one nation to another.

1.1  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The issue of revenue allocation in Nigeria and its expenditure has generated a lot of arguments, due to the fact that the principle of equity advocates that centrally collected resources should be shared equally among the states while the derivation principle does not take account of the peculiar features of each state, its existing stock of assets and existing facilities of each state. It enhances rather than reduce the pace of uneven development in the country where states which contribute highly to the central fund will continue to have great access to allocated funds and will continue to develop while other states will continue to lag behind. This however possesses great challenges to the corporate existence of the federation and analyst are not left out in these challenges to examine the process or procedure of allocating revenue to the states in the country (Nigeria). To this end, the problem of this research work becomes to ascertain the trend of revenue allocation and its expenditure to states as well as to determine the degree of relationship between revenue allocated to the state and its local government and if there is fluctuation on these revenue allocation.

Generally the main task of this research work is to gather information of sufficient quality and quantity to provide basis for making sound inference for decision making.

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