PROBLEMS OF TOWN PLANNING DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKPA NIKE ENUGU NIGERIA

Table of contents                                                                        page(s)

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the study

1.2    Statement of the problem

1.3    Objectives of the study

1.4    Research questions

1.5    Significance of the study

1.6    Scope and limitation of the study

1.7    Organization of the study

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Concept of town planning development

2.2    Urban land, planning and governance regimes

2.2.1 The pre-colonial era

2.2.2 The colonial era 

2.2.3 Post-colonial era 

2.3    The current urban planning practice

2.4    Federal Government – National Level Policy

2.5    State-led Town Planning

2.6    Challenges for the urban land administration, planning and governance system

2.7    Urban development systems

2.8    Critique of formal and informal urban development processes   

2.9    Recent initiatives to improve town development processes and their outcomes  

2.10  Town Urban planning and development

2.11  Challenges and problems of urban development

2.12 Initial Growth of Enugu Urban

2.13  Physical Planning Efforts in Enugu Urban 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Research design

3.2    The study area

3.3    Location

3.4    Sources of data 

3.5    Research instruments

3.5.1 Interview

3.6          Validity and reliability of the instrument 

3.7    Data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Assessment of Growth Indicators in Abakpa Nike Enugu Urban.

4.2    Discussion of findings

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Conclusion

5.2    Recommendations

References

Abstract

The study was carried out on the problems of town planning development in Abakpa Nike, Enugu state, Nigeria. Town planning development is the process of developing urban, suburban and rural areas orderly. This study employed a Survey research design. Distribution of growth indicators in the study zone was effected for the same purpose.The data collected for this study were from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data were drawn from interviews and report and field observations. The principal source of secondary data was drawn from textbooks, Journals, reports, Internet websites and other related unpublished literatures written by different authors. The Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) on a computer set was used for the regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test at 5% (0.05) level of significance.The researcher came up with two summarized results. The first is that there is tremendous population increase of the Enugu urban. The second revelation was that there is a weak relationship existing between the level of town planning development in Abakpa Nike, Enugu State and associated growth indicators.The study further recommended that the concerned governments of the state (state and local) should make a vigorous attempt at emplacing adequate physical, economic and social infrastructure to match the teeming population in the Enugu urban.  This can be achieved through the Environmental Planning and Management (EPM) process. 

CHAPTERONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the study

Town planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and use of land, protection and use of the environment, public welfare, and the design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks. It can be referred to as urban and regional, regional, town, city, rural planning or some combination in various areas worldwide. Town planning takes many forms and it can share perspectives and practices with urban design (Robert, 2010).

Town planning development is the process of developing urban, suburban and rural areas orderly. Although predominantly concerned with the planning of settlements and communities, town planning is also responsible for the planning and development of water use and resources, rural and agricultural land, parks and conserving areas of natural environmental significance. The major reason for town planning is urbanization.

Urbanization is not a recent phenomenon in Nigeria. Indeed many ancient cities such as Enugu, Ile Ife, Kano, Ibadan, Benin and Sokoto have had a rich history of urbanization. Urbanization however increased significantly during the colonial administrations. It is apparent that the rate of urbanization in recent period has been vigorous, alarming and unsustainable. The most serious problems confronting cities, towns and their inhabitants as identified in Agenda (2010) include the following: Inadequate financial resources, lack of employment opportunities, spreading homelessness and expansion of squatter settlements, increased poverty and a widening gap between the rich and poor, growing insecurity and rising crime rates, inadequate and deteriorating building stock, services and infrastructure. Other problems include lack of health and educational facilities, improper land use, insecure land tenure, rising traffic congestion, increasing pollution, lack of green spaces, inadequate water supply and sanitation, uncoordinated urban development and an increasing vulnerability to disaster. All these have seriously challenged the town planning development in place like Abakpa Nike. The capacity of government at all levels to realize socio- economic development and environmental protection, which is all components of sustainable development, is challenged.

Nigeria as a nation has been experiencing an accelerated shift of her populations from rural to urban areas. This rapid rate of urbanization has engendered several challenges and problems in town planning development similar to situations in other parts of the world. The problems identified in Agenda (2010) are prevalent in Enugu state. Today’s Enugu city, according to Mabogunje (2012) is typified by substandard and inadequate housing, slums, and lack of infrastructure, transportation problems, low productivity, poverty, crime and juvenile delinquency. Urbanization, according to him is the root cause of the high rates of environmental degradation, pollution and social delinquency.

In order to address the problem of town planning development and promote sustainable development, the United Nations Millennium Declaration was adopted in September 2000, committing countries both rich and poor to do all they can to eradicate poverty, promote human dignity and equality and achieve peace, democracy and environmental stability. The goals include those dedicated to eradicating poverty, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability and developing a global partnership for development. Nigeria is a signatory to the Millennium Declaration and has a responsibility to implement the goals.

Various scholars have studied the challenges of town planning development in Nigeria. Some of them include Falade (1999) whose study focused on the challenges of a sustainable Nigeria, Abumere (2002) whose research centered on urban governance and the challenges of urban poverty, Odeyemi (2002) who did a study on gender and urbanization and Olanrewaju (2003) who focused on sustainability and urban poverty.

However, since urban development occurs in a continuum, this paper focuses on the problems of town planning development in Abakpa Nike Enugu Nigeria.

PAYMENT

PROBLEMS OF TOWN PLANNING DEVELOPMENT IN ABAKPA NIKE ENUGU NIGERIA

RAILWAY STATION TERMINAL

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the study

Transportation implies the movement of people, goods, services and information by specific modes, some of which are roads, railways, airlines, and shipping lines (Fadare and Omole, 1991a). These modes have been studied widely all over the world by researchers in varying disciplines. While all modes of transport are important in national development, the main focus of this paper is the rail transportation in Lagos metropolis. The importance of well-organized public transport is acknowledged in both developed and developing countries because, public transport systems are more efficient means of transporting large numbers of people between and within settlements than the flexible private cars (Adeniji, 1983, 1987; TSU, 2002; Daramola, 2004). The significant contribution of public transport to travel in urban areas cannot be overemphasized and incidentally there has been a diffusion of urban centers over the years   in   several   parts   of   Nigeria,   while   the    rate of urbanisation and the rate of urban growth have also been persistently high. Average annual growth rate in urban areas is about 4.7% as against the national growth rate of 2.8% (World Bank, 2006a, b). 

In Nigeria, the road transport sub sector plays a dominant role in the internal movement of passengers and goods accounting for over 95% of overland movement of passengers and freight (NISER, 2003). As many as 47% of Nigerians now live in urban areas (World Bank, 2006b) while up to 70% of urban residents make their trips using public transport (Oyesiku, 2002). The issues of public transport provision, which have been compounded by phenomenon of urban sprawl, have not been appreciably addressed at the level of policy while some of the issues addressed in the policy document have not been implemented.

The Nigerian Railway Corporation was to manage and operate the railway undertakings and provide all necessary facilities for carriage of passengers and goods. The social duties of the corporation seem to out weight the economic (Iwayemi, 1987). This is due to many unprofitable services especially passengers’ services it renders   to   the  society.  In any  case,  the  passengers’  services have been very important as a social service in the operations of the Nigerian Railway Corporation. 
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RAILWAY STATION TERMINAL

ASSESSMENT OF CAUSES EFFECTS PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF FLOOD DISASTER IN ISABO ABEOKUTA AREA OF OGUN STATE.DOCX

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to study

The complexity of anthropogenic activities of man without adequate attention to geological structure of most cities of developed and developing nations has undoubtedly contributed to reoccurrence of disaster and consequently poses threat to environmental sustainability in most of these nations (Oludare et al., 2018). This irrefutably has led or accumulated to unresolved challenges. Among the unresolved challenges being faced are vicious flood incidences experienced in the last four decades. The occurrence is stern in third world countries where there is intensity in land use, haphazard development, and unprecedented urbanization among others. According to Adeyinka et al. (2008, p. 1) “Most of these cities are also characterized by uncontrolled development , substandard and inadequate housing, poor infrastructure provision and development, poor planning process and administration, weak urban governance, poor land use structure resulting to slum…’’. These plethora of problems are bedeviling cities of third world countries and Nigeria in particular.

Consequently, there has been unprecedented occurrence of floods and its associated negativities in most of the urban centers of developing countries (Montoya Morales, 2002). For instance, in Nigeria, reports have shown that devastating flood disaster had occurred in Ibadan (1985, 1987, 1990, and 2011), Osogbo (1992, 1996, 2002, and 2010), Yobe (2000), Akure (1996, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) and the coastal cities of Lagos, Ogun, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Uyo, Warri among others (Olaniran, 1983). This claimed many lives and properties worth millions of Naira. 
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ASSESSMENT OF CAUSES EFFECTS PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF FLOOD DISASTER IN ISABO ABEOKUTA AREA OF OGUN STATE.DOCX

AN INSIGHT ON THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A POWER LINE VANDALISM MONITORING SYSTEM USING ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This project gives the insight on the design and construction of a transmission power line vandalism detector system. Vandalism means destructive action. It is a hateful and deliberate defacement/destruction of somebody else’s property or national assets like thehigh-voltage transmission power lines, transmission towers and distribution transformers, etc.The high-voltage transmission power lines strung from support towers form the backbone of the nation’s electric power grid. Many of those 158,000 miles of lines, supported by nearly 800,000 towers, run through isolated areas as they deliver electricity from generating plants to cities. These high-voltage transmission power lines around the world are vulnerable to terrorism, vandalism, physical deterioration and extreme weather. Every year in Nigeria bad citizens vandalize the power line, towers, transformers, generators and other power transmission/distribution facilities. This causes frequent power failure and power surge that seriously affects over 50 million business firms and manufacturing industries in the country. These companies depend on electricity power supply from the power line for their productions. If the power line is vandalized, some of their machines cannot be powered on a generator then income, investments and commodities worth billions of Naira will be lost. If electricity is available during the power line vandalism incident, the lives and properties of the people within the area can be affected as a result of electric shocks, power surge and fire outbreak, etc. Vandalism is now largely driven by the soaring values of copper and aluminum in the international metals market due to increased world market demand fueled by China and India’s growth in industrialization. Consequently, the vandals now operate in wellorganized syndicates complete with offices and hierarchy and accumulate large volumes of stolen materials which they eventually consign for export as scrap. Transformer oil, copper and aluminum are the main targets of these vandals. The uses of the stolen transformer oil are:

  • Mixed with diesel and sold as fuel,
  • Used as fuel for industrial furnaces and as cooling for welding sets,
  • Mixed with vegetable oil and sold as cooking oil.
  • Used as a cosmetic and treatment for wounds.
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AN INSIGHT ON THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A POWER LINE VANDALISM MONITORING SYSTEM USING ELECTRONIC SYSTEM

AN EVALUATION OF THE INLAND TRANSPORTATION AND ITS EFFECT ON LOGISTICS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1             Background to the Study

Transportation encompasses the movement of people, goods and services from one point of origin to destination (Filani, 1993). Transportation is indispensable to modern economic development especially in a developing country like Nigeria. It plays a vital role in shaping the economy of any nation (or region) because modern industries and commercial activities rely on proper, well developed and efficient transport system (Anyanwu, Oaikhena, Oyefusi and Dimowo, 1997). In support of this, Wane (2001), pointed out that transportation is a crucial vector for urban insertion since it gives access to economic activity; facilitate family life, and helps in spinning social networks.

Transport is a central dimension of the national and global production systems that are reshaping the world, making it a topic of universal interest and importance. People move from one place to the other, regularly or occasionally. Goods collected, extracted and manufactured, must be distributed from place to place prior to consumption. People who need services, which are generally provided at a limited number of places, must travel in order to access such services. Transport therefore fulfils a very important function in a society and is one of the most pervasive factors in any economy (Munby in Hoyle and Knowles, 2001).

Transport plays a crucial role in urban growth by linking and providing access for people to essential services such as education, markets, employment, recreation, health care and other key services that induce growth of towns, cities and metropolis. Enhanced mobility for the poor and vulnerable groupsespecially in cities of the developing world, is

one of the most important preconditions for achieving Millennium Development Goals. Those cities with transport modes in an integrated system are more likely to evolve and prosper as centers for trade, commerce, industry, education, tourism and services (Buis, 2009). The rate of growth of urban centers has called for the need for movement of people, goods, services and information. In order to sustain the growth of urban centers, efficient transportation system is required (Button, 1991). However, the rate of growth of urban centers is related to the rate of movement of people, goods and services, using different means of transportation (Hoyle and Knowles, 1998).
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AN EVALUATION OF THE INLAND TRANSPORTATION AND ITS EFFECT ON LOGISTICS IN NIGERIA

THE EXISTING CRIME GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TRACKING SYSTEM RECORDS OF THE CASE STUDY CRIMINAL INVESTIGATING DEPARTMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Man by nature is social, gregarious and cannot live in isolation. To maintain peace and harmony in the society, man has to fashion out conduct and some laws to govern the conduct of members of the society. When people appreciate these codes of conduct and laws, protection of lives and properties are guaranteed.

Generally tracking is the observing of persons or objects on the move and supplying a timely ordered sequence of respective location data to a model e.g. capable to serve for depicting the motion on a display capability.

The traditional and age-old system of intelligence and criminal record maintenance has failed to live up to the requirements of the existing crime scenario. Manual processes neither provide accurate, reliable and comprehensive data round the clock nor does it help in trend prediction and decision support. It also results in lower productivity and ineffective utilization of manpower. The solution to this ever-increasing problem lies in the effective use of Information Technology. Crime Tracking Information System uses computer-generated records as an interface for integrating and accessing massive amounts of location-based information.

Crime tracking system allows police personnel to plan effectively for emergency response, determine mitigation priorities, analyses historical events, and predict future events. Crime tracking system helps identify potential suspects to increase investigators suspect base when no leads are evident. The ability to access and process information quickly while displaying it in a spatial and visual medium allows agencies to allocate resources quickly and more effectively. In the ‗mission-critical‘ nature of law enforcement, information about the location of a crime, incident, suspect, or victim is often crucial to determine the manner and size of the response. Crime tracking software helps co-ordinate vast amounts of location-based data from multiple sources. It enables the user to layer the data and view the data most critical to the particular issue or mission.
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THE EXISTING CRIME GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TRACKING SYSTEM RECORDS OF THE CASE STUDY CRIMINAL INVESTIGATING DEPARTMENT

THE ROLE OF PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN HOUSING FINANCE, DELIVERY AND MAINTENANCE IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN HOUSING FINANCE, DELIVERY AND MAINTENANCE IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The housing sector plays a more critical role in a nation’s welfare than is always recognized, as it directly affects not only the citizenry, but also the performance of other sectors of the economy. Adequate housing provision has since the early 1970s consequently engaged the attention of most countries, especially the developing nations for a number of reasons. First, it is one of the three most important basic needs of mankind- the others being food and clothing. Secondly, housing is a very important durable consumer item, which impacts positively on productivity, as decent housing significantly increases worker’s health and wellbeing, and consequently growth. Thirdly, it is one of the indices for measuring the standard of living of people across societies (Sanusi, 2003).

Propelled by the patriotic quest of addressing Nigeria’s acute housing problem, the Federal Government came up with a National Policy on Housing and Urban Development in 2002. The policy has since then triggered milestone reforms in the nation’s housing industry aimed at repositioning it for efficient and effective housing delivery and maintenance. One of the means through which the policy is been achieved is on public-private partnership concept. The thrust of the policy is to raise the home ownership rate among Nigerians to a respectable level by moving the housing industry to sustainably deliver mass, decent and affordable housing with the active participation of the private sector-driven mortgage based housing delivery and maintenance system (Oduwaye, 2004). The policy believes that this will particularly address the housing problem of most Nigerian citizens.

The concept of private partnership in housing financing, delivery and maintenance system is predicated on the pooling together of resources from the various stakeholders, each party making inputs, thereby minimizing wastage and maximizing results achieved. Ikekpeazu (2004) stressed that the expediency of the increased adoption of the public-private partnership for housing financing and delivery in the present socio-economic circumstances of shortage of housing in Nigeria is now even more glaring than ever. With the increasing demand of the population on the national economy and the government’s propensity for enlarging the multi-sectorial allocations in terms of finance, it is becoming obvious that government alone can no longer provide adequate housing for all categories of her citizens particularly the low income earners.

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THE ROLE OF PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN HOUSING FINANCE, DELIVERY AND MAINTENANCE IN NIGERIA

FLOOD GENERATING STRUCTURES IN KUBWA URBAN LANDSCAPE

FLOOD GENERATING STRUCTURES IN KUBWA URBAN LANDSCAPE

ABSTRACT

This research work examined flood generating structures on Kubwa urban landscape Bwari Area Council. It is a combination of field observation through the distribution of questionnaire to the residents of the area and library research. Background for the study was discussed as well as problems were identified such as the causes and devastating effects of flooding in Kubwa which necessitated the need for this study. Research objectives were stated among which is to identify the flood generating structures and the areas vulnerable to flooding. Research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide in achieving the objectives. The study reviewed both theoretical and related empirical literatures under headings such as the concept of flood, types of floods, effects of flood, pattern of floods among others. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research design which is a combination of both survey and field work. 170 respondents were selected using the stratified random sampling technique from each of the study areas; structured questionnaires were distributed to them. The researcher used both descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze the data obtained from the respondents and field work. The questionnaires were analyzed and presented in tables using frequency and simple percentages; while the data about the generating structures were analyzed using the standard multiple regression technique to estimate how the parameters (i.e. ponds, drainage, polythene, vegetation and house clustering) affect the rate of flooding. Some of the findings of the study revealed that the major cause of flooding in the area is rainfall and lack of sufficient drainage system, which occur mostly from July to September annually to high amount of rainfall within that period. The residents close to the drainage or blocked surfaces experience higher rate of destruction than those far away from the drainage. It was among other things recommended that there should also be regular and periodic sanitation exercise to clear refuse in drainages as this will go a long way in averting possible incidences of flooding; ponds should be well taken care to avoid escalation of floods in addition to construction of dry dams/levees for the purpose of flood control as well as flood-mapping of vulnerable areas as these will go a long way in reducing the incidence of flooding in the study area.

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FLOOD GENERATING STRUCTURES IN KUBWA URBAN LANDSCAPE

AN ASSESSMENT OF CROSS VENTILATION IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS

AN ASSESSMENT OF CROSS VENTILATION IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

One of the basic necessities of life which are food, shelter, water and Air is of great importance to humans most especially in public buildings where there is high traffic and congestion most of the time. Research has shown that people spend about 90 percent of their time indoor since the majority of people’s daily activities take place indoor, the atmosphere inside of public building has a major impact on the health and safety of majority of the population can actually have more damaging effects on health than pollution in the air outside. This necessitates the need for cross ventilation in public buildings because it helps to mitigate these health risks while also protecting the public buildings.

A public buildings could be church, mosque, schools, or hospital, which holds a large crow for a number of reasons and etc. and if proper care is not taking in public buildings, which is always crowded needs to be supply the occupants with good ventilation so as to prevent suffocations; and there is a  needs for cross ventilation in public buildings more so,  Maslow 1943 opined that  cross ventilation is of paramount importance for human existences as consider the core basic needs and necessities. He further posited shelter and food security and water as essential ingredients that nourish the psychological and mental frame of mind of human, and when this basic needs are met; human beings level of productivity increases up to the next stage of quest for better living condition. According to O’ Brien 2016, ventilation is critical to home comfort. Proper ventilations prevent air pollutants from affecting the health of you and your family. Not only that having air flow in your home can get rid of any unwanted smells, such as from cooking and pets. It is also good to have an air flow that is uninterrupted, as anything blocking the air in your homes can Cause damage to both your homes and your health. In relation to the discussed, this research lingered on ascertaining and the assessment of cross ventilation in public buildings.

1.1       BACK GROUND OF THE STUDY

According to Pultar 1999, the architectural space and circulation, carefully designed and planned space make architecture what it is, the space that we live in move through and use.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF CROSS VENTILATION IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS

IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT

IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Environmental planning the process of facilitating decision making to carry out development with the consideration given to the natural environmental, social, political, economic and governance factors and provides a holistic frame work to achieve sustainable outcomes.
Environmental planning concerns itself with the decision making processes where they are required for managing relationships that exist within and between natural systems and human systems. Environmental planning endeavors to manage these processes in an effective, orderly, transparent and equitable manner for the benefit of all constituents within such systems for the present and for the future. Present day environmental planning practices are the result of continuous refinement and expansion of the scope of such decision making processes. Some of the main elements of present day environmental planning are:

Social & economic development
Urban development
Regional development
Natural resource management & integrated land use
Infrastructure systems
Governance frameworks

The environmental planning assessments encompass areas such as landuse, socioeconomics, transportation, economic and housing characteristics, air pollution, noise pollution, the wetlands, habitat of the endangered species, flood zones susceptibility, coastal zones erosion, and visual studies among others, and is referred to as an Integrated environmental planning assessment. It is the ability to analyze environmental issues that will facilitate critical decision making.
Traditionally, environmental planning has been based predominantly on the interdisciplinary study of environmental systems, based mainly in the sciences and economics. The underlying value system has essentially been an economic market model. Some researchers believe that this approach does not capture the wide range of societal values and concerns about the environment and are suggesting a more multi-disciplinary approach that emphasizes long-term resource management and sustainability.
New approaches are emerging that combine interdisciplinary science, ecological economics, and social sciences. Most importantly though are the collaborative processes which aim to integrate a wide range of values and perspectives in environmental management. The ecosystem approach focuses on a new scientific framework from which to examine environmental problems, it focuses on an expanded definition of ecosystem.

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IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT

THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT

THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Industrialization is a major development initiative that brings about massive development to a community be it rural or urban. With establishment of an industry the people stand to benefit in the way jobs are created security is provided, infrastructural development arrives and there is a general improvement in the welfare of the people.

In the same vain, the community stand at a risk in being affected in numerous other ways. InGboko local government area of Benue state. The citing of a cement factory in Yandevi.e Benue Cement Company Plc has polluted the land around the cement plant. The pollution in the form of limestone dust, has made the land to be in a state where its cultivation for agricultural purpose has become impossible. The dust is seen on trees and grasses around the factory and the fact that grasses are not greenish i.e. a sign of good condition is an indication that cropping activities would not be fruitful.

Government policy is another important factor impacting on the industrial development of Gboko Local Government area of Benue State. Certain government policies like privatization of government owned properties may bring about massive retrenchment of workers. This was the case when the Benue Cement Company was privatized to the Dangote Group of companies. The new management opted to import labour from other states thereby neglecting the people who were employed by the former administrations. This affected the workers who were owed heavily and had to cope with being unemployed.

Corruption affects the industrial development of Gboko heavily to officials of companies often syphon finds meant for development of the companies. Benue Cement Company was bankrupted by poor management by indigenes of the state. Company cars, housing properties shares have been sold for personal use by selfish administrators.

Objectives of the Study

The ultimate objectives of this study are;-

i.        To determine the benefits of industrialization to the Gboko Local Government community.

ii.       To find out how lives of people living in Gboko Local Government can be improved through industrialization.

iii.      To find out why Gboko Local Government is not yet industrialized.

iv.      To highlight the methods of encouraging industrialization in Gboko Local Government area

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THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIALIZATION ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT

INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT, REAL ESTATE AGENCY REBRANDING AND REVIEW OF NATIONAL HOUSING POLICY

INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT, REAL ESTATE AGENCY REBRANDING AND REVIEW OF NATIONAL HOUSING POLICY

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

With a population of about 173 million people, Nigeria is the largest country in Africa and accounts for 47% of West Africa’s population. Given these large reserves of human and natural resources, the country has significant potential to build a prosperous economy characterized by rapid economic growth through real estate rebranding leading to infrastructural development that can significantly reduce poverty, inequality and improve standards of living of the population through better access to and quality of health care, education and infrastructure services (Falade, 2007). One of the organization that has been promoting real estate agency rebranding in Nigeria is The Real Estate Developer’s Association of Nigeria (REDAN) which is the principal agency of the organized private sector recognized by government and approved by the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (FMBN) the apex mortgage lender in Nigeria to facilitate the delivery of affordable mass housing in Nigerians (REDAN, 2015).

Housing policy in Nigeria is as old as the history of the country. Thus, we can broadly categorize its historical development under the five distinct phases of the colonial period (before 1960), the post- independence period (1960-1979), the second civilian administration (1979-1983), the military era (1984-1999), and the post military era (1999 to date). The major characteristic of the colonial period was the provision of staff quarters for expatriates and other indigenous staff of parastatals and organizations. This era witnessed the creation of Urban Councils in 1946, the establishment of Lagos Executive Board (LEBD) in 1954, the formation of Nigerian Building Society in 1955, as well as the enactment of Regional Housing Corporation in 1959. Also, the post-independence period experienced some improvements in housing provision during the First National Development Plan period (1962-1968) and the second National Development Plan 1970-1974). Specifically, the formulation of the National Council on Housing in 1971 led to further improvement in housing delivery.

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INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT, REAL ESTATE AGENCY REBRANDING AND REVIEW OF NATIONAL HOUSING POLICY

THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF LAND REGISTRATION IN NIGERIA

CAUSES OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT FAILURES AND ABANDONEMTS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Abandoned projects and construction failure including building and other civil engineering infrastructure development project like houses, churches, schools, roads, bridges, dams, tunnels, air port, sea port etc. litter the whole Nigeria. Osemenan (1987) reported that Nigeria has become the “world’s junk-yard of abandoned and failed projects worth billions of naira and it is greatly unthinkable that Nigeria blessed with so great potentials in the building and construction industry can experience such magnitude of project failure and abandonment. According to another report by

Kotangora (1993) there are about 4000 uncompleted or abandoned project belonging to the Federal Government of Nigeria with an estimated cost of above N 300 billion which will take 30 years to complete at the present execution capacity of government, also according to him this issue of abandonment and construction project failure is been left without adequate attention for too long which is now having a multiplier effect on the construction industry in particular and the national economy as a whole. The building and construction industry plays a very dominant role in the economy of any nation. A healthy economy usually experience an increase in building and construction activities, but in a depressed economy, the incidence of project abandonment and construction failures tends to be more prevalent. Akindoyeni (1989) qualitatively reasoned that some of the causes of project abandonment and construction failure in Nigeria are deaths of client, inability of client to attract fund and lack of good planning.

The abandonment of development projects is the act of discontinuing any activities or maintenance works on such development project within a time frame of the contract agreement and with no intention of returning back to the development (Spelman, 1993). Similarly, O’Flaherty (1993) while reflecting on property development projects suggest that it is when an owner or developer is ceasing to provide the required maintenance management to a developed property. There could also be construction failure due to improper planning.

However, real property development projects being a capital intensive undertaking should be critically analyzed to ascertain its feasibility and viability before embarking on it. But, on several occasions and as it had been observed, governments, contractors and agencies have abandoned development projects mid-way into construction and completion.

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CAUSES OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT FAILURES AND ABANDONEMTS IN NIGERIA

ABUJA LAND AVAILABILITY CHALLENGES AND MISMANAGEMENT: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

ABUJA LAND AVAILABILITY CHALLENGES AND MISMANAGEMENT: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Abuja the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria has tremendous importance in the country’s life and development. It is a hotbed for political fermentation, such that generates centripetal attraction from all corners of the country, perhaps nowhere has the need for judicious use and preservation of exhaustive land resources become imperative in Nigeria today than the Federal Capital City. From the outcome of the panel set up by the Federal Government led by Justice T.A Aguda to relocate the Federal Capital Territory from Lagos to Abuja, an 8,000km2 land was carved out of the central region of the country to serve as the Federal Capital Territory for the Nation. There was a misconception that the original inhabitants’ population to be resettled was only between 25,000 and 50,000. However, a later survey in 1984 revealed that their actual population was about 150,000. More than 30 years later, this population has multiplied many times as a result of natural increase and migration.

It is pertinent to understand that the 8,000km2 as the size of the FCT, was not recommended by the International Planning Associates (IPA), the planning firm that produced the Abuja Master Plan, but by the FCT Location Committee, and has been defined in the 1976 FCT Decree even before the IPA was commissioned in June 1977 to plan the city, with the size as one of the terms of reference. Thus, the Abuja master plan has originally been designed with the concept that the whole area has already been evacuated. It was later discovered that the number of the original inhabitants was grossly underestimated. The resettlement cost was astronomical, to the extent of being higher than the money needed for the city development (Elleh, 2012). It therefore became necessary to change the resettlement policy from total evacuation to phases, depending on the actual area needed for the city development.

In ideal situation what should precede plot allocation are land availability, layout design and provision of infrastructure. In order to avoid waste, plots sizes are supposed to be determined relative to the needs of the allotees. If ones need could be contained in 500m2, then any excess portion beside that is a colossal waste of the land resources. Many others that need it could not get because somebody already has the title.

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ABUJA LAND AVAILABILITY CHALLENGES AND MISMANAGEMENT: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

IMPACT OF SLUM ON VALUE OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA

IMPACT OF SLUM ON VALUE OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Slums are home to the poorest of urban populations in Africa. The houses inhabited by slum dwellers are mostly decrepit, overcrowded, in neighborhoods that are prone to flooding and beset with poor sanitation and shortage of potable water. Slums are easily formed in areas experiencing rapid urbanization without commensurate increase in the provision and maintenance of housing and infrastructure. Slums have been conceptualized as a group of buildings or an area characterized by overcrowding, deterioration, insanitary conditions, or absence of basic and essential facilities like potable water, drainage system, schools, health facilities, recreational grounds, post office, among others. Slums generate spontaneously and are in some cases, a direct result of the prevalence of poverty experienced by the inhabitants of cities (Olotuah, 2006). Slums, which are regarded as an element of urban decay, also result from congestion in overcrowded cities where poor immigrants seek to settle for just any available accommodation irrespective of quality. The overwhelming negatives notwithstanding, there are some positive aspects to slums. In recent years, some environmentalists and organizations such as the United Nations Population Fund suggested that despite the poor living conditions, slums are positive both environmentally and socially. Because slums are characterized by very high density of housing, its environmental impact is smaller than that of dispersed rural communities. Furthermore, the fertility rate of new slum dwellers is below the replacement rate; this mitigates dangers associated with overpopulation that results from manpower-intensive subsistence agriculture, and frees up arable land for the nature, or more efficient industrialized agriculture. Slum dwellers also appear to have vastly better opportunities for getting jobs, starting small businesses and climbing out of poverty than rural inhabitants (Akinyode, 1998). Nigeria is ranked as one of the countries with high slum prevalence. The proliferation of shanty dwellings, squatter settlements and slums in most of our cities in Nigeria including the cross rivers state which is the being focused on in this study. However, it has been asserted that the presence of slum increase the rate of crime in the area thereby affecting the value of the residential property (Omole, 2010).

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IMPACT OF SLUM ON VALUE OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This research work was designed to see to the way the areas could be developed through the co-operative society with Idah Local Government Area of Kogi State as a case study, Oral interview were carried out, several book were consulted and also, finding of registered co-operative societies and number of their members were carried out. From the findings, it revealed that those areas with co-operative societies gain more government attention than those without co-operative societies. The study reveals that for a government to achieve all round development empowering co-operative societies should be given utmost attention.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1. INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The problem of developing the rural area has received the attention of many experts and researchers as well as the government.  This is because it constitutes a serious bottleneck to the socio-economic development of the country as well as the communities.  It is in the light of this, that I have decided to examine how rural areas would be developed with the help or assistance of co-operative societies using Idah local Government as the case study.

Rural development according to Diejomoah (2003) is “ The process of not only increasing the level of per capital income in the rural area but also the standard of living of the rural population measured by food and nutrition level, health, education, housing, recreation and security. Also Rural development according to UNO (1960) is “The process by which the effort of he people themselves are United with effort that of government authorities to improved the economic social and cultural conditions of the rural communities to integrate those community into life of the nation and to enable them contribute meaningful to national development. Therefore, Rural Development is an integration activity involving the Implementation of programmes of agriculture, health, education, home management, provision of infrastructure and other community facilities under the supervision of the government, its agencies and the local people. Co-operative society is one of the principal agent of rural development.  It is not only an avenue for job opportunities, but also as a training ground for the rural dwellers and other society and economic benefits.  Hence, it is a strong factor in the nations economic development.

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THE ROLE OF CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL COMMUNITIES IN NIGERIA

ASSESSING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND LOCATIONAL IMPACT OF PETROL SERVICE STATIONS

ASSESSING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND LOCATIONAL IMPACT OF PETROL SERVICE STATIONS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of study

The technological initiative of man towards the development of automobile and the discovery of petroleum triggered the building of petrol service stations at strategic locations to meet the demand of vehicle owners (Abdul et al., 2009). In recent times, there has been a sustained increase in the number of petrol stations established in different parts of the country. The reasons for such unprecedented increase are not farfetched: First, the growing number of people in the country and the attendant increase in the purchase of vehicles. Secondly, the attractive price of petrol both at control price and black market prices which made more people to go into the petrol retailing business (Uchegbu, 2002).

In view of this development, many marketers take advantage of this need and build service stations haphazardly without giving consideration to the possible effect of the locations of the stations. It has now generally been recognized that economic development can be a major contributing factor to growing environmental problems particularly when such development is not sustainable. A greatly improved understanding of natural resource base and mostly environmental systems that support national economies is needed if patterns of development that are sustainable can be determined and recommended to government.

Petroleum, (crude oil) naturally is composed of various organic chemicals found in large quantities below the surface of the earth and is used as fuel and as raw material in the chemical industry. Modern (industrial) society uses it primarily to achieve mobility. In addition, petroleum and its derivatives are used in the manufacture of medicine and fertilizers, plastics, building materials, paints, and cloths and to generate electricity. In fact modern industrialization depends on petroleum and its products; the physical structure and way of life of the urban centres are the result of an ample and inexpensive supply of petroleum. In short, the goals of developing countries are based on the assumption of petroleum availability.

Petrol Stations, serve as outlets for retailing petroleum resources such as gas, fuel, kerosene etc., which are highly inflammable, therefore need to be located appropriately in relation to other activities so as to avoid its consequent impact on the immediate environment. The environmental impacts of the locations of petrol stations are therefore not negligible and may not be ascertained unless an Impact analysis is carried out.

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ASSESSING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND LOCATIONAL IMPACT OF PETROL SERVICE STATIONS

WASTE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

WASTE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

The generation and disposal of waste is an intrinsic part of any developing or industrial society. Waste, both from domestic and commercial sources has grown significantly in Nigeria over the past decade. Every time a householder shops at the store, and open market he contributes to the mountain of waste. It is possible to quote figures which show that the production of waste amounts to millions of tons. The percent of Nigeria’s population living in cities and urban areas has more than doubled in the last 15 years.

The cities and urban areas experience continuous growth which contributes to enormous in generation of solid and liquid waste. The management of waste is a matter of national and international concern. The volume of waste does not actually constitute the problem but the ability or inability of governments, individuals and waste disposal firms to keep up with the task of managing waste and the environment. There is no doubt that a dirty environment affects the standard of living, aesthetic sensibilities, health of the people and thus the quality of their lives.

The corollary is that improper disposal or storage of this waste can constitute hazards to the society through the pollution of air, land and especially water. In this paper, our attention would be focused on domestic waste. We will highlight some of the problems which have attended the management of this category of waste in Nigeria today. It will be seen that Nigeria has not done well in the direction of tackling the menace of domestic waste. This is even in the face advanced management strategies existing today for domestic waste management which have been adopted in many places. We will proffer suggestions that may assist in addressing this issue that seems to be aborting most efforts of International organizations, the federal government, city authorities, states and professionals alike.

The defective strategies and arrangements adopted for solid waste management in Nigerian cities create the erroneous impression that urban waste management problems are intractable. This sterns from the fact that the rate of collection and evacuation perpetually lag behind the rate of generation which makes solid waste accumulation a major source of environmental nuisance in Nigerian cities. Waste management therefore, concerns the interplay among generation, storage, collection and final disposal (Omuta, 1988).

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WASTE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

TENEMENT HOUSING AND INDUCED DOMESTIC CONFLICT

TENEMENT HOUSING AND INDUCED DOMESTIC CONFLICT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Human beings are naturally gregarious and no human being is an island on his own. There is therefore a need for them to interact, cohabit, and do things in common. The Port harcourt metropolis has witnessed continuous growth in demand for housing units by low-income earners for all types of properties, especially during the era of economic boom in the 1980s (Oni, 2008). The low-income earners have peculiar taste for tenement properties because of its low rent, though many of such properties lack basic amenities. The tenement type of residential properties usually consists of unit rooms flanking both sides of a central passage that connects the rooms to shared unit kitchens and toilets at the rear. Sometimes the kitchen is attached to the structure while the common toilets and bathrooms are in most cases detached from the main building. This structure of building was said to have originated from Brazil at the end of slave trade era. The property is also characterized by overcrowding and vices; with several individual families occupying unit rooms or room-and-parlours; and individual occupiers having differing tastes, aspirations and socio-cultural backgrounds. As a result of differing socio-cultural backgrounds, on many occasions the occupiers of the low-income houses engage in regualr arguments and in most cases may result to fighting and violence, and because of the population of occupiers, the facilities are inadequate with the use of available bathrooms, kitchens and toilets carried out on rotational basis. The occupiers often resort to cooking at the central passage. Disagreement, misunderstanding, quarrelling and open confrontations occasionally bloody do occur.

Conflicts are a natural part of human interaction and it is common amongst occupiers of land and buildings have been the concern of many individuals and body corporate. They occur amongst the occupiers of tenement houses in the port harcourt metropolis, and the need to examine the issue of conflicts amongst the low income housing residents with the aim of finding solution has made the study vey significant.

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TENEMENT HOUSING AND INDUCED DOMESTIC CONFLICT

AN APPRAISAL OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA 1999-2009: AKWA IBOM STATE EXPERIENCE

AN APPRAISAL OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA 1999-2009: AKWA IBOM STATE EXPERIENCE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

Development is a necessary aspect of societies, indeed any society without development could be said to be static. Hence all societies are dynamic. Development as a term has been defined by many writers with different views: – Ablu, (1982) viewed development as synonymous with economic growth measured in aggregate terms. Abubakar (1981), sees development as qualitative improvement in all societies and in all groups of individuals within societies. He asserts that all men must surely have enough goods in order to be men and to develop themselves. As defined by Forest (1981), development is creating the condition for the realization of human personality. He noted that development has to be marked with reduction in poverty, unemployment and inequality a high level of nutrition, high health standard, low infant mortality rate etc. From the above definitions of development, it can be deduced that development is virtually changing the life of an individual, group of people or community in terms of social amenities, such as good health, good road, adequate and clean water, education etc.

Rural development as an exercise is geared towards a specific field requiring thought and action on the government and the populace which its effect is a socially conditioned one, meaning that it brings about improved conscious relationship amongst individuals; groups and organizations. According to Ndangara (2005), rural development efforts must be derived from the needs and aspirations of the rural people and not necessarily in response to the needs of the urban political economy such as unemployment, food shortage, and rural urban migration. It entails a line up programme of actions targeted at increasing the efficiency of the rural population to the extent that there is rural steady power supply to the extent that standard of living and productivity are enhanced, and education and the environmental sanitation promotion are witnessed. Basically therefore, rural development is concerned with raising the quality of life of the low-income population living in rural areas on a self-sustaining basis through a fundamental transformation of the rural mode of production (Gana, 1986).

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AN APPRAISAL OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA 1999-2009: AKWA IBOM STATE EXPERIENCE