STUDIES ON THE TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME ANGIOSPERMS AND FUNGI AGAINST TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI AND TRYPANOSOMA CONGOLENSE

STUDIES ON THE TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME ANGIOSPERMS AND FUNGI AGAINST TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI AND TRYPANOSOMA CONGOLENSE

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION

1.1         Introduction

African trypanosomiasis is an important unicellular blood protozoan parasitic disease of both humans and animals. The disease in animal is commonly called Nagana in Zululand which means powerless, useless, or depressed spirits. It is mainly transmitted cyclically by tsetse fly of Glossina species and mechanically by other biting flies(WHO, 2014). Different species of trypanosomes infects cattle and other ruminants. These include Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax. The two species infective to humans are Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in humans (Nok and Nock, 2002; WHO, 2014). Nagana has become a major hindrance to livestock production where it thrives in different parts of Sub Saharan Africa restricted to latitude of about 150N and 290S of the equator which covers over 10 million km2(Delespaux,2010).

 

Reports of drug resistance or treatment failure, to limited classes of available trypanocideshas been on the increase (Shaba et al., 2012). There is a resurgence of the disease in the endemic regions of Africa, where millions of human population and cattle are affected with considerable morbidity and mortality (WHO, 2006; Merck, 2010). Estimated losses in agricultural production as a result of the disease are approximately 3 billion pounds annually (Shimelis et al., 2011; Tesfaheywet and Abraham, 2012).

After continued effort especially in the control of the fly vector, there has been decline in number of new cases. The number of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) casereported in 2012 is about 6, 314 new cases(WHO, 2012).

However, the estimated numberof actual human cases is about 20,000 while the estimated population at risk is 65 million people (WHO, 2014). African Trypanosomiasis remains a disease with unsatisfactory medical control to date. The control of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) continues to rely principally on old expensive medicines such as pentamidine, nitrofurans and arsenicals (Delespaux et al., 2010; Vitouley et al., 2011). In recent times, drug development has led to the production of eflornithine (DMFO) as the only new trypanocide in the last fifteen years and it is only effective in the last stage of Gambian sleeping sickness and its regimen is complex and difficult toapply (Priotto, 2009).

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STUDIES ON THE TRYPANOCIDAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME ANGIOSPERMS AND FUNGI AGAINST TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI AND TRYPANOSOMA CONGOLENSE

A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTH PARASITES OF TOADS (AMIETOPHYRNUS REGULARIS)

A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTH PARASITES OF TOADS (AMIETOPHYRNUS REGULARIS)

ABSTRACT

Amietophyrnus regularis a synonym of Bufo regularis is an amphibian in the family Bufonidae.Amietophyrnus regularis is commonly known as the African common toad in English (IUCN, 2012). The species which are also called true toads have fat bodies with warts, and can live in drier climates while most frogs usually live in or near water (Nworah and Olorunfemi, 2011). They are widespread in the tropics, especially in Savannas, montane, grassland, forests and are beneficial animals to have in the home garden, as well as on farms. Toads play roles in nutrients cycles and as environmental indicators. Nutrients are recycled from aquatic systems to terrestrial when the toads enter the land after metamorphosis. Tadpoles, the swimming larval forms of toads and frogs that hatch from fertilized eggs in water, are important food source for fish and other aquatic organisms (Towle, 1989; New World Encyclopaedia, 2008).

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A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE GASTROINTESTINAL HELMINTH PARASITES OF TOADS (AMIETOPHYRNUS REGULARIS)

STUDIES ON THE BIOLOGY OF SILVER CATFISH (CHRYSICHTHYS NIGRODIGITATUS LACÈPÈDE 1803) IN JEBBA LAKE, NIGERIA

STUDIES ON THE BIOLOGY OF SILVER CATFISH (CHRYSICHTHYS NIGRODIGITATUS LACÈPÈDE 1803) IN JEBBA LAKE, NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT

Studies on the biology of silver catfish Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacèpède, 1803) in Jebba Lake, Nigeria was carried out between January 2009 and December 2010. Samples collected using fleets of experimental gillnets were used for the study. There was fluctuations in the physico-chemical parameters measured; mean electrical conductivity (66.41±13.89μs/cm), and mean phosphate (0.20±0.15mg/l), which was significantly different (p<0.05) at the zones. The males and females showed allometric (2.49) and isometric (3.18) growth pattern respectively, with strong relationship and direct proportionality between length-length for males (0.93) and females (0.83). The condition factor for males (K=1.74) and females (K=1.83) showed that the lake was conducive for the survival of the fish because it was greater than 1. The positive correlations in the morphometric parameters, and the meristic counts confirmed the presence of the species in the lake. The age structure was between 0+ and 3+ with bulk of the samples within ranges of 2 and 2+, males being bigger than females. Size distribution ranged from small to adult, with few adults in the population. Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus has the tendency to grow bigger based on the growth performance index. Nine (9) major items ingested by C. nigrodigitatus ranged from plant materials (21.75%) to animal components (55.65%), which vary in abundance across months and seasons. Juveniles and sub-adult fed predominantly on insects (36.72% and 28.69), while adults on fry (27.86%). There was a direct relationship between the size of fish and ingested food items. Prey importance index showed insects (57.61%), insects (53.70%) and fry (39.65%) as the most important items ingested by juveniles, sub-adults and adults, respectively. There was high feeding intensity due to few number of fish stomachs without food. Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus is an omnivore with moderate gut length. There were more males than females (1.77:1) in the population. More gravid females were recorded in August and September, which coincide with the period of spawning. Gonad maturity showed stages I-VI, males attained first maturity than females. Female C. nigrodigitatus had higher gonado-somatic index (9.73) than males (1.32) especially during the wet season. Mean fecundity ranged between 1,670-3,375 eggs, which increase with increased in fish size. Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus was the most abundant species both within the family Claroteidae (13.06%) and in the overall catch (8.95%) during wet than dry seasons, dominant in zones I and II during the wet season, and commonly found at the bottom of the lake. It is recommended that morphometric and meristic parameters be used to identify the fish, study on population structure to reveal more class sizes be done, culture trials should also be done, and the feed components to be plant and animals materials.

 

1.1 Background 

Fish is a resource mostly exploited by man and is basically linked to the trophic chain in the entire environment where they are commonly found (Craig et al., 2004). Inland waters of Nigeria consist of water bodies that support a wide array of aquatic organisms, which includes phytoplankton, zooplanktons, crustaceans, and vertebrates such as fish, crocodile, and aquatic mammals (Atobatele and Ugwumba, 2008).

Fishes found in the tropics and tropical water bodies experience changes in their biological parameters and activities due to fluctuations in factors such as food composition and availability, spawning rate, and other environmental factors. Welcomme (2001) reported that factors such as fishing, pollution and eutrophication among others could bring about series of changes in fish size, species composition and abundance in the aquatic environment. Similarly, Bisht et al. (2009) and Soyinka et al. (2010) reported that changes in environmental factors such as water quality, depth, water current, availability of food and substratum influence the occurrence of fish fauna, abundance and distribution.

 

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STUDIES ON THE BIOLOGY OF SILVER CATFISH (CHRYSICHTHYS NIGRODIGITATUS LACÈPÈDE 1803) IN JEBBA LAKE, NIGERIA

SUITABLE TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ICT IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS FROM THE OPINIONS OF BUSINESS EDUCATORS

SUITABLE TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ICT IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS FROM THE OPINIONS OF BUSINESS EDUCATORS

ABSTRACT

Information and communication technology [ICT] plays a vital role in the development of any nation. It has been an instrument for achieving social, economic, scientific and technological development (Adedeji, 2010). ICT has greatly influenced the education sector, especially on teaching, learning and research. The application of information and communication technology (ICT) is not only emphasized in business organizations and in industrial sector, but is an essential part of education at all levels (Allen, 2011). Information and communication technology, including computers are generally believed to make learning much easier. Information and communication technology (ICT) encompasses the use of equipment and programmes to access, retrieve, convert, store, organize, manipulate and present data and information in a more simpler way [Gray and Blads, 2005). The terminologies Information and communication technology (ICT) and information technology (IT) can be used interchangeably. Information can be seen as an “idea” conceived in the human mind, while communication is the transfer of that information from the original source to the destination where it is needed with the intention of producing a change in behaviour of the receiver. When information and communication drifts away from the orthodox, verbal and print media towards the more recent electronic media, then the concept is known as ICT. This is why Badru (2002) defined “ICT” as the science and activity of processing, storing and sending information by using computers. The author further defined communication technology as the use of hardware and software to enhance communication. In other words, there is an overlap between the function of information technology and communication technology.

 

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SUITABLE TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ICT IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS FROM THE OPINIONS OF BUSINESS EDUCATORS

GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF Clarias gariepinus FED WITH COPPENS AT A FREQUENCY OF ONCE AND TWICE DAILY

GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF Clarias gariepinus FED WITH COPPENS AT A FREQUENCY OF ONCE AND TWICE DAILY

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, mulluscs, crustacean and aquatic plant is necessary to meet the protein need of Nigerians. Overtime, there has been increase in fish production in Nigeria. Despite this increase in fish production, the desired result has not been attained. Quantitatively, details of fish production as at 2005 stood at 490,600 tons (FAO, 2003) from the artisan fishery, 56,300 tons from industry fishery through the use of trawlers, while fish importation stood at 61,150 tons. In meeting up with the growing need for fish production, aquaculture practice has been identified as a possible alternative, the reasons being that the activities of artisans and industrial fishery in our natural waters have led to over exploitation and
degradation due to human activities in our coastal water. To fully bring aquaculture to its desired level, four production challenges have been identified. These are the challenges of feeding the fish stock in the pond, management of pond water supply, fish seeds provision and pond construction/establishment. The first two challenges: fish feeding and water quality management aect each other. The level of feeding of the stocks aects the water quality and the level of water quality aect the feeding performance of fish in the pond (George, 2001).
Fish like other animals need food to be able to carry out their metabolic activities. In aquaculture, fish feeding is either supplemental or complete (total supply). Supplemental feeding is when feeds are given to the animal at a minimal level to add to the natural food available for the fish in the pond water. These natural foods are in the form of phytoplankton and zooplanktons. The complete feeding is when the source of food fed to the fish is solely supplied by the farmer. In whichever case, the type of feeding practiced depends on the nature of the pond and the type of production the farmer is involved with (Michael, 1987; Michael et al., 2005). The most popular cultured fish in Nigeria is the Catfish. It is naturally carnivorous, a bottom pond dweller, nocturnally very active and belongs to the family of Claridae (Willian, 1967; Idoho-Umeh, 2003). However, with the fish domestication, its modes of feeding and activities have been destabilized and modified. To
this end, the feeding regime has become diverse but the thumb rule of feeding stock at optimum level should be very economical so as to have savings in feed cost and the overall economic justification. Webster et al., (1992) reported that catfish can be fed once or twice daily and rainbow trout at three times a day. In whichever case, the type of feeding practiced depends on the nature of the pond and the type of production; climatic condition and economic status of the farmer dictate the feeding requirement. Various studies have been done in fish feeding (Collins and Delmendo, 1979; Sena and Brain, 1992) but much is still to be done in the area of the best time of
the day and frequency to feed catfish so as to have good growth performance that will justify the high cost of feeding provided by the farmer. Determining the best frequency of feeding the catfish is therefore expected to help to maximize performance, discourage waste, and ensure the success of the enterprise. This will help to discourage the deterioration of water quality which may arise from the decomposition of feeds fed to the fish due to feeding at inappropriate time and frequency. This in turn is expected to help to minimize fish mortality due to pond water quality deterioration. The Overall production of the stock will also be enhanced (Norm, 2000). Hence, the need to study the growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fed at a frequency of once and twice daily for an enhanced yield derived from better and faster growth for production of the catfish.

1.1 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this research is to feed Clarias gariepinus at dierent frequencies of once and twice daily with the following specific objective:to determine which of the feeding frequencies is more economical in the rearing of Clarias gariepinus.

 

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GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF Clarias gariepinus  FED WITH COPPENS AT A FREQUENCY OF ONCE AND TWICE DAILY