THE IMPACT OF EXPORT PROMOTION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

THE IMPACT OF EXPORT PROMOTION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Foreign exchange is the means of payment for international transaction. It is made up of convertible currencies that are generally accepted for the settlement of international trade and other external obligation. Just like every other commodity, a market is established which works more like any other market having a supply curve, a demand curve and an equilibrium price and quantity. There are also conditions which are held constant (creteris paribus). When these conditions change, the curve shift and there is a change in the equilibrium price quantity. This market for currencies is known as the foreign exchange market.

The foreign exchange market according to the central bank of Nigeria is the medium of interaction between the sellers and buyers of foreign exchange. The seller of foreign exchange constitutes the supply while the buyers of foreign exchange constitutes its demand. The supply of foreign exchange is derived from oil exports, non-oil export, expenditure of foreign tourist in Nigeria, capital repatriation by Nigerians resident abroad etc.

The demand for foreign exchange on the other hand consist of payments for imports, financial commitments to international organizations, external debt service obligations etc.

Before 1958, when the central bank was established and the enactment of the exchange control act of 1962, foreign exchange was earned by the private sectors and held in balances abroad by commercial banks which acted as agents for local exporters. Another feature of this period was that agriculture exports contributed the bulk of foreign exchange receipts. The fact that the British pound sterling was at par with the Nigerian pound sterling with easy convertibility delayed the establishment of an active foreign exchange market.

However by 1958, when the central bank was established and subsequent centralization of foreign exchange authority. In banks, the need for a local foreign exchange market is paramount. Other factors that led to the evolution of the foreign exchange market in Nigeria include:

The changing pattern of international trade institutional changes in the economy. structural shift in production, etc.

By the early 1970’s, the official exchange receipt was enhanced following the sharp rise in prices and demand for crude oil exports which had by now displaced agricultural exports. The foreign exchange market experienced a boom during this period and there became a need for the management of foreign exchange resources. However, it was not until 1982 that comprehensive exchange controls were applied.

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THE IMPACT OF EXPORT PROMOTION OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

EFFECT OF COMPUTERIZATION ON EFFICIENT BANKING SERVICES IN NIGERIA

EFFECT OF COMPUTERIZATION ON EFFICIENT BANKING SERVICES IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

This research project work was undertaken with a purpose of determining and evaluation of the effect of computerizing banking service and its efficiency on the banking services in Nigeria. The effect of computerizing the banking services on the behavioural aspect of management information system are Aggression Avoidance and projection on the other hand, other operational pressures are maintaining the system; personal problems in the book-keeping department, maintaining book-keeping machines.  Expanding volume of operation; need to accommodate the increasing volume, need to maintain or reduce cost.  Unsatisfactory output; errors in terms of reports and statement delays in work processing.  Needs or system change.  The study has a library research and empirical study.  Additional information were collected from journals bullions textbooks and newspapers etc.  It was been clear to me from what I found out that computerizing banking services plays a very big positive effect on Nigeria Banking Services.  It provide better information for commercial loan management improves the speed limit & accuracy of services to customers, and also provides necessary data input for advanced financial information systems. 

 

CHAPTER ONE 

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The need for information is great and necessary in banking sector because of the nature of their business quick and accurate decision must be taken, like in the money market foreign exchange etc.  Banks must react quickly to change the interest rate and volatile variable in their operation where as in the production industries, mistakes can be rectified and losses been minimized.

 

Millions of naira may be irretrievably lost in the banking industries as a result of wrong decision based on increase information, computer is employed prominently by Nigeria banks at all the three management operations, management control and strategies.  Leading is the most important activity of banks.

The need for change as for effective use of computer lending office arose as a result of banks experiencing growing competition from officers lenders, funds available are thereby increase move costly time and savings with the result that the average cost of funds will be relatively higher, loans are becoming move complex and also great concern for the profitability of customer’s total bank relationship rather than profit derived from the use of specific service.  The transformation process could be seen as the management process which has to be effective to ensure the feasibility of working on the set inputs to produce not only the service, but also to come up with reasonable profit for the shareholder and the public at large.

 

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EFFECT OF COMPUTERIZATION ON EFFICIENT BANKING SERVICES IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF BANK DISTRESS ON THE PROFIT GROWTH OF DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED COMMERCIAL BANKS). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF BANK DISTRESS ON THE PROFIT GROWTH OF DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED COMMERCIAL BANKS). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

This work “Evaluating the impact of Bank Distress on the profit growth of Deposit Money Banks. The causes of bank distress in Nigeria and the possible prevention strategies or failure resolution options of bank distress. The review of related literature was done to give an in depth knowledge of the topic to the researchers. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used by the researchers.  Simple statistical tools like T-test, least square (B) and tables were used to analyze the data collected. The following findings were made; Banks made lower profit during distress period and higher profit during distress period and higher profit after distress period. Meanwhile, banks generally made lower profit during distress period. 1 recommended that the supervisory arsenals to ensure minimum distress with little or no effect when it occurs.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

   In any modern economy, the efficient production and exchange of goods and services requires money and bank is the instrument for affecting it. The last few years have been both traumatic and revolutionary for the banking industry. The industry produced the largest number of technically insolvent and under capitalized banks. The magnitude of distress in the nation’s banking industry reached on unprecedented level making it an issue of concern to the government, the regulatory authority, the bankers and the general public.

The Nigeria banking scene was characterized by changes designed to promote banking in the country. The changes may be categorized into phases, but due to the nature of our work we will consider two phases: namely, the era of laissez-fair banking (1894-1952), the era of limited banking regulator (1952-1958). During the first phase, banking industry was monopolized by foreign banks, principally the African banking corporation which was the precursor of the (BBWA) British Bank for West African the present First Bank of Nigeria the Barclays bank DCO (Dominion Colonial and Overseas) the present day Union banks, and the British an French Bank, the for-runner of the present United Bank for Africa. Although discrimination against Nigerians by these banks led to the establishment of some indigenous banks which unfortunately offers litter or no competition to the foreign banks essentially because of their weak capital base or poor managerial capacity. Consequently, all but three of the indigenous banks failed. The survived includes the National Bank of Nigeria established in 1933, the Agbomagbe Bank (now Wema Bank) established 1945 and the Africa Continental Bank 1947.

 

 

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EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF BANK DISTRESS ON THE PROFIT GROWTH OF DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED COMMERCIAL BANKS). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

AN EVALUATION OF BANK AND CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP IN NIGERIA BANKING SERVICE (A CASE STUDY OF ACCESS BANK DURING THE PERIOD 2009-2011). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

AN EVALUATION OF BANK AND CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP IN NIGERIA BANKING SERVICE (A CASE STUDY OF ACCESS BANK DURING THE PERIOD 2009-2011). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

The main of this study is to find out the extent of bank/customer relationship in Nigeria as a developing economy (a case study of Union of Bank Okpara Avenue Enugu).    This work will be divided into five chapters. The first chapter is going to be the introductory part of the research work. This chapter will contain the background of the study, statement of problems, research question etc. Chapter two will contain the literature review. This means other recognized authors view or ideas on the same subject matter. Chapter three will take care of the research methodology and method of data collection and analysis.         The presentation and analysis of data will be dealt with in chapter four of the study. Simple random and stratified sampling is going to be used to draw the sample size of the study; two hypotheses will be set for the study. Questionnaires and oral interview have to be used as the main instrument of data collection.    Based on the finding and conclusion will be drawn and recommendations will also be in the last chapter of the work which is the fifth chapter.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

  Most times advert on our television, radio and bill boards by banks in the country have always tired to express how excellent and prompt their services are. In the adverts, they try to show the high quality of services provided to customers that patronize their own particular bank. By implication they try to iunform the public that they (bank) are capable of providing quickly prompt and courteous services of their customers.

Notwithstanding all these advertisement shown by the banking industry have been criticized by different segment of the society over the poor quality of services it lenders to customers.

Presently in some banks slow pace of work is still observed resulting in long queues even to obtain a cheque booklet is characterized by the come tomorrow, come next week syndrome, bank customers are still treated with laxity and in most times banks workers still exhibit poor attitude to work. The resultant effect of this nonchalant attitude to work, which is exchange of words between the bank staff and customers still obtains. The issue of difficulty in obtaining loan in our banks have persisted.

All these problems does augur well for bank/customer relationship especially in a developing economy like ours where banking habits have not been fully developed. Based on this, it become imperative for a study to be carried out with a view to found out what actually is the true position  of the relationship between the bank and customers. Also with the recent development in financial sector, where customers patronage depend on how well a customer’s problem when the study is completed.

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AN EVALUATION OF BANK AND CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP IN NIGERIA BANKING SERVICE (A CASE STUDY OF ACCESS BANK DURING THE PERIOD 2009-2011). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NIGERIA ECONOMY (A CASE STUDY OF OCEANIC BANK PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NIGERIA ECONOMY (A CASE STUDY OF OCEANIC BANK PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

This study is an attempt to examine how international monetary fund (IMF) and the international Bank for Reconstruction and development (IBRD) played a critical role in the development of the Nigeria Economy. The need of international Financial Institutions IMF, IBRD) is very imperative in the light of organizational objectives. The reasons for embarking on this research is therefore, to problem into the role of international financial institutions (IMF, IBRD) being implemented by the organization as well as projects related to agriculture Education, Industry etc.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

  The financial Institutions are essential agents in the development of an economy. They engage in financial inter-mediation, which provides the needed financial resources to the various sections of the economy where they are required for purposes of development. These institutions because of the vital role the play in the economy are regarded key agents in the economic development process of every occasion both the developing and the developed economics.

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THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NIGERIA ECONOMY (A CASE STUDY OF OCEANIC BANK PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

 INSPECTION AS AN AID TO EFFECTIVE BANK MANAGEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

 INSPECTION AS AN AID TO EFFECTIVE BANK MANAGEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

This research studied the contribution of inspectorate department as an effective measure to Union Bank of Nigeria Plc.

 

To guide the study research questions were formulated, using questionnaires as an instrument. The data collected were analyzed using sample percentages, some of the findings among others are:

 

1)         Inspectorate department plays a significant role in effective utilization of organization find by management.

 

2)         Internal audit (inspectorate) department enhances effective management control in banking organiztion.

 

3)         The availability of inspectorate department encourages efficiency among employees in banking organization.

 

4)         The existing statutory and other relevant regulation laid adequate consideration on the inspectorate functions.

 

5)         Inspectorate department encloses financial accountability in banking organization.

 

Based on the findings, the following are recommended among others.

 

1)         Training and retaining of inspectorate department staff for efficiency.

2)         Creation of internal audit (inspectorate) department in the bank.

3)         To ensure that a professional heads the audit unit qualified inspectorate.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1                               BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The banking system in Nigeria is made up of the central, commercial, merchant, development and agricultural bank.

These financial houses were established for the central of money, purchase and sale of securities, transfer and clearing and other banking transactions. Hence, banking as a profession has existed for several decades now, but unfortunately there was no generally accepted satisfactory meaning until 1958, when the banking act defined banking as the business of receiving monies, valuables and securities from outside sources. The purchase and sale of securities by bank or granting of loan in respect to maturity or the success of the business, this lead to Hart definition of bank or banker as a person or company carrying on the business of transferring money to assets and receiving monies from customers, subject to the collection of drafts and honouring of cheques drawn upon them from time to time by the customers, to the extent of the amount available on their current accounts.

These banking systems are closely monitored and regulated by the government agents known as Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), international monetary fund (IMF). This is to ensure that they render services to their customers and also to keep proper account of the business.

Owing the need to accountability and effectiveness of the organization, the management personnel of the bank introduced the internal control (audit department). Among other department in the banking business, the management pays more attention to the internal control to   enable them plan control the inflow of cash in the organization for efficiency and good management policy.

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 INSPECTION AS AN AID TO EFFECTIVE BANK MANAGEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE OF CBN AND NDIC IN THE MONITORING OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE OF CBN AND NDIC IN THE MONITORING OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

This study was designed with the aim of appraising the roles of CBN/NDIC in the management and regulation of commercial banks activities.

In order to actualize the objectives, five banks as sample were selected/chosen for analysis to assess financial institutions performance in relation to the regulatory authorities, CBN and NDIC. Various literature and theoretical issues were discussed. In addition an empirical regression and descriptive analysis was carried out to investigate how CBN/NDIC regulation variables impact on commercial banks’ activities in Nigeria. The findings from both analysis revealed that CBN structure, CBN/NDIC performance and their relationship with commercial banks had a significant impact on the management and regulation of commercial banks’ activities in Nigerian. While depositors’ protection was the only variable that had an insignificant impact on the management and regulation of commercial banks’ activities. With the aid of regression, the research was able to establish that CBN and NDIC make significant impact in commercial banking sector.

It is recommendation that continuous review of prudential guidelines and regulations in the light of dynamics of operating environment for commercial banks as well as enforcement of regulation and compliance with prudential guidelines and regulations to reduce the systematic effects and prevent deterioration in the financial condition of distressed institutions.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       INTRODUCTION

Commercial banks are generally all-purpose retail bankers, Ajayi (1991). They mobilize deposits of all sizes and from all and sundry in retail as well as in wholesale markets. They engage mainly in borrowing and lending activities. The lending activities of Nigerian commercial banks have been increasing steadily over the years and recently, the pace of increase has acquired a tempo that needs some explanation.

Management of banks is the process of managing money and providing a whole gamut of banking services. Beginning with the management itself, it involves finding the optimal size and composition of banks overall assets and liabilities, Nwankwo (1991).

 

 

An essential feature of a good financial system in the banking industry is the existence and implementation of a well developed and cleared defined set of rules, regulations, enforcement of sanction in case of contravention. Since several developments in the Nigeria economy had necessitated major review of the existing rules, regulations and laws. Consequently, the CBN No. 25 of 1991 (as amended) was promulgated to give CBN wider powers to handle all issues relating to banks from licensing to liquidation.

 

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APPRAISAL OF THE ROLE OF CBN AND NDIC IN THE MONITORING OF COMMERCIAL BANKS IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

IMPLICATION OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS THEIR EFFECTS ON BANKS PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA UBA). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

IMPLICATION OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS THEIR EFFECTS ON BANKS PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA UBA). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

This research work was aimed at determining the implication of mergers and acquisitions their effects on banks performance as regards to United Bank for Africa (UBA). In this study, the objectives of the researcher is to

Find Out the financial implications of mergers and acquisitions in Nigeria commercial bank sector.  Whether mergers and acquisitions can solve the problem of financial insolvency. If there is any benefit to be derived from mergers and acquisitions whether survival, growth and benefits (ie profit maximization) commercial banking sector can only be achieved through mergers and acquisitions. Can mergers and acquisitions be a tool for performance evaluation. The researcher was a survey as stated. The instrument used was questionnaire.  The data collected was analyzed and tabulated.  The result revealed that banking sector in Nigeria could perform well,grow and maximize profit through mergers and acquisitions. Ideological problem may arise in setting organizational goals as a result of the fusion.  There are some legal aspect attached to them which is based either on their economic effects or legal states.  It also revealed that many shareholders has not knowledge of the impact of mergers and acquisitions. Above all, the researcher gave some recommendations, which would benefit the banking and all other investors if strictly adhered to.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The relevance of banks in the economy of any nation cannot be overemphasized. They are the cornerstones of the economy of a country. The economies of all market-oriented nations depend on the efficient operation of complex and delicately balance systems of money and credit. Banks are an indispensable element in these systems. They provide the bulk of the money supply as well as the primary means of facilitating the flow of credit.”

Consequently, it is submitted that the economic well being of a nation is a function of advancement and development of her banking industry (Obadan, 1997).

 

According to the value increasing school, mergers occur, broadly, because mergers generate ‘synergies’ between the acquirer and the target, and synergies, in turn, increases the value of the firm (Hitt et al., 2001). The theory of efficiency suggests that mergers will only occur when they are expected to generate enough realizable synergies to make the deal beneficial to both parties; it is the symmetric expectations of gains which results in a ‘friendly’ merger being proposed and accepted. If the gain in value to the target was not positive, it is suggested, the target firm’s owners would not sell or submit to the acquisition, and if the gains were negative to the bidders’ owners, the bidder would not complete the deal.

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IMPLICATION OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS THEIR EFFECTS ON BANKS PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA UBA). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

MANAGEMENT CRISIS IN BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF SOME DISTRESSED BANK). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

MANAGEMENT CRISIS IN BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF SOME DISTRESSED BANK). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

The banking industry of the Nigerian economy is today passing through what might seem the roughest phase in its history. The wave of insolvency or distress in the sector is very unprecedented comparable only to what happened during the 1st era of bank failure in Nigeria 91953-1957) and the era of free banking (1892-1952) was such that generated under stand able apprehensive among the banking public. Because of the prominent and sensitive role the banking industry plays in the determination of the buoyancy of any economy, its present state has agitated the government and people of Nigeria. In a bid to correct this unhealthy development the regulatory authorities ie. The central bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) have devised and implemented many novel policies to check this drift. Yet the cankerworm continues to eat deeper into our banking system. The issue of problems banks and management crisis in the banking industry has become a disturbing one in Niger. Given the consequences of bank failure, the problems has become a major source of concern to the government the regulators of financial institution and to the general public.

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

The development of banking in Nigeria can be traced to 1891, in that year, a company known as the African Banking Corporation opened a branch office in Lagos. Incidentally, it happened that the bank was a South African organization. By January 1892, ABC acquired a License to import and distribute coins from Britain to Nigeria. In 1984, the ownership of the bank changed hands when a British out fit acquired it and its name was changed to British Bank for West Africa (BBWA). The BBWA has since changed name again to standard bank of (Nigeria) plc. A few other banks were opened after this.

The development of Banking in Nigeria can be conveniently categorized into eight (8) stages for the purpose of analysis. The stages are as follows:

Era of free Banking (1892-1952)

Era of 1st Bank failure  (1953-1959)

Era of consolidation (first decade of independence 1960-1969).

Era of indigenisation (Oil boom period (1970-1979).

Period of depression (first stage of expansion 1980-1985).

Era of Universal Banking (2001-2004)

The Banking Seltor Reforms (2004-2006)

Structural Adjustment programme (SAP) period (Era of deregulation

2nd stage of expansion 1986-1993)

Era of regulation (period of 2nd Bank failure 1994-1995).

Era of guided de-regulation (1995-till date).

One of the main features of the era of free banking was lack of controls or banking regulations. Al that was required was registration under the company’s ordinance. The ordinance allowed anybody or group to engage in the business of banking like any other business.

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MANAGEMENT CRISIS IN BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF SOME DISTRESSED BANK). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

EFFECTS OF BANK FAILURE IN NIGERIAN ECONOMY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

EFFECTS OF BANK FAILURE IN NIGERIAN ECONOMY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

The aim of the project is to provide information to the public on the “effect of bank failure in Nigeria” it is geared towards bringing to light some of the activities or services rendered by the banking industry bank failure causes and the effect to it.  The project is made up of five chapters.

The chapter deal with the interaction, this takes about the background information about the evolution of the banking system and bank failure.

The seconding chapter deals with review of related literature in this topic high lighting different writing opinion concerning bank failure causes and bank depositors it also discusses the roles of banks in Nigeria economic development.

More so the third chapter deals with the procedure and sources include background information population and sample construction of instrument the statistical method used in the analysis of the various data etc.

The further chapter discusses the date analysis and interpretation it also spiffed the responses of the respondents from the various research questions.

Finally chapter five provides the summary of the whole study recommendation conclusions and also area of further research.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.0  BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Failure as a word means to be unsuccessful in attempts at achieving any the objectives or aspirations. Another variance to the inability, refusal fault or weakness which prevent the achievement of any set objectives or aspiration.

Both of these draw attention to the operative world” unsuccessful inability refusal fault and weakness “therefore bank failure is the inability of a bank to meet its objection to it customers, owners and the economy occasional by fault or weakness in its operation which had wand it illiquid and later insolvent.

There is not doubt that fraud has exasperated to desperate situation in the Nigeria Banking sectors. Fraud and embezzlement are not widespread.  Both are unturned in the fraud crises jamboree.  Furthermore, fraud in its itself may not widespread. Bank are unturned in the fraud crisis may not  be a sufficient condition for a banking crisis.  The researcher submits that extremely bad management until adverse economic conditions led to unexpected capital on flows or loan losses.  Thus even if every bank which failed is judged to have suffered from mismanagement or fraud, or operated in a over populated banking market, it may well be the case that adverse, it may well be case that adverse economic conditions will be the proximate cause of many bank failure.

Employees as well as clients of firms in all industries engage in fraudulent practices all over the world.  Whilst if cannot, strictly speaking be said to be an ordinarily expected human behaviour, including the socialist societies world make one state that is an inhuman behaviour.  Although the existence of frauds in banks it not an uncommon or unexpected phenomenon, Ogwuma, P. (1985:21) says it is worrying because of all the various problems confronting the Nigerian banking industry today, that of fraud is easily the most intractable.  The banking industry worries more about fraud because of the rather obvious damaging consequences of the acts on the health and existence of the institutions.

 

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EFFECTS OF BANK FAILURE IN NIGERIAN ECONOMY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

THE SOURCE AND APPLICATION OF FUNDS TO A COMMERCIAL BANKING SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF ACCESS BANK PLC,). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

THE SOURCE AND APPLICATION OF FUNDS TO A COMMERCIAL BANKING SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF ACCESS BANK PLC,). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

This project work examines the sources and application of funds in a commercial banking sector with a particular reference to Access Bank Nigeria Plc.  This is an attempt to explore and reveal the extent to which the bank is sourcing its funds and how it uses those funds so generated in achieving the bank’s goals and objectives with a particular reference to laid down accounting principles and Central Bank’s Prudential guidelines on commercial banks.  Also to include is the review of related literature, text books, magazine, newspapers, journals and even the proper website on the internet will be browsed for easy reviews, analysis and down loading of current related information for the project work.  The study will also include the various ways and method of data collection i.e. primary and secondary sources through interviews, observations and examination of existing banks records.  The major difficulties to be encountered in the course of this project are time and financial constraints as collection and analyzing of data requires a lot of time, to pay regular visit, to the venue of the case study, attending lectures, writing of assignments and quiz, visiting the cyber café for internet browsing and also attending one’s domestic responsibilities.  Financial requirements such as production and distribution of questionnaires, transportation and binding of the project work expenses forms the major limiting factors to the project work.  The research study will also highlight the need for prudential management and project accountability with good policies on loans and advances as the way for the bank to acquire maximum liquidity and affective application for the accrued funds by customers and shareholders.  The challenges of the modern banking in a global trend and proper solutions and recommendations for the bank development, investments and enhanced customer relations will also be highlighted.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

The source of funds in an organization denotes the various ways in which cash inflows to operate the business is realized.  The followings are some of the ways cash came into a business:-

Through an increase in liability

Through an increase in net worth

Through a decrease in asset

Through a net profit after tax

Though sales of shares, preferred or common stock

It also shows ways an extra money comes into the organization through consultancy services, borrowing in form of loan.  Summarize sources of funds to any organization devotes all the ways money comes into an organization for its operational utilization and for achieving its stated goals and objectives.  However for an organization to thrive well it must also spent money to achieve its stated goals and objectives, thus application of funds refer to the various ways the sourced funds are put to usage in order to increase the value of fixed or working capital.

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THE SOURCE AND APPLICATION OF FUNDS TO A COMMERCIAL BANKING SECTOR (A CASE STUDY OF ACCESS BANK PLC,). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

GLOBAL ECONOMIC MELTDOWN AND THE NIGERIAN CAPITAL MARKET. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

GLOBAL ECONOMIC MELTDOWN AND THE NIGERIAN CAPITAL MARKET. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

The global financial crisis began in the United States of America and the United Kingdom when the global credit market came to a standstill in July 2007 (Avgouleas, 2008). The crisis, brewing for a while, really started to show its effects in the middle of 2008. Around the world stock markets have fallen, large financial institutions have collapsed or been bought out, and governments in even the wealthiest nations have had to come up with rescue packages to bail out their financial systems.

The original root of the current financial mess is in the US- the world’s largest Industrial-Military complex. With an estimated GDP of $14 trillion, the US contributes about 25% of world output. If, as is being forecast, the US economy contracts by just 1%, this will imply a direct output loss of approximately $140 billion- equivalent to the GDP of Pakistan, the 47th largest economy in the world! And the crises are not restricted to the US. Financial markets have tumbled and slumped the world over: from London to Tokyo, Seoul to Sydney, Sao Paulo to Moscow, Bombay to Frankfurt etc. No economy-whether developed, emerging or developing is, so far, insulated from what Greenspan refers to as‘once-in-a-century credit tsunami’.

The initial response of the policy makers in Nigeria was meek. Either they did not understand the crises or underestimated its magnitude. In general, they thought of the crisis as only a ‘storm in a tea cup’, an aberration, a ‘hiccup’. They insisted that the ‘fundamentals of the financial system look impressively strong’ even when the capital market has been bleeding uncontrollably. The Minister of Planning stated, rather insensitively, ‘there is no problem in the Nation’s capital market. What we have presently is just corrections and adjustments….shareholders are getting dividends and bonuses and they are happy…’ this was at a time when market capitalization had dropped from N12 trillion to less than N9 trillion. When they finally accepted there was a crisis, they promised to take some unspecified ‘drastic and unusual action’ to stem the global financial crises from causing havoc in the Nigerian financial system (Abubakar, M., 2008).

That initial response was, to put it mildly, naïve. The country’s dependence on the export sector is very significant: 99% of FX and 85% of local revenues are directly derived from activities related to export of a single commodity, which is at the center of the current

financial crises, oil. It is estimated that 58.4% of Nigeria’s exports are US bound and up to 25% to the Euro zone. 67% of our non-oil exports go to Western Europe, 20% to Asia while ECOWAS accounted for only 11% in 2007. The stock of our FX reserves is kept in European capitals where financial markets have tumbled and banks distressed. How can anyone think we are insulated? International financial crises which affect trade and investment flows are bound to impact on the domestic economy.

 

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GLOBAL ECONOMIC MELTDOWN AND THE NIGERIAN CAPITAL MARKET. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

BANKING DISTRESS IN NIGERIA CAUSES AND IMPLICATIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

BANKING DISTRESS IN NIGERIA CAUSES AND IMPLICATIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

PROPOSAL

BANKING DISTRESS:  Is a condition when the Banking system as a whole has negative capital and current profit are insufficient to cover losses to such an extent, that the banking system is unable to generate internally positive capital.

However, Banking distress has been a talk of the town, and it has became so rampant that even the customers to banks are after and so conscious of bank distress, which may or may not occur.  Bank distress has been a cankerworm which has eaten deep to the banking stem, which leads people to death, frustration, sickness, denotion, poverty even madness over night. Let take the case study of the former (ACB and Savanah Bank) these two has led some people to poverty and some to untimely death, some ran madness over night, some children dropped out of school some family can’t find food to eat, even some business closed down/folded up.

Moreover, every problem has a solution, there are some measure that could be taken to eradicate this cankerworm that has eaten deep to banking system, one of the measure and the most important is from the foundation before any bank should start in existence, they should make sure that it is a registered bank with every statistic ready for the operation another important one is capable management have to be very strong enough.  Technological know how, trained expert, another important point is SITING i.e where the bank will be built, weather insane opposite or a place that is at the SITE.  You consider also the target, and the kind of business that people around engaged on.

Apparently, there should be won for further training of the staffs, and a good conducts especially from the staffs has to the exhibited on how to welcome and handle customer because there is an idiage which says “one good turn deserves another”.  If all these things are put in place, bank distress must be eradicately.

Finally, recommendation for the staffs to be travelly outside the country for a course has to be in place, in order for them to get a new ideas and innovation that can help in development of the banks, which leads to civilization.  Embezzlement of bank money has to disappear and fraud of any kind has also to be disappeared completely.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The issue of bank distress has been a problem which financial institutions suffer must.  The era of all for free banking in Nigeria brought which can be traced as of (1892) when banking started in Nigeria gave room for the establishment of many banks because there was little or no laws guiding banking business.  Because the was no law or supervisions on establishment of banks, many banks were established without adequate capital requirement.

Morestill, the era of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) and deregulation brought another face in the banking industry which made many banks to sprang up in Nigeria.  This made many more banks to be established in our country.  But, as more laws guiding banking industries were established some of these mushroom banks were affected.  Such laws were regulated by some bodies and each bodies include, BOFIA, CAMA 1990, NDIC etc.  banking and other financial institution Act, Company and Allied matter Act, Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation and all these bodies regulating the activity of banking in Nigeria.

 

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BANKING DISTRESS IN NIGERIA CAUSES AND IMPLICATIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NEW FINANCIAL PRODUCTS IN NIGERIAN COMMERCIAL BANKS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NEW FINANCIAL PRODUCTS IN NIGERIAN COMMERCIAL BANKS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

 ABSTRACT

The basic objective underlying this study was the evaluation of the study of the ability of the New Financial Products by Commercial Banks in Fund Generalization or Mobilization.       This study has been structured into five chapters to make for easy reading and comprehension. Chapter one dealt with the background of the prevailing circumstance in the economy that necessitated the introduction of program intended to correct the imbalance in the economy. It also gives an insight into the measure, both monetary and fiscal policies established to build as strong and viable economic base for the country’s economy.  From this, other four chapters derived that base from the chapter one I order to confirm the findings, recommendations and conclusions. Though the banks have benefited from their innovativeness in product, development, certain problems were encountered by some of this banks which include poor communication system (ie) publicity, weak data bases, fluctuations in interest rate arising from market forces.    In view of the findings above, recommendations have been made to help consolidate the banks effort in new product development. However, it would be not worthy to mention here that the trend in new product development has been a welcome and rewarding development in the financial sector.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The era of oil boom in 1970’s in Nigeria economy lead to the nations over reliance on oil as its main source of revenue and there by ignoring other sectors of the economy hence a mono-product economy. Because of this, most of the industries established during this period depended on imported components and raw materials for their operations, and the upsurge in oil revenue during the period in question and structural distortions, it engendered assumed crisis proportions in 1986 because of the severe decline in crude oil price of that year.

A number of measures were taken by the various governments to correct the situation, but unfortunately these measures failed because the country was on mono-product economy where there are heavy dependence on oil exports and other sectors of the economy were neglected. It would also be recalled that monetary policies within this period were designed for short term crises control management, but by 1986 till date, the situation has been getting out of control which necessitated a long term crises management of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP).

 

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AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF NEW FINANCIAL PRODUCTS IN NIGERIAN COMMERCIAL BANKS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ANALYSIS OF STOCK MARKET FROM INVESTMENT PERSPECTIVE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ANALYSIS OF STOCK MARKET FROM INVESTMENT PERSPECTIVE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

The research into the role of the Nigerian stock exchange market can be emphasized due to its roles. However, those roles are meant to be strong and very important sources of capital in the capital market for the development of the West African sub-region. But though there are important role performed by the organization, there are certain problems militating against the growth and development of the Nigerian stock exchange market such as: unstable market growth, low level of income saving, corruption, inflation of market peace and lack of interest. Those and many more have made the NSEM to lose focus, thereby causing a downward movement of the economy.

Conclusively, from the above, efforts were to ensure that reliable and valid data are gathered for this empirical study thus to know the objectives, function, Activities and make positive suggestions on how to resolve the prevailing situation in the NSEM.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The stock exchange is a vital economic institution. The height of development the world has attained makes the stock exchange market services indispensable. The SEM is seen as a vehicle of fund mobilization and the development of local capital in Nigeria. It provides the facilities that make it possible for buyers and sellers to meet. Perhaps, An example of a stock exchange market is the Lagos stock exchange established in 1961 through the Act of parliament as a result of the need for a market for the selling and buying of securities. The stock exchange market is meant to be a strong and very important source of capital in the capital market for the development of the West African sub-region.

 

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ANALYSIS OF STOCK MARKET FROM INVESTMENT PERSPECTIVE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

AN ASSESSMENT OF CREDIT MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA COMMERCIAL BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

AN ASSESSMENT OF CREDIT MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA COMMERCIAL BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of credit management on commercial banks.  The introduction of the prudential guideline in banking industry, the volume and value of loans and advances classified into non-performing account has continued to increase in bank lending.  Obviously this has adverse effect on banks since it affects their cash flow and impair profitability. Most loans and advances go bad because of the inadequacy in credit management and recovery procedure of banks.  Appraisal of lending vis a vis the credit management of banks and the impact of the application of prudential guidelines on credit, form the major objective of this study.  Union bank of Nigeria Plc Okpara Avenue Enugu was used as a case study with a view to highlight the effectiveness, the adequacy or otherwise of the credit management policy of Nigerian commercial banks with a view to finding the causes and consequences of non-performing loans and advances.  The consequences causes upon this, the researcher employed a population size of 500 Staff Bank Plc, Okpara Avenue, Enugu made up of the management accounting and administrating staff of the bank.  The population sample randoming selected is 119 staff of the bank.  The researcher also employed simple percentage frequency statistical to analysis of the data collected.  The researcher finding show that there exist policy frame work fork for credit management in Commercial Bank in Nigeria, the problem however has been problem execution and fellow up.  It is the recommendation of the researcher that lip services should not be the practices in credit management of the Commercial Bank should ensure diligent and prudent credit management in the Banking Industry.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Banking is essentially an international business especially now that domestic financial markets in many countries are being internationalized.  In modern economy there is a distinction between the surplus and economic units and the deficit economic units.  Consequently, there is a separation of savings and investment mechanism.  This has necessitated the existence of financial institutions whose job includes the transfer of funds from savers to investors.   One of such institutions is the commercial banks.  The intermediating roles of commercial banks places them in a position of ‘Trustees’ of the savings of surplus economic development.  The techniques employed by bankers in this intermediating functions should provide them perfect knowledge of the out-come of a lending such that funds will be allocated to investors in which the probability of full repayment is unity.

However, in practice, the reverse has always been the case.  Almost all lending decisions are made under condition of uncertainty, the risk and uncertainty associated with lending decision situation are so great that the concepts of risk and risk analysis need to e employed by lending bankers in order to facilitate sound decision making and judgement.

 

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AN ASSESSMENT OF CREDIT MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA COMMERCIAL BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

AN APPRAISAL OF NEW CONSUMER CREDIT PRODUCT IN THE NIGERIA COMMERCIAL BANKS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

AN APPRAISAL OF NEW CONSUMER CREDIT PRODUCT IN THE NIGERIA COMMERCIAL BANKS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

In this project research study (work) is a very crucial study for the Nigerian Commercial Banks, this study was actually motivated by the necessity of effects of development of new consumer credit products in Nigeria commercial banks. To solve the research problem, both primary and secondary data were collected.  The research instrument used in collecting data were interview and questionnaire, the respondents were bank staff and some bank customers of the user of the product. The population and population sample is 50 and 40.  Also in organizing and presenting data collected, tables, frequencies, charts and percentages were used.  The various hypothesis were tested using the chi-square.  Data analysis and interpretation gave the following findings:- The problems encounterable in the process of product development have effects on the commercial banks. The consumer credit products of commercial banks in Nigeria have not been satisfying their customers’ needs. The education of customer on the usage of products and their level of awareness has effect on the bank’s credit products development. Based on the findings, the researcher recommends that: The management of our commercial banks should try as much as possible to equip their research and development department and for those that have not, they should try to establish one.  There should be increase in product awareness mechanisms such as good adverts, seminars for bank customers on product usage by the bank customers etc. These should be a good research before embarking on a new product development. In conclusion of the whole matter, one commercial banks customers credit products have not been satisfying their customers’ needs but if improved at an appealing price will satisfy their customers’ needs.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

Background of Study

As far back as 1892 when banking started in Nigeria, the need for the development of new consumer credit products was not much needed as few banks then were in operation.  But as of 1986 when the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) was introduced by the federal government of Nigeria a new era characterized by deregulation of the banking system took place.  Worse still, deregulation gave room for the formation and licensing of numerous new command and merchant banks.  This however brought what we call aggressive competition among the commercial banks, which finally led to the introduction of new consumer credit products in the Nigeria commercial banks.

 

This period brought a total disappearance of armed char banking in Nigeria.  As new banks sprang up, heavy competition becomes the order of the day.  This with commercial banks and about 190-branch offices in 1960, there emerged no fewer than 124 commercial and merchant banks (with 2076 branches) as it the end of December, 1994 according to report released by the Central Bank of Nigeria.

 

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AN APPRAISAL OF NEW CONSUMER CREDIT PRODUCT IN THE NIGERIA COMMERCIAL BANKS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

FOREIGN EXCHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE ITS EFFECT ON BANK PROFITABILITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

FOREIGN EXCHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE ITS EFFECT ON BANK PROFITABILITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

This project is titled foreign exchange and international trade it’s effect on bank profitability. It examines the extent and effect of foreign presence in domestic banking markets. It investigate how net interest margins, overhead tax paid and profitability differ between foreign and domestic banks we find that foreign banks have higher profit than domestic bank in developing countries but the opposite is the case for developed countries. Estimation result suggest that an increased presence of foreign bank is association with a reduction in profitability and margins for domestic banks are regard to foreign exchange and international trade.

Foreign exchange is define by

1.  Selshy gishen as: the conversion of one country’s currency into that of another in a very free economy a countr’y currency is valued according to factors of demand and supply.

2.  By fortex clipart he defined foreign exchange as a system by which one currency is exchange for another to enable international transaction to take place.

3.  Harper Collin he defined exchange as the system by which one currency is converted into another to enable international transaction to take place without physical transportation of good.

4.  By Houghton Mifflin he defined foreign exchange as a transaction of international monetary business as between government or business of different countie, negotiable bill drawn is one country to be paid in another country.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In recent decades, international trade in goods and financial services has become increasingly important. To facilitate such trade, many banking institution have also become international.

Foreign exchange market (currency market) is a form of exchange for the global decentralized trading of international currencies. Financial centres around the world function as auchors of trading between a wide range of different types of buyers and sellers around the clock.

The foreign exchange market determines the relative valve of different currencies.

The foreign exchange market assist international trade and investment by enabling currency conversion for example, it permits a business in Nigeria import goods from European union member states especially Eurozone members and pay Euros. Ever through its income is in Nigeria. It also support direct speculation in the valve of currencies and the carry tradE, speculation basat on the interest rate differential between two currencies.

 

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FOREIGN EXCHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE ITS EFFECT ON BANK PROFITABILITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS IN A DEPRESSED ECONOMY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS IN A DEPRESSED ECONOMY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

Banking is in the midst of change that has arisen due to economic depression. As government seek to improve economic efficiency and better allocation of resources to solve the problem of economic depression, policy makers are shifting towards openness, competitiveness and market discipline.

In response to the developments, Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria engaged in financial sanitizing, management strengthening, corporate refocusing, Business Process Reengineering (BPR), mergers and acquisitions in order to survive the depressed economy. This whole process is called survival strategies through corporate restructurings.

The writer made efforts to discuss issues, facts and environmental factors surrounding the wave of deposit money banks’ survival in a depressed economy like Nigeria.

The impact of this research in banks was gleaned from five performance indicators namely total assets, total deposits, loans and advances, profit before tax and shareholders’ funds, of First Bank of Nigeria Plc. The research looked at the position of these indicators before and after the sanitizing exercise undertaken by the banks for survival and also, its impact on the entire banking system bearing in mind the effect of globalization on the financial market in particular and the economy at large.

Chapter four shows the presentation and analysis of First Bank’s financial statement with the use of chart, tables, bar chart and graph.

Chapter five summarizes all that was discussed from chapter one to four and gave suggestions on how deposit money banks can survive in a depressed economy.

Finally, this researcher leaves this work open to constructive criticisms and expects future scholars to delve into further research and improve on this work.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nigerian economy is faced with national and global economic challenges and as such, the financial institutions, especially the banking sector has an option of sanitizing and restructuring its operational processes in order to survive the depressed economy, as well as embarking on a consolidation exercise which would have some wider structural effects on the industry and on the economy as a whole.

Basically, banking is a service industry operated by human beings for the benefit of the general public while making returns to the shareholders.  As such, it is natural that the services provided thereof by the industry cannot be 100% efficient; however, there is always a room for improvement.  It is on this statement that the index of our further discussion on this study is based.

 

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A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS IN A DEPRESSED ECONOMY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

STOCK MARKET CAPITALIZATION AND INTEREST RATE IN NIGERIA: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

STOCK MARKET CAPITALIZATION AND INTEREST RATE IN NIGERIA: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE

ABSTRACT

This study examines the relationship between stock market capitalization rate and interest rate. Time series data obtained from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) were analyzed using simple linear regression. Results showed that the prevailing interest rate exerts positive influence on stock market capitalization rate. Government development stock rate exerts negative influence on stock market capitalization rate and prevailing interest rate exerts negative influence on government development stock. It was therefore recommended that the operators of the Nigeria capital market should raise the level of awareness so that investors will be abreast with the happening in the market.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It is a known fact that the investment that promote economic growth and development requires long-term funding, or longer than the duration for which most savers are willing to commit their funds. Capital market is a collection of financial institutions set up for the granting of medium and long term loans. Government securities corporate bonds are also traded here in the market, investors provides long-term funds in a bid to secure long term financial assets offered by borrowers. The capital market is made up of two (2) types of market: the primary and secondary market.

The participants in the capital include: Nigerian Stock Exchange, Discount Houses, Development Banks, Investment Banks, Buildings Societies, Stock Broking Firms, Insurance and Pension Organization quoted firms, the government, individuals and the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE) savings and real investment is therefore encouraged through the operations of the capital market. This is because aggregate savings are channeled into real investment that increases capital stock and therefore economic growth of the country.

Capitalization rate is the discount rate used to determine the present value of future earnings. It is one of the major determinants of the market size of any stock exchange. The determination of this rate is based on the forces of demand and supply: interest rate is a part of the monetary policy. If interest’s rate paid by banks to depositor is increased, investors will patronize the banks the more and fewer investors will invest on the capital market. This will lead to a decrease in capital investment in the economy and hence economic growth and development will be lowered.

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STOCK MARKET CAPITALIZATION AND INTEREST RATE IN NIGERIA: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE