A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF SAFETY AND SECURITY CONCERNS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY (A STUDY OF NIKE LAKE RESORT ENUGU)

A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF SAFETY AND SECURITY CONCERNS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY (A STUDY OF NIKE LAKE RESORT ENUGU)

ABSTRACT

 The hotels have become second home for leisure travelers and second office for business travelers. With rising acts of terrorism on board, the tourists and travelers have become skeptical about security issues within the hotel premises and often safety quotient of the property. The current issue looks into the safety-security issues haunting the thought process of guests and the modern options and approach that hotels have to gain the confidence of their guests.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       Hospitality means providing service to others, as well as demonstrating consistent excellence and quality. It should also mean profitably providing value at any price level, while demonstrating your own unique points of distinction. Most of all, hospitality should be a “place”, where people can still be exceptional individuals and they can extend their own personality and style (Hogan, 2008). The hospitality industry is part of a huge group of companies known as travel and tourism industry, which provides the necessary or desirable goods and services to travelers. The hospitality and tourism industries are the largest and fastest-growing industries in the world (Walker, 2010).

Frequent terrorisms incidents, natural disasters like Asian tsunami, hurricane and forest fire warn hospitality suppliers and buyers to be prepared for just any imaginable crisis. Security is not limited to only a single aspect it is been classified into various types. Even Taylor (2002) stated that safety involves preventing employees and customers within the hotel property from potential death and injury, such as from accidental slips, falls, cuts, burns and so forth, as well as preventing related property damage. To improve safety, many hotel companies have installed electronic locks, fire sprinklers, smoke detectors, and closed circuit televisions (Okumus, 2005).

The security of assets, the safety of the personnel who keep them running, and the well-being of the guests becomes increasingly important as insecurity threat spreads around the globe.

In today’s world of proliferating terrorism and heightened security concerns, security department in the hotel industry are faced with a grim, new reality.

Hotels are increasingly vulnerable to attack by radical groups who use terror as their strategy of choice. Attacks against hotels in the Northern part of Nigeria should provide hoteliers as serious warning that no region is immune and no hotel is completely safe (Natasa 2010). The only way to prevent or reduce insecurity threats is for the security department in the hotels to be alert all the time and play their roles with full responsibilities.

The roles and responsibilities of the security department is to make sure that guest and employees are safe and properties are prevented from damage pro-active safety and security planning is an essential role in their operations. From guests’ and personnels’ safety to facility damage and serious liability issues, hotels face new and difficult challenges that must be addressed today to minimize vulnerability in the face of the unthinkable.

       The number of terrorist attacks against hotels throughout the world over the last few years has underscored the need to assess each location and provide security solutions for both facilities and the people who populate them. These security solutions are tools meant for security department that with help facilitate the activities of the security personnel. And the tools are CCTV, walkie-talkie, metal detector device chemical/bomb detectors etc. Every security department in hotel should base on current intelligence and provides a thorough evaluation of the locality, and reliable, practical solutions to close vulnerability gaps, protect assets personnel and guest of hospitality establishment.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Every hotel has a unique profile which means equally unique vulnerabilities. The security department must use the latest intelligence relating to the current strategic and operational threats of insecurity and applies this knowledge to address risks and vulnerabilities. The roles and responsibilities of the security department includes a comprehensive analysis of the risks and vulnerabilities of both the building and the human processes including such issues as facility access procedures, communications emergency response policies, and engaged in existing security training programs.

However the security A department in Nike Lake Resorts Every must understand and acknowledge full responsibility for security and safety of guest employees and properties. This can only be addressed when proper measures are put in place such as manpower development security tool and equipments like cutlass and guns.

       The major problems in securing live and properties ia to know how to apply security measures, qualify personnel and equipment.

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A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE HOSPITALITY (A CASE STUDY OF ROBAN HOTELS ENUGU)

A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE TECHNOLOGIES IN THE HOSPITALITY (A CASE STUDY OF ROBAN HOTELS ENUGU)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The hospitality industry, and especially the food and beverage industry, continue to develop and change at a startling pace, and despite the current global economic conditions continue to grow and prosper. The provision of food and beverages away from home forms a substantial part of the activities of the hospitality industry. Like the industry of which it is a major part, food and beverage operations are characterized by their diversity. Outlets include private and public sector establishments and range from small independently owned and operated units to large multi-national corporations managing global brands and from prison catering to catering in the most luxurious hotels in the world. It is however very difficult to get hold of consistent statistics about the hospitality industry and about food and beverage operations as there is no one single definition of what the boundaries of the various industry sectors and sub sectors are and therefore what should and should not be included.

The food and beverage sector is an important cornerstone in Nigeria tourism Product. The introduction of advanced technology has been cited by several authors has an important and positive influence on food and beverage services (Sharma & Upneja, 2005). Positive impacts however do not simply ‘appear’, rather they stem from the competent use and exploitation of IT capabilities. Technology has been found to ‘support employees, enhance the quality of service, improve efficiencies, gain competitive advantage, maintain relationships with customers and increase profitability’, while poor investment in technology (along with poor training) is likely to reduce profitability (Milne & Ateljevic, 2011).

Several studies have shown that SMEs in the hospitality sector such as food and beverage sector have special difficulties in maximizing the productivity potential of information technologies (see Milne et al., 2004). Such enterprises are more likely to recognize the limitations of technology and emphasize the importance of ‘the human touch’. At the same time food and beverages services owners and managers are more likely to have to out-source aspects of IT maintenance and may feel more removed from its application to the business setting.

Both managers and employees in the food and beverage industry are divided on the issue of technology and productivity. Some think it enhances staff efficiency, saves time and improves productivity. Others say it in fact creates inefficiencies when it breaks down or requires updating. While technology was discussed as an important contributor to the food and beverage service, most of the technology identified as bringing real efficiency gains is in the front of house environment.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In particular, technological innovations are central to streamlining ordering and point of sale processes. It appears that the food and beverage service sector is recognizing the advantages of implementing technology in the workplace. However, the industry is by no means at the leading edge of technology adoption, and many employees and managers seem unaware of the innovations currently available. Contributing factors are likely to be a lack of long term focus on service improvement, coupled with the up-front cost of implementing technology applications. The latter has a particular impact on smaller food and beverage firms. Employees feel that technology such as wireless personal digital assistants can certainly improve accuracy and record keeping but that such developments must go hand-in-hand with good communication among staff and management if positive productivity outcomes are to eventuate. Technology makes it easier to perform multiple tasks and to do them correctly, especially for new staff. However, some employees also commented that it’s often hard to learn new technology on top of general work practices and this is where many employees felt that a lack of effective training becomes a significant factor. Training on the job may suffice for the basics – but the introduction of new technology and the extra demands it places on staff may sometimes require the input of external training which is beyond the capabilities and resources of food and beverage services.

Therefore, this work intends to take a critical examination of food and beverage service technologies in hospitality industry.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

       The main purpose for the study is to critically examine the food and beverage service technologies in the Hospitality industry. Therefore, the specific objectives are as follows;

  1. To assess the food and beverage services of Roban Hotel Enugu
  2. To find out whether Roban Hotels Enugu applies technologies in food and beverage services
  3. To examine the technological innovations used for food and beverage services
  4. To determine the impact technologies have on food and beverage services.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. How would the food and beverage services of Roban Hotel Enugu be assessed?
  2. Do Roban hotels Enugu apply technologies in food and beverage services?
  3. What are the technological innovations used for food and beverage services?
  4. What impact do technologies have on food and beverage services?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significant of this study cannot be overemphasized. The contribution of food and beverage sales can make towards total sales is evident but food and beverage costs can make equally significant into overall sales. This necessitates the development of an effective system of control for all areas concerned with the food and beverage function. Technological innovations are a key to successful and efficient food and beverage service in the hospitality industry. Hence, this work will reveal technological innovations that will improve food and beverage services in the hospitality industry.

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The limitations of this study include;

  1. Time constraint:The availability of time for carrying out this research work was limited. The short duration of time is not enough for a study of this kind.
  2. Attitude of the respondents was another major challenge. Some refused to collect the questionnaires while others did not answer some of the questions. Many of them have to be convinced that the questionnaire will be used for purely academic purpose before they cooperate

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A STUDY OF THE CHALLENGES FACED BY MANAGERS IN PROVIDING EFFICIENT CATERING SERVICE IN THE OLD PEOPLES HOME

A STUDY OF THE CHALLENGES FACED BY MANAGERS IN PROVIDING EFFICIENT  CATERING SERVICE IN THE OLD PEOPLES HOME

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Managers are the community that visibly stands apart in present-day business organization, although heterogeneous and difficult to unequivocal defining. The reasons for this phenomenon are concerned with the process of ownership and management’s

separation, therefore with so called “managerial revolution”. In the business encyclopedia, manager is described as a person, who fulfills the primordial managerial functions (planning, organizing, motivating and controlling) and is the superior of given human team (Encyklopedia biznesu1995). However, manager is a person who first of all is responsible for realization of management process. In particular manager is the person, that makes plans and decisions, organizes, supervises and controls human, finance and information resources (Griffin2010). Manager can be seen as a profession which essence is the management – the art of reaching goals by proper using the finance, material and human resources (Pocztowski1997). In catering management the manager is seen as a person employed for managing, fulfilling all his functions and making use of all or some part of fund/resources in order to achieve goals of the whole or its given part.

Catering is the business of providing food service at a remote site or a site such as a hotel, public house (pub), private home or other location. Catering has evolved to become an artisanal affair.The importance of good quality food to the health and well being of older people, and how the housing and care industry needs to embrace the opportunity of expecting more from the catering. There seem to be different challenges being faced by mangers in providing efficient service. The preparation of food and its related knowledge are an inevitable part of daily living and an important part of an economy. The subject is addressing the challenges faced by managers in providing efficient catering service in the old people home.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The challenges faced by managers in providing efficient catering service for old people home cannot be overemphasized. This is because the basic human need of food with product and services from an industrial perspective could be challenging. Through this study, the biological cum environmental, social and cultural level of needs are examined. By proposing a solution for the needs, the crafts of cooking and principles of nutrition and technology will be applied. Via playing a role as a service provider, a manager that renders catering in old people’s home will be nourished with interpersonal skills and a sense of elegance.

       The focus at mealtimes should be about creating an experience for guests and delicious quality food in old people home. A fresh look and innovation are needed to raise standards in line with an increasingly savvy and demanding customer.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

       The main purpose of this research is to study the challenges faced by managers in providing efficient catering service in old people home. Therefore, the objectives in the research is aimed at;

  1. To examine the roles of managers in providing efficient catering service in old people’s home
  2. To state the challenges managers faced in providing efficient catering service for old people’s home.
  3. To establish a positive attitude towards the development of new products and ideas in catering business for old people’s home.
  4. To acquire the knowledge and develop the skills required for overcome the challenges faced by managers in providing efficient catering services in old people’s home.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What are the roles of managers in providing efficient catering service in old people’s home?
  2. What are the challenges managers faced in providing efficient catering service for old people’s home?
  3. How would a positive attitude be towards the development of new products and ideas in catering business for old people’s home?
  4. How can one acquire the knowledge and develop the skills required for overcome the challenges faced by managers in providing efficient catering services in old people’s home?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

       The significance of this study cannot be overemphasized. This is because providing catering service for old people is very challenging. These service providers such as old people’s home need efficient managers to run the business for successfully business transactions and profit return. Hence, this work will reveal some skills and knowledge that will help the manager to overcome various challenges that are being faced in rendering efficient catering services in old people’s home.

       Also, it will be of help to hospitality management students who intends to carryout similar research work, since it will serve as secondary material for their research.

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PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY MANAGERS IN SETTING UP A SMALL SCALE HOSPITALITY BUSINESS (A CASE STUDY OF EMILY RESTAURANT ENUGU)

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY MANAGERS IN SETTING UP A SMALL SCALE HOSPITALITY BUSINESS (A CASE STUDY OF EMILY RESTAURANT ENUGU)

ABSTRACT

Small scale business is the hub and foundation of industrialization and development. this research is centered on the problems encountered by managers in setting up small scale hospitality business in Nigeria, as hospitality industry in recent time has contributed immensely to national economic development.

The result is aimed at identifying the problems militating or hindering the smooth operation of small scale hospitality business such as restaurant especially in Enugu state.

Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources which include oral interview, questionnaire and textbooks. This work identified such problems hindering the smooth operation of small scale industry as lack of adequate finance, lack of technical know-how, competition of small and large scale businesses and poor managerial ability.

In a bid to help the industry strive and grow, government has taken some measures to boost the activities of small scale businesses including hospitality industries. This measures includes policies that aimed at encouraging small scale business, incentives in the form of loan without interest and other grants, providing financing through its agencies such as (FUSSI) Fund for Small Scale Industries.

More government intervention is solicited to enable the small scale business grow amidst severe competition from medium and large scale businesses.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There exist lots and lots of business ventures that are being engaged by individuals, group of people or association, firms, industries and government with the main aim of maximizing profits. They range from small scale to medium and large scale. In the Nigerian economy, the small scale enterprises are the most common form of business. The aim of any economy (either industrialized or non industrialized) depends largely on how well organized the small industries are, for instance if we look at the standard of practice of small scale industries in economically developed countries. The small scale enterprise in Nigeria seems too stagnant, less adventurous than developed countries. Meanwhile in economically developed countries small scale business are better organized and coordinated than in the developing countries because the governments appreciate their significance to the national economy.

       In the hospitality industry there are more small scale businesses than the medium and large. Most of the small scale hospitality businesses are essentially one person’s operation which makes such companies sole proprietorship business ventures. The profit of the business is reaped solely by the owner; this includes people or an individual who wants to invest in that type of business. It is also the easiest form of business ownership to organize in the hospitality industry because there is relatively small capital to use for setting up small scale hospitality business.

The owner also has managerial freedom and this will help the owner employing his or her incentive to the maximum. Those business owners are seen as entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are risk avoiders, not necessarily risk takers; they appear to be risk takers because they see market differently than the other forms of businesses. They can be referred to as risk eliminators because they seem to methodically eliminate all the factors that might prevent them from getting into a particular market (Thomas and Norman, 2011).

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A STUDY ON THE PROBLEMS FACING THE TOURISM SECTOR IN EXPANDING ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES IN NIGERIA (A CASE OF OAKLAND ENTERTAINMENT PARK ENUGU)

A STUDY ON THE PROBLEMS FACING THE TOURISM SECTOR IN EXPANDING ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES IN NIGERIA (A CASE OF OAKLAND ENTERTAINMENT PARK ENUGU)

ABSTRACT

Tourism has become a major source of economic diversification for many countries, underpinning the service sector and forging effective backward and forward linkages with the rest of the economy, allowing new employment and income earning opportunities. Although, the developed countries account for a higher proportion of global tourism, many developing countries are beginning to take advantage of the huge opportunities offered by tourism. However, only developing countries with effective natural and man-made tourism supporting and enhancing infrastructure have been able to develop their tourism sector and seize the attendant advantages. The need for economic diversification in most developing countries is overwhelming because of their defining mono-cultural economic characteristics where only one or two commodities dominate exports and provides the bulk of foreign exchange from which these countries could reconcile their internal and external balances. Nigeria is one such country seeking to diversify its economy away from crude oil production to maximize employment and income generating opportunities. Nigeria has huge tourism potentials, especially given its natural and diversified landscapes but lacks effective and tourism supporting and enhancing infrastructure. While tourism affords huge employment and income generating opportunities, its impact on bio-physical environment is well acknowledged hence the emphasis on sustainable tourism. Indeed, most of Nigeria’s natural landscapes are eco-sensitive areas and exploring them as tourist destinations must be sustainably conducted to enhance the carrying-capacity or regenerative capacity of these landscapes. This paper critically analyses Nigeria’s tourism potentials, focusing on the impacts on the wider economy. By appealing to the qualitative method of research, the paper concludes that the tourism sector has huge potentials yet unexplored, which if fully supported, can contribute significantly to the economic diversification and poverty alleviation efforts of the government.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Tourism is identified as an effective way to revitalise the economy of any destination as noted by Long (2012) and widely acknowledged as one of the fastest growing industry globally. The continuous and rapid growth of tourism is not in isolation of the stable economic growth experienced in the global economy, which lasted from the mid-1990 to 2007. This growth has facilitated increased global disposable income, demand for leisure, and this combined with the global economic restructures in response to globalization that ensured competition in global tourism industry and drastic reductions in travel costs. Thus, tourism has become a major source of economic growth, employment, earnings, and foreign exchange for many countries and considered by developing countries as a main source of development and growth for local economies (Haller, 2012). However, while the growth in tourism owes itself to global economic growth, it is also a fact that tourism has contributed immensely to the growth of the global economy. Indeed, Ozgen (2013) acknowledged that the tourism industry has grown into a major component of the global economy and has become highly developed. In this vein, Nigeria is looking to tourism as a possible alternative income earner (Uduma-Olugu and Onukwube, 2012) and it is believed, as averred by Ajao (2012) that if Nigeria gets its tourism sector right, tourism will serve as an employer of labour besides agriculture.

Given the definition of tourism by the World Tourism Organization (WTO) as an activity involving the travels of persons to places outside their usual environment for not more than once for leisure, it is indicative of how such activities may benefit host and local economies and communities. This is particularly the case as the notion of tourism has grown from the pursuit of the privileged few to the indulgence of the masses (Murphy, 1985). Indeed, tourism has a range of benefits both to the individual tourist, tourism organizations, and the local economies and communities in terms of employment, income, and enhancement to the quality of life (Besculides et al, 2002; Oh, 2005). For some major tourist destinations, tourism has become a major alternative form of commodity export and a significant source of foreign exchange that allows internal and external trade balances to be reconciled.

Tourism development without proper planning and integration with local values and environment can lead to socio-cultural, environmental and economic damage (Long, 2012). Thus, there is no doubt that tourism can make an effective contribution to expanding the economic opportunities in Nigeria but there are problems facing the tourism sector in the process of expanding the economic opportunities.

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A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF FRONT OFFICE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CUSTOMER EXPECTATION (A CASE STUDY OF MIRAGE HOTEL ENUGU)

A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF FRONT OFFICE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CUSTOMER EXPECTATION (A CASE STUDY OF MIRAGE HOTEL ENUGU)

ABSTRACT

 The hotels have become second home for leisure travelers and second office for business travelers. With rising acts of terrorism on board, the tourists and travelers have become skeptical about security issues within the hotel premises and often safety quotient of the property. The current issue looks into the safety-security issues haunting the thought process of guests and the modern options and approach that hotels have to gain the confidence of their guests.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The front office has traditionally been thought of as a check-in, check-out point by the guest. Secondly it is seen as a source of infinite information, and third, a problem-solving center. Working as a front line manager, situations developed which created a definite ‘gap’ between management’s expectations when defining the role of the front office personnel and how the front office employees perceived these expectations as they were related to their guest service responsibilities. Management credit policy was a necessity in certain circumstances, the awkwardness of many situations could have been avoided by simply allowing the front office agent to assume some of the responsibility. By using his or her own judgment and utilizing management only when they felt uncomfortable, a friendly, compatible first impression would have been the result.

Customer expectations are beliefs about service delivery that serve as standards or reference points against which performance is judged. Because customers compare their perceptions of performance with these reference points when evaluating service quality, thorough knowledge about customer expectations is critical to services marketers. Knowing what the customer expects is the first and possibly most critical step in delivering good quality service. Being wrong about what customers want can mean losing a customer’s business when another company hits the target exactly. Being wrong can also mean expending money, time and other resources on things that do not count to the customer. Being wrong can even mean not surviving in a fiercely competitive market.

Among the aspects of expectations that need to be explored and understood for successful services marketing are the following: what types of expectation standards do customers hold about services? What factors most influence the formation of these expectations? What role do these factors play in changing expectations? How can a service company meet or exceed customer expectations?

Therefore, it is in view of the above question that this research intends to get its basics.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Customer expectations play such a critical role in the management of front office in the hospitality industry. Customer evaluation of services, the management need and want to understand the factors that shape them. The front office manager would also like to have control over these factors as well, but many of the forces that influence customer expectations are uncontrollable. When consumers are interested in purchasing services, they are likely to seek or take in information from several different sources.

However, due to the increasing competition of service business and the high demand of the customers, the front office need to render quality service that will beat the customer expectations. Service quality is the fundamental factor to measure customers satisfaction at the hotel.

1.3      PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

  1. To examine the roles of front office in management of hotel
  2. To determine the roles of front office in management of customers expectation in the hotel
  3. To find out the level of customers expectation towards service quality of the front office staff
  4. To examine the gap between customers expectation the role of font office staff.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Strategic management realizing the dilemma have had to decide whether front office personnel can be effective decision makers. The purpose of this research will be to study the problems management face in their effort to avoid ‘gaps’ in management of customers expectations and perceptions, while in a stage of transforming employees roles.

Managers expect their front-office employee to be efficient and contribute to profitability. However guest expectations of good service often runs counter to what company policy defines as the limits of front office personnel’s freedom to act. Statistics show that negative experiences by guests are relayed to their associates far more than positive experiences. Even though strategic managers recognize the importance of the front office in services rendered, they often feel they are caught in a trade off between company policy set by upper management and the realities of the front office.

The findings of this study will provide useful information and some insight that will be gained that may help management to decide if it is feasible for them to employ strategies and systems such as empowerment at their front office and lend a better understanding of the process thereby avoiding some of the pitfalls that can occur when new systems are put in place.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION

  1. What are the roles of front office in management of hotel?
  2. What are the roles of front office in management of customers expectation in the hotel?
  3. What is the level of customers expectation towards service quality of the front office staff?
  4. What is the discrepancy gap between customers expectation the role of font office staff.
A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF FRONT OFFICE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CUSTOMER EXPECTATION (A CASE STUDY OF MIRAGE HOTEL ENUGU)

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF LANDMARK HOTELS ENUGU)

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF LANDMARK HOTELS ENUGU)

ABSTRACT

The ultimate quality of service provided will depend on the collective ability of staff, training and individual motivation to produce the services demanded by the guest. Hotels are physical structures supported by human resources that enable the delivery of service. Key in the process of delivering quality service is the individual motivation of all employees whether professional, skilled or unskilled. With the growth of the service industry the hospitality industry now competes for quality service employees. Research finds that it is a challenge for hotel management today to motivate employees to provide quality services as high turnover and absenteeism is widespread in the Nigeria hospitality industry. This study evaluated the motivation factors of employees in LandMark Hotels Enugu. The study centered on why people choose to work for this specific hotel while modeling motivational factors that enable their overall performance. The study also sought to learn if there is a gender based difference in motivational factors. The results of the study revealed that the main reasons people choose to work at the hotel was based on the “quality” class of the hotel, interesting jobs, salary and job security. When considering the gender construct, gender did have a role influencing employees’ perception of motivational factors. Males preferred salary, job security and loyalty to employees, while females preferred interesting jobs, working environment and camaraderie with co-workers.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The motivation of employees, whether professional, skilled or unskilled, is a major issue in all service organizations. For the hotel industry, employee motivation is a major issue. It is a challenge for the management of the hotel industry to motivate employees to stay on the job and to offer the efficient and good service which customers expect (Cheng, 1995). One of a human resource manager’s functions is related to ensuring employees’ workplace motivation. Human resource management’s function is to assist the general manager in keeping the employees satisfied with their jobs. If employees are not satisfied, they will not perform to expected tasks. Workplace dissatisfaction and poor performance usually lead to low employee turnover in the hospitality industry, particularly in developed countries. According to a Hotel and Catering Training Company in the United Kingdom, turnover is the United Kingdom was estimated to have cost the hotel and catering industry 430 million pounds a year, and turnover was higher among men than women (Lucas, 1995). The Hong Kong Hotels Association found in its 1994-1995 annual survey that 41.26 percent of the employees in 63 hotels changed jobs or resigned.

Yu (1999) reported that in order to reduce labor turnover and retain productive employees, management has to improve working conditions and keep the employees properly motivated. Human resource managers need to understand the motivational processes and human needs in different cultures.

To understand employees’ needs, managers should understand key theories that help them learn the basic needs of people. Maslow’s theory is one of many theories that pointed out the basic sorts of needs. They are Physiological needs, Security needs, Belongingness needs, Esteem needs, and Self-actualization needs. The lower level needs must be satisfied before the next higher level. Another theory, Hertzberg’s is based on two distinct sets of factors: hygiene factors such as pay, organizations, policies, working environment and motivating factors such as recognition, promotion, achievement and the intrinsic nature of the work.

Moreover, managers can learn what kind of motivation factors should be provided to employees from many research papers. For example, the study of Dr. Kovach during forty years concluded that good wages ranked the first through the fifth of the ten items of motivational factors (Kovach, 1987). The study of seven Caribbean Hotels, Las Vegas Casino Hotels and 278 hotels located in United States and Canada supported Kovach’s research that good pay is the first priority for employees (Charles and Marshall, 1992). However, from the study of 1,245 employees of the Hong Kong hotels concluded that an opportunity for advancement is the first factor but good pay is the third one (Siu, Tsang and Wong, 1997). So, when managers understand employees’ needs and provide the suitable motivational approach, employees will match their goals with the organizations’ goals. As a result, not only employees will get benefits but also the whole organization will be more successful.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Because of the high turnover and high absenteeism within the hospitality industry service, managers now realize the importance of employee motivation to retain quality staffing. When employees maintain a high level of motivation, quality services will result.

The purpose of this study was to assess the motivational factors of employees at the Landmark Hotel Enugu. The hotel was known to offer consistent quality services, low turnover and satisfied employees.

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EVALUATION OF CONSTRAINTS OF CO-OPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT IN THE RURAL AREAS OF ENUGU STATE

EVALUATION OF CONSTRAINTS OF CO-OPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT IN THE RURAL AREAS OF ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT

This research work evaluate the element that hinder co-operative development in the rural areas of Enugu State, with special reference to Udi Local Government Area. The main objectives of the study were: to identify the problems that hinder co-operatives as an instrument for rural development. To find out certain loophole of using co-operative in development, to find out how government policies can help in co-operative development and to makes useful recommendations on how to effectively utilize co-operative in rural development based on the study findings. In order to discover more details ten (10) research questions here asked, and this formed the basis for design of a comprehensive questionnaire administered to the target respondents. Also the review of related literature was carried out, this constitute the source of secondary data. Given a population study of 390,681 made up of members co-operative societies in the study area, a sample size of 400 was statistically determined. Tables frequencies and percentage were employed as statistical tools for data analysis. The study reviewed major finding including the lack of funds, poor management of co-operatives, attitude of people who come in control contact with co-operative and inadequate support from government were identified as problems hindering co-operative in the study area. Effort has been made by the government establishment of financial institution, provision of extension words and research institute that analyze the problems. Based on the study findings, the following points were recommended on areas that need serious improvements,  that the government of Enugu State should  give more recognition to co-operative and implement co-operative policies, particularly those that have to do it with agriculture and processing of foods, they need for co-operatives to enlighten her members, in other to reduce ignorance of the people about co-operatives in the area, more incentive should be giving to co-operative officers to enhance their performance.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Development comprises a number of tasks and processes generally aiming at developing and implementing growth opportunities within and between societies and organizations. It is the process of growing and it is related to discrete projects, specific modes of growth, and organizational units, activities, and practices(Ibrahim, 2010).

Cooperative development involves tasks and processes concerning analytical preparation of potential growth opportunities, and the support and monitoring of the implementation of growth opportunities in cooperative establishment. Cooperative organizations/societies emerged as self help entities to combat economic and social inadequacies (Baarda, 2011). Cooperative organizations serves as an effective

community development vehicle by their nature they build economic self reliance and civil society. The benefits of cooperative organizations accrue to the larger society because they create local jobs, re invest locally, emphasis on education and skills raises local management capacity, reduce migration and concentration of capital. People come together in cooperative

societies to pool their resources together so as to meet individual needs that could not be resolved by individual limited financial capacity. The aim of cooperative societies is to produce goods and deliver services, and to satisfy the legitimate needs of members and also to promote cooperation, relations, participation and consequently to promote interpersonal connections. Cooperative societies provide services that benefit both members and the local community. It was also observed that it is an essential tool for development of less economically developed communities.

       Surprisingly, cooperative development and its sustainability have always appeared slow, inefficient and lack of performance which could be linked to constraints that are involved in cooperative development. Some of the constraints could be attributed to lack of inadequate government support, lack of membership commitment, politicizing cooperative activities etc.

Therefore, this project research intends to investigate the constraints of cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu state.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Cooperative development is a viable tool for economic development. Also, cooperative is playing the same role of protecting the low earner and developing their socio-economic condition from the first cooperative in Enugu state till now. There are some dishonest people who are always trying to take the advantages of social enterprise goodwill in doing microfinance and other financial activities for personal or family benefits.

The overall cooperative situation in Udi local government Area of Enugu state does not meet expectation. The prime reasons may be some constraints encountered in the process of cooperative development which may be lack of proper knowledge, unawareness, lack of trust, imperfection of the market competition and corruption.

Naturally, developing sustainable economic cooperation among individuals will be more profitable further than the creation of problems. It is only for this strictly pragmatic reason that it is justified to found ways of preventing and controlling the constraints seen in cooperative development.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 

The broad objective of this research work is to evaluate the constraints of co-operative development in the rural areas of Enugu state with particular reference to Udi local government Area of Enugu state, the specific objectives of this research work includes the following:_

  1. To examine the various constraints militating against the development of co-operative in Udi local government area.
  2. To evaluate the effect of co-operative on economic development of Udi local government area.

iii.         To examine how government policies can help in the development of co-operative in Enugu state and Udi local government are in particular.

  1. To proffer solutions to the various constraints militating against co-operative development in Udi local government area.

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EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF DEFORESTATION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF DEFORESTATION ON THE ENVIRONMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Forests cover almost a third of the earth’s land surface providing many environmental benefits including a major role in the hydrologic cycle, soil conservation, prevention of climate change and preservation of biodiversity. Forest resources can provide long-term national economic benefits. For example, at least 145 countries of the world are currently involved in wood production (Anon, 2010). Sufficient evidence is available that the whole world is facing an environmental crisis on account of heavy deforestation. For years remorseless destruction of forests has been going on and we have not been able to comprehend the dimension until recently. Nobody knows exactly how much of the world’s rainforests have already been destroyed and continue to be razed each year.

Deforestation is the conversion of forest to an alternative permanent non-forested land use such as agriculture, grazing or urban development. Deforestation is primarily a concern for the developing countries of the tropics as it is shrinking areas of the tropical forests causing loss of biodiversity and enhancing the greenhouse effect (Angelsen et al., 2011). FAO considers a plantation of trees established primarily for timber production to be forest and therefore does not classify natural forest conversion to plantation as deforestation (but still records it as a loss of natural forests). However, FAO does not consider tree plantations that provide non-timber products to be forest although they do classify rubber plantations as forest. Forest degradation occurs when the ecosystem functions of the forest are degraded but where the area remains forested rather cleared (Anon., 2010).

Over the years, sustainable management of forest resources has been of primary concern due to its potential impact on biological diversity and importance in maintaining global ecological functions. In spite of its importance, the natural tropical high forest has continued to diminish rapidly in the African continent, thus dwindling sustainable forest management. Nigeria could face the possibility of timber and fuel wood scarcity towards the end of the century. It has been predicted that within the next fifty years, unless adequate measures are taken, most humid tropical forestland area in Africa could be transformed into unproductive land and the deterioration of the savannah into desert will be accelerated (Hunter et al, 2010).

The level of community nutrition is sometimes linked to fuel wood availability and cost, majority of the people residing in Ukwa local government area of Imo state use fuel wood as their main source of energy for cooking. In many areas, due to increasing population the existing wood resources are over exploited. With extensive deforestation, villagers in Ukwa local government area of Imo state are compelled to walk long distance to fetch fuel wood. This tends to have serious consequences for local agricultural production and productivity because; the rural communities also rely on this substituted resource for improving soil fertility. Apart from the deterioration in the quality of life associated with forest degradation, there are other more insidious effects that endanger the future of humans on this planet.

In Nigeria, environmental problems that are termed degradation collectively, such as desert encroachment, erosion, flooding and drought etc all have a strong link with deforestation. In some parts of South-Eastern states for instance, escalated soil erosion, flooding, increase in aridity, all of which have strong relationship with deforestation, have affected a significant proportion of the state.

According to (; Chowdhury 2013) academia, scholars and researchers are of the opinion that deforestation risk reduction is a systematic approach of identifying, addressing, and reducing the risks of disaster to a community. Generally, deforestation is caused by a variety of factors. However, (Ajibade, 2012) viewed deforestation as clearing of any area of its natural vegetation cover which is normally lead to decrease in plants population resulting in loss of plant biodiversity Nonetheless, excessive deforestation over a long period has been the cause of many drought like features. Deforestation presents multiple environmental problems in our society today.

In view of the background this study intends evaluate the impact of deforestation on the environment using Ukwa L.G.A of Imo state as a case study.

1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are as follows;

  1. To find out whether there are deforestation activities inUkwa L.G.A of Imo state
  2. To examine the sources of deforestation in Ukwa L.G.A of Imo state
  3. To evaluate the impact of deforestation on the environment in Ukwa L.G.A of Imo state
  4. To recommend ways for controlling deforestation activities in Ukwa L.G.A of Imo state

1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

Extensive tropical deforestation is a relatively modern event that gained momentum in the 20th century and particularly in the last half of the 20th century. The struggle to save the world’s rainforests and other forests continues and there is a growing worldwide concern about the issue. In order to save forests, we need to know why they are being destroyed.

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PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY MANAGERS IN SETTING UP A SMALL SCALE HOSPITALITY BUSINESS

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY MANAGERS IN SETTING UP A SMALL SCALE HOSPITALITY BUSINESS

ABSTRACT

Small scale business is the hub and foundation of industrialization and development. this research is centered on the problems encountered by managers in setting up small scale hospitality business in Nigeria, as hospitality industry in recent time has contributed immensely to national economic development.

The result is aimed at identifying the problems militating or hindering the smooth operation of small scale hospitality business such as restaurant especially in Enugu state.

Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources which include oral interview, questionnaire and textbooks. This work identified such problems hindering the smooth operation of small scale industry as lack of adequate finance, lack of technical know-how, competition of small and large scale businesses and poor managerial ability.

In a bid to help the industry strive and grow, government has taken some measures to boost the activities of small scale businesses including hospitality industries. This measures includes policies that aimed at encouraging small scale business, incentives in the form of loan without interest and other grants, providing financing through its agencies such as (FUSSI) Fund for Small Scale Industries.

More government intervention is solicited to enable the small scale business grow amidst severe competition from medium and large scale businesses.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There exist lots and lots of business ventures that are being engaged by individuals, group of people or association, firms, industries and government with the main aim of maximizing profits. They range from small scale to medium and large scale. In the Nigerian economy, the small scale enterprises are the most common form of business. The aim of any economy (either industrialized or non industrialized) depends largely on how well organized the small industries are, for instance if we look at the standard of practice of small scale industries in economically developed countries. The small scale enterprise in Nigeria seems too stagnant, less adventurous than developed countries. Meanwhile in economically developed countries small scale business are better organized and coordinated than in the developing countries because the governments appreciate their significance to the national economy.

       In the hospitality industry there are more small scale businesses than the medium and large. Most of the small scale hospitality businesses are essentially one person’s operation which makes such companies sole proprietorship business ventures. The profit of the business is reaped solely by the owner; this includes people or an individual who wants to invest in that type of business. It is also the easiest form of business ownership to organize in the hospitality industry because there is relatively small capital to use for setting up small scale hospitality business.

The owner also has managerial freedom and this will help the owner employing his or her incentive to the maximum. Those business owners are seen as entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are risk avoiders, not necessarily risk takers; they appear to be risk takers because they see market differently than the other forms of businesses. They can be referred to as risk eliminators because they seem to methodically eliminate all the factors that might prevent them from getting into a particular market (Thomas and Norman, 2011).

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PROMOTIONAL PROBLEMS IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF HALL MARK RESORT NEW HAVEN ENUGU).

PROMOTIONAL PROBLEMS IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF HALL MARK RESORT NEW HAVEN ENUGU).

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In hospitality industries promotion is a key ingredients in marketing campaign. Promotion has contributed a lot to boost a better image of both major and minor hotels in every part of the world. It does communicate to its publics; the type of services it renders, and also believes in fair deals and considers the interest of its customers and various publics. Hospitality industries services, pricing, as well as promotional policies and strategies constitute elements of its promotion – mix.

Hotels provide meals, drinks, attractions, accommodation etc., to the general public or persons in transit especially people traveling to places where they have neither their own homes nor any relation to cater for their needs. Such persons will like to know few things about the hotels in their transitory area. In other words, they may like to know about available hotels, the categories of such hotels, the room and suit fares, and the type of food served, the necessary comfort customers are accorded – with, the game that is both indoor and outdoor games available and perhaps and other special feature that make such hotels appealing to the sojourners in transit.

These characteristics of hotels are boosted by promotions of various types in so many countries of the world. In Nigeria, major hotels live like Sheraton, Eko Hotels, Federal Palace Hotels, NICON NUGA, to mention just a few of them, have made impressionable image both nationally and internationally and the praises go to promotions that have heralded their various characteristics, class placement status to the public generally. Without promotion, the image of their hotels and their excellent services would not be so diffused to the public. For instance recently in Enugu, some hotels have come up with incentive – type promotions to attract new terriers, to reward loyal customers and to increase the patronage rates of occasional users. One of such hotels is Hallmark Hotel situated in Enugu, promoted its hotel as (10%) Ten percent discount awaits customers that patronizes its hotel superbly built, and lavishly furnished with ultra-modern guest houses, with about sixteen (16) air conditioned rooms each with its exclusive toilets, cold/hot shower, stand-by water storage tanks to ensure uninterrupted water supply; a lounge with well stocked bar and assorted types of edibles including Chinese foods available; a well cemented car park adorned with beautiful flowers, and powerful stand-by generators to ensure uninterrupted power supply..

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The study is aimed at finding the importance as well of promotional problems experienced in hospitality industries. This is an organization that the principal objective is to make profit. To realize this objective, the business concern must be prepared to uphold the marketing concept of the supremacy of the consumer.

Marketing promotion contributes a great deal in upholding the supremacy of the customers which involves identification and satisfaction of specified needs. Hospitality industry like hotel-ling is a competitive business and must endeavour to identify and satisfy customers’ needs to be able to stay in business.

There are some promotional problems in hospitality industry business in Enugu State. The problems are the factors that hinder promotion of hotel services. One of such factor is income. The income level of both customers and proprietors will hinder the work of marketing promotion on hotels. Low income earners, for example may find it difficult to cope with high prices of hotel services which happened as a result of marketing promotion carried out which invariably attracted high prices on them.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The study is aimed at critical analysis of the promotional problems experience in hospitality industries like hotels. With the above problem statements, the main purpose or objectives of this research work will be as follows:-

  1. Finding out to what extent the selected hotels in Enugu State have gone in the application of advertising as one of the tools for marketing promotions on hospitality industry.
  2. Finding out what benefit have accrued to those hotels that applied advertisement in their business.
  3. Knowing what the customers have gained from hotel services because of the use of promotional element like advertising by the hotels in Enugu State.
  4. Understanding the mode of advertising mostly used by hotels in Enugu State.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In pursuance of the above objectives, questions of this nature will be asked by the researcher.

  1. How have these hotel promotions created awareness to present and

potential customers to the hotels?.

  1. If any awareness has been created through advertising, how have the profit margin reflected this awareness?
  2. Are the hotels actually providing the services that they advertise/promote? If yes, does the patronage measures or reflects the promotion/advertising input?

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PREPARATION OF POULET DG

PREPARATION OF POULET DG

ABSTRACT

This project is on the preparation of Poulet DG. The work focused on several method of preparation of the food. The recipe of how the food would be prepared is presented in this study. A comprehensive lists of the ingredients used for the making of the food is shown. Conclusion was drawn and recommendations were given.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Cameroonian cuisine is one of the most varied in Africa due to its location on the crossroads between the North, West, and centre of the continent; added to this is the profound influence of French food, a legacy of the colonial era. Staple foods in Cameroon include cassava, yam, rice, plantain, potato, maize, beans and millet. The French introduced French bread and Italian pasta, which are not as widely consumed. The main source of protein for most inhabitants is fish, poultry and meat. Chicken and plantains are two important ingredients used a lot in the African cuisine. And a favourite way to enjoy both of them may be the Cameroonian recipe called Poulet DG (Humphery, 2010).

Poulet DG is a casserole of chicken, plantains and vegetables. This recipe is not only delicious but it can also be very healthy if less amount of oil is used. This dish dates from the 80s and comes from Bamiléké (in the western region of Cameroon) (Mead, 2011). “DG” in DG chicken comes from “CEO” which implies chicken executive officer. It is so named because originally it was reserved for people of a certain social importance. However, presently poulet DG is completely democratized, especially as ingredients falling within its composition are accessible to all.

Therefore, this project is on preparation of chicken plantain poulet DG.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The poulet DG is a Cameroonian chicken dish. It is a chicken stew (fried) served with a cocktail of plantain chips, vegetables (carrots, peppers, green beans) and various seasonings (herbs, cube). It is a simple recipe, requiring little exotic ingredients. Hence, the need for adequate knowledge and skill in preparing poulet DG would help anyone who intends to prepare this meal.

This project work intends to solve the problems and difficulties that would be faced when preparing poulet DG.

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main focus of this project is on the preparation of poulet dg. Therefore, the specific objectives are as follows;

  1. To examine the origin of poulet DG food
  2. To determine the ingredients used for poulet DG preparation
  3. To adopt a method of preparation of poulet DG
  4. To show the recipe of poulet DG

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION

  1. Where did poulet DG food originated from?
  2. What are the ingredients used for poulet DG preparation?
  3. What method will be adopted for the preparation of poulet DG?
  4. Where is the recipe of poulet DG?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

          The benefit of this study cannot be overemphasized. This is because a good food rich in balance diet is a necessity for all humans. Poulet DG is a rich source of balance diet. This work describes the recipes of poulet DG food. Hence, shows everyone the simple steps to take in preparing the food. This will eliminate the difficulties that would have been encountered by any person (especially in Nigeria) who intends to prepare it with the use of the steps that will be described in the methodology.

        Also, it will serve as a research material for students who would like to embark on similar research work as it will serve as literatures.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

          The project is centered on the preparation of poulet DG. The scope of the study is focused on chicken and plantain as the main source of the food. This work will also look at the brief history of poulet DG. It will describe the steps taken for easy preparation of poulet DG through a comprehensive recipes.

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THE IMPACT OF ONLINE FRAUD COMMITED IN THE CAUSE OF RESERVATION IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF MIRAGE HOTEL ENUGU)

THE IMPACT OF ONLINE FRAUD COMMITTED IN THE CAUSE OF RESERVATION IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF MIRAGE HOTEL ENUGU)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The use of online services or software with Internet access to defraud victims or to otherwise take advantage of them has become paramount in the society we live in today. A very common form of online fraud is the distribution of rogue security software. Internet services can be used to present fraudulent solicitations to prospective victims, to conduct fraudulent transactions, or to transmit the proceeds of fraud to financial institutions or to others connected with the scheme. Hospitality online transaction is not left out. Presently most hotels, resorts and tourism centers engaged in online transaction/payment such as room reservation and other services. Online fraud can occur in during the cause of reservation transaction. Online fraud could result from chat rooms, email,message boards, or on websites.

Hospitality reservation online fraud could occur in two ways. The first is when a criminal approaches the hotel management for online reservation and proposes a business transaction, and then uses fraudulent means to pay for it, using such as a stolen or fake credit card. As a result, the hotel management do not get paid for the transaction. The hotel who accepts credit cards may receive a chargeback for the transaction and lose money as a result.

Secondly, the most common fraud is taken place using credit cards this is when the account numbers and pin numbers are obtained by malicious people (hotel staff) when a transaction is done and they use this information to withdraw money from the guest’s. , e.g.: a person named Kushela does a transaction using a credit card with hotel staff. During this transaction people (hotel staff) may steal this guest’s identity and act as him and request payment to an offshore account with an excuse that isn’t verified to be true and just an excuse to steal the said credit card.

Therefore, the impact of online fraud committed in the course of reservation in the hospitality industry has resulted to loss of trust, for both hoteliers and guests for each other.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Online bookings for reservation in the Hospitality Industry are paramount. Hence, the increase of online fraud in course of reservation bookings online. Criminal activity involving the perpetration of a fraud through the use of the computer or the internet can take many different forms. One common form includes “hacking,” in which a perpetrator uses sophisticated technological tools to remotely access a secure computer or internet location. A second common criminal activity involves illegally intercepting an electronic transmission not intended for the interceptor. This may result in the interception of private information such as passwords, credit card information, or other types of so-called identity theft.

The impact of online fraud on the Hospitality Industry has resulted to fear, distrust, loss of profit in business, bankruptancy etc.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This project work is aimed at studying the impact of online fraud committed in the cause of reservation in the Hospitality Industry with special reference to Mirage Hotel Enugu. Therefore, the objectives are as follows;

  1. To find out whether online fraud has been committed in the cause of reservation in Mirage Hotel Enugu.
  2. To determine various ways online fraud are perpetrated in the hospitality Industry
  3. To examine the impact of online fraud in the Hospitality Industry.
  4. To suggest ways of prevention of online fraud in the Hospitality Industry.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. Has online fraud been committed in the cause of reservation in Mirage Hotel Enugu?
  2. What are the various ways online fraud are perpetrated in the hospitality Industry?
  3. What impact does online fraud has in the Hospitality Industry.
  4. What are the ways of prevention of online fraud in the Hospitality Industry?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Online fraud has made it for people not to trust one another in business transaction. Therefore, the study will help to reveal techniques and methods to be applied to solve and prevent the problems of online fraud especially in the Hospitality Industry.

Also this work will be of benefit to students of Hospitality Management because it will serve as a secondary material for those who intend to carryout similar research.

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THE EFFECT OF STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS IN MANAGEMENT OF HOTELS (A CASE STUDY OF WHITELEAF HOTEL ENUGU)

THE EFFECT OF STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS IN MANAGEMENT OF HOTELS (A CASE STUDY OF WHITELEAF HOTEL ENUGU)

CHAPTER ONE

INRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Communication may be defined as the activity aiming to constitute an arrangement to convey information as one of the fundamental pillars of social life and organizational structure as well as the activity of forming relationships between organizations and groups. A healthy communication is needed for people to know and understand each other better, to create better functioning organizations and to resolve problems easier (Ruck & Welch, 2012). If an adequate importance is not placed on communication problems in an organization, it may not be possible, for example, for people to have better relationships within that organization. Communication has various definitions and descriptions in the literature. Writers have suggested that communication is the activity of exchanging messages or thoughts through speaking, pointing or writing; on reciprocal terms, however, they define it as a message exchange process and they suggest that communication event happens when messages have been completely conveyed. Communication has also been defined as the process of conveying a message containing information from a source to a recipient and has been indicated to be a term expressing the exchange of feelings and thoughts between people (Okay & Okay, 2011).

Human factor comes forth as the most important factor for the organizations in tourism sector due to its labor-intensive quality. Communication is considered as an important factor in tourism establishments and especially in accommodation establishments where human factor is significantly important for the constancy and regularity of the activity of workers as well as sustainability and efficiency of organizations. An accommodation establishment which does not use communication channels properly may not be able to conduct operations regularly and correctly as well, since this specific sector provides services for human beings by human beings as a labor-intensive sector. Human beings who are positively or negatively affected by any behavior, spoken word and attitude make their decisions as a result of these interactions.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Communication and public relations is one of the fundamental characteristics differentiating human beings from all other living creatures. Brownell (2010) has pointed out the importance of employees and the obligation of the management to communicate effectively with their employees in accommodation establishments and has indicated that the need for effective communication skills could increase even more due to the newly emerging international quality of labor in tourism sector and continuous changes in customer demand. He has also emphasized the quality of “racing against the clock” which is specific to accommodation establishments as well as the increased importance of timely and clear communication between employees in this specific sector.

Frontline employees play an important role in connecting with and providing service to customers, and forming long-term relationships with them (Kusluvan, 2013). Employees’ understanding and perception of the information related to the work to be done in accommodation establishments, and the clarity of employees’ roles within the organization, in other words clear expression of the expectation of the organization from the employees play very significant roles in the relationship between employees and customers. The employee who has all the information needed for the work to be done, would be able to increase the quality of service by managing relationships with customers more effectively due to increased self-confidence and would contribute to the positive perception of customers with regard to the service quality.

As one of the determinants of success in tourism establishments as in all kinds of other organizations, communication is the fundamental condition enabling the coordination of organizational functioning.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

          Specific objectives are as follows;

  1. To find out whether strategic communication and public relation is adopted in the management of the hotel
  2. To examine the strategies used in communication and public relation in the management of the hotel
  3. To investigate the effect of strategic communication and public relations in management of the hotel
  4. To determine the benefits of strategic communication and public relations in management of hotels.

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THE IMPACT OF SELF-SERVICE AS A METHOD OF ENTERTAINMENING GUESTS IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY

THE IMPACT OF SELF-SERVICE AS A METHOD OF ENTERTAINMENING GUESTS IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Consumers have grown tired of incompetent and inexperienced staff, long waiting lines and closure of outlets at times they prefer to do business. To overcome such frustrations, an increasing number of industries are choosing to provide self-service technology options for their patrons. Self-checkout at retail stores and supermarkets, pay-at-the-pump gas stations, self-check  in at airports, online banking and stock trading, and a variety of other applications (Ref).

The hospitality industry has also adopted the transition from customer service to self service. As touchscreen terminals become more user-friendly they become capable of handling more complicated tasks. Lodging providers, fast-food operators, private clubs, fine dining restaurants, casino operations and others are trading face-to-face encounters for face-to-monitor inter­activity at a variety of unattended points of sale (Ref……..). Will this trend continue? Which forms of self-service technology will endure? Will current technologies converge to form a new self-service platform?

Self service as a model and a market trend has gained momentum as guests in the hospitality industry increasingly accept and often prefer self service to assisted service. Most businesses report self-service applications lead to a reduction in operating expenses while markedly improving customer entertainment and satisfaction (Ref……..). For example, today, full service banking means that the bank provides a wide range of technological alternatives designed to discour­age customers from interacting with the bank’s tellers. Applications like Internet banking, ATMs and interactive voice response (IVR) systems have become popular self-service alternatives. While it appears bank customers clearly value the convenience, consistency and self-control of automated transactions, the future for hospitality industry applications is not as clear. Similar to other retailers, hoteliers and restaurateurs appreciate the extended coverage, lower operating costs and reliability of automated transactions. As a result, opportunities to conduct online and on-premises self-service applications are welcomed alternatives even for an industry that prides itself on personal hospitality. However, it is been noted that guests in the hospitality industry sees self-services as entertainment and this has left a positive experience for the guests.

A positive guest experience leaves an impact on customers, and can make the difference in a repeat visit. As customer expectations increases the hospitality organizations must not simply respond to their customers’ needs and wants, they must go above and beyond expectations from a staffing interaction and service level. A dedicated effort through technology and service to achieve these positive touch-points will pay dividends in the end through increased customer loyalty and traffic.

This research highlights the need for going beyond traditional customer touch-points in hotels, resorts, casinos, and restaurants to establish customer entertainment through self-service.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          Most hospitality organizations have been implementing self-service channels with a goal of reducing costs, increasing customer entertainment, satisfaction and loyalty, and reaching new customer segments. No matter how successful the self-service channel and entertaining, organizations rarely eliminate traditional personal service when they introduce a self-service channel. Instead, hospitality organizations typically maintain a portfolio of service-delivery channels which allows guests to select the way they interact (Ref…………).

According to (Ref…………) the hospitality industry has made considerable strides in using information technology (IT) to improve service efficiency and effectiveness. IT-enabled supplementary services and after-sales service foster differentiation, which helps set a company apart from its competitors. In addition to the well-known web-based applications, the hospitality industry has innovated in a number of ways to better serve customers; for example, Sheraton Hotels and Resorts and Harrah’s Entertainment have introduced Microsoft Surface, a 30-inch, tabletop computer display that guests can use for such services as 360-degree satellite maps and tools to search for local city information, a digital jukebox, and a photo library of Sheraton properties. Less radical, but perhaps more common customer service IT applications include mobile-based reservations, kiosk based check-in, and e-folios. These service innovations have been found to improve service and guest entertainment.

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THE ROLE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HOSPITALITY OUTFIT (A CASE STUDY OF WHITELEAF HOTELS ENUGU AND ZODIAC HOTELS ENUGU)

THE ROLE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HOSPITALITY OUTFIT (A CASE STUDY OF WHITELEAF HOTELS ENUGU AND ZODIAC HOTELS ENUGU)

ABSTRACT

Modern technology (it) come to spread everywhere it can be likened to a huge web, connecting all area by change. We may make significant changes in our process of doing business by using machines, but it is the change in every nature of what we do, brought about by the social change induced through the machines, that is the real meaning of technology to business.

As a result of the far – reaching changes in the technology. We can no longer think or talk usefully of just a computer. we must talk in the brother terminology of modern technology.

In speaking of so wide area it is necessary to concentrate once rain areas as with view in examining in detail the effect of modern technology (IT) in today’s business performance with a study of White Leaf Hotels and Zodiac Hotels Enugu.

With this in mind coupled with requirements of a project, this work has been divided into five chapters

In chapter one, an introduction not just into the topic at hand was made but also into the organization being used for a study – zenith international hospitality outfit.

In chapter two, due to its wideness, I decided to concentrate on certain areas, I am going to discuss, primarily, the application of hospitality modern technology (IT), I will also talk and discuss how management come to know and increase its capabilities in modern technology (IT) (through training, development etc) and how and why our government should enact policies bordering round this new revolution this is to mention but a few.

In chapter three, the method of research used will be brought to light, the presentation and analysis of collected data will be computed in chapter four.

In chapter five, I‘ll then state my finding and recommendation. This is where this research work will be concluded.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The evolution of computers is particularly attractive to depict since the current technology trend is effective and efficient through it. The hospitality outfits have widely adopted modern technology to reduce costs, enhance operational efficiency, and most importantly to improve service quality and customer experience. The link of computer to modern equipment that is used in hospitality outfits cannot be overemphasized. This is because the integration of computer to these equipment will help facilitate efficiency. Some of this equipment includes phones, emergency lighting, website, internet, automatic washing machine, microwave, drink dispensers, smart card doors, air conditions satellite etc. Singh and Kasavana (2005) predicted that future modern technology applications will probably rely on computer such as wireless infrastructure, and that online purchasing with cashless payments will become more commonplace. Providing services at the destination, now that mobile phones have become a necessity in this era of wireless communication (Langelund, 2007), cultural tourism has reacted by introducing multimedia museum guides that use mobile device screens to enhance the tourist experience (Stock, & Zancanaro, 2005). Mobile computers will allow the personalization of services according to preferences, language skills, and depth of information required. Hence, Buhalis and O’Connor (2005) further suggested that e-tourism in the future will be focused on consumer-centric technologies, and that organizations need to adopt modern technology to be able to offer this level of service and remain competitive and innovative.

A good recommender system should merge trust, exploratory browsing, and personal factors to suggest suitable solutions that will meet personal criteria and preferences. Semantic web technology could be used to create a tourism information system that allows tourists to extract the necessary data through query management facilities (Bergamaschi etal, 2005). Knowledge management of this type would enable the lodging industry to centralize their application system and would allow tourists to locate their required destination information in a convenient and easy way (Pyo, 2005).

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THE ROLE OF MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

THE ROLE OF MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The role that the media is playing in the various aspects of life is becoming increasingly greater each day, especially in spheres like social interaction, and cultural and educational aspects of our life. As archaeological monuments can articulate the traditions, customs and heritage of the past, the media can in its turn clarify today’s values and civilizations of the different countries and hence attempt to correct any widespread erroneous information. Both the media and archaeological monuments have messages and missions with various dimensions. The media contributes greatly in activating tourist attractions.

Before discussing the role of the media as an instrument in tourism policy, it should be noted that, broadly speaking, the relationship between tourism and the media is one of inclusion. When speaking of tourism policy that focuses on specific areas of tourism, the media become a mediator between tourism and society, meaning that they mediate in a process of conveying tourism products from the producers to the consumers.

Media communications technologies are imperative for frontline investments for sustainable globalised tourism development indicators. The powerful effects of media communications can bring sweeping changes of attitudes and behaviour among the key actors in local, national and global tourism for peace, security and sustainable development. The social, cultural, economic, political and environmental benefits of tourism would usher in monumental and historic changes in the country. As the verdict goes, the media has a social responsibility to enhance the blending of local, national and international cultural values for enriched politics, society and economy. Public communications strategy based on access to quality information and knowledge will drive the new global tourism through partnership initiatives such as: peace and security, conflict resolutions for eco tourism, quality tourism, Joint ventures, technology transfer, etc.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Most hospitality industries have been implementing media and communication for the development of the tourism industry. Development in communication is one of the best ways to go in developing tourism. This strategy involves the planned communication component of programmes designed to change the attitudes and behaviour of specific groups of people in specific ways through person to person communication, mass media, traditional media or community communication. It is aims at the delivery of services and the interface between service deliverers and beneficiaries where people are empowered to by informed choice, education, motivation and facilitation effecting the expected changes. This can be done by media advocacy targeting all key stakeholders involved in the tourism industry.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main purpose for the study is to explore the role of media and communication in tourism and development in Nigeria. Therefore, the objectives for the research are;

  1. To determine the role of media and communication in tourism development
  2. To examine the impact the impact so far
  3. To examine the economic benefit of media and communication in tourism development
  4. To determine ways of improving the use of media and communication in the tourism development

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THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This research is based on the role of human resource management in the hospitality industry with focus on its performance in south eastern Nigeria. The major problem that prompted this research is streamlined into ineffective and inefficient human resource management in the hospitality industry. The objective of the study was to identify the best way of using human resource management in the hospitality industry to ensure effective and efficient performance. The research adopted indebt survey method for data collection. Chi-square was used for data analysis. In the cause of the work, the researcher identified that the lapses in the hospitality can be said to have been caused by many factors amongst which are lack of industrial relation, motivational incentives, poor remuneration etc. Conclusively, the researcher based on the findings of the study made recommendations which include establishment of functional human resources management department. Furthermore there is need to employ skillful manager that knows the nitty-gritty of personnel policy should be formulated which will incorporate job security for workers opportunity for growth and development of every work to help to achieve self actualization.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The subject matter of the research focuses on the roles of human resources management in the hospitality industry performance. Managing human resources in the hospitality industry presents special challenges, including highly diverse employee backgrounds and roles, or ever-present focus on guest services, and organizational structures that often diverge from generic corporate models. Human resource management in the Hospitality Industry provides the definitive guide to successfully employing people in a hospitality organization.

Human Resources Dilemmas faced by Managers in the Hospitality Industry, include the under listed:

  1. Understanding the needs of a broad employee group, from hourly workers with tip credit eligibility questions to high level accountants ensuring Sar banes-oxley compliance.
  2. How hospitality managers who must act as one-person HR department can make effective decision and understand the consequences to themselves, their workers and employers.
  3. Working with Labour Unions in the hospitality industry using the labour-related legislation that affects the industry.
  4. Managing employees in a global hospitality enterprise.

Effective human resource management is pivotal in any business or non-business organization where people are grouped collectively for the purpose of achieving organizational goals and objectives. It is true that some people adhere to the fact that finance is the life wire of any organization but without human resource, finance cannot combine other factors of production to achieve the desired goal of the organization. Human resource is so important and should be seen as invaluable assets of a firm as asserts by Agbato (1980:27) that a company’s most important resource is human resources. The human resource is the personnel and personnel department who staff the firm with the desired workers or managers. Their importance cannot be over-emphasized. Any company’s success, on the final analysis, depends mostly on the quality of the people who work for it, that is personnel or human resource. This, of course, includes workers and managers at all levels in the organization from top to bottom. It is a common business fact that a financed firm or even the best equipped plant will not function properly or make good profit if its workers and managers are incompetent.

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SELF-SERVICE TECHNOLOGY IN HOTEL RECEPTION

SELF-SERVICE TECHNOLOGY IN HOTEL RECEPTION

Abstract:

Services have been the interest of research since the 1960’s. After the 1990’s the development of technology became an interesting research area along with other service research. There are two customer service concepts that this study is discussing. These are traditional human based customer service and self-service technology based customer service. According to earlier studies, high service quality is a result of human interaction where people are seen as the key to company’s success. However, since technology has had its impact on services the overall image has changed companies as well as customers. In the 21st century self-service technology has become a new interest of research.

The purpose of this study is to find out whether Finnish young adults choose to use self-service technology instead of interaction with a receptionist in a hotel reception. Furthermore, purpose of the study is to discover what Finnish young adults want from the customer service nowadays. The research method of this study is a quantitative research with survey method of the primary research. Questionnaire is designed to find out customers’ expectations, experiences and future concept views. The sample was young Finnish adults and the data was collected through online and as a paper version and finally analysed with statistics. Results were positively surprising. Majority of the respondents would use self-service technology (SST) instead of traditional human interaction. However human interaction was also revealed to be the most important aspect of customer service. Therefore, this study suggests that instead of replacing traditional customer service entirely with self-service technology, it would be offered as additional service concept in future receptions.

1. INTRODUCTION

We are living in a service society. It is the most popular employment sector in the whole of Europe including Finland. For a long period of time services have been the only sector in the economy that has continuously brought employment and productivity to society. (See, for example Pesonen, 2002, p.17 & Tuorila, 2002, p.1) Services comprise the major part of the world’s economy. (Kandampully, 2002, p.5) Yet, the idea of a service society seems distant to Finnish people and rather than a service society, Finland could be called as self-service society. Finnish people have always been very independent, hardworking and initiative. And the reason for this has probably been the history of labour shortage and lack of services. (See, for example, Tuorila, 2002, p.1) Even though self-service is common in everyday life in Finland, only a small number of hotels in Finland have adopted the system. It is no surprise in this global world that technological advances have their own effect on service industry. Service organisations have gone through enormous change in relation to service transactions. The traditional service transaction is called human-based interaction and it happens between a service employee and a customer. Yet some tourism organisations such as airports, tourist information centres and even hotels have adopted new service transaction alternatives to serve tourists. These alternatives to traditional service systems are self-service technologies (STTs). (See, for example, Oh, Jeong & Baloglu, 2011, p.692)

The importance of technology will continue to grow every day and in future it is likely that all employees with simple work tasks will be replaced with automated machines that can easily take care of the same tasks humans used to do. This can eventually be the case with hotel receptions in Finland too. Nevertheless even if technology will take over many areas of work, skills that only people have will be even more appreciated. These skills are sense making, critical thinking, decision making and social intelligence. Human skills are indispensable and the question is: Will technology ever be able to interact with customers the way people can? (Institute for the Future, 2001, p.3-8)

Every business needs innovations and changes in their functions to keep up with the competitive and busy world of business. Companies need to differentiate from other competitors and they need to have something special to offer in order to remain successful. Hotel businesses are already unique as and differ greatly from other service businesses. In hotels, customers are guests who use services that are provided by the employees who are hosts rather than salesmen. The host’s task is to take care of their guests, make sure they are satisfied, happy and want to come back. (Tisch & Weber, 2007, p.44) Hotels’ main purpose is to provide quality services to customers and be as profitable as possible. Customers are at the epicentre of the whole business and without them there is no business to run. (Alakoski, Hörkkö & Lappalainen, 2006, p.11) All Hotels today have a common problem, how to satisfy customers enough. One reason for this struggle is the contemporary hectic world which has changed customers’ needs. They are not comfortable with getting services that only satisfy their basic needs anymore, such as hearing the information about hotel services at the reception before getting the keys to the room. In other words getting only information that is needed in order to utilise the services available. Instead, customers have become greedier with everything. Instead of just getting a service they want an experience with the service. (Tisch & Weber, 2007, 2-3)

There are many different ways for companies to differentiate. Many service strategies are based on price and the idea that saving money is the best option for success. But there are other ways to differentiate especially for hotels that are heavily dependent on satisfying customers. All hotels have the same purpose; to accommodate customers and make them satisfied in a way that builds a strong and loyal relationship with them. (Martinez & Hobbi, 2008 p.66-68) Because of all the hotels having the same purpose, the competition is huge. Differentiation is hard but with a right strategy it can give lots of opportunities with creating experiences that fulfil customers’ needs. (Tisch & Weber, 2007, p.2-3)

Another problem though, almost everything can be copied. For example a hotel having strategy based on price will give a competitive advantage for a while but sooner or later other hotels are imitating this. Hotel service is all about customer service and focusing on that can be a key to success because every service is unique and therefore cannot be copied. (Tuulaninemi, 2011, p.18) Therefore, building a successful customer service is a good way to differentiate (Martinez & Hobbi, 2008).

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THE IMPACT OF QUALITY CONTROL METHODS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITHIN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

THE IMPACT OF QUALITY CONTROL METHODS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITHIN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

In pursuit of better employee performance and customer satisfaction, organizations are looking for and investing in strategies to enhance output. Heterogeneity being a key characteristic of services, service firms are determined to optimize their employees’ output in order to ensure that their customers are always contented as a result of consuming quality delivered services (James and Mona, 2011). Service firms are thus implementing Quality Control (QC) in their operations so as to ensure that their employees always perform their tasks right the first time and that their customers’ expectations are always met or exceeded after consumption of the firm’s products or services.

Quality control techniques, their capabilities and limitations should never by themselves dictate the employees’ performance. It is by weaving these quality control techniques into the fabric of the employees operations that a company can bring the most value from its employee performance as observed by Aquilano and Chase (1991). A service firm that therefore integrates quality control systems directly into its employees’ operations stands the best chance to optimize its employee goals, and thus increase customer satisfaction. Therefore, the best model for better employee performance is to fully integrate all its quality control systems and its employees operations into one set of intimately linked processes.

With customers in the service market being not only cautious with the quality of products and services they consume, but also in the manner in which the latter is delivered, and them being also key participants in the delivery system of the service, organizations are forced to implement quality control techniques in their operations in order to assist and ensure that their employees perform their respective tasks the right way the first time. Quality control thus assists and ensures that the employees are able to meet or exceed their customers’ expectations of the service or product by delivering the services or products effectively, that is in the quality expected by the customers (Aquilano and Chase, 1991).

1.1.1    Quality Control

Quality control is a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a manufactured products or performed service adheres to a defined set of quality criteria or meets the requirements of the customer (Oakland, 1986). According to Evans and Lindsay (2002), quality control is a management system for initiating and coordinating quality development, quality maintenance and quality improvement in various departments of design and manufacturing, for achieving the twin objectives of economical production and customer satisfaction.

In pursuit of efficiency in operational performance by organizations in terms of reduction of the total cost of quality, organizations recognize the need to implement quality control in their operations especially at the point of manufacture or operation, and not only at the final product or service stage. Organizations have it right to apply cost-effective control techniques to ensure that all goods and services are generated correctly the first time. The logic is not to ask whether the job has been done correctly, instead the prudent question to always ask first is: can we do the job correctly? (Oakland, 1986).

With increased competition and consumer awareness of quality, organizations are implementing quality control techniques in their operations to ensure that they perform their operations, production and delivery of their goods or services, correctly the first time. Examples of quality control techniques that can be implemented by organizations to ensure efficiency and effectiveness of its operations in terms of providing products and services that are dependable, satisfactory and economical, ensuring economic production of products and delivery of services of uniform quality acceptable to the customer, and preventing the occurrence of defect products or service, include; Quality at the source, Inspection, Statistical Quality Control (SQC), Quality Circle, and Total Quality Management (TQM) (Barnes, 2008).

1.1.2 Employee Performance

Effective performance management is designed to enhance performance, identify performance requirements, provide feedback relevant to those requirements and assist with career development (Ainsworth, Smith and Millership, 2008). The idea is that performance management is best served by developing a system that is interactive and capable of resolving performance related issues. Organizations make investments in their human capital to improve performance and target higher niches in the market through delivery of high quality services (Appelbaum, Bailey and Berg, 2000).Employee performance affects the overall performance of an organization and its bottom-line (Purcell and Hutchison 2007).

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