ASSESSMENT OF WEIGHT GAIN OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC BREED OF BROILERS IN UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

Poultry farming involves, domesticating birds such as chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese. They are raised primarily for meat production. Chickens raised for eggs are referred to as laying hens while chicken raised for meat are referred to as broilers.

Exotic chickens are raised in specialized caging systems, they are fed with specialized formulated feeds which are rich in essential minerals, their growth are controlled and the meat production are monitored using feed formulation and vaccines. These exotic breeds are never allowed to range freely or scavenge for food. Turkey on the other hand is a large poultry bird that originated from the temperate parts of the world which is now a popular form of poultry in parts of the world. Its meat is a major sources of protein and its feathers are used extensively for decorative purposes (UF Researchers, 2012).

Indigenous birds on the other hand are set free on free range whereby chickens are allowed to move freely during the day and spend the right in the main house. Overnight housing, perching on trees or on roots and overnight housing within the main house are the common patterns of housing prevailing in the indigenous areas. Lack of housing is one of the major constraints of the indigenous poultry production systems. In Akwa Ibom State, a large proportion of indigenous poultry mortality accounted due to nocturnal predators because of lack of proper housing (Dwinger et al., 2003). Some research works also indicated that the mortality of scavenging birds reduced by improving housing. For instance, in Gambia livestock improvement program, which include improved poultry mortality (19%) relative to that observed in Ethiopia (66%) and Tanzania (33%) where no housing improvement were made (Kitalyi, 1998).
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ASSESSMENT OF WEIGHT GAIN OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC BREED OF BROILERS IN UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE

PUBLIC UTILITIES AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCES IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS; A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM STATE UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Developments in technology have eroded some of the natural monopoly aspects of traditional public utilities.For instance, electricity generation, electricity retailing, telecommunication, some types of public transit and postal services have become competitive in some countries and the trend towards liberalization, deregulation and privatization of public utilities is growing. However, the infrastructure used to distribute most utility products and services has remained largely monopolistic.

Public utilities can be privately owned or publicly owned. Publicly owned utilities include cooperative and municipal utilities. Municipalutilities may actually include territories outside of city limits or may not even serve the entire city. Cooperative utilities are owned by the customers they serve. They are usually found in rural areas. Publicly owned utilities are non-profitable Private utilities, also called investor-owned utilities, are owned by investors,and operate for profit, often referred to as a rate of return. Public utilities provide services at the consumer level, be it residential, commercial, or industrial consumer. In turn, utilities and very large consumers buy and sell electricity at the wholesale level through a network of RTOs and ISOs within one of three grids, the eastern grid, Texas, which is a single ISO, and the western grid. The concept of ‘services of general interest’ usually employed within the European Union to refer to essential services subject to specific public-service obligations, also finds its counterpart in the United States (Defeuilley, 1999).
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PUBLIC UTILITIES AND STUDENTS PERFORMANCES IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS; A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM STATE UNIVERSITY

ATTITUDES OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION STUDENTS TOWARDS STUDENTS’ INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

ATTITUDES OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION STUDENTS TOWARDS STUDENTS’ INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

ABSTRACT

This research work investigated the attitude of students towards students’ industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) using the descriptive survey research design. The research conducted among undergraduates students of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. 200 students were randomly selected from the department of Vocational and Technical education. The instrument was a 20 item question name score in likert type response format; Strongly Agree (5), A =Agree (4), U= Undecided (3), DA= Disagree (2), and SD =Strongly Disagree (1). The research questions were analyzed using the mean rating, and the findings showed that:

  1. School equipment were not found replicating those in the industries
  2. The schools lack adequate infrastructures that discouraged students further in showing concern for industry’s based training
  3. Knowledge of I.T was found to be valuable in giving students an idea of industrial management
  4. SIWES enhance student’s ability to tackle technical problems

It was however recommended that ITF should ensure that regular visitation of the IT officers to supervisors, agencies, institution, employers and students on attachment. Also, checking of log –book issued to students at place of attachment by institutions is recommended in order that the average vocational students can develop a good sense of work commitment.

CHAPTER ONE

Background to the Study

Attitude as a concept is concerned with individuals’ way of thinking, acting, and behaving. Attitudes are formed as a result of some kind of learning experiences. Attitude is fundamental to understanding social perception of people because they strongly influence people. Ojo (2000) said that it is the disposition of men to view things in a certain way and to act accordingly. This notion of attitude however, could be said to have propelled students who gain admission into universities to have preference for a particular course of study. Furthermore, some students still hold divergent views based on their attitudinal disposition to the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES), which motivate them towards the studying of Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) in tertiary institutions.

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ATTITUDES OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION STUDENTS TOWARDS STUDENTS’ INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERICENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

AN ASSESSMENT OF WORK PLACE PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

AN ASSESSMENT OF WORK PLACE PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

In Africa and in Nigeria in particular, governments are making efforts to promote technical and vocational education in institutions with the belief that skills acquired through vocational and technical training enhances productivity in work environment. Abban and Quarchie (1996) pointed out that a shift towards practical skills training with technical and vocational education in Africa is increasingly under reform to make it more attractive, effective and efficient. One of the most important features of technical and vocational education, as recognized by African governments, is its orientation towards the world of work with the curriculum emphasizing the performance of technical and vocational trainees in the work environment. African Union (2007) report also highlighted the current vision of African countries in developing a new strategy to revitalize technical and vocational education will promote skills acquisition through competency-based training. If this vision should materialize, it will require ability testing for employment in order to promote sustainable livelihoods and responsible citizenship.

In achieving the goal of work place performance of technical and vocational graduates, Roeske (2003) explained, the Nigerian Industrial Skills Development Center was established in 2002. This center, working in close collaboration with the Association of Nigerian Industries and the Nigerian Employers Association, was tasked to harness the financial and material resources required for achieving and promoting excellence in skills training. A number of other institutions like Integrated Community Center for Employable Skills, the Opportunities Industrialization Center and the Department of Social Welfare’s Vocational Centers are parts of government effort to produce skillful technical and vocational personnel. Other innovative programmes like the Skills Training and Employment Placement (STEP) and the Vocational Skills Project were also kept in place to bring out the talented and skillful technical and vocational personnel for the job market (Roeske, 2003). The Nigeria Regional Appropriate Technology Industrial Service and the Intermediate Technology Transfers Units are also providing technical and vocational education graduates with additional and enriched practical skills to enable them set up their own enterprises. All these interventions have not yielded the expected result.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF WORK PLACE PERFORMANCE OF GRADUATES OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

HIDDEN COST OF UPPER BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

HIDDEN COST OF UPPER BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
Education is a key index in development. It has been documented that schooling improves productivity, health and reduces negative features of life such as inferiority complex, child labour as well as bringing about empowerment (Subramanian, 2002). According to the National Planning Commission- NPC (2005), education opens the door for all citizens to participate in development activities and when citizens are denied education, they are excluded from the development process, which in turn puts them at a disadvantage vis-à-vis their compatriots with requisite education. This in fact explains the emphasis in recent times for all citizens to have access to basic education as a guarantee for good life. Education also helps to determine the distribution of employment and income for present and future generations through its influence on social welfare and health, fertility and life expectancy (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2005).
It is in recognition of the importance of education to development that the international community and governments all over the world have made commitments for citizens to have access to education. This notwithstanding, it
has been documented that across the globe, there are inequalities in educational access and achievement as well as high level of absolute educational deprivation of some children and adults (Action Aid, 2003).
In order to confront this challenge, the right based approach, which emphasizes the participation of citizens have been advocated. Meanwhile, the declaration of the World Conference on Education for All (WCEFA) which was made in Jomtien, Thailand in 1990 stated clearly in article one that “every person-child, youth and adult-shall be able to benefit from educational opportunities designed to meet their basic needs”. This declaration was reaffirmed at the world summit for children also held in 1990 which stated that all children should have access to basic education by the year 2000. The world summit for education placed a lot of emphasis on raising the levels of female literacy.

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HIDDEN COST OF UPPER BASIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

UTILIZATION OF COMPUTER FOR INSTRUCTION IN ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY

UTILIZATION OF COMPUTER FOR INSTRUCTION IN ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY

Abstract
In carrying out this study, three research questions and three null hypotheses were developed to guide the study. Descriptive survey research design was employed in selecting the respondents for the study. The study was carried out in Kwara State covering the three State Colleges of Education in Kwara State. The population for this study was 232 comprising 102 Senior lecturers (Chief Lecturer, Principal Lecturer) and 130 Junior Lecturers (Lecturer I, Lecturer II, Lecturer III and Assistant Lecturers) in Kwara State Colleges of Education located in Ilorin, Oro and Lafiagi. Due to the manageable size of the population of NCE technical education lecturers in Kwara State, the entire 232 lecturers were used for the study. Therefore, there was no sampling. The instrument for the study was a structured questionnaire developed by the researcher and it is titled: Utilization of Computer for Instruction in Electronics Technology Questionnaire; ‘(UCIETQ)’. The questionnaire items were developed from the literature reviewed. The instrument was face-validated by three experts. The experts were requested to assess the items of the instruments in terms of clarity, relevance and appropriateness in addressing the problem of the study and research questions under investigation. Their comments and corrections were incorporated in the final draft of the instrument. To establish the internal consistency of the questionnaire, Cronbach Alpha reliability technique was used in which reliability value 0.74 was obtained for use of computer for instructional planning, 0.70 for instructional delivery, 0.83 for instructional evaluation while an overall reliability coefficient of 0.76 was obtained for the entire instrument. Data for the study were collected by the researcher with the help of two research assistants. The research assistants were briefed by the researcher in order for them to be acquainted with the system of administering the questionnaire and to enhance the return rate of the instrument from the respondents. Out of the 232 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 221 copies were retrieved and completely filled representing 95.3% rate of return. The data collected were analyzed using mean for answering research questions while t-test statistics was used for testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance and at 219 degree of freedom. It was found out that, all the 36 identified items in the study are ways through which computer can be used for instruction in electronics technology in Kwara State Colleges of Education.

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UTILIZATION OF COMPUTER FOR INSTRUCTION IN ELECTRONICS TECHNOLOGY

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING COMPUTER STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING COMPUTER STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT
The major purpose of this study was to determine the strategies for improving computer studies in secondary schools in Oshimili and Aniocha Local Government Areas of Delta State. Four research questions were answered and four null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population for the study consisted of 282 made up of 118 principals, 118 Vice Principals and 46 computer studies teachers in Oshimili and Aniocha Local Government Areas of Delta State. There was no sample for the study because the population size was manageable. Descriptive survey design was used to generate data for the study. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit information for the study. The instrument was face validated by three research experts, two from the Department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and one from the Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba. The questionnaire was pilot tested with a sample of 30 computer study teachers from secondary schools in Nsukka zone of Enugu State. Cronbach Alpha reliability test was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and this yielded a reliability coefficient of .77. Data were analysed using mean statistic for the research questions and ANOVA was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Based on the findings, it was revealed that there was no significant difference in the mean rating of principals, vice principals and teachers on the strategies for improving the funding strategies required for the teaching of computer studies. It was concluded that there are some basic strategies that could be adopted in other to improve the teaching of computer studies in secondary schools in Oshimili and Aniocha Local Government Areas of Delta State. It was recommended that school administrators (principals, vice principals and teachers) should be sponsored on retraining programmes at least twice a year through workshop, seminars and conferences to enable them learn the modern technological skills in their chosen field of endeavour.

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STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING COMPUTER STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

SKILL NEEDS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADUATES

SKILL NEEDS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADUATES

Abstract
This study was designed to determine the effect of mind mapping on students’ achievement in abstract contents of electrical and electronic trades in technical colleges. The study adopted the quasi-experimental research design, precisely, pretest, posttest non-equivalent control group design which involved groups of students in their intact classes. A sample of 193 electrical and electronic trade year II students drawn by multistage sampling technique from a population of 354 from eight technical colleges in Ogun state was used for the study. Four research questions and four null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. Electrical Electronics Achievement Test (EEAT) is the instrument used for data collection. The EEAT and lesson plans for both control and experimental were all subjected to face and content validation by three experts. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was computed using KR-20 and found to be 0.81. Mean was used to answer the research questions, while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was employed to test the hypotheses. The study revealed that mind mapping instructional strategy was superior to the conventional method in enhancing student achievement in abstract contents. It also discovered that gender grouping did not contribute significantly to variance in students achievement score, thus the effectiveness of mind mapping does not depend on gender. After pointing out some educational implications of the findings, it was thereafter recommended that mind mapping should be adopted in teaching abstract contents of electrical and electronic trades in technical colleges, among others.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Many farmers in Enugu State engage in rice production with the aim of enhancing their income and living standard. Rice is scientifically known as Oryza Sativa. Rice in the view of Tsado, (2000) is one of the world’s most important annual cereal crops, belonging to the family of Graminae, widely cultivated in almost every part of the world. The plant has fibrous roots, tillers, leaves with sheath base, well defined midrib and small flowers. The mature grain is elongated and enclosed in husk. Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world’s human population.
There are many varieties of rice grown in Nigeria including Enugu State.

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SKILL NEEDS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL GRADUATES

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)-BASED OFFICE SKILLS REQUIRED BY SECRETARIES FOR EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATION

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)-BASED OFFICE SKILLS REQUIRED BY SECRETARIES FOR EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is promoting efficiency in all areas of human activities. Individuals, groups and governments all over the world are taking the advantage of this opportunity to transform the activities of various sectors through the development of new skills. Information and Communication Technology has been identified as a major factor for effective service delivery in public sector, including the local governments. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has changed the face of offices and consequently made business environments to wear a new look. This is particularly noticeable in the area of office administration and management (Agomuo, 2005). The author stated that information and communication gadgets, equipment and facilities improve the manner in which message is preserved, recalled, shared and relayed for information and communication purposes. Agomuo further stated that the electronic systems are now available for the performance of many functions that were formerly done manually in offices. This makes for greater effectiveness and efficiency in the performance of office activities. New digital machines and electronic equipment now make for faster, neater, more accurate and more reliable outputs. Most activities of office managers and their assistants are now based on the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which promotes organizational efficiency.

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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)-BASED OFFICE SKILLS REQUIRED BY SECRETARIES FOR EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATION

INFLUENCE OF HOME TELEVISION VIEWING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF CHILDREN IN UPPER BASIC EDUCATION

INFLUENCE OF HOME TELEVISION VIEWING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF CHILDREN IN UPPER BASIC EDUCATION

Abstract
The study investigated the influence of home television viewing on academic achievement of children in upper Basic Education Level in Kaduna State. The study established the influence of televisions viewing on the pupils’ language development and achievement in basic science. The study also determines the influence of televisions viewing on pupils’ numeracy development and achievement in social studies. The study was guided by four research questions and four formulated null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of probability. The design of the study was an ex-post facto survey design. The area of the study was Kaduna State of Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of all the children in the upper basic level of education in schools in Kaduna State. Multistage and stratified random sampling techniques were used in selecting the 320 pupils that were used for the study. A researcher-developed instrument called ‘pupils television viewing identification questionnaire’ (PTVIQ). The instrument was face validated by three experts in the department of vocational Teacher education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The internal consistency reliability coefficient obtained using Cronbach alpha method was 0.67. Data were collected by recording the continuous assessment scores of pupils on Mathematics, English languages, Basic Science and Social Studies. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while t-test analysis was used in testing the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study included: that home television viewers scored higher than the non-television viewers on Basic English continuous assessment tests; the home television viewers scored higher than the non-television viewers on basic Mathematics; at p<0 .05=”” a=”” academic=”” activities=”” and=”” be=”” between=”” by=”” difference=”” encouraged=”” enhance=”” especially=”” home=”” homes=”” in=”” it=”” learning.=”” mean=”” non-television=”” of=”” on=”” parents=”” pupils=”” recommended=”” schools=”” scores=”” should=”” significant=”” social=”” span=”” studies=”” teachers=”” television=”” tests.=”” that=”” the=”” there=”” to=”” viewers=”” viewing=”” was=””>

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Television is an electronic device which transmits picture and sound. It is used for entertainment, information and commercials. With the advent of satellite and digital technologies, there are unlimited programmes on television.

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INFLUENCE OF HOME TELEVISION VIEWING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF CHILDREN IN UPPER BASIC EDUCATION

EXTENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH GOVERNMENT FINANCIAL REGULATIONS

EXTENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH GOVERNMENT FINANCIAL REGULATIONS

ABSTRACT
The demands and expectations from local government councils over the years have been on the increase while delivering the dividend of democracy and good governance at the grassroots continues to dwindle owing to mismanagement and misappropriation of funds. As a result of the above factors, local government administrators are most times unable to meet up with their financial obligations in terms of payment of staff salaries, provision of social services and infrastructural development to the urban and rural dwellers. This has led the public to asking questions on the extent to which local government administrators comply with government financial regulations. It is on this note that this study seeks to determine the extent of compliance with government financial regulations in local government administration. Specifically, the study was carried out to determine: the extent of compliance with financial estimates regulations in local government administration in Enugu State, the extent of compliance with revenue collection procedures in local government administration in Enugu State, extent of compliance with expenditure procedures in local government administration in Enugu State and extent of compliance with financial statement regulation in local government administration in Enugu State.Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and was conducted in the 17 Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The population for the study was 331 financial administrators in local government areas in Enugu State and due to the manageable nature of the population, no sample and sampling technique was conducted. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled Compliance with Government Financial Regulations Questionnaire (CGFRQ) which was face-validated by three research experts: two from the Department of Vocational Teacher Education (VTE) and one from Department of Public Administration and Local Government (PALG), all from the University of Nigeria,Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument. The result yielded a high coefficient of 0.92. Three hundred and thirty one copies of the questionnaire were administered and retrieved from the respondents by the researcher with the help of three research assistants.

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EXTENT OF COMPLIANCE WITH GOVERNMENT FINANCIAL REGULATIONS

ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS POSSESSED BY AUTO TECHNOLOGY SELF EMPLOYED GRADUATES

ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS POSSESSED BY AUTO TECHNOLOGY SELF EMPLOYED GRADUATES

ABSTRACT
The study was designed to determine the skills possessed by auto technology self employed graduates in Nasarawa state. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study was 110 respondents comprises of 30 auto technology entrepreneurs and auto technology employees. There was no sampling because of manageable size of the population. A structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The instrument was trial-tested on 15 respondents who were not part of the population used for the study after being subjected to face validation by three 3 experts from the department of vocational teacher education, university of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha reliability method was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and 0.984 reliability coefficient value was obtained. Five research questions and five null hypotheses were formulated for the study. Mean was used to analyze the data for research questions while t-test was used to test the hypotheses of no significant difference at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed 36 technical skills, 16 managerial skills, 11 financial management skills, 21 marketing skills and 16 communication skills possessed by graduates of auto technology for self-employment in Nasarawa state. There was no significant difference in the mean responses of auto technology entrepreneurs and auto technology employees on the skills possessed by auto technology self employed graduates for entrepreneurial ventures. The study recommended that all the skills identified in this study should be packaged and uses to retain the graduates of auto technology as prospective entrepreneurs in the country. It was also recommended that the entrepreneurial skills identified should be introduced as one of the compulsory subjects in all secondary schools in the country. Through this methods students who transcend into technical institutions to the university level, would have become conversant with the tenets of entrepreneurial demand.

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ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS POSSESSED BY AUTO TECHNOLOGY SELF EMPLOYED GRADUATES

ASSESSMENT OF TAILORING PROGRAMME OF SCHOOL-ON-WHEELS SCHEME OF NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF EMPLOYMENT IN ALLEVIATING POVERTY AMONG HOUSEHOLDS

ASSESSMENT OF TAILORING PROGRAMME OF SCHOOL-ON-WHEELS SCHEME OF NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF EMPLOYMENT IN ALLEVIATING POVERTY AMONG HOUSEHOLDS

Abstract

The study was on assessment of tailoring programme of the SOW scheme of the NDE in alleviating poverty among beneficiaries in Anambra State. Specifically, the study ascertained; the extent of coverage of basic tailoring course content within the six months of the SOW scheme training, the adequacy and functionality of availability training facilities, competency of administrators of the scheme, income earnings of beneficiaries before and after participating in the scheme, challenges facing the scheme and strategies for its improvement. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. It was carried out in Anambra State. The population was 379 that comprised of 328 beneficiaries of the scheme trained on tailoring, 15 instructors and 36 staff of the NDE. Snowball sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 103 beneficiaries. All the instructors (15) and NDE staff (36) were used for the study bringing the total sample size to154. Four sets of instruments were used for data collection namely: School-On-Wheels Scheme Assessment Questionnaire (SOWSAQ -1), (SOWSAQ- 11), (SOWSAQ -111) that were administered to beneficiaries, instructors and NDE staff respectively and a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) guide. The instruments were duly validated. Overall internal consistency reliability co-efficient of the questionnaires were: 0.93 for SOWSBAQ-1 for beneficiaries, 0.96 for SOWSBAQ-11 for instructors and 0.90 for SOWSBAQ-111 for NDE staff respectively which were determined using Cronbach Alpha. The data were analyzed using frequency for research question 2, frequency and percentage for research question 6, mean and standard deviation for research questions 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8, while t – test was used to test HOs 1-3 at 0.05 l evel of significance. Six out of 20 contents of the study were covered. Six facilities out of twelve stipulated basic tailoring facilities were adequately provided while the other half were inadequately provided. Nine out of the twelve facilities were functionally available. The non- functional but available facilities were electrically operated tools. Instructors possessed core tailoring competencies but lacked pedagogical skills. Beneficiaries possessed 9 tailoring competencies out of 28. The NDE staff did not adequately perform their administrative roles. There were agreements in the opinions of beneficiaries and instructors on; extent of content coverage, functionalities of available facilities, adequacy of other resources, and competencies of NDE staff that were not significant. There were no differences in the income earnings of beneficiaries before and after their participation in the scheme.

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ASSESSMENT OF TAILORING PROGRAMME OF SCHOOL-ON-WHEELS SCHEME OF NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF EMPLOYMENT IN ALLEVIATING POVERTY AMONG HOUSEHOLDS

TEACHER PERCEPTION OF IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM

TEACHER PERCEPTION OF IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM

ABSTRACT

The major objective of the study was to assess teacher perception of the implementation of agricultural science curriculum in senior secondary schools in Niger State. Four specific objectives were stated which included to; determine the influence of teachers‘ qualification/competencies, ascertain the influence of adequacy of infrastructure/instructional facilities and assess influence of adequacy of funding on implementation of agricultural science curriculum in senior secondary schools in Niger State. Four research questions and four null hypotheses were stated for the study.Population for the study comprised 332 agricultural science teachers, 216senior secondary schools in the seven Education Zones in Niger State. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. Sample size for the study was 69 agricultural science teachers. A40 item self-designed questionnaire was used for the study.The research questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics (arithmetic mean) and the null hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics(regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance). All the four null hypotheses tested were rejected. The findings of the study showed that;teachers‘ qualification/competencies, adequacy of infrastructure/instructional facilities and adequacy of funding had significant influence on implementation of agricultural science curriculum in senior secondary schools in Niger State. Based on the findings of the study,the researcher recommended that;only qualified teachers of agricultural science should be engaged in the teaching of the subject and adequate instructional facilities should be provided in schools. Better funding of practical in agricultural science from the government and school authority

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

A curriculum is a comprehensive plan that includes objectives to be attained, specifications of resources required and stages of work to be performed (Asiabaka, 2002). According to Olatunji (2005), a curriculum is a collection of co-ordinated activities that are mutually directed towards the attainment of a definite goal and it usually comprises of several segments or projects which can be separately pursued as component of the whole curriculum.Curriculum assessment is defined by Huba and Freed (2000), Hutchings and Marchese (1990) and Palomba and Banta (1999) as the systematic and ongoing method of gathering, analyzing and using information from various sources about a curriculum and measuring outcomes in order to improve student learning.

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TEACHER PERCEPTION OF IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS’ FACTORS AND USAGE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING BUSINESS EDUCATION COURSES IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS’ FACTORS AND USAGE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING BUSINESS EDUCATION COURSES IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES

ABSTRACT

The research work investigated the relationship between teachers‘ factors and usage of information and communication technology in teaching business education courses in Nigerian universities. Descriptive survey design was employed in the study. The population for the study was one hundred and sixty three (163) lecturers from seventeen (17) universities offering business education in Nigeria. The purposive technique was adapted to select one hundred and fourty (140) lecturers as sample for the study. Four rating scale structured questionnaire was employed in data collection. The researcher employed face to face method in distributing and retrieving of the questionnaire. One hundred and twenty seven (127) copies of questionnaire representing 91% were properly filled and coded into Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for data analysis and mean scores and for answering research questions at index score of at least 2.5 for agreed. The SPSS was used to run Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) for the test of the six null hypotheses at significance level of 0.05. The study revealed among others that, availability and accessibility of ICT tools has significant effect on ICT usage in teaching business education courses among universities lecturers in Nigeria. It was recommended among others that universities management should make a commitment by supplying adequate ICT gadgets that will enable lecturers have continuous access to ICTs so that they can effectively integrate its usage for their teaching and research work.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1Background to the Study

The 21st Century education integrates technique encouraging students in ways not

previously possible, creating new learning and teaching possibilities, enhancing achievements, enhancing child centre education, and extending global interactions by way of access to educational information on a larger scale than hitherto known before. No doubt, Information and Communication Technology in education has been influencing changes in techniques of teaching and learning and business education programme in Nigerian universities should not be an exception because of its focus on acquisition of employable skills (Lucas and Milford, 2009; Eghonghon and Ndama, 2012) for self-reliance and productive living.

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS’ FACTORS AND USAGE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING BUSINESS EDUCATION COURSES IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES

RELEVANCE OF SHORTHAND SKILLS TO SECRETARIAL DUTIES IN AUTOMATED OFFICES

RELEVANCE OF SHORTHAND SKILLS TO SECRETARIAL DUTIES IN AUTOMATED OFFICES

ABSTRACT

This study sought to establish the relevance of shorthand skills to secretarial duties in automated offices in the North East Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria. Shorthand is a skill that prepares one for an occupation as a secretary. Its many applications include taking of minutes, composing letters, report writing, recording messages and others. Technology seems to have caught up with shorthand in this era. Proponents of automated equipment in offices and the increased use of automated equipment by business executives and secretaries have promoted the assumption that, the use of shorthand skills will be phased out and modern machines and equipment would take over the role of shorthand writers. The major objective of this study was to determine the relevance of shorthand skills to secretarial duties in automated public offices in North East geo-political zone of Nigeria. The research design employed for this study was the descriptive survey research. The population for the study was one thousand two hundred (1,200) secretaries and managers. The sample size for the study was six hundred (600) comprising three hundred (300) secretaries and three hundred (300) managers in automated public institutions drawn from state establishments, federal medical centres and universities. Proportional sampling techniques was used to get equal number of secretaries and managers from both state and federal institutions in the zone. The instrument used to collect data for the study was a questionnaire. The questionnaire contained 64 items divided into seven sections; A,B,C,D,E,F and G. Section A was designed to obtain personal data of the respondents to fill in appropriately. Section B – G contains items designed to elicit data on research questions 1 – 7 respectively. Frequencies and percentages were used in presenting the bio-data of respondents. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the seven

research questions. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to test null hypotheses one to six, while independent t-test was used to test null hypothesis seven to determine the difference between the views of secretaries and managers on the relevance of shorthand skills to secretarial duties in automated offices. The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed among others that, shorthand skill is relevant to secretaries‘ accuracy in taking minutes. Shorthand skill is still relevant to secretaries‘ speed in taking minutes. Shorthand is relevant to secretaries‘ ability to compose correspondence.

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RELEVANCE OF SHORTHAND SKILLS TO SECRETARIAL DUTIES IN AUTOMATED OFFICES

INFLUENCE OF CUSTODIAN ARRANGEMENTS ON THE EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN

INFLUENCE OF CUSTODIAN ARRANGEMENTS ON THE EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to determine the Influence of Custodian Arrangements on Emotional and Social Behaviour of children in Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. The study made use of descriptive survey research design. The population of 27,096 for the study was purposively selected. Six hundred and fourty-eight (648) respondents out of 27,096 were selected from 25 Junior Secondary schools that were systematically selected out of 101 in Abuja using proportional sampling procedure. Five objectives, five research questions and four null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. The method of data analysis included frequency count and percentage for the biodata while mean was used to find the level of opinion of the respondents to answer the research questions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test hypotheses 1 and 2, while t-test statistics was used to test hypotheses 3 and 4 at 0.05 level of significance. Three out of the four null hypotheses were rejected. Among the findings of the study were; Single parents, guardianship and foster parent had positive influence while step parent custodian arrangement had negative influence on emotional behaviour of children. Single parents and guardianship custodian arrangements had positive influence while foster and step parent had negative influence on their social behaviour. The influence of custodian arrangements on emotional behaviour was more on female students than their male counterparts. Recommendations were made among which were that Junior Secondary Schools should organize Parents/Teachers Association meetings in the Schools to give parental education and counseling to custodian parents in order to improve the knowledge and strategies of meeting every day challenges of child upbringing. Custodian parents should assist the children in their custody to build their emotional and social behaviour by proper guidance and encouragement. Custodian parents should continue to build on the positive emotional behaviour of children in their custody by loving, understanding and caring for them. This study will serve as a stepping stone in providing solution to the problems associated with influence of custodian arrangements on emotional and social behaviour of children.

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INFLUENCE OF CUSTODIAN ARRANGEMENTS ON THE EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN

EVALUATION OF COST RECOVERY FOR WATER SUPPLY

EVALUATION OF COST RECOVERY FOR WATER SUPPLY

 

ABSTRACT
As urban areas in Nigeria continue to grow, the need to meet increasing water demand for the population has become a major problem of concern to Urban Managers. The State water agency that are supposed to provide adequate and potable water supply to urban population have records of poor performance. To achieve the national and state water supply policy objectives of the issue of cost recovery reforms was introduced, imperatively, however to carry out cost recovery in our water sectors to provide efficient and sustainable water supply for the urban needs in a bid to protecting the vulnerable groups is important. In view of the stringent need to understand the intricate of cost recovery, the research study on the evaluation of cost recovery for water supply was instituted, the study evaluates the existing scenario of cost recovery for water supply service and its implications in Makurdi town with the population of 503.114. The survey investigation was based on a three settlement groups namely; high, medium and low residential density which has ten (10) substantive neighbourhoods settlements as the sampling framework in where a sample of 326 households was sampled (representing 0.3%sample size of the 95,577 total households in Makurdi) the sample size was drawn across the three settlement hierarchy named above which are served by the Water Board. Therefore, a systematic random sampling was used to administer questionnaires. Another sample of 1 questionnaire template was administered to the water board to source out information on their opinion pertaining cost recovery. The results obtained shows that the cost recovery for the operation and maintenance (O&M) of water supply in Makurdi urban area was only 43% and 57% of the cost recovery enquired during water supply and provisioning in the study area were not recovered by the water board. From the 43% of the cost recovery for water supply in the study area out of which appreciable percentage, precisely 22.7% is recovered from the vulnerable groups (i.e. low and medium income earners), while 77.3% of the cost is recovered from high income earner. Also, 59.2% of the households have their houses connected while 40.8% were not connected to official networks but depend on public taps and other sources. In addition, the result of the willingness and ability to pay for% water supply, by the households is 49% while those not willing to pay are 51% this express the challenge and stiff opposition cost recovery practice is experiencing in Makurdi. More so the result of the implications of cost recovery policy shows that, the standard of living and expenditure level of the vulnerable group i.e. low income earners is grossly affected. The study proposed prepaid metering system and/or cross subsidy in the tariff regime arrangement based on the selected cost recovery model and recommend strong political will and commitment from government to promote cost recovery for water supply system, establishment of management regulatory committee o taskforce for cost recovery in water supply. In view of the fact that there will be increase in tariff due to the new reform which some households may be unable topay for water supply, sector targeting measures, geographic targeting measures and social targeting measures are recommended. Basically the measures is targeting the poor such as low-cost options of obtaining water supply through the public stand posts and commercial distribution outlets. Finally, the research has provided useful insights as to the way forward for cost recovery for water supply commercialization in Nigeria, and that there is no one-model-suits-all approach to cost recovery for water supply. Each country must therefore design a framework most suitable to its environment.

 

CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.0. Introduction
The state of cost recovery in Nigeria has remained a matter of concern given the importance of cost recovery in the economic well being of the entrepreneurs and the growth and development process of the economy. Unfortunately, cost recovery for water services has no consensual recommendation across the world. While some international organizations from the developed world tend to recommend it as being essential for the financial sustainability of water utilities (OECD, 2006), that is not the case for some worldwide reaching organizations such as the United Nations, which is more concerned with the impact such a principle would have on the poor, leading it to recognize the role that subsidization may have on the improvement of population provision levels in water supply and sewage drainage and treatment (UNDP, 2006. This may be due to the fact that in developed countries, the water outlays represent a very small portion of the average household income, whereas in developing countries the implementation of full cost recovery would put greater stress on households‟ budgets.
The provision of clean water to consumers entails a cost both in terms of initial capital outlay and ongoing operation, maintenance, management and extension of services. However, because of poor planning of cost-recovery, a lack of government funding and inadequate tariff rates, the ability of water services sector to recover costs is often limited even for routine operation and maintenance. This has led to problems in providing sustainable water services to poor communities.

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EVALUATION OF COST RECOVERY FOR WATER SUPPLY

AN APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE KANO COMPREHENSIVE TOURISM MASTERPLAN, NIGERIA

AN APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE KANO COMPREHENSIVE TOURISM MASTER PLAN, NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT
Tourism developments plans are prepared to ensure orderly growth and development of the tourism industry .When the implementation outcomes of such plans are defined, the conventional approach is usually based on the ‘ex-post evaluation’. It is done long after the implementation of the plan is completed to enable identification of short comings and to learn lessons that can influence future decisions. Positive as the ex-post evaluation is there is value in evaluation during implementation, which usually is rarely carried out. This study is an attempt to appraise the Kano Comprehensive Tourism Master Plan (KCTMP) while its implementation is still on-going using the ‘process evaluation’ method. Such approach is to enable the project mangers learn vital lessons that can lead to adjustment of strategies towards achieving improved outcomes. The KCTMP was prepared in 2005 and is to be implemented through 2005 to2020 the implementation is designed to be in phases of 4, 5 and 5 years horizons. The plan implementation began in 2005, currently the plan is in its second phase of implementation with the take-off stage (2005-2007 and phase 1 (2006-2020) completed in 2010. Data for the study were collected through interviews, field survey and from secondary sources. For the field survey purpose sampling techniques was adopted in which 4,132 samples of tourists’ receipts were collected from two accommodations and 482 receipts from Kano state tourism board. A set up criteria were used to establish the outcomes, explanations and implications. The research reveals that, the level of implementation of KCTMP is low. The problems militating against the successful implementation of KCTMP stem from a number of factors including the process of its preparation. The other factors are insufficient funding, duplication of responsibilities, low stake holder involvement, inadequate marketing and promotion, and poor publicity. Others are that the KCTMP failed to establish the role of Kano tourism industry in the areas of job creation and income generation. There is also the absence of any relevant information on the existing growth pattern of the tourism industry which can serve as a basis for bench marking towards future evaluations. Tourism attraction and potentials were also poorly identified as they were subjectively selected which later became a bottleneck to private investors. Recommendations are subsequently made to address the short comings in ensuring that the subsequent phases are successfully implemented.

 

CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.0: INTRODUCTION
Tourism is the science, art and business of attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them and graciously catering for their needs and wants; Mentosh and Gupta (2008). Tourism is of major economic and social significance. It is one of the largest items in the world‟s foreign trade. It is also the most important export industry and earner of foreign exchange in many countries. Douglars (1981) states that “Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries of the world, and its study is of increasing academic and practical interest”. The significance of tourism has been recognized in the developed and developing countries. This can be seen in the establishment of government departments of tourism, widespread encouragement and sponsorship of tourism developments and the proliferation of small business and international corporations contributing to add driving benefits from the tourism industry. Tourism been a powerful and beneficial agent of both economic and social change has stimulated employment and investment. It is known to modified land use and economic structure, and it also makes a positive contribution to the balance of payment in many countries throughout the world.
It is in line with these and many other expected benefits of tourism development, that the Kano State Ministry of Comers,Transport and Tourism commissioned Messes Grand Track Limited in August 2005, to carryout a Comprehensive Tourism Master Plan (CTMP) of the State. This is for the realization that tourism development has the benefit of diversifying the economy of the state and generating revenue to strengthen its economic base.
1.1: Statement of Research Problem
The Kano Comprehensive Tourism Master Plan (KCTMP) was prepared in 2005 to guide the development of the tourism industry of Kano state to the year 2020.
Midway through its implementation however, there are growing concern that the plan is not adequately guiding the development of the tourism sector in the state nor has it engendered positive outcomes during 8 years of implementation. Useful as those observations are, they however remain mere speculations in the absence of detailed studies. The criticisms are that the sector has not performed well in terms of the development of attractive tourists‟ destinations and activities, as well as its failure to ensure that the expected multiplier.

AN APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE KANO COMPREHENSIVE TOURISM MASTER PLAN, NIGERIA

FINANCIAL IMPEDIMENT TO THE SUSTAINABLE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES

FINANCIAL IMPEDIMENT TO THE SUSTAINABLE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES

 

Abstract
The study of Financial Impediment to the Sustainable Growth and Development of Small-Scale Enterprises Operating in Plateau State, Nigeria employed a descriptive survey design. The study covered only the central senatorial zone in the state with five local governments namely; Pankshin, Mangu, Bokkos, Kanke, and Kanam local government. The population for the study was 206 made up of 57 and 149 registered entrepreneurs and employees of small-scale enterprises in the six local governments in central senatorial zone of Plateau State. Since the total population of the proprietors and the employees are small and manageable no sampling was carried out. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire titled ‘Financial Impediments to Small-Scale Enterprises Questionnaire’, (FISSEQ). The questionnaire items were developed based on the information gathered from the literature reviewed. The questionnaire was subjected to face-validation by three experts. Two of the validates came from the Department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and one of them is from department of Vocational and Technical Education, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, in Kaduna State. The reliability of the instrument was done using Cronbach Alpha (α) method. The coefficient result yielded 0.86 which was used to establish the internal consistency of the instrument. The researcher with the help of three research assistants administered the questionnaire to the respondents. The data collected for the study was analyzed using mean to answer the research questions and standard deviation to determine the closeness or otherwise of the responses from the mean, while t -test statistic was used to test the null hypothesis of no significant difference at the probability of 0.05 level of significance at relevant degree of freedom with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). It was found out that inaccessibility of credit facility, government financial regulatory policies, and poor financial management practices impede the growth and development of small scale enterprises in Plateau State. From the findings of the study, it was recommended amongst others that government and other financial institutions operating in Plateau State should make credit facilities available to all categories of small scale enterprise and should ensure adequate monitoring of how the small scale enterprise utilized the funds.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Business exists in different forms and sizes. A business can be undertaken on a small scale, medium scale or large scale basis. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are seen as driving forces that promote and contribute immensely to the economic development of any country. Small-Scale Enterprises (SSEs) are the backbone of an economy as major contributors of job creation and play an important role as efficient providers of intermediate goods and services to large firms (Muhammed, 2010).
The concept of Small-Scale Enterprises (SSEs) varies from country to country, region to region and from agencies to agencies. Different authors often use different parameters such as the number of employees, sales volume, turnover and capital to differentiate small, medium and/or big scale enterprises (Ahmed, 2006). However, these parameters do not provide uniform benchmark for all industries. Furthermore, what is a big capital today may become small in years to come (Aremu and Adeyemi, 2010). Consequently, there are as many definitions of SSEs as there are scholars and institutions. Makhbul (2011) stated that small scale industries (SSIs), small scale businesses (SSBs), and small scale enterprises (SSEs) are some of the terms that are used interchangeably to describe small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs).

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FINANCIAL IMPEDIMENT TO THE SUSTAINABLE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES