MATERNAL INSTINCTS AND ECONOMIC REALITIES IN NIGERIA: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

MATERNAL INSTINCTS AND ECONOMIC REALITIES IN NIGERIA: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

This research work investigated and provided solutions to the problem of maternal instincts and economic realities in Nigeria. The study came as a result of the prevalent issues of balancing work with home care. It has been observed that women especially in Nigeria find it difficult to balance work with home care and this is because of the harsh economic condition in the country that demands women to work and at the same time take care of their homes. This has been difficult for many of them especially the new couples to cope with. The followings were the research objectives: to determine the prevalence of maternal instinct and economic realities in Nigeria, to assess out the effects of maternal instinct on their households in Nigeria and to inquire the reasons for maternal instinct and economic realities in Nigeria.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

In cross-sectional relationships income has been seen to be significantly correlated with survival, both within and between countries. Preston (1976), in particular, using data collected from three separate countries for three separate decades of the 20th century, showed that at any point in time there was a positive significant relationship between national income per capita and life expectancy. Several studies for example the work of Cochrane et al. (1980) came to the same conclusion. Child mortality has been found to be directly related to the economic status of the family, but the measure of economic status used has not always been the same. The working mother has to keep the convincing stance that she is working not just for her own interest, but also for the sustenance of the family. (Wilson, 2006). Working women changed the image of a good mother from one who stayed at home to one who also took on extra burden for her family’s sustenance.

 

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

MATERNAL INSTINCTS AND ECONOMIC REALITIES IN NIGERIA: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE NEED FOR EFFECTIVE POLICIES AS A PANACEA FOR SUSTAINABLE HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE NEED FOR EFFECTIVE POLICIES AS A PANACEA FOR SUSTAINABLE HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

Managing sustainable tourism is recognized as an important aspect of tourism planning, is now receiving even greater attention. In managing sustainable tourism therefore, the adoption of planning and management techniques and process in developing sustainable goals and objectives is very paramount. This was what motivated the researcher to investigate a comparative study on the need for effective policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry. The followings are the objectives of the study: to survey the prevalence of effective policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry in the country, to inquire the impact of effective policies on the development of the hospitality and tourism industry in Nigeria and to analyze efforts taken by the government to ensure effective policies for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry in the country.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background to the Study

Tourism and hospitality industry is increasingly gaining dominance in the socioeconomic development literature as a recognized tool for achieving sustainable development especially in developing countries. Its potential to contribute to sustainable development was emphasized during the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development by launching the ‘Sustainable Tourism –Eliminating Poverty (ST–EP)’. Economic and social development has been the driving force contributing to the growth of tourism, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. The United Nations Development Programme identifies tourism as a powerful engine for accelerating socio-economic development and safeguarding biodiversity and cultural heritage in developing countries. Moreover, Gossling et al. observe that the use of tourism as a means of achieving sustainable development has been the major focus of several development agencies, including Department for International Development, World Tourism Organization (WTO), the United Nations World Tourism Organization, World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. The need for policies as a panacea for sustainable hospitality and tourism industry cannot be over emphasized.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE NEED FOR EFFECTIVE POLICIES AS A PANACEA FOR SUSTAINABLE HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

USES OF CONVENIENCE FOOD IN CATERING INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

USES OF CONVENIENCE FOOD IN CATERING INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

It would be wiser to begin this study with the mentioning of advancement in technology which has changed virtually the way people think, eat and select the choice of their meal. Due to the changes in the nature of life and the increasingly complex nature of people’s business and means of survival. It became imperative that foods that are consumed by people have changed from traditionally prepared foods to convenience foods.

The word convenience foods can be defined as any group of foods that requires little or no preparation and they can be served either hot or cold. Convenience foods may also include foods that have been processed from their raw state so that it becomes almost edible any may not requires any addition cooking.

These convenience foods have found their way into homes, offices, schools and even the hospitality industry. For the purpose of our study, the study shall be limited to the uses and effects of convenience foods in hospitality industry.

Due to the problem of meeting with the demand of coping with the complex situation of people’s job, an average consumer wants an array of food products that creates les work and allows them to spend more time seeking enjoyments, whether it is a special moment with their kids or with their job.

  Nowadays, it is usual to shop occasionally and to maintain stores of dried, canned and frozen foods which can be used to prepare a meal quickly. Readymade dishes containing a variety of ingredients can now be purchased, saving time and effort. Some dishes which would require skill in preparation are very successful in the convenience form.

Convenience foods can be classified into three basic types:

1.       Canned foods: They are easy to store in a dry cupboard and they have a long-shelf life-they can either be served cold are:- sardines, fruit, ham and examples of those needed to be reheated are: vegetables, stew meat,  etc.

2.       Dehydrated foods: These are light weight and easy to carry whole meals available are: and dry fish, dry meat, spaghetti etc.

Some dehydrated foods can be reconstituted instantly. Examples are powdered coffee and milk.

3.       Frozen foods: They are probably nearest in quality to fresh foods and we have a wide variety of foods in its category which are:- meat, poultry, fish,  vegetables etc.

 

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

USES OF CONVENIENCE FOOD IN CATERING INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

TRAVEL LIFESTYLE AND OUTBOUND TOURISM INTENTION IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

TRAVEL LIFESTYLE AND OUTBOUND TOURISM INTENTION IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

The travellers’ segment is an emerging market for today’s travel and hospitality industry. Yet, there is negligence in this lucrative market segment. It is common that most countries including Nigerians fail to collect statistics regarding travellers’ holiday patterns. The study of past literature on tourists’ holiday decision paves the way to explore the Nigerian travel lifestyles and outbound tourism intentions. Although most of the findings are helpful to understand the travellers market, the related study of Nigerian travellers is limited. This study intends to fill the gap by examining the relationship between travel lifestyles and outbound tourism intentions of Nigeria. Hence, this will be significantly helpful for marketers in developing positioning strategies in order to provide a total tourism experience for the potential travellers.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Introduction

Nigeria, one of the leading oil producers in Africa, recorded stable economic growth during the review period, driven by growth in both the oil and agricultural and service sectors. Its gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 6.4% in 2013, according to International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates. In April 2014, the Nigerian government overhauled the GDP-calculation process by updating the base year from 1990 to 2010. Rebasing made Nigeria the largest economy in Africa, surpassing South Africa

Tourism in Nigeria is mainly built around its natural attractions and the numerous festivals celebrated in the country throughout the year. The Durbar festival is celebrated annually in many cities in Nigeria and is a major attraction for domestic tourists. Other festivals include the Argungu Fishing Festival, the Festival of Light, the Calabar Carnival, the Eyo Festival, the Osun Festival and the Yam Festival. The country’s natural attractions and geographical sites also attract a large number of domestic and international tourists.

In the World Economic Forum’s (WEF’s) Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index 2013, Nigeria ranked 136 out of 140 countries in terms of safety and security in 2013. Poverty and unemployment are major factors contributing to the country’s high crime rates. In addition to local, regional and national terrorism, armed robberies and attacks – particularly on tourists as they are perceived to be rich, kidnappings, carjacking, extortion and assaults are widespread.

Safety and security concerns in the country are a deterrent for international tourists, with international tourist arrivals to Nigeria declining at a review-period CAGR of -10.47%. The number of visitors on leisure trips declined at a CAGR of -14.87%, while a slower decline was recorded in the number of business travelers, at a CAGR of -3.28%. However, the share of business travelers in terms of total international arrivals increased from 33.7% in 2009 to 45.9% in 2013. Warnings issued by several countries in the Americas and Europe advising people to avoid travel to Nigeria also contributed to the low volume and slow growth of international visitors.

 

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

TRAVEL LIFESTYLE AND OUTBOUND TOURISM INTENTION IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

THE IMPACT OF DESTINATION IMAGE ON TOURIST SATISFACTION, AND DESTINATION LOYALTY: A CASE OF FORBIDDEN CITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

THE IMPACT OF DESTINATION IMAGE ON TOURIST SATISFACTION, AND DESTINATION LOYALTY: A CASE OF FORBIDDEN CITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Research Background

Tourist destinations with better diverse attractions have become more important than individual attractions due to better highways over the past few years in China. Destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty are vital factors which are used to explain visitor motivation or their intention to revisit a tourist destination (Chi and Qu, 2008). Tourist satisfaction is a post consumption assessment of the service received and is entirely dependent on destination image. As the number of areas developed for tourism increase, the choice of destinations available to consumers’ drastically expands. Furthermore, today’s tourists, encouraged by increased time devoted for leisure, increasing disposable income, and highly efficient transport networks, have ability and capacity to choose from various destinations available to them. As such, tourism marketing faces issues of influencing the consumer decisions in an ever increasing complex and competitive market place (Alexandris, Kouthhouris, and Meligidis, 2006).

One of the most striking challenges in tourism marketing is a need to effectively position a destination. To successfully encourage tourism in the targeted market, destination should be differentiated from its competitors, or otherwise positively positioned in consumers’ minds (Ekinci, and Hosany, 2006). A key strategic component in this instance is creation and enhancement of distinct, unique and appealing perception, or image, of that particular destination (Pike, 2002).

Prayang, (2008) posits that there exist negative and positive associations with a destination, its products, people, which are somewhat difficult to be altered. Destination images affect tourists travel decisions and behavior towards that destination as well as the level of satisfaction, recollection and the tourism experience (Naidoo, Ramseook and Ladsawut, 2010). Therefore, perceived images of the destination forms a backbone of evaluation and selection process and thus gives a link between motivation and destination selection (O’Leary and Deagan, 2003).

To understand the diversity of perceptions, images, and level of satisfaction vis-a-vis motivation towards a destination is pivotal in the understanding and prediction of tourism demand and its effects on local tourism destination. Simply put, the understanding of destination image and consumers’ perception is important to a destination and acts as a basis of more efficient and effective future strategic planning and decision making.

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE IMPACT OF DESTINATION IMAGE ON TOURIST SATISFACTION, AND DESTINATION LOYALTY: A CASE OF FORBIDDEN CITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

THE CONTRIBUTION OF VULMA CULTURE IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ADAMAWA STATE A case study of Mubi South Local Government Area. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

THE CONTRIBUTION OF VULMA CULTURE IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ADAMAWA STATE A case study of Mubi South Local Government Area. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

          Our Common Future Report several years ago was emphatic that cultural activities constitute an integral part of human existence. And as man intensifies effort towards development defined as enhancement of his standard of living, culture cannot be relegated to the background in view of its role in fostering sustainable development. However, culture-driven development has never been seriously considered in several parts of Africa including Nigeria. And within the context of man’s activities on the environment, much care is needed to strike a balance between meeting the needs of this generation without necessarily jeopardizing the opportunities of the future generation which sustainable development entails. Thus, the research highlights the imperative of integrating culture into efforts to promote development. The centrality of culture in the overall effort at ensuring development in Nigeria is emphasized. Furthermore, it laments the neglect of culture on the part of government in terms of funding, policy mechanism and emphasize the fact that conscious effort geared towards the promotion of culture remains the focal point of sustainable development in Nigeria. The research also highlights sundry hindrances and roadblocks to cultural development in Nigeria and proffer suggestions aimed at improving the prevailing dilemma. Historical descriptive approach was adopted as method of data collection in research on the research. The research findings of the research were collaborative of the fact that culture has direct bearing on development. 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

Agarwal 1997. Having unique indigenous cultures, nature-based attractions, beautiful landscapes, and pleasant weather conditions, local communities in Africa, and other Third World countries, are increasingly being promoted and marketed in major tourist generating countries, particularly in Europe and North America, as offering immense touristic and recreational opportunities. Particularly, indigenous communities in the Third World are perceived as providing abundant opportunities for rich tourists from the North who have got the financial resources to spend in adventure and exotic recreational activities. As a consequence, an increasing number of international tourists are travelling to different tourist destinations in Africa and other less developed regions of the world. In 2001 for instance, over 28 million international tourists, mainly from Europe and North America, travelled to different destinations in Africa. It is further estimated that with the current international growth rate of the tourism industry, over 77 million international tourists will visit Africa by the year 2020 (WTO 2004).

 

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE CONTRIBUTION OF VULMA CULTURE IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN ADAMAWA STATE A case study of Mubi South Local Government Area. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

THE CHALLENGES OF EVENT MANAGEMENT AS A NEW TRENDS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

THE CHALLENGES OF EVENT MANAGEMENT AS A NEW TRENDS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

          This research presents findings of issues, challenges and trends of event management in hospitality industry. Top issues that will influence the global hospitality industry in the year ahead include sustainable development calls for green hospitality, labor cost, multicultural issues and higher education. Challenges that facing hospitality include will include operating issues, marketing issues, technological issues and economic issues. Identified ten key trends that, taken together, we believe will shape the hospitality sector for years to come include rapid growth in vacation ownership, integration & globalization, new management. This research work used a random sampling technique for data selection and descriptive method as its methodology, questionnaire are used for data collection and chi-square was used in testing the hypothesis while SPSS data statistics is used for analyzing the data response from the respondents. At the end of the research, conclusion and recommendation was made and possible suggestion was give. Findings of the research work is significant to the study.   

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

  Event management is an exciting and growing industry, as well as a unique career opportunity for everyone with a passion for the planning and organizing of events, such as concerts, conventions, parties, weddings, and other gatherings.

According to Ramsborg, G.C.; B Miller (2008). Event management is the application of project management to the creation and development of large scale events such as festivals, conferences, ceremonies, formal parties, concerts, or conventions. It involves studying the brand, identifying the target audience, devising the event concept, planning the logistics and coordinating the technical aspects before actually launching the event.

The process of planning and co-ordinating the event is usually referred to as event planning and can include budgeting, scheduling, site selection, acquiring necessary permits, coordinating transportation and parking, arranging for speakers or entertainers, arranging decor, event security, catering and emergency plans.

The events industry now includes events of all sizes from the Olympics down to business breakfast meetings. Many industries, charitable organizations, and interest groups hold events in order to market themselves, build business relationships, raise money or celebrate achievement.

 

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE CHALLENGES OF EVENT MANAGEMENT AS A NEW TRENDS IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORK CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORK CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

  The rise in popularity of social networking sites has led social networking to become a global phenomenon. After many countries gained Internet access, the increase in the use of Internet started influencing the economy and social life at the beginning of 20th century (Milano, Baggio & Piattelli, 2011). Later on, in the era of Web 2.0, as social networking advanced, an increasing number of users on the Internet began to participate in social networking websites and this has resulted in the system of social networking to change (Milano, Baggio & Piattelli, 2011; Seth, 2012).According to Clark and Robert (2010), social networking sites are now mainly used for “job networking, targeted marketing, and entertainment”. (p.507).

Social networking is a type of social media; social networking sites allow Internet users to connect with people and create information. Social networking sites are originally used for entertainment purposes however an increase in the use of Internet and information communication technologies has shifted the way people communicate with each other, mainly in the hospitality and tourism industries (Assenov & Khurana, 2012; Clark & Roberts, 2010). For instance, social networking sites like Facebook allow registered users to interact globally and freely with people who share the Author: Same interest by uploading photos, sharing posts, chatting, commenting on the posts and also getting replies, such features allow companies to get quick feedback from consumers whereas consumers are able to receive responses immediately. These software and technology features which are available on social networking sites are also part of the Web 2.0 system (Seth, 2012). “Web 2.0 has also given popularity to user generated content (UGC) where information is gathered from different online sources all of which collaborate to form the final source” (Seth, 2012, p. 9). UGC has replaced traditional marketing in terms of media advertising. The advertisements are often sponsored posts promoted by people on social networking sites and these online advertisements appear to be more trustworthy than advertisements from mass media like televisions, radio, newspaper and magazines (Li & Darban, 2012). Manap and Adzharudin pointed out that consumers were more likely to be convinced to buy a product that is recommended by people who had experienced it (experience good) rather than a search good, the researchers also stated that it is possible to frequently utilize this strategy in the tourism industry. (2013)

The change in consumer behavior is majorly affected by the social networking sites which provide platforms for consumers to connect with the company and other consumers (Bilgihan, Peng & Kandampully, 2014).The explosive growth of the population of Internet user son social networking sites has had a huge impact on hospitality and tourism industry whereby consumers are changing the rule of marketing.

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORK CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

PROBLEMS OF HOTEL BUSINESS IN ADAMAWA STATE A CASE STUDY OF LAGON VILLA, MADUGU ROCK VIEW & DANTSHO HOTEL ADAMAWA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

PROBLEMS OF HOTEL BUSINESS IN ADAMAWA STATE A CASE STUDY OF LAGON VILLA, MADUGU ROCK VIEW & DANTSHO HOTEL ADAMAWA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

This research work was carried out through the collection of some useful data collected from different sources which include the collection of data, via personal interview and the use of questionnaire given to staff as well as customers of Banuso Hotel, K. J. Hotel and Flora Hotel Ede Adamawa State. The secondary data was gotten from different textbooks. This work was carried out on the problem facing small-scale hotels in Ede Adamawa State. This research work has been divided into different chapters: Chapter one contains the following; introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, definition of term. Chapter two is literature review, meaning and scope of small hotels was discussed also the small-scale business, importance of small scale business, organogram of small hotels.   Chapter three comprises research methodology, method of data collection, problems encountered during data collection. Chapter four consists of presentation, analysis and interpretation of data. Chapter five includes summary, summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations.

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

PROBLEMS OF HOTEL BUSINESS IN ADAMAWA STATE A CASE STUDY OF LAGON VILLA, MADUGU ROCK VIEW & DANTSHO HOTEL ADAMAWA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

IMPACT OF TOURISM AND MANAGEMENT ON SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT A STUDY OF OLUMO ROCK. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

IMPACT OF TOURISM AND MANAGEMENT ON SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT A STUDY OF OLUMO ROCK. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

          Tourism is now one of the world’s largest industries and one of its fastest growing economic sectors. For many countries tourism is seen as a main instrument for regional development, as it stimulates new economic activities. Tourism may have a positive economic impact on the balance of payments, on employment, on gross income and production, but it may also have negative effects, particularly on the environment. Unplanned and uncontrolled tourism growth can result in such a deterioration of the environment that tourist growth can be compromised. The environment, being the major source of tourist product, should therefore be protected in order to have further growth of tourism and economic development in the future. This is specially true with regard to tourism based on the natural environment. Sustainable tourism has three interconnected aspects: environmental, sociocultural, and economic. Sustainability implies permanence, so sustainable tourism includes optimum use of resources, including biological diversity; minimization of ecological, cultural and social impacts; and maximization of benefits for conservation and local communities. It also refers to the management structures that are needed to achieve this.

The research work provides a theoretical framework for sustainable tourism. The first part presents general views on tourism and sustainable economic development, and some opinions on the relationship between tourism and the environment. The second part concentrates on strategies and policy instruments. Also, this research work was supported based on the hypothesis tested and the method of research is a quantitative research method and testing tools is the SPSS data tool and analysis with chi-square using a 0.5 significance difference

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

In 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit, 178 governments approved Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration. Agenda 21 offered a blueprint for sustainable development, while the Rio Declaration articulated the main principles for sustainable development in the 21st century. Both documents challenged organizations, governments and industries to work towards maximum levels of sustainability, a number of countries in Africa and the Pacific consider tourism to be an important vehicle for economic and social development.

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

IMPACT OF TOURISM AND MANAGEMENT ON SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT A STUDY OF OLUMO ROCK. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

IMPACT OF EVENT CENTRES ON SOCIAL ACTIVITIES IN NIGERIA CITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

IMPACT OF EVENT CENTRES ON SOCIAL ACTIVITIES IN NIGERIA CITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

The development of various means of communication continues to emerge as the society develops. Different eras of development in the society, were marked with forms of communication suitable to the period. For instance, earlier forms of communication did not need any technology or skill but as the need to communicate with a wider audience grew, so did the channels, bringing writing and writing forms in its wake. That era introduced theories like the Bullet theory that dwells on the strong, direct effects of the media on people. The theory was based on the “push” model concept of the mass media, where the gatekeepers who decide what the audience will have, simply push the information to the receiver. With the advent of new technologies today, the focus has shifted. The Uses and Gratification Theory has actively displaced the Bullet theory in the sense that people, when they are not seeking out media to subscribe to, can/have become the media themselves. The „audience‟ has moved from being just consumers to producers of their own media. The internet media is based on the “pull” model where receivers pull only the information they want. Tools like blogging, podcasting, video blogging allow the average citizen the ability to pull what is relevant and also participate in producing content. The evolution of the internet provided the technological framework for the emergence of the social media platform. The Internet has been described as a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. This extended definition by Omojuwa (2012) captures the essence and function of the internet; It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email. Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol Television (IPTV). Newsproject, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, internet forums and social networking The new media of communication as the internet is commonly referred to, through the pervasiveness of web 2.0 has broadened and substantially increased public participation in the media. Web 2.0 is a term referring to myriad web applications that provide for interactive information sharing and collaboration via the internet using a variety of means such as texts, images, audio and video (Addison, 2006). The World Wide Web brings the internet into the realm of mass communication and also enables the development of the Social media tools for audience engagement.

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

IMPACT OF EVENT CENTRES ON SOCIAL ACTIVITIES IN NIGERIA CITIES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE HOTEL AND CATERING INDUSTRY. (A CASE STUDY OF ROYAL PALACE HOTEL ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE HOTEL AND CATERING INDUSTRY. (A CASE STUDY OF ROYAL PALACE HOTEL ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

 

The topic of the study is Human Resource Management in Hotel and Catering industry (A case study of Royal Palace Hotel Enugu). The researcher used both the primary and secondary data in the course of the study. The primary data was collected through the instrument of questionnaires and observation. The secondary data was sources through textbooks, journals, magazines and Libraries.

The research design for the study was the survey research. The population of the study was 82 employees of the establishment. The sample size of the study was 63 employees derived using the Yaro Yamani formula for the determination of sample size. A total number of 63 questionnaires were distributed and returned thereby having a hundred percent return rate. The researcher used sample percentage and chi-square as statistical tool for the analysis.

The study revealed that the majority of the workers in this establishment are ignorant on pay determination method which shows that management does not involve workers in the machinery or the mechanics of payment determination. The workers role is reduced to that of a rigid adherence to rules and regulations.

The researcher recommended among others that broad personnel policy study be embraced by employers in the hotel industry.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1             THE BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

Since the beginning of recorded time, people have travelled, and during their travels, have needed shelter. This consequently encouraged the springing up of some accommodation in form of inns and small hotels and subsequent larger hospitality suites, to meet such needs. This thus hospitality is said to be the worlds‟ second oldest profession.

Just after the civil war in 1970, there was a virtual absence of hotels and especially, the well known names in the international hotel industry in Nigeria. Not until the late 70‟s, during the oil boom era, did Nigeria start experiencing some growth in her hotel industry. In recent years however, Nigeriahosting of several major international events like the common wealth heads of government meeting (CHOGM), All African games, carnivals, meeting including the visits of two American presidents an other presidents with their entourage, has led to the building of several more hotels in Nigeria, especially in the major cities.

This growth is not restricted to Nigeria alone, example, the American food service industry in 1979 had 110 billion dollars of busing for meals away from home and was infact the third largest industry in the country in terms of gross retail sales, it employs

 

 

about 6 million people and had average of 125. 42 employees in 1995 and yet still needs many additional employees every year.

Nigeria has since seen many important developments and changes in the relative improvement in the standard of living of a vast majority of working people. These improvements have come about as a result of many different factors including greater national productivity, stronger growth of economy, having more enlightened management and pressures from trade unions.

The contributions made by the hotel and catering industry to this general rise in standard of living are considerable, providing essential and leisure services, employment and wealth creation.

Hotel development in any country is a detailed process, requiring a high level of pre- planning prior to, during and after construction. There is still evidence in many places in Nigeria that this pre-planning has not adequately been carried out, resulting in some hotels that are unable to meet today‟s and tomorrows ever-changing and increasing customer needs, including the fact that demand far outstrips supply, with major cities like Lagos having now shortages. Nevertheless, Tourism, of which the hotel and catering industry is a principal element is said to be a potential growth sector in Nigeria.

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE HOTEL AND CATERING INDUSTRY. (A CASE STUDY OF ROYAL PALACE HOTEL ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

CUSTOMER RETENTION ON HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

CUSTOMER RETENTION ON HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

          Customer retention management (CRM) is imperative to the success of today’s hotel sector in Donegal, as it is more cost efficient to retain valuable customers than to gain new one’s and in the current economic climate this is of high importance. The Donegal hotel sector currently implements CRM strategies that have been updated since the economic downturn. The most common CRM strategy used in the hotel sector is Customer Loyalty Programs, which theory suggests that in the hospitality sector Loyalty Programs are common. There is confusion of marketing in the Donegal hotel sector and a factor influencing this is the reductions in marketing budgets and that marketing personnel tend not to be marketing managers but rather owners and managers. Customer retention management has important elements in order to be effective. Customer satisfaction, relationship marketing, loyalty programs, data collection, complaints handling services, recovery strategies and post purchase follow up. The research process carried out by two phases, one descriptive in approach and one exploratory in approach. The researcher identified that by using triangulation it allowed the data from both phases to be corroborated and analysed with reference to theory highlighted in the literature review. The apparent themes that arose from the research processes included that loyalty programs were the most common method of customer retention in the Donegal Hotel sector. It was also apparent that external initiatives available by Failte Ireland and other local and national bodies had high usage. Finally in relation to the measurement of marketing initiatives, 25% of hotels stated that they do not measure the performance of the marketing used. In phase two of the research process respondents commented that marketing metrics is where the Donegal hotel sector fall. The researcher recommends that hotels develop written marketing strategies that combine CRM initiatives with other marketing processes and to implement the use of marketing metrics to measure the performance of all marketing activities implemented in order to be cost efficient and effective in the marketing budgets.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

Chapter One begins by clarifying the terminology used in this study. The background to the study, which contextualizes the topic under consideration, is then presented. This is followed by the formulation of the problem statement, and the goals and objectives of the study. After which the formulation of the research question and its hypothesis and the significance of the study then the definition of terms is provided.

 

1.1     Background of the Study

Blattberg, Getz and Thomas (2001:68) state that customer retention occurs when customers continue purchasing a product or service over an extended period of time. For products with short purchase cycles, they define customer retention as occurring when ‘the customer continues to purchase the product or service over a specified time period’.

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

CUSTOMER RETENTION ON HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

CULTURAL TOURISM AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT A CASE STUDY OF UMUAGBOM COMMUNITY IN IMO STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

CULTURAL TOURISM AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT A CASE STUDY OF UMUAGBOM COMMUNITY IN IMO STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

          Cultural tourism has a long history, and with its roots in the Grand Tour is arguably the original form of tourism. It is also one of the forms of tourism that most policy makers seem to be betting on for the future. The relevance of cultural festival as part of the culture and way of life of the people of Umuagbom community in imo state to Tourism development is investigated in this study.  Efforts are made to high-light the possible ways Umuagbom community festival can be sustainably developed in the Study Area towards effective socio-cultural political and economic growth and better recreational and tourism management.  About one hundred questionnaires were distributed randomly within the Study Area. The respondents consist of different categories of people with different backgrounds, occupations and social status. Findings revealed that age, occupation and civilisation has nothing to do with sustainability of Umuagbom community of Imo festival, however contemporary religious beliefs determine the level of sustainability. Cultural tourism has great advantages and potentials. Therefore, in order to develop cultural tourism, especially Eyiri-eyi Obohia, Iriji Mbaise (New yam festival) – August 15th every year festival in Umuagbom community. It is recommended that the organisers should pay special attention to:

i.        Effective enlightenment campaign through Television, newspapers, radios and posters, handbills, etc.

This enlightenment campaign should be so programmed as to be able to gradually educate and change the culturally or religiously biased against this festivals.

ii.       The coordination and marketing of cultural tourism in the Study Area.

iii.      Financial resources from visits to cultural sites must be used for the purpose for which it is meant.

iv.      The protection of our cultural values.

v.       People should respect their culture.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

Agarwal 1997. Having unique indigenous cultures, nature-based attractions, beautiful landscapes, and pleasant weather conditions, local communities in Africa, and other Third World countries, are increasingly being promoted and marketed in major tourist generating countries, particularly in Europe and North America, as offering immense touristic and recreational opportunities. Particularly, indigenous communities in the Third World are perceived as providing abundant opportunities for rich tourists from the North who have got the financial resources to spend in adventure and exotic recreational activities. As a consequence, an increasing number of international tourists are travelling to different tourist destinations in Africa and other less developed regions of the world. In 2001 for instance, over 28 million international tourists, mainly from Europe and North America, travelled to different destinations in Africa. It is further estimated that with the current international growth rate of the tourism industry, over 77 million international tourists will visit Africa by the year 2020 (WTO 2004).

 

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

CULTURAL TOURISM AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT A CASE STUDY OF UMUAGBOM COMMUNITY IN IMO STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

CREATIVE TOURISM A PANACEA FOR ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY IN ABIA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

CREATIVE TOURISM A PANACEA FOR ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY IN ABIA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

Abstract

This research provides an overview of the contributions to economic sustainability in Abia State through creative tourism using Akwette cloth weaving in ukwa west L.G.A. Creative tourism has grown rapidly in the past decade, reflecting the growing desire of consumers to develop their own creative potential and to attach themselves to creative networks, as well as the need for creative producers, cities and regions to profile themselves in an increasingly crowded global market. The case study provides creative tourism in a range of different contexts and present a range of models of creative tourism development in fields such as Weaving and crafts. Creative tourism can therefore be viewed as a form of networked tourism, which depends on the ability of producers and consumers to relate to each other and to generate value from their encounters.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   Introduction

Creativity appears to have become positioned as a panacea for a wide range of problems. The development of creative cities (Landry, 2000), creative clusters (Mommaas, 2009), creative industries (O‟Connor, 2010) and the creative field (Scott, 2010) can serve to attract the creative class (Florida, 2002) and hopefully rescue the economy, as well as knitting communities together and revitalising local culture.

However, there is also a sceptical tone emerging in many recent studies of creativity (e.g. Peck, 2005), which is now also being repeated in the field of tourism (Long and Morpeth, forthcoming). The rapid rise, dissemination and subsequent critique of creative development strategies mirror the development of cultural tourism in the 1980s and 1990s (Richards, 1996, 2001). In fact „creative tourism‟ is often seen as a form of, or an extension of cultural tourism.

The issue of economic sustainability and Practice of tourism considers many different facets of the creative tourism phenomenon, and examines the ways in which it has been developed in various places. Creative tourism has been faced with challenges in the aspect of creative tourism development and, despite the emergent critical thoughts on the subject, they tend to emphasise the positive aspects. Does this suggest that creative tourism is just one more aspect of the creativity hype, or can creative experiences act as an effective alternative to more “traditional” tourism development strategies? In this sense, it is important to understand the concept of creative tourism better in order to provide an effective assessment of its theoretical position and practical importance.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

CREATIVE TOURISM A PANACEA FOR ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY IN ABIA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

REPOSITIONING CULTURE AND TOURISM IN A DIVERSIFIED ECONOMY: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

REPOSITIONING CULTURE AND TOURISM IN A DIVERSIFIED ECONOMY: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0      Background of the study

Nigeria so much depends on her oil that she forgets the other natural endowments she is blessed with; earning her the name a “mono-economy”. Truth be told, if Nigeria diversifies her economy, it will be rated as one of the fastest growing economies of the world (Ogege & Mojekwu, 2012). Nigeria needs to take her eyes off the oil sector; most especially now the oil sector has failed her and seeks means of boosting other sectors of the economy like the culture and tourism sector. The oil sector has not only failed us, but it has exposed Nigeria to a lot of ills (Ibeanu, 2008:p8).

Nigeria is one country with a dignified culture; a culture many foreigners want to know about coupled with the beautiful tourists’ sites she has; some include: beautiful waterfalls, beaches, adorable cattle ranches, and even our long preserved traditional cultures. Tourists’ visiting will have knowledge of our past and where Nigeria is heading to.

The culture and tourism sector in Nigeria has been relegated, but it is a large economy that has what it takes to generate much revenue for Nigeria.

lnfact, tourism ranks the fourth largest sector in global economy which goes beyond providing revenue to even fostering peace and development in an economy (Honey and Gilpin, 2009:1; UNWTO, 2008). This industry was first promulgated in Nigeria in 1990 when the National Tourism Policy was created.

The Nigerian people need to change their orientation and see the culture and tourism sector as a force that can push economic development and this can only be achieved if every Nigerian; the government and the governed give these sector the deserved attention it requires. Everyone will be in doubt if culture and tourism can place food on Nigerians’ table or in anywhere boost the economy, but a flash back at the pre-colonial era reminds us that this industry contributed about 50% to the economy (Aig-Imoukhuede, 1987:pp2-11). At that time some of our crafts were equally exported during the across the border trades.

Currently in Nigeria, we are experiencing scarcity of foreign exchange and the high cost of it, investors are dropping Nigeria for other countries; and it least beats our imagination that our culture and tourism industry has the tendency to deliver us from these mess. It will attract foreign investors, alleviate poverty, uphold our culture and further rate us as one of the fastest growing economies of the world.

This study is aimed at looking at how the culture and tourism sector can boost the Nigerian economy.

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

REPOSITIONING CULTURE AND TOURISM IN A DIVERSIFIED ECONOMY: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT

Assessing The Challenges Facing Small Scale Hotels In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Tevoli Hotels Uyo)

ASSESSING THE CHALLENGES FACING SMALL SCALE HOTELS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF TEVOLI HOTELS UYO)

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

The establishment of hotels and recreational centers in Nigeria both small scale and large scale has ultimately helped in the socio economic development of the country. For this development that has been as a result of the building and establishment of these hotels to be lasting, the challenges confronting the small scale hotels in Nigeria has to be limited as negligence of these challenges may lead to the shutting down of the already existing ones thereby discouraging entrepreneurs from investing this this profitable niche of business known as the hospitality sector of Nigeria.
The Small and medium scale enterprises have long been recognized as an instrument of economic growth and development in Nigeria. This growing recognition has led to the commitment of World Bank group on Small scale hotels sector, as core element in its strategy, to foster economic growth, employment and poverty alleviation. The World Bank group in 2004 approved roughly $2.4 billion in support of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (World Bank, 2001).The Small scale hotels have been given due recognitions especially in the developed nations for playing very important roles towards fostering accelerated economic growth, development and stability within several economies. Several researches have been conducted on the prospect and challenges of Small scale hotels in Nigeria and abroad as Small- and medium-sized enterprises (Small scale hotels) have long been believed to be important in supporting economics development within a country (see Akhtar & CDASED, 1999; Mazzarol, Volery, Doss, and Thein, 1999; Al-Shaikh, 1998) while others such as Chukwuemeka (2006), Agwu and Emeti, (2004), Arinaitwe (2006), Lundström (2005), Oboh (2002), Okpara (2000), Wale-Awe (2000), Ihyembe (2000), Bruch and Hiemenz (1984), Binks and Ennew (1996), Baumback (1983); and a host of others have observed various factors or challenges that impedes the performance of Small scale hotels ranging from inadequate finance, poor infrastructural facilities, inadequate managerial skill, weak and instability of government policies and other presumed factors and challenges causing premature death of Small scale hotels as Beckman (1983) classified the problems as internal and external. Many studies have looked at the respective factors that are germane to the success of Small scale hotels.

Teoh and Chong (2008), Ding and Li (2010) argued about that lack of access to credit and managerial skills are the major obstacles to entrepreneurship development and that in a knowledge-based economy, the intellectual capital is gradually replacing the physical assets in modern enterprises. In the seminal work of Aschauer (1989), he finds that the provision of public infrastructure is a significant determinant of aggregate productivity of Small scale hotels. Pointing to these different findings, it appears that empirical studies on the prospects and challenges of Small scale hotels are still largely inconclusive as the direction to which of these factors serve as prospects for Small scale hotels and those which are really challenges have not been properly identified. In tandem with the objective thrust of this study, none of these studies has observed the ranking of these challenges in order of their importance or the priorities on the Small scale hotels. The authors only argued on the presumed factors that affect Small scale hotels, that is why this study intends to look at factors that have the highest priorities or ranking order of importance using principal component of factor analysis; being the gap existing in empirical works. Apart from this introductory section, the remaining aspect of this study is divided into four other sections.

Significance of the study
Assessing the challenges of small scale hotels in Nigeria would help highlight the challenges confronting small scale hotels in Nigeria with a view to tackling such challenges so that investors can be confident enough to invest in the Nigerian economy which would at the long run help in the socio economic development of Nigeria.

Objectives of the study
The following are the aims and objectives of embarking on this study

To examine the challenges of small scale hotels in Uyo
To identify factors that can enhance growth of small scale hotels in Uyo.
To know if investors are confident of investing in the hospitality sector of Nigeria.
To know the magnitude of challenges confronting small scal hotels in uyo.
To proffer solutions to the development of small scale hotels in Nigeria.

Scope of the study
This study is on the assessment of the challenges facing small scale hotels in Nigeria. With Tevoli hotels Uyo as the case study.

Research questions
What are the challenges of small scale hotels in Nigeria?
What are the factors that can enhance the growth of small scale hotels in Nigeria?
What is the level of challenge confronting the hospitality sector in Nigeria?
What are the solutions to the development of small scale hotels in Nigeria?

Research Hypothesis
H0: the challenges of small scale hotels in Uyo are low
H1: the challenges of small scale hotels in Uyo are high
H0: small scale hotels do not impact on the economic status of Nigeria
H1: small scale hotels impacts on the economic status of Nigeria

Definition of terms
Hotel: An establishment providing accommodation, meals, and other services for travellers and tourists, by the night.
Infrastructure: The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g. buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
Economy: The state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services and the supply of money.

REFERENCE
Aschauer, D. A. (1989): Is Public Expenditure Productive? Journal of Monetary Economics,23(2), pp. 177–200.
Al-Shaikh, F. N.(1998).Factors for small business failure in developing countries. Advances in Competitiveness Research, 6(10): 75-87.
Arinaitwe, S.K,(2006).Factors Constraining the Growth and Survival of Small Scale Businesses. A Developing Countries Analysis.Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 8(2): 167-179. Ariyo, D. (1999). Small firms are the backbone of the Nigeria economy, Africa Economic Analysis, Africa Business Information Services, Bridgnorth United Kingdom.
Auty, R.M., 2000. The political economy of resource-driven growth. Paper presented at the 15th Annual Congress of the European Economic Association, Bolzano August}September.
Beckman, J. (1983). Entrepreneurship and the Outlook of American. New York: Free Press Bruch,
M. R. and Hiemenze, U. (1984). Small- and Medium-Scale Industries in the ASEAN Countries: Agents or Victims of Economic Development? West View Press, Boulder.
Binks, M .R. and Ennew, C.T. (1996). Growing Firm and Credit Constraint, Small-Scale Business Economics, 17-25.
Ekpeyong, D.B. and Nyong, M.O. (1992) “Small and Medium Scale Enterprises Development in Nigeria”. Seminar Paper on Economic \ Policy Research for Policy Design and Management in Nigeria, NCEMA. Ericson, R., and A. Pakes, 1995, “Markov-Perfect Industry Dynamics: a Framework for Empirical Work”, Reviewof Economic Studies, 62(1): 53-82.
Fatai, A. (2011).“Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: The Problems andProspects”. Retrieved January15from www.thecje.com/journal/index.php/economicsjournal/article/…/8.
Haper, M. (1984). Small Business in the Third World, John Wiley & Sons Hashim, M. K., and Wafa, S. A. 2002. Small & medium sized enterprises in Malaysia: Development issues. Petaling Jaya, Malaysia: Prentice Hall.
Ihyembe, R.H. (2000). Financing SME: International Perspective.The Nigerian Banker,Journal of the Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria, 20-27.
Leitner, Karl-Heinz, 2011. The effect of intellectual capital on product innovativeness in SMEs. International Journal of Technology Management, vol53, No.1.
Agwu, M.O. & C.I. Emeti European Journal of Sustainable Development (2014), 3, 1, 101-114 Muhammad, M.Z, Char, A.K , Yasoa,M.R and Hassan, Z, (2010). Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) Competing in the Global Business Environment: A Case of Malaysia. InternationalBusiness Research, Vol.3, No1. Okpara F.O,(2000).Entrepreneurship (Text and Cases). Enugu Nigeria: Precision Printers and Publishers.
Onakuse S 2004.AReview of Corruption and Sustainable Development in Nigeria. Ireland: Centre for Sustainable Livelihood, University College Cork.
Oboh GAT(2002).Bank Participation in the Promotion of Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises.Being a paper presented at the 6th Fellows and Associates Forum of CIBN on 13th April. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,(OECD),(2000).Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: Local Strength, Global Reach, OECD Policy Review, June, pp. 1-8.
Ojiako,O.F.(2000) Problems of Small-scale Enterprises in Nigeria. The Business Administrator, UNN, Enugu, Vol. 15.
Okpara, J. O., & Wynn, P. (2007). Determinants of small business growth constraints in a sub-Saharan African economy. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 72(2), 24.
Onugu, B. A. N. (2005). Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria: Problems and prospects (Unpublished Dissertation for a Doctor of Philosophy in Management Award, St. Clements University, Nigeria)..
Rogers, B.A. (2002). Funding of SMEs: Sourcing of Funds and Problems LimitingAccess, ICAN journal. Nigerian Accountant Vol. 35 No. 1 January/March.
Shaari, Jamal Abdul Nassir, Khalique Muhammad and IsaAbu Hassan bin Md., (2010). Ranking of Public and Domestic Private Sector Commercial Banks in Pakistanon the Basis of the Intellectual Capital Performance.Proceedings of International Borneo Business Conference (BBC2010), Vol.1.
Teoh, W. M. Y. & Chong, S. C(2008). Improving women entrepreneurs in small and medium enterprises in Malaysia: policy recommendations31-38

 

 

PAGES 32

PRICE 3000

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Tourism Development In Plateau State, A Vital Tool For Enhancing The Revenue Base Of The State

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN PLATEAU STATE, A VITAL TOOL FOR ENHANCING THE REVENUE BASE OF THE STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Every country, Nigeria inclusive, has its sources of revenue generation and socio-economic development. The sources may include, but not limited to agriculture, oil and gas (petroleum), trade and investment (import and export business), education, health, tourism and hospitality, etc. Before and after the Nigerian political independence, agriculture was the major source of the country’s revenue generation, socio-economic growth and development, followed by other sectors. With the discovery of oil and its revenue potentials from 1958 to immediately after the Nigerian Civil War (1967 – 1970), the petroleum sector took over all other sources of the country’s revenue, gross national product (GNP) or National Income. It was unfortunate that the tourism sector was neglected or not realized or given adequate attention it deserved or ought to deserve not realizing that tourism centers are God’s creation; particularly those that were not man-made like long terrain of beautiful plateau ground, wonderful spring, a terrific fall, wonderful outcrop of rocks, etc (Etek, Eze and Esu 2012).
Tourism, according to Nwidum (2007), is expected to foster economic growth through foreign exchange earnings and increase in state revenue and, at a second level, on improvement in the people’s well-being in the areas of job creation, revenue/income distribution and balanced regional development. It is unfortunate that tourism development in the states of Nigeria has been threatened by such factors like financial problems, infrastructural constraints like poor road network, electricity, drinkable water, health facilities and lack of awareness among Nigerians on the benefits of tourism to the expected tourists and other Nigerians.

Tourism is the business activity connected with providing accommodation, services and entertainment for the people who are visiting a place for pleasure (The Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary), and It is the free movement of people for destinations outside their normal abode on a temporary short-term visit as well as the services created to satisfy the need arising from these movements, within and across international boundaries.

It could be for advance health reasons, leisure, business, religion, education or other purposes not mentioned (Anijah-Obi 2001). It is the practice of traveling for pleasure and the business of providing for tours (i.e. to make journey in, where one or more places are visited usually without hitch or recreation for specific purposes as in the situation of business and recreation) and services to tourists (The American Heritage Dictionary of English Language). It is also an amalgam of leisure and recreation services and activities provided within an environment for visitor’s satisfaction and enjoyment, hence a deliberate act of traveling out of one’s home to another destination, together with the preparations that go into the act, for a specified period and for one or more purposes (Ebin 1999). It is also the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes (Cooper et al, 1999).

The Jos Plateau is a plateau located near the centre of Nigeria. It covers 8600 km² and is bounded by 300-600 meter escarpments around much of its circumference. With an average altitude of 1280 metres it is the largest area over 1000 metres in Nigeria, with a high point of 1829 metres in the Shere Hills. The plateau has given its name to the State, Plateau State in which it is found and is itself named for the state’s capital, Jos.
After the British colonization of Nigeria, Jos Plateau became a mining region and one of the most important tourist destinations in Nigeria, but touristic activity was impeded in early 21st century by a new conflict between Christians and Muslims as a result of tribal and political differences between the inhabitants of the Jos Plateau.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Tourism has created opportunities for job or employment opportunities in Nigeria. This is because all these tourist sectors are handled by human beings – both skilled/specialists and unskilled labor in Nigeria and Nigerian citizens. That tourism creates jobs directly or indirectly through linkages is not a Nigerian case as it has been observed also that in Rwanda, employment opportunities are offered through national parks; guides, trackers, and antipoaching agents. Tourism is one of the major sources of increase in the state’s GDP and economic growth, GDP being the total final output of goods and services produced by the state’s economy, within the state’s territory, by residents and nonresidents, regardless of its allocation between domestic and foreign claims, and economic growth being the steady process by which the productive capacity of the economy is increased over time to bring about rising levels of national output and income. However, the researcher is examining tourism in Plateux State as a vital tool for enhancing the revenue base of the state.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:

To provide an overview on tourism development.

To examine tourism development as a vital tool for enhancing the revenue base of a state.

To identify the factors affecting tourism development in Plateau State.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What is tourism development?

Is tourism development a vital tool for enhancing the revenue base of a state?

What are the factors affecting tourism development in Plateau State?

1.5 HYPOTHESIS
HO: There is no significant relationship between tourism development and the revenue base of a state
HA: There is significant relationship between tourism development and the revenue base of a state

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:

The outcome of this study will educate on how tourism development can contribute to revenue generation in a state with particular focus on plateau State.
This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover tourism development and its contribution to revenue generation in Plateau State of Nigeria.

LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

 

PAGES 39

PRICE 3000

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Tourism Development In Plateau State, A Vital Tool For Enhancing The Revenue Base Of The State

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN PLATEAU STATE, A VITAL TOOL FOR ENHANCING THE REVENUE BASE OF THE STATE

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Every country, Nigeria inclusive, has its sources of revenue generation and socio-economic development. The sources may include, but not limited to agriculture, oil and gas (petroleum), trade and investment (import and export business), education, health, tourism and hospitality, etc. Before and after the Nigerian political independence, agriculture was the major source of the country’s revenue generation, socio-economic growth and development, followed by other sectors. With the discovery of oil and its revenue potentials from 1958 to immediately after the Nigerian Civil War (1967 – 1970), the petroleum sector took over all other sources of the country’s revenue, gross national product (GNP) or National Income. It was unfortunate that the tourism sector was neglected or not realized or given adequate attention it deserved or ought to deserve not realizing that tourism centers are God’s creation; particularly those that were not man-made like long terrain of beautiful plateau ground, wonderful spring, a terrific fall, wonderful outcrop of rocks, etc (Etek, Eze and Esu 2012).
Tourism, according to Nwidum (2007), is expected to foster economic growth through foreign exchange earnings and increase in state revenue and, at a second level, on improvement in the people’s well-being in the areas of job creation, revenue/income distribution and balanced regional development. It is unfortunate that tourism development in the states of Nigeria has been threatened by such factors like financial problems, infrastructural constraints like poor road network, electricity, drinkable water, health facilities and lack of awareness among Nigerians on the benefits of tourism to the expected tourists and other Nigerians.

Tourism is the business activity connected with providing accommodation, services and entertainment for the people who are visiting a place for pleasure (The Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary), and It is the free movement of people for destinations outside their normal abode on a temporary short-term visit as well as the services created to satisfy the need arising from these movements, within and across international boundaries.

It could be for advance health reasons, leisure, business, religion, education or other purposes not mentioned (Anijah-Obi 2001). It is the practice of traveling for pleasure and the business of providing for tours (i.e. to make journey in, where one or more places are visited usually without hitch or recreation for specific purposes as in the situation of business and recreation) and services to tourists (The American Heritage Dictionary of English Language). It is also an amalgam of leisure and recreation services and activities provided within an environment for visitor’s satisfaction and enjoyment, hence a deliberate act of traveling out of one’s home to another destination, together with the preparations that go into the act, for a specified period and for one or more purposes (Ebin 1999). It is also the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes (Cooper et al, 1999).

The Jos Plateau is a plateau located near the centre of Nigeria. It covers 8600 km² and is bounded by 300-600 meter escarpments around much of its circumference. With an average altitude of 1280 metres it is the largest area over 1000 metres in Nigeria, with a high point of 1829 metres in the Shere Hills. The plateau has given its name to the State, Plateau State in which it is found and is itself named for the state’s capital, Jos.
After the British colonization of Nigeria, Jos Plateau became a mining region and one of the most important tourist destinations in Nigeria, but touristic activity was impeded in early 21st century by a new conflict between Christians and Muslims as a result of tribal and political differences between the inhabitants of the Jos Plateau.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Tourism has created opportunities for job or employment opportunities in Nigeria. This is because all these tourist sectors are handled by human beings – both skilled/specialists and unskilled labor in Nigeria and Nigerian citizens. That tourism creates jobs directly or indirectly through linkages is not a Nigerian case as it has been observed also that in Rwanda, employment opportunities are offered through national parks; guides, trackers, and antipoaching agents. Tourism is one of the major sources of increase in the state’s GDP and economic growth, GDP being the total final output of goods and services produced by the state’s economy, within the state’s territory, by residents and nonresidents, regardless of its allocation between domestic and foreign claims, and economic growth being the steady process by which the productive capacity of the economy is increased over time to bring about rising levels of national output and income. However, the researcher is examining tourism in Plateux State as a vital tool for enhancing the revenue base of the state.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:

To provide an overview on tourism development.

To examine tourism development as a vital tool for enhancing the revenue base of a state.

To identify the factors affecting tourism development in Plateau State.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What is tourism development?

Is tourism development a vital tool for enhancing the revenue base of a state?

What are the factors affecting tourism development in Plateau State?

1.5 HYPOTHESIS
HO: There is no significant relationship between tourism development and the revenue base of a state
HA: There is significant relationship between tourism development and the revenue base of a state

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:

The outcome of this study will educate on how tourism development can contribute to revenue generation in a state with particular focus on plateau State.
This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover tourism development and its contribution to revenue generation in Plateau State of Nigeria.

LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

 

PAGES 32

PRICE 3000

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Impact Of Foreign Direct Investment On The Hospitality Sector

IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT ON THE HOSPITALITY SECTOR

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The internalization of an economy that was once characterized by its foreign trade flows (imports and exports) and by the movement of people, nowadays results in an intensification of Federal Direct Investment (FDI) movements. Globalization and neo-liberal policies, including liberalization and privatization, have generated a significant growth of FDI in recent years (Colantonio, 2005; Mohamed & Sidiropoulos, 2010). Despite the increase of globalization in the Tourism industry, there is surprisingly little empirical research on the impact of FDI. Many studies about FDI exist, but only a few analyze the Tourism sector and its implications. According to (Dwyer & Forsyth, 1994), even though FDI plays an important role in the development of world Tourism, the analysis of its impacts has been neglected and has attracted less attention in the literature than what was expected. More and more countries worldwide try to attract FDI to promote their growth. FDI is a means to finance new structures and equipment and allow a transfer of more advanced technology and forms of management, in addition to the multiplier effects it provides. It is crucial for countries to understand what drives companies to invest aboard, given that FDI contributes to their economic growth and development. The aim of this study is to identify the factors considered to be determinant in the process of attracting FDI to the Tourism sector, from a comprehensive review of literature. Accordingly, the paper begins with a brief summary of international trade theories and their connection with FDI; followed by a theoretical framework of FDI identifying the positive and negative impacts and the determinant factors in the attraction process. In the second part of the paper, the connection between FDI and the Tourism sector is analyzed, concluding that the factors considered determinant in FDI attraction are similar to Tourism and other sectors, but varying in their importance. Lastly, some strategies are suggested to attract FDI.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The financial system in our country is relatively underdeveloped by western standards, even though progress has been made. Despite some recent improvement, Nigeria’s business freedom remains constrained by a burdensome regulatory environment. Corruption in Nigeria remains in high levels. Corruption is evident in all the sectors and levels of government. Nigeria is still considered a transit country for the traffic of arms, contraband and human beings. The economy remains vulnerable on several fronts due to tax evasion and the lack of anti-money laundering laws. The resolution of the property problem in Nigeria is obstructing foreign investors. The process of the denationalization of land and national buildings, medium and large-sized national enterprises in industrial sectors with intensive capital, and strategic sectors like energy, water and transport, has been slow.

1.3 Objective of the study

To determine the impact of foreign direct investment on the hospitality sector

1.4 Research question

Does foreign direct investment have any significant impact on the hospitality sector of the economy?

1.5 Research hypothesis

Ho: Foreign Direct Investment has no significant impact on the hospitality sector of the economy.
Hi: Foreign Direct Investment has significant impact on the hospitality sector of the economy.

1.6 Significance of the study
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has become an increasingly important element for economic development. Specifically in the Tourism Industry, it is paramount to know which factors affect FDI inflows. The aim of this study is to analyze the main potential determinants in the process of attraction FDI in to the Tourism Sector. This article offers a comprehensive review of articles that were published, and concludes that the key determinants of FDI in the Tourism Sector are similar to the determinants of FDI in other sectors. The information obtained is a starting point for the implementation of strategies to attract foreign investment

1.7 Scope / Limitations of the study

This study on the impact of foreign direct investment on the hospitality sector will cover various approaches to the study and its impact on the area of study.
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.8 Definition of Terms
Foreign Direct Investment: Is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country.
Hospitality: The friendly and generous reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers.

PAGES 33

PRICE 3000

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL