THE ROLES OF ADVERTISEMENT IN NIGERIA BANKING SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF SKYE BANK PLC)

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE                                                     

CERTIFICATION                                               

DEDICATION                                                    

ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
  • RESEARCH QUESTION
  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
  • SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • PLAN ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

CHAPTER TWO

  • LITERATURE REVIEW
  • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF SKY BANK PLC
  • DEVELOPMENT OF ADVERTISEMENT
  • THE NEED FOR COMMUNICATION
  • OBJECTIVE OF ADVERTISEMENT
  • ADVERTISING MEDIA
  • IMPLICATION OF ADVERTISING FOR THE BANKING INDUSTRY
  • GETTING ATTENTION

CHAPTER THREE

  • RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  • SOURCES OF DATA
  • SAMPLE DESIGN
  • METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
  • TECHNIQUE OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

  • DATA PRESENTATION
  • DATA ANALYSIS
  • INTERPRETATION OF DATA

CHAPTER FIVE

  • FINDINGS
  • SUMMARY
  • CONCLUSION
  • RECOMMENDATIONS

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

As human approaches 21st century with it owe-inspiring problems and opportunities company’s institutions and nations continually centre their attention on the growth of marketing sectors. In the years gone by there had been agrarian economy where people were self sufficient. With time however, division of labour set n contemporary society have now evolved specialized sectors as the banking sector the focus of this research work.

The immense of marketing in the banking sectors has for long been obvious what more there in Nigeria content with the coming of colonials along with their European culture featuring the establishment of African Banking Corporation in 1892. Then, it was shouldered with the function of distributing England notes (pounce sterling) in 1894. Commercial Banking activities began when Bank of British West Africa (BBWA) now First Bank of Nigeria Plc began operation in Lagos. Among many other banks that commence they were bank of America also known as Savana Bank then before liquidation as is well as Skye Bank Plc.

From the onset these banks have to rival the pre-existing traditional institution using. The fad of that time was News paper and radio which gave these banks competitive over the traditional institutions of using via advertisement. This seems a form of marketing communication to stimulate sales.

At this point, the emphasis of the pre-dominance of banks and other related financial intermediaries as commercial banks mortgage institutions e.t.c. is quite observable in any economic development of importance arc the laudable role they play in saving mobilization and surveyors of credits like every other business enterprises, they as well parade some product and services ‘which contribute to the economy of any country.

THE PRODUCT RANGE INCLUDES:

FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE

– Personal Loans

– Overdraft Loans

– Project Finance

– Loan Syndication

– Share loan Scheme

FINANCIAL ADVISORY SERVICES

– International Banking

– Exports

– Imports

– Dominance Accounts

– Remittance

– Specialized Schemes

– Agricultural Finance

– Housing Loan Schemes

– Warehouse Finance

– Bonds/Guarantees.

In as much as bank keep on offering their products and services they need to undertake special efforts to inform and persuade potential market towards patronizing in their favour. However, the evolving circumstances have posed many challenges on banks management. In the 1970’s the idea of rural banking scheme laws introduced by the Central Bank to discourage the inclination of banks toward urban orientation during the course to the ripple in the sake of this policy, the market place ‘was stirred by aggressive selling through serious advertisement medium undertaken by banks then Radio took the lead in the different media because of its fastest reach than other in rural areas.

It was not until the 1980’s and afterward that marketing made its full entrance into banking operation in Nigeria the Federal Military Government put up failed bank noted as well that the introduction of SAP Structural Adjustment Programme in 1986 played a positive role in increasing the number of banks, the reason is in the objectives of SAP, for its desire was to deregulates the economy and achieve economy recovery through the interplay of monetary satiable like money supply, interest rates etc hence by 1997. the number of licensed banks had gone up to 120 (excluding the development of specialized banks like NIDC, NBCI, NACB) the people banks finance houses e.t.c observable in this step increase in banks number is the entrance of new generation banks. Therefore, with this high number of stiff competition becomes the plight of banks.

The traditional big four had their domination, United Bank for Africa, Union Bank, First Bank and Skye Bank changed offered cheque encashment, saving deposit e.t.c and high tech marketing communication of course their regulations were inter put up but already the wheels of high tech advertisement has been set rolling and the role it plays, as marketing communication medium is immeasurable. Actually, advertisement is regarded as the marketing press visible feature in any form of non-personal presentation of product service or ideas by an identical sponsor is referred to as advertisement. These advertisement could either be on Radio, Television, Newspaper, Magazines, Billboard e.t.c. it can further be said that advertisement is investment which is properly conceive and executed that bring gratifying returns.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Banking business and the banking industry generally faced with certain problems in marketing their banking services. Among these problems are:

  1. Low quality product (service):- the quality so services provided by the financial institutions (banks) these days are very low quality.
  2. Inadequate promotional activities:- promotional activities like advertisement and publicity are still lacking people have not been quality enough on packages available from these financial institution.
  • Unappealing price:- users of the services of the bank usually consider the prices charged by these institutions for their services not appealing.

payment

THE ROLE OF NIGERIAN DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION IN THE REGULATION OF NIGERIA BANKING SECTOR

ABSTRACT   
The Nigerian banking sector plays a major role in economic development in any country. These they do, through financial intermediation and other banking functions to encourage real sector or innovate productive activities. However, distress in banking sector cannot be totally erased because like other forms of businesses, risks are involved. In combating this, the central bank of Nigeria served as the apex in the banking sector and performs regulatory and supervisory activities to create and sustain confidence in the banking sector, in the public, government, owners and the economy.

For proper supervision and monitoring regulatory activities due to various reforms in the banking sector, the Nigeria deposit insurance corporation was established to provide complimentary functions with the central bank in sanitizing the banking sector. However, their major function was to insure all deposit liabilities of banks so that confidence can be installed in the banking sector.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

1.2 Problems of the study

1.3 Justification of the study

1.4 Objectives of the study

1.5 Hypothesis of the study

1.6 Scope of the study

1.7 Definition of terms

1.8 Organization of the study

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 The role of banks in economic development

2.2 Financial distress

2.3 Deposit Insurance Scheme in Nigeria

2.4 The Nigerian Deposit Insurance Corporation

2.5 Other sub-committees of financial sector in Nigerian Banking system

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Type of data used

3.3 Sampling method

3.4 Method of data collection

3.5 Methods of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction

4.2 The period before the operation of NDIC (1984-1988)

4.3 Analysis of Regression Technique

4.4 Computation of correlation co-efficient showing the degree of positive or negative relationship

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendations

REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The practice of modern banking in Nigeria dates back to 1892. The pioneer banks were understandably expatriate institutions set up to facilitate the colonial administration as well as trade with Britain.

The first bank was set up in 1892 and it was called the African Banking Corporation which opened the first branch in Lagos and this was Championed by Elder Dempster and co; a shipping firm based in Liverpool but had it branches in Lagos in 1894 another bank called the British Bank for British West Africa. The bank acted as an agent of the bank received, stored and issued the west Africa silver coins in exchange for sterling coins or London drafts. This bank later changed its name to standard bank.

In 1899, the Anglo-African bank was established in compete with the British bank of West Africa. The bank was established in old Calabar but because of the monopoly enjoyed by the British Bank of West Africa for the importation of silver from the royal mint in Britain, the Anglo African bank sold after it, changed its name to bank of Nigeria to BBWA. Another bank opened in 1917 called the Barclays bank DCO (Dominion Colonial and Overseas). Between 1894-1933, the British bank of west African and Barclays bank DCO dominated the banking scene. Another bank joined the banking scene in 1949. This bank was called the British and French bank. The bank became the third expatriate bank to dominate early Nigerian banking scene.

The banks at this period were principally these expatriate banks, which were principally to render services in connection with international trade. So their relations at that time was chiefly with expatriate trading companies and with the government. These banks also controlled 90% of aggregate bank deposits. They largely ignored the development of local African entrepreneurship.

It should be noted that these various expatriate banks changed their names. The British bank of West African changed its name to standard bank and its presently called 1st bank of Nigeria plc. The Barclays bank DCO changed its name to union bank plc. The British and French bank also changed its name to united bank for Africa Ltd (UBA). However, Nigerians did not take active part in banking ownership until 1930s.

In an attempt to create a competitive environment with the expatriate  banks, the first indigenous bank was established in 1929. The bank was the industrial and commercial bank. This bank was setup by patriotic Nigerians, but failed in 1930, in 1931, another indigenous bank was established and was called the Nigerian merchantile bank but liquidated in 1936 due to the same reasons like the industrial and commercial bank. The first indigenous bank to survive was established in 1933, called the national bank of Nigeria ltd. Other banks established include: the Agbonmagbe bank; a private indigenous bank founded by chief Okupe in 1945. However, the bank was taken over by the western government in 1969 and its name later changed to WEMA bank plc till date. Also established was the Nigerian penny bank in early 1940s but failed in 1946; the Nigerian farmers and commercial bank in 1947 but failed in 1953 and the merchants banks in 1952 but failed in  1960.

Despite the fact that up to 185 banks were established between 1947 and 1952, only four(4) banks survived. These banks include: the National bank of Nigeria established in 1933; Agbonmagbe bank established in 1945 now WEMA bank; the African continental bank established in 1947; an expatriate bank. The British and French bank now united bank for Africa established in 1949 (G.O Nwankwo, 1980). However, this period of banking can be termed free for all because banking activities were unregulated. A committee called the patrons committee was constituted to look into the causes of bank failures. The report of this committee revealed the following; most banks were faced with under capitalization, poor and inexperienced management and competitive pressures from the well established foreign banks.

In 1952, the 1st indigenous ordinance was made.this ushered in the era of formal banking practice in Nigeria. it established standards before license is granted to operated banks. This was applicable immediately on new banks and a period of three years was given to all existing banks survived, they include; Agbonmagbe bank, African continental banks, national bank and merchantile bank. The ordinance was later replaced with 1st indigenous banking act of 1959, and has undergone series of amendments in 1972, 1975, 1979 and was fully consolidated by 1990 company and allied matters decree and currently called banks and other financial institution decree of 1991 (BOFID).

At this period, a motion was sponsored in the federal legislation for the establishment of a central bank but a complain was made that there was no developed capital market. However, there were persistent call for the establishment of a central bank. MR. J.L fisher was appointed to examine the desirability and practicability of establishing a central bank. Although Fisher recognized the contribution of a central bank towards improvement and performance of indigenous banks he however, did not see the need for a central bank. He recommended only a more use of the financial secretary’s power (finance minister). The international bank for reconstruction and development (World bank) in 1953 also raised a motion in favour of the establishment of central bank was finally raised by MR. J.B LOYNES, the formal adviser to the bank of England. The report of Loynes committee, favoured the establishment of central bank.

On March, 17th, 1958, the central bank ordinance was made. However, the central bank did not start full operation until 1st July 1959. The ordinance of 1958 has gone through series of amendments in 1962, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1972, 1976 and 1987 law later repealed and replaced with the 1991 central bank decree. Since it’s establishment, the central bank has laid the foundation for sound financial system. It also stands ad the apex bank in the financial system and helps in the implementation of monetary control. It also acts as the apex regulatory authority in the banking industry, for the supervision and control of banks, sections 1 of BOFID 1991 states the function of central bank.

In 1972, the establishment of the banking enterprises promotion decree affected for all sensitive sectors of the Nigerian economy was restructured to 60:40 indigenes and foreigners respectively. This is a view to taking active control of the economy from the lands of foreigners. The banking sector being one of the sensitive sector of the economy was also affected. This gave rise to the establishment of more banks by indigenes entrepreneur.

Another factor that encouraged the establishment of more banks at this period was the oil boom, which sustained an increase in capital flow in the macro economy hence, enhanced the profitability of bank ownership by Nigerian entrepreneur. Therefore, at this period more banks were licensed and established.

In 1986, followed the implementation of an economic structural adjustment programme. This led to the deregulation of the financial system in 1987. Entry into banking institutions increased such that the number of a total of 42 banks in 1986, the number of licensed banks increased to 120 at the end of 1992, giving an annual average growth rate of about 31 percent with the removal of control of interest rates, bank deposit jumped from about 20.5 billion in 1986 to N58 billion at the end of 1992, an annual growth rate of 55 percent.

Similarly, total assets of banks increased from N68 billion in 1986 to about N232 billion at the end of can safe and sound banking practice be restored in the banking system.

Can the competitive and creative ability of banks lead to greater efficiency instead of distress.

There is no need for promote bank ethics and conduct despite various reforms and new improved banking practices.

Can confidence be restored in the banking sector.

Does the adoption of the deposit insurance scheme have any justification in fair compensation of depositors of banks during bank failure and liquidation?

The need for this study is also borned out of the fact that there is the need to make further research on the role of Nigeria deposit insurance corporation (NDIC) to increase knowledge on previous researcher made.

payment

THE ROLE OF MONETARY POLICY AND IT’S IMPACT ON NIGERIA FINANCIAL SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Content

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

  1. 1 Background of the Study.

1.2 Statement of the Problems

1.3 Objective of the Study.

1.4 Significance of the Study.

1.5 Scope of the Study.

1.6 Definition of Key Terms.

1.7 Plan of the Study.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Monetary Theories

2.2 Process of Formulation of Monetary Policy.

2.3 The role of Monetary Policy.

2.4 Instrument of Monetary Policy.

2.5 Targets and Indication of Monetary.

CHAPTER THREE: CASE STUDY AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 Brief History of Central Bank of Nigeria.

3.2 Research Methodology.

3.3 Sources of Data Collection.

3.4 Method of Data Analysis.

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION

4.1 Review of Monetary Policy in Nigeria.

4.2 Monetary Policy of year 2001 Fiscal Year.

4.3 Comparing Year 2001 Fiscal Year Monetary Policy.

4.4 Impact of Monetary Policy on Nigeria Financial System.

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS.

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion.

5.3 Recommendations.

CHAPTER ONE

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The growing importance of the modern state of ensuring adequate provision for living and the need for economic growth in large part of the world have contributed to the entrance of the prestige of monetary policy as an important instrument of economic policy.

This write up examine and explain various monetary policy instruments that have been used in UK since the inception of the central Bank of UK which is the regulator body used by the federal government to regulate and control the money in circulation. The policies are designed in an attempt to change the trends of some monetary.

Variable in particular and direction so as to induce the desires behavoural change in the monetary authorities used policies in controlling some major macro-economic problems now rampart in our society.

One of the primary responsibilities of any government is to ensure that citizen attain a high standard of living, the monetary policies consist of action by government to help accusing economic objectives.

Some of these objectives are as follows:

  1. Full employment.
  2. Rapid economic growth and development.
  • Price stability.
  1. Equality and distribution of income.
  2. Stable foreign exchange rates.
  3. Attainment of self reliance in the economy.
  • Correction of balance of payment deficit.

Any government whether a developed or a developing country economic objective which must be economic growth as to maintain the economy at its full potential output level, the improvement of the function of the economical by restraining excess demand and inflationary price increase from imposing real cost on society and the restraint off any tendency of the economy towards a chronic balance of payment disequilibrum. Therefore, in an effort to achieve these objectives, government have put in place a number of different policy tools such as monetary policy that is topic under discussion other policy tools are fiscal policy, credit policy, foreign trade policy and exchange rate policy.

The research work will also look into the instrument or weapon of monetary policies such as open market operation, interest rate, special deposit, reserve requirement, request and directions and finally given suggestion and recommendation on how these policies could be effectively used.

  • STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS.

Monetary policy has a major role to play in the Nigeria finance system and the economy in general.

To ensure efficient and effective growth in the economy monetary policy must be allowed to stay for a period of three to four years to ensure stable economy growth and enhance the control of monetary in the money and capital market.

The monetary policy when not in good planning and control will contributes to the inflationary trend of the nation economic although the performance sheet of the economy shows that economic is on good track but inflation rate continue to gallop for instance during 1999 fiscal year the rate of inflation stood at 15 percent, in year 2000, it’s reduced again to 0.9 percent at present it as shoot up to 5.5 percent.

These have contributed to the poor economic growth in stabilization in the market system. Inequitable distribution of income the above discussion shows that not allowing the monetary policy to last for longer period before introducing another current measure is a problem facing the economic of the country and also the regulatory body of the policy ought to take caution and exercise adequate economic skills aim at acquiring the best for the country.

payment

THE ROLE OF CASH MANAGEMENT IN THE OPERATION OF NIGERIA COMMERCIAL BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF UBA PLC ILORIN BRANCHES)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of contents

Chapter one

Introduction

Statement of problem

Objective of the research

Research methodology

Significance of the study

Definition of uncommon terms

Organization plan/chapterization

Chapter two

Conceptual review

Empirical review

Chapter three: Research methodology

Restatement of the research question

Research design and data collecting instrument

Characteristics of the study population and sampling

Administration of the data collecting instrument

Procedure for processing collected data

Limitation of methodology

Chapter four: data analysis and presentation

Introduction

Presentation of data

Test of hypothesis

Analysis of data base on research question

Analysis of report

Generation

Chapter five

Findings

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendation

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

The major aim of business organization whether commercial or industrial is to make profit, an enough profit to remain in the business. Thus, it is necessary for an organization to identify the area(s) to be exploited towards the achievement of its goals and its substance in the business.

To the commercial banks, the most sensitive area that could mark its our right demise it, cash management that is why it is said in banking industry that the importance of cash management is equal to the existence of the industry itself.

Cash management through very important to every organization is more pronounced in the commercial banks because it is the basis of their transactions. Availability of cash to the customers encounter constant in availability of cash. Thus could lead to panic withdrawal, movement of accounts and reduction in cash lodgments.

Before now only commercial bank attached most importance to the area of cash management but since the mass distress of commercial banks and finance houses which could be attributed to its cash management is now being religiously pursued in commercial banks as tool for survival.

It is therefore, necessary in the cause of this research to let the customers know that there is more to cash and its management than what they see in their day to day transaction in the commercial banks.

The business should be able to match its cash outflows with cash inflows, even when it is growing the pace of growth of the business should not outstrip the ability of the business to finance the additional as sets that it need to support the growth.

There ought to be efficient management control over stocks, debtors and creditors. A distinction should be made between essential capital expenditure and postponable fixed asset replacements so that decisions can be made when necessary about shelving certain capital expenditure project.

Using United bank for Africa Plc one of the most viable bank in this country will no doubt intimate the customers with cash management procedures in the banks as well as equipping them with the need for some measures or action to be taken at time in relation to cash in the commercial banks.

The project dwell extensively on the area of cash transactions, control and management in UBA Plc as obtained in most of the commercial banks.

1.1       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The study is to have in depth knowledge of cash management in commercial banks.

The selection of UBA Plc is as a result of its viability and the location of some of its branches in the commercial nerve center of Ilorin. The problems encountered in the course of the project were that of getting relevant data and time. Data are not readily available and where they are available they are not accessible because in most cases, they sought to get clarification from their Head office before making the available. The reason given is that some of these relevant data can not just be disclosed without the consent of the appropriate authority because of their competitor.

The short period couple with chaotic transportation problem in Ilorin was a big constraint to the demand of the research work.

payment

THE ROLE AND USER OF ACCOUNTING INFORMATION IN NIGERIA BANKING INDUSTRIES (A CASE STUDY OF MAIN STREET BANK PLC ILORIN BRANCH)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page…………………………………………………………     i

Certification…………………………………………………….                  .ii

Dedication………………………………………………………       iii

Acknowledgement……………………………………………..       iv

Table of Content………………………………………………                  vi

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0    Background of the Study……………………………..                   1

1.1    Statement of the Problem……………………………..                  2

1.2    Objective of the Hypothesis ………………………………….3

1.3    Significance of the Study………………………………                 5

1.4    Scope and Limitation of the Study…………………..                   5

1.5    Organization of the Study…………………………….                   6

1.6    Definition of Terms………………………………………        6

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE

2.0    Role of Accounting over the Year……………………..       8

2.1    Role of accounting in the Banking Industry……….           12

2.2    Stamp Duty Accounts…………………………………..       14

2.3    Expenses Concepts………………………………………    15

2.4    Accounting Concepts…………………………………….     17

2.5    Mainstreet and its Dissemination of Information                28

2.6    Types of Accounting Information………………………       32

2.7    User of Accounting Information………………………..                  33

2.8    Historical Background of Mainstreet Bank                         34

2.9    Organization Structure of the Bank                                              36

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0    Introduction                                                                            41

3.1    Source of Data Collection………………………………..     41

3.2    Data Analysis                                                                        42

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1    Introduction……………………………………………….      44

4.2    Data Presentation …………………………………               44

4.3    Data Analysis ………………………………….….                49

4.4    Tests of Hypothesis………………………………………     55

4.5    Discussion of findings…………………………………..       60

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    Summary Recommendations and Conclusion………                61

5.1    Summary……………………………………………………   61

5.2    Conclusion………………………………………………….   62

5.3    Recommendation………………………………………….    63

5.4    References ……………………………………………………         65 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0.  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Accounting is so persuasive, and the understanding of its usefulness is desirable. It has been called the “language of business”. The history of accounting is an internal one the double entry book-keeping concept which is generally regarded as the genesis of accounting comes from the Italian city states of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Book-keeping after the Italian fashion, then migrated to Germany to assist. The merchants of the tugger Era and the Asian league almost simultaneously. Some Duton business Philosophers Sharped ways of calculating period income and same Frenchmen also, made use of the whole system to government planning and accountability.

Not long, the double-entry accounting idea. The British worlds economic position in the seventeenth and eighteenth countries made one an ideal missionary on behalf of an account. Their influence spread the flag of accounting to North America and the British. Common wealth as it existed then. Dutch thus, carried the brand of accounting that they had developed at home to Indonesia and other places. Yet is serving people and organizations internationally.

1.1   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS.

The shareholders of a firm entrust their resources in care of management and reported. These resources to be efficiently utilized.

At the end of every accounting year, a stewardship report is given to the shareholders inform of financial statement which shows the position of their investment.

Thus many research works have been carried out on Accounting information can be used by management to make decision in a banking industries

1.2   OBJECTIVE OF THE HYPOTHESIS

This study represents an attempt to isolate those aspects of accounting information and job performance which subordinate perceives as operative with in the Afribank plc management, the following are identified objective of the study.

  1. It will enable improvement of accounting information performance.
  2. It will identify the types of accounting information styles that can lead to higher job performance

iii.      It will provide basis for improving on the job performance of accounting information.

The French made sure that polysia and French at mist rated territory in Africa use French accounting system and the German’s extended their accounting influence to nations like Japan, Sweden and Garisn Russia.

As the united state economic power grew during the first half of the twentieth country, she naturally developed similar sophistication in matters of accounting. Also business schools assisted in the development by nursing the conceptual dimension of accounting and having it recognized as an academic discipline in colleges and universities campuses. After the Second World War united accounting. Influence was felt almost throughout the western world especially in Germany and Japan. To a lesser extent, it was directly observable in Brazil, Israel, Mexico philippiness, Sweden and Taiwan. Also degree of similar influence in regional accounting development was felt e.g Accounting directives of the European common market and the companies law development for the fire nomadic countries.

Thus, in most individual countries accounting has become an intensely nationalist affairs, having national laws and professional regulation e.g. national Accounting Standard Board (NASB) in Nigeria.

payment

THE RELEVANCE OF MARKETING TO THE BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF UBA PLC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE:- INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the study
  • Statement of research problem
  • Aim and objectives of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Limitation and constrains to the study

CHAPTER TWO:- LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Concept of marketing
  • Marketing mix Variables
  • Marketing philosophies
  • Functions of marketing
  • The Evolution of Bank in Nigeria
  • Types of bank
  • Functions of Bank
  • The Role of Marketing in the Banking Industries

CHAPTER THREE:-RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Research design
  • Definition of Population

3.3   Data Collection Method

CHAPTER FOUR:- DATA PRESENTATION AND

    ANALYSIS

  • Brief History of Case
  • Data Presentation
  • Data Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE:- SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION  

  • Summary findings
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations
  • Reference
  • Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

In the early age of banking in Nigerian, bank paid little or no attention to marketing of their services but due to the development and new tend in the banking industry.

It has been noted that there is new competition going on between various bank especially the commercial banks on how to make their service especially their latest service acceptable to the customers.

However, in order to meet up with the new development in banking industry, it is very important for the bank to include moderns marketing techniques in putting forward their services to their customers.

Moreover, according to chartered institute of marketing, marketing is also defined as the management process responsible for identifying anticipating and satisfying customer’s requirement profitable.

Furthermore F.O. Peter (1958)m also views marketing as an orderly, purposely and create need wants and creative capacity and skill of an industrial society toward the design of new and better product and new distribute concept and process, while banking service can be defined as the broad spectrum of service that will normally be available and also offered customer by any given financial ( banking) institution with the aim of satisfied the need of the customer profitable.  This definition varies from institution to another.

Marketing of banking service therefore fall within the specialized of services and services marketing provides wants satisfied that are not necessary tired to sales products.

This therefore gives us a strong introduction as to the banking sector in Nigeria and three bank includes commercial bank e.g United Banks for Africa (UBA) Nigeria Plc.  The project work is aimed at reaveling the need for the marketing service in banking industry in Nigeria banking service.

  • STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

The focus of the research will be to identify the relevance of marketing to commercial banking industry in Nigeria.  In the cause of research answer will be provided to the following research question problems.

  1. What is the historical background of relevance of marketing to commercial banking in Nigeria?
  2. What is the reason for marketing operation to commercial banks?
  3. What are the step involved in the marketing operation to the commercial banks?
  4. Does the relevance of marketing to commercial have and prospect for banks?
  5. Does the regulatory authority have roles and impact on the marketing operation to the commercial banks.
  6. What are the effects of marketing operation to the commercial bank on Nigeria economy?
  7. What are the likely problem facing the marketing operation to the commercial bank?

payment

THE PROBLEM PROSPECTS OF CREDIT CREATION BY NIGERIA COMMERCIAL BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF WEMA BANK PLC, ILORIN)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Content

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Statement of Research
  • Background of the Study
  • Objective of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Research methodology
  • Definition of terms
  • Plan of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Historical Background of Wema Bank of Plc of Nigeria
  • Function of the various Department
  • Central Bank and Credit Creation of commercial bank
  • Procedure of creating credit facility
  • Credit management in commercial bank
  • Steps in Credit Management
  • Principles and practices building lending at Wema

Bank Plc

2.8      Credit administration and securities acceptance to Wema Bank Plc

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Method of Data Collection
  • Sampling Techniques
  • Sampling Techniques
  • Limitation of the Methodology

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • Introduction
  • Data Presentation
  • Data Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Observation
  • Summary
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation

Reference:

ABSTRACT  

This research work is centralized on the problem and prospects of credit creation by Nigeria commercial banks with special reference to Wema bank plc Ilorin it attempts to implore the problem and respects of credit creation by Nigeria commercial bank to achieve maximum creation of credits, the research will be divided into five chapters for easy understanding of the entire work chapter one is termed general introduction which comprises background to the study on how credit creation is established. Chapter two is termed literature review in this chapter we intend to survey the various opinion and view of scholars on the different aspect of the relationship between the management of the commercial banks in Nigeria and their performance. Chapter three is discuss research methodology in this chapter we intend to take a brief of the historical background of the problem and prospects of credit creation and examine the business objectives and at the same time appraises its creation and decision making chapter four is date analysis of data collected for this study both orally and through questionnaire and observation, chapter five is termed summary of finding in this chapter observation were made on opinions of respondents and also suggest recommendations and conclusion were draw in this chapter.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     INTRODUCTION

A commercial bank be defined as a dealer in money and credit, holding it and receiving from the public, deposits respectable on demand by cheque or their withdrawal instrument.

The idea of a banking system was introduced Nigeria in 1892 with the establishment of Africa banking co- operation. Another one was introduced in 1894 which was named British West African Bank.

The British West Africa Bank was later changed to chase merchant bank to become standard bank of Nigeria. In 1899, Bank of 1917, it was taken to Nigeria and came into existence but later, it was taken over by the bank of British West Africa in 1912. In 1917 it was the establishment of Barclays Bank.

The first indigenous bank and that came into existence in 1929, with the name industrial and commercial Bank. Also, 1934 witnessed the establishment of Nigeria merchant Bank.

Although, it was later closed down due to lack of funds, Bad management coupled with large scale corruption.

Furthermore, the national bank of Nigeria was established on a sound footing but, due to greater post- war activities, the bank was close down. In addition, between 1945 and 1947, four indigenous banks were Africa continental bank (ACB) and Agbonmogbe Bank which was now called Wema Bank PLC.

It was a booming era between 1951 and 1952 because eight banks were established. But in 1951 seven banks closed down only Mercantile Bank survive. It was not that the way surviving bank out of the seven that close down in 1954 had is license withdraw by the state government funds.

All banks in Nigeria were either owned by the state government or the federal government. But this trend did not continue to the policy of revitalization and commercialization embarked upon during the Banbangida administration in 1989.

Commercial bank play very important role in the allocation of fund to individuals and business organization in the society.

One of the principal function of commercial bank is the creation of credit facilities which is the process of distributing and disbursing of fund to potential user at favorable terms and conditions and making sure that fund are effectively utilize to ensure the anticipation benefit to borrowers and lending bank.

Credit facilities are being enjoyed by the account holder i.e individual and business organization respectively. It can be listed that traditional function of bank is financial intermediate i.e their real role is concerned with the monetary aspect of the economy which involve the mobilization of fund from savers scattered in the society and their transfer as credit to investors.

There were many average business entrepreneurs who could not or were unable to raise enough funds from their trade for expansion purpose or from other sources like through friends and others.

Their last result therefore is to source for fund.

payment

THE MANAGEMENT OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE RISK AND CORPORATE PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA ECONOMY (A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK OF AFRICAN PLC, ILORIN)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Proposal

Table of Content

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction                                                             1

1 .2 Statement of the study                                            5

1.3 Objective of the study                                                       6

1 .4 Research question                                                   6

1 .5 Statement of hypothesis                                         7

I .6 Scope and limitation of the study                            8

1.7 Organization                                                            8

1.8 Definition of terms                                                   9

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Literature review                                                               10

2.2 The evolution of foreign exchange                           11

2.3 Nigeria foreign exchange reserve                                       12

2.4 The main causes of fluctuation in the exchange       12

2.5 Factor limitation fluctuation in the exchange           15

2.6 How foreign system operate in Nigeria                    17

2.7 The foreign exchange rate                                        19

2.8 Foreign exchange transaction                                  20

2.9 The foreign exchange risk management                   21

2.9.1 Elimination of exchange risk (forward exchange) 22

2.10 Limit to the exchange price of credit instruments 27

2.11 Control of foreign exchange                                    28

2.12 History briefing of united Bank for African (UBA) 29

CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Research methodology                                             31

3.2 Research design                                                                 31

3.3 Type and source of data                                          32

3.4 Sampling size of the study                                                32

3.5 Sampling technique                                                 32

3.6 Instrumentation                                                                 33

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Data presentation analysis and the Interpretation, introduction                                                                             34

4.2 Data analysis and interpretation                              34

4.3 Testing of hypothesis                                                        45

4.4 Hypothesis on foreign exchange policies                 46

4.5 Testing of hypothesis on the requirement for listing in FEM

(Foreign Exchanging Market) 48

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Summary of finding                                                          50

5.2 Conclusion                                                                        52

5.3 Research recommendation                                                 52

5.4 Suggestion for future studies                                   54

Reference

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

International trade and capital flows require foreign exchange market because common despite increase in economy interdependence in the world, each country maintain its own national medium of exchange. The official foreign exchange market in Nigeria s made up of the federal ministry of finance and the central bank of Nigeria as the apex institution, authorized dealers including commercial and merchant bank, development bank and bureau de exchange.

The federal ministry of finance and the central bank are jointly responsible for the formulation of exchange control policies and procedure, while the banking system and d bureau d exchange services as a channel for implementing official policy operation side by side with the official foreign exchanges, marketing is the parallel or black market (agene 1991).

Since 1985 the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) as attempted to evolve an optional exchange rate for local currency at the same sought to achieve a system that preferentially allocates the available of foreign exchange to the productive sector that agriculture and manufacturing. It as been reluctant to allow the inter play of forces of demand and supply to determine exchange rate and allocation of scare foreign exchange to the productive sector that is agriculture and manufacturing. it has been reluctant to allow the into play force of demand and supply to determine exchange rate and allocation of scarce foreign exchange, this subsidy combined with the private biding system has create service pressure on the domestic money market, as over #35 billion in subsidized foreign exchange in 1955.

However, against the background that foreign exchange market(fem) s faced with problem, the federal government of Nigeria (FGN) took two economic emergency in October 1985 and adopted structural adjustment programmed(sap) in July 1986. The programmed give birth to second tier foreign exchange market (SFEM) this legislation exchange regime in Nigeria since independence in terms of the dismantling of the restriction and bureaucracies which plagued previous regime (agene 1991).

Structural adjustment programmed (sap) refers to a set of comprehensive economic reform measure designed to correct imbalance in the economy arising from unfavorable external factors s well as in appropriate domestic policies.

The objective of (sap) was to effectively restructure the consumption and production pattern of the Nigeria economy to eliminate price distortion heavy foreign exchange earns and imports of consumption and producer goods.

The major thrust of structural adjustment programmed (SAP) include following

  1. Achieve fiscal land balance on payment viable over the period
  2. Restricting and diversity the productive base of the economy in others to reduce dependency on a single major foreign exchange earns and imports.
  3. Lay the basic for a sustainable non inflationary economic growth.
  4. Lesson the dominance or an production investment in the public sector efficiency and encourage the growth potential of the private sector.

The overvalued naira led to a fight of capital, it thus aided that naira was converted to harder currencies at the rate that decided to give more value to the naira than it was work now in the regime of foreign exchange market (fem) and banking business carried on in Nigeria in 1949 by the British and the France bank for wise man and woman strong representative in the co operate and wholesales market.

UBA also has a large and established retail franchise and two foreign branches in New York and Grand Cayman Island.

UBA group is known for its initiative and creativity some of the key milestone in its history includes:

  1. First among international to be registered under Nigeria Laws.
  2. First Nigeria bank to offer its share to the public following its listing on the Nigeria stock exchange in 1970.

III. First Nigeria bank to introduce a cheque guarantee scheme knows as UBA card in 1986.

  1. Won the euro money 2000 award for excellence, as the best domestic bank in Nigeria.
  2. First Nigeria bank/company to gain recognition of the international financial community through the establishment of global depository receipt (gob) programmed.
  3. Consistent and solid financial performance over the past year.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE HISTORY

The Britton woods conference (1944) established a fixed exchange rate system whereby each currency had a fixed parity (value) in relation to the dollar.

In Nigeria, the manufacturing or better still corporate sector depends heavily on imported raw materials machineries, spare part and services. However foreign exchange did not pose any problem on them simply because of the exchange rate.

However with dereligation of the foreign exchange market, this has resulted in high foreign exchange rate. Research in the past have neglected some specific issue that are capable of setting the whole economic system, one such issue and to its research will address in the impact of foreign exchange policy on the Nigeria co operate depend on foreign input for their production.

payment

THE IMPORTANCE OF MARKETING STRATEGY IN NIGERIA BANKING INDUSTRY ( A CASE STUDY OF G.T.B BANK)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of research problem
  • Objective and purpose of the study
  • Scope and limitation of the study
  • Research methodology
  • Significant of the study
  • Statement of the hypothesis
  • Organization of the study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Historical background
  • Comparative marketing strategies
  • Organization aim, gall and strategies
  • The major marketing strategy determinant
  • Selection of an effective marketing strategies
  • Impact of effective marketing strategy on banking industry

CHAPTER THREE: CASE STUDY AND METHODOLOGY

  • Brief history of the case study
  • Method of data collection
  • Population and samples
  • Sampling techniques
  • Method of data analysis
  • Procedure for processing collected data
  • Limitation of the method

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • A brief introduction of the chapter
  • Presentation and analysis of data according to research question
  • Presentation and analysis of data according to test of hypothesis
  • Analysis of other data

CHAPTER FIVE: FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Summary of findings
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendations

Bibliography

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

        In 1892 the first commercial bank was established in Nigeria when the Africa banking corporation established a branch in Lagos later, branches of other expatiate banking business called the bank of British west African and Barclays were established.

Nigeria started to run indigenous bank in 1928. when the first indigenous bank was establish in Lagos.

In the early stage of Nigeria indigenous banking system, nearly all the banks established met a sudden death as “ the collapsed within a very short period of time due to mismanagement and inexperience.

However, the rapid increase in the number of the commercial bank is a good fortune to nation economy as a whole but called for the need to develop the marketing as well as marketing strategy in order to determine the needs and wants of target market more efficiently and effectively therefore every bank incorporate marketing department as an integral part of the whole system. The marketing managers and in the saddle of running and making decisions about how best to employee the marketing tools at this disposal to achieve a predetermined goals. The marketing managers work with the variable controllable and uncontrollable while planning the strategy.

In effective marketing strategy, the marketing manger faces certain constraints that are inherent in the environment within which the strategy must be employed. These constraint are the situation analysis variables include in the situation of the marketing plan. However, many of the most successful banks in the world own their success to practicing a well designed market orientation.

1.2   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

        One of the greatest factors that brings about effective turnover organization is effective marketing strategy applied in that organization.

Hence the research problem of this study revolves round the effect of marketing strategy in banking industry the nature of services offered by the bank i..e intangible goods are more difficult to sell than the tangible ones. However, they have to put a lot of marketing knowledge strategy in selling their product since their services can not be seen or for the bank to complete effectively other financial institutions.

The problems of this study would be centered on the following specific term:

  1. What are the historical background of marketing and marketing development in Nigeria
  2. What are characteristics of financial services?
  3. What are the positions of service industry in Nigeria?
  • What are the importance’s of marketing to the society?
  1. What are the roles of marketing in banking industry?
  2. What is the importance’s of marketing to the society?
  3. What constitutes the marketing strategy?
  • What are the major marketing strategy determinants?
  • What are the best ways of selecting an effective marketing strategy?
  1. What are the impacts of effective marketing strategy on banking industry?

payment

THE IMPACT OF RECAPITALIZATION OF BANKS ON LENDING IN NIGERIA BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC, ILORIN)

 TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                                       i

Certification                                                                          ii

Dedication                                                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                                               iv

Table Of Content                                                                 v

CHAPTER ONE

1.0    Introduction                                                                1

1.1    Background Of The Study                                        1

1.2    Statement Of The Problem

1.3    Justification Of The Study

1.4    Objective Of The Study

1.5    Hypothesis

1.6    Scope Of The Study

1.7    Organization Of The Study

1.8    Limitation Of The Study

CHAPTER TWO

2.1    Literature Review

2.2    Review Of Related Literature

2.3    Lending In Banking Industry

2.3a  Definition And Types Of Lending

2.3.1 Lending Polices And Objectives

2.3b  Canons Of Lending

2.3.2 Lending Techniques

2.4    New capital base in banking sector

Reason For Pre-Capitalization

  • Economy Benefit To The Country
  • New Capital Base And Bank Lending

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    Research Methodology

3.1    Sources Of Data.

3.2    Research Question And Hypothesis

3.2.1 Research Question                                                     

3.2.2 Hypothesis

3.3.   Data Collection Instrument

3.4    Administration Instrument

3.5    Analysis Of Response

3.6    Analytical Procedures

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    Presentation And Analysis Of Data

4.1    Presentation And Analysis Of Research Problem

4.2.   Presentation And Analysis Of Data

4.3    Finding And Discussion                                                     

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0    Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendation

5.3    Conclusion

  • Further Study On This Study

REFERENCES                                                                      

APPENDIX I

APPENDIX II

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The impact of Recapitalization of banks on lending in Nigeria

Banks demands critical view.

Since lending is one of the roles of banks which depends on the available capital base of the banks, any attempts by Central Bank to increase the pre-determination of banks lending will have measurable and remarkable impact on the whole economy.

To enhance financial stability of banking industries in Nigeria, reduce the reluctance of commercial banks to lend to the public and safeguard the stability and improvement of banks, the Central Bank of Nigeria consistently increase the minimum capital form as low as 12 million and 20Million for merchant and commercial banks relatively before 1992 to N25Billion in 2005, then in 2011, the new Capital base is now N100Billion naira.

With stipulated minimum capital base of N25billion, some banks could not meet up and thereby merge were inevitable other banks that could not, were liquidated at January 2, 2006. Union bank of Nigeria Plc and 24 other banks scaled together 14 banks including Trade bank. There said to be liquidated 25 banks of solid capital base of N25Billion now have more money to lend to the public at lower interest without fear of getting liquidated.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There is impact of recapitalisation of banks on lending in Nigerian banks, for a commercial bank to lend money out to the public; it must have a tangible capital base. Since not all banks would be able to meet up. Wherever there is recapitalization exercise, there tends to be liquidation, therefore, there must be impact of recapitalization of banks on lending in Nigeria banks.

  1. What has been the impact of Union banks of Nigeria Plc.
  2. Has the impact been all truly positive?
  3. Is there then a remarkable relation between recapitalization of banks and lending?

payment

THE IMPACT OF RATIO ANALYSIS ON MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING IN AN ORGANISATION (A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC, ILORIN BRANCH)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Content

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Historical background of the case study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Objective of the Study

1.4    Research Question

1.5    Significance of the Study

1.6    Scope of the Study

1.7    Limitation of the Study

1.8    Plan of the Study

1.9    Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    Introduction

2.2    Conceptual Framework of Ratio Analysis

2.3    Approaches to Use of Ratios

2.4    Classification or Types of Ratios

2.4.1 Liquidity Ratio

2.4.2 Leverage Ratios

2.4.3         Activity Ratios

2.4.4         Probability Ratio

2.5    Place of Ratio Analysis in an Organization or Financial Institution

2.6    Expected role of managers in relation to ratio analysis

  • Contributions of Investors to Administrative Performance in Terms of Financial ratio Analysis

2.8    Contribution of Ratio Analysis in Decision Making in an Organization                                   

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

3.2    Population Size

3.2    Source of Data

3.3.1         Primary source

3.3.2 Secondary source                                      

3.4    Research Instrument

3.5    Data Analysis Procedure

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION; ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1    Introduction

4.2    Data Presentation and Analysis

4.3    Computation of some selected ratio using the

United Bank for Africa (U.B.A) Statement of

Account as Below Balance Sheet as at

Decembers 31st 2011.

4.4    Summary of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Conclusion

5.3    Recommendation

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX I

QUESTIONNAIRE

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

In every organizing irrespective of its size, ownership, structure, impact of ration analysis on management decision making occupy a  crucial position.

However, given this centrality, it can be said that behind every successful organization, the process in which the management arrive at decision making is very important as far as financial management is concerned in the private sector of the economy and specially in a banking institution like united bank for Africa (U.B.A)

In a nutshell, the impact of ration analysis on management decision making which is the most preoccupation of this research work is referred to the manner through which the management of organization takes decision suitable for profit as possible, future planning, controlling current performance and future development through liquidity analysis, leverage analysis and activity analysis.

Significance change has taken place in recent years in the size and complexity of both private organization and public organization because of this management is faced with evaluation in technical, social political and economic forces. As a result, the methods of arriving at the decision as become more difficult to management especially in accounting activity of the organization.

This research is devoted to examination of some major impact of ratio analysis in financial institution (united bank of African).

1.2   HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY

Today’s united for African Plc (U.B.A) is the product of the merger of Nigeria  third  and fifth largest banks, namely the old UBA and erstwhile standard trust bank Plc (STB) respective and subsequent acquisition of erstwhile continental bank limited (CTB).

The union emerged as the first corporate combination in the history of Nigeria banking.

United back for African history dates back to the founding of old UBA in 1961, and erstwhile STB and CTB both in 1990 although today’s’ UBA emerged a time of industry consolidation induced by regulation, the consolidated UBA was borne out of desire to lead domestic sector to a new era of global relevance by champion the creation of the Nigeria consumer. Finance market leading a private public sector partnership at supporting the acceleration of Nigeria economic development, and growing the institution while spreading its footprints across African to earn the reputation as the face of banking in the continent. Today the consolidated is the largest financial services institution West African with a balance sheet size in excess one trillion naira (under USD eight billion) and more six million customer account operating out of the two most vibrant economics in the sub region Nigeria and Ghana. It as over six hundred and thirty (630) retail distribution centers across Nigeria, its main operation base, and 8 branches in Ghana, outside Africa, it also has presence in New York and Cayman.

United bank for African (UBA) Ilorin main branch has the total staff strength of 44 staffs, of which 6 the senior staff, while 35 are junior staff. The bank is made up of 3 units which are the marketing unit is headed by various persons such as the branch manager. Branch operational manager and auditor.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The part of ratio analysis as a tool for decision making have the following area of concern. 75 ratio analysis useful in investment appraisal?

  1. Whether management relies on ration analysis for decision making?
  2. Do ration analysis really determine the wealth maximization of shareholder? Or
  • It ratio analysis or management tool or technique use in determining the liquidity, stability profitability and efficiency of the organization?
  1. Whether ratio analysis can be used to ascertain the strength, weakness, opportunity and treat of the organization.
  2. Whether ration analysis can be used to determine the trend of development and performance of the organization over time.

At the time of chooses this topic the above was what the researcher have in mind and therefore pushes to fine out what is the need for  ratio analysis in banking institution like UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA.

payment

THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE BANK IN ERADICATING POVERTY IN RURAL AREA (A CASE STUDY OF GAA AKANBI MICRO FINANCE BANK)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                       i

Certification                                                                  ii

Dedication                                                                    iii

Acknowledgement                                                        iv

Table of content                                                            v

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction
  • Statement of the problem
  • Research Questions
  • Objective of the Study
  • Research Hypothesis
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Definition of Terms
  • Plan of the Study

CHAPTER TWO

2.1    LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.1    Sources of Data

3.2    Population of the study

3.3    Sample of Size

3.4    Method of Data Collection (Instrument)

3.5    Method of Data Analysis

3.6    Limitation to Methodology (Options)

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1    DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1    Summary of Finding

5.2    Conclusion

5.3    Recommendation

References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT THE STUDY

According to Banda M. (2002) Micro Finance is about Providing Financial Services to the poor who are traditionally not served by the conventional financial institution. In Nigeria. The formal financial system provides services about 35% of economically active population while the remaining 65% are executed from the access to financial services. The small and medium scale enterprises falls among the 65% who are not catered for finally. The finance need of most of these small and medium scale enterprises are catered for the informal financial sector via non – governmental organization (N.G.O) friend money, other relatives as well as credit union.

In order to enhance financial flow to the poor Nigerians who want to start – up a small and medium scale business, the government has in the past initiative a series of public finance micro – credit programme and policies targeted at the poor. Some of such programme well Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGS). People Bank of Nigeria (PBN), Community Bank (CB), Non – Micro finance bank etc. All these are aimed at empowering Nigeria and local productions.

Micro finance is the main source of funding micro enterprises in Nigeria, Africa and even in other developing regions. The study is aimed at undertaking a primary surveying of micro finance institution in Nigeria, it will also examine the frame work of micro finance institution and also observed how the operation of micro finance are carried – out.

Institution have helped in conditioning poverty in rural area with regard to this research work. It will work make a critical education of micro finance institution and wind examination of rural area (concentration on level at poverty) and how the operation of the institution have helped in finding poverty.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The following are the problems that necessitated my choice of this topic.

–       Conceptual framework of micro – finance and micro finance institute in Nigeria.

–       Reason for the establishment of Micro Finance Bank

–       Regulation bodies and regulatory guideline that guide the operation of Micro Finance Institution in Nigeria.

–       Meaning and features of a rural area setting

–       Rate of poverty in the rural area

–       Reason for increasing rate of poverty in rural area

–       Impact of Micro Finance Banks in eradication of poverty in the rural area.

–       Different and draw back encounted by microfinance banks while performing their function of poverty eradication.

–       Solution to the problems of Micro – Finance Institution.

payment

THE IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH

INTRODUCTION

Communication has always been and still is an important aspect of daily living. More than ever before, its important is more interrelated than in the past, due to the development of transportation and information technology (IT). Not only this, industrial unrest that is evident today underscores this point. Besides, the term generation gap signifies failure in communication between various age groups in the society. Evidence all around us and our own personal experience have shown that successful communication is not easy even though very desirable.

Communication involves a person or people trying to pass across a message to a person or people about a person. Same people or thing different categories of people practice the act of communication. The government of a nation to its populace, the teacher to his students, the pastor to his church members, the sellers to the buyers etc. However, not every communication is effective. To avoid creating a gap in communication it is good to note that no matter how powerful or weighty a message is, it must not be presented in unclear terms

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Communication is an essential tool for co-existence; we will find it difficult to come together as regarding the multiple tribes without communication. Communication is one of the tools that hold a societies together people begging to modify and end relationship by communication with one another. Communication is the channel of influencing, the mechanism of change, it effectiveness could mean the accomplishment of an organizations objective. One of the communication remarks often made is the lack of effective communication which is the major problem facing most  organizations if the cost of industrial unrest is taken into consideration value of communication can be seen in its fair perspective.

In the past, organizations have measured the effectiveness of their communication primarily, in terms of how well it was filling it story.

Currently however, there is an increasing recognition if the importance and value of communication in term of obtaining feed back from the employees. Communication is the only approach to the development of marginal understanding between the management and employees. Without marginal understanding, there is no communication.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The study aims at highlighting critically the impact of effective communication in the achievement of an organizational goal. There is need to know that clarity of good communication is essential to the fulfillment of all those who committed their working lives to it. The problem however, is that scanty research has been carried out in this area consequently, this research sought to answer the research question.

 

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

  1. To determine the impediment of ineffective communication and suggest ways of eliminating them.
  2. To compare and contrast the influence with other studies already made in Allies Company.
  3. To examine whether such influence can study the test of time and the performance of their workers in an organization.

payment

THE IMPACT OF COST CONTROL SYSTEM IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The competitive nature of today’s business world coupled with the need for persistent cost reduction and continuous profitability have made it imperative for an organization to be aware of its cost components. This is to ensure that it products are made and sold at least possible price and this is where cost control come into act as a compass to the managers in their daily endeavors of achieving the corporate objectives of the organization and those of the shareholders.

Cost control is the practice of managing and or reducing business expenses. Cost control starts by the business identifying what their costs are and evaluate whether those costs are reasonable and affordable. The, if necessary, they can look for ways to cut costs through method such as cutting back, moving to a less expensive plan or changing service providers.

The analysis involves the study of certain specialized cost concepts such as fixed and variable costs, control cost, differential cost, replacement cost, sunk cost, inventorial cost etc.

The concept of cost control has to do with various means by which management ensures that their cost element do not get out of hand.

According to Malomo (1999), control in the management sense is the “process by which managers ensure that resources are obtained and used effectively and efficiently in the production or manufacturing of goods and services.

Thus, cost control or cost minimization is something that must be going on at all times.

Buttressing this facts Drury (1948), says for cost control to be of greatest utility “it must be in continuous operation so that as waste and efficiency enters the picture, hat are spotted it once before losses have had a chance to accumulate.” Cost control system is really an indispensable tool for an organization to pursue it cost minimization and control objectives and obtains the best fit within its competitive business environment

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

For an effective and efficient internal and cost control, the management of every production firm is usually concerned with the setting up of rules and regulations including policies which are comprehensive enough to cover or apply to all functional areas of the organization which consists of cost reduction function carried out by the generality of the employees on a day to day basis. Hence, for any limited resources available to produce a higher output for the profit maximization and to be able to compare their actual cost to the budgeted cost.

Therefore, viewed from the above angle, one can see to be an obvious agreement between outlined management movable asset physical cash, inventory salary payment, Banking services, other assets and daily management routine. Related problems which face them are being associated with the following shortcomings:

  1. The sources and application of fund mishandling
  2. Inefficient cost control system
  3. Management weakness or inefficiencies cost allocation to the various sectors concerned
  4. poor motivation of employees

the above effect the profitability, growth and smooth running of most production sectors and at the end of this research study the management of any producing sector shall be able to know the effect of proper cost control system in any field of their business focus.

 1.2   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of this research is to investigate the impact which an effective and efficient cost control system could have in drastically reducing lapses which could be costly to the enterprise if taken for granted.

The main objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. To know how effective cost control are being administered during each production
  2. To determine the actual and budgetary cost control on every product of each production
  3. To ascertain the costing system in the production sector
  4. To determine the costing inventories
  5. To identify some of the factors militating against effective cost control system and make necessary suggestions for the improvement and effective cost control system.

1.3    RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following three hypotheses were tested in this study:

Let HO: Null hypotheses

HI: Alternative hypotheses

  1. HO: cost controlling information does not ensure cost consciousness and profit mindedness.
  2. HO: the current cost reduction policies of Mighty God investment are not very effective in enhancing the profitability of the organization
  3. HO: separate cost controlling department/unit is not desirable for cost management

HI: separate cost controlling department/unit is desirable for effective management.

            1.4  SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is obvious that this research study is of great importance not only of Mighty God investment but also to all production/manufacturing concerns in Nigeria because of the cost control involved. The lack of education and general awareness undoubtedly could be pointed out as one of the reasons for this unpleasant scenario in our economy today. Hence, he study becomes inevitable as:

  1. It will help the Nigerian production sector to know the importance of cost reduction scheme and control in their business
  2. It will sensitize them on how best cost control can be achieved
  3. It will expose the consequence of an enterprise without efficient and effective cost control
  4. It will educate both the management and staffs on the importance of cost control.
  5. It would also correct erroneous notion that the cost control system is not too vital in the profit making process of any sector
    •   SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

At this point it is very necessary to define the scope of this study, especially what the study centers around:

  1. Mighty God investment
  2. Only those areas of cost control concerned with the cost management and cost minimization
  3. Appraisal of the costing policies of the organization under study with the aim of ascertaining its efficiencies and effectiveness.

      1.3       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH DESIGN

The study research design method was employed to conduct the research because in survey elements of the study population cannot be subjected to control situation. (adamu and Tinuke 1985)

SAMPLING, DESIGN AND PROCEDURE

Stratified random sampling method was used to draw the sampling size of the study because the population was non-homogeneous.

DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS

The following data collection instruments were used

  1. Questionnaire
  2. Oral interview
  3. Observation

SOURCES OF DATA

      The study made extensive use of both primary and secondary data

PROCEDURES FOR PROCESSING COLLECTED DATA

The researcher made use of table, comparative percentages in additions to chi-square test in processing and analyzing the data collection for this study.

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS

Cost control system like any other course has it own peculiar terms. Some of the terms are as follows:

Cost management: this consist of those actions that are taken by managers to reduce costs, some of which are privatized on the basis of information extracted from the cost system. Drury (2000)

Cost consciousness: this is continuously being aware of cost implication of any managerial decisions or actions.

Cost of inventories: these are the costs incurred in the process of obtaining or ordering raw materials components or parts from suppliers

Competitive: these are goods that are cheaper than similar goods

Profit-mindedness: this is the continual focusing on profits as the only factor for the survival of a business in the long run

Strategic planning: this is the process of setting long term survival policies and targets of an organization

Fixed cost: this are cost items that will always remain constant and unchanged regardless of the level of activities

Variable cost: this is the cost item that moves or varies in direct proportion with the level of activities

1.8 PLAN OF THE STUDY

This research work has been planned to cover Mighty God investment, chapter one is the introduction part that gives insight for the reader and chapter two is literature review carried out.

The research is a case study of Mighty God investment and it will be in chapter three that the data analysis, data collection is chapter four while summary, conclusions and recommendations is chapter five.

payment

THE IMPACT OF CORPORATE FINANCIAL SCANDAL ON FIRMS PROFITABILITY (A CASE STUDY OF CADBURY NIGERIA PLC)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE:

INTRODUCTION

1, 0      Introduction

  • Statement of problems
  • Research objectives
  • Research question
  • Research hypothesis
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope and limitation of study
  • Historical background of study
  • Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Introduction

2.2.1   Definition of financial statement of fraud

2.2      Types of financial statement fraud sheme

2.2.1   Fictitious revenue

2.2.2   Timing Difference

2.2.3   Improper assets valuation

2.2.4   Concealed liabilities and expences

2.2.5   Improper and / or ineadequate disclosure

2.3      Indicator to financial statement scandal/fraud

2.4      Tools to detect fraudulent financial statement the financial statement Analysis.

2.4.1     Vertical analysis

2.4.2     Horizontal analysis

2.4.3     Ratios

2.4.3.1 Sales growth index (S G I)

2.4.3.2 Gross marginal index (G M I)

2.4.3.3 Asset Quality Index (A Q I )

2.4.3.4 Days Sales Receivable Index (D S R I )

2.4.3.5 Sales, General and Administrative Expenses Index

2.5        Ratio analysis and financial statement

2.6        Significance of ratio analysis

2.7        Limitations of ratio analysis

2.8        Classifications of ratio

CHAPTER THREE:

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Introduction

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Research population/sampling

3.4     Sample size

3.5     Sampling techniques

3.6     Sources of data collection

3.6.1 Primary source

3.6.2 Secondary source

3.7     Data analysis techniques

3.8     Constraints in data collection

CHAPTER FOUR:

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1      Introduction

4.2      Respondents characteristics and classification

4.3      Data presentation and analysis

4.3.1   Analysis of respondents Bio-data

4.3.2   Analysis of Individual statement

4.4      Testing of hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE:

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1      Summary of findings

5.2      Conclusion

5.3      Recommendation

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Thus, this study is intended to examine the effects of financial misstatement or scandals on firm‘s profitability. The study will also cover the control and precautions to financial scandal. The study also examine how best to handle scandals to ensure efficiency and effectiveness of firms.

The practice of manipulating the financial statement to bolster company’s position is not new

According to the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE) fraud is the deliberate misrepresentation of the financial position of an enterprise, accomplished through the intentional misstatement or omission of amounts or disclosures in the financial statement to deceive financial statement users. Also, financial scandals are fraud called misrepresentation of facts, and its key elements are: –

  1. A material false statement
  2. Knowledge of its falsity

iii       Reliance on the false statement by the victim, and

iv       Damage suffered by victim

Financial scandals meet the above criteria. The financial scandal is false because of the degree of manipulation to present a ‘picture’ that is grossly different from the truth. Those behind it, the top management know it is false, but want users (banks investors, public) to rely on it, and there is high risk of financial loss to those who invest in money losing ventures

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The major problem of financial scandals is its adverse effect on the firm’s profitability and the detriments it holds on the firm’s reputation.

However, this is evident in the findings carried out on First Bank Nigeria Plc and its directors in the financial decisions of the firm’s financial misstatement carried out by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).

  • RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The main objectives of this proposed research shall be:

  1. To examine the effects of corporate financial statement fraud on firm’s profitability.
  2. To identify reason(s) why such falsification is largely perpetrated by management
  3. To examine how perpetrated scandals are designed to benefit the organization
  4. To find out how financial fraud affects the organization generally.
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

For the purpose of this research work, the following research questions will be dealt with.

1        Is there any significant relationship between financial scandals and firm’s profitability?

  1. Has the falsification of financial statement improved the volume of investors?
  2. is there any significant relationship between financial scandals and investor’s turnover?
  3. Are financial scandals aided by the management to the firm’s benefits?

payment

THE IMPACT OF AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE (ATM) IN BANKS SERVICE DELIVERY IN NIGERIA BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK PLC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE:-INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study
  • Statement of Research Problem
  • Objective of Study
  • Scopes and Limitation of the Study
  • Research Methodology
  • Statement of Research Hypothesis
  • Significant of the Study
  • Plans and Organization of the Study

 CHAPTER TWO:-LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Literature Review
  • Features of ATM
  • Operation of Automated Teller Machine
  • Role of Interswitch in Automated Teller Machine Development
  • Reasons for Introduction of ATM
  • Effect of ATM
  • Problems of ATM

CHAPTER THREE:-CASE STUDY AND METHODOLOGY

  • Brief History of Union Bank Plc
  • Research Design and Data Collection Instrument
  • Characteristic of the Study Population and Sampling
  • Administration of Data Collecting Instrument
  • Procedure for Processing Collection Data
  • Limitation of the Methodology

CHAPTER FOUR:- DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • Presentation of Data
  • Analysis of the Data Base in Questionnaire Administered

CHAPTER FIVE:-FINDINGS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

  • Findings
  • Summary
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • Suggestions for further studies

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Banking Industry across the world aid the promotion of economic growth and development, it is the recognition of the crucial rile that has engendered a global crusade to improve the sector.  One, major area, of exploration is the use of information technology (IT) to improve banking services with the convergence computing and telecommunication automated now characterize the operation in the banking sector of the world economy.

Automation is the use of machine instead of people to do a job or industrial process with respect to banking, it, involves the use of automatic machine and computer base device o perform banking activities in a way to increase speed, accuracy and capacity.  Automation allows bankers to get closer to their customers and deliver a wide range of service at a lower cost.  It is belief that there are four ways in which automation can be use banking industry, and they are:-

  1. To perform greater expended base to be handled
  2. To reduce substantial real cost of handling payment
  3. Cut the banks free from traditional constraints upon time and place.
  4. Introduce new product and services

Automation in banking industry can manifest in the following ways:-

  • Banker automated clearing service
  • Magnetic ink character reader
  • Payment system
  • Delivery channel
  • Source of Information

For the purpose of the study, our scope will be limited to the automated teller machine under the payment system. Where payment system involve business transaction without cash or cheque or any other paper mode money transaction.

The automated teller machine (ATM) is a cash dispenser that is designed to enable customer to enjoy banking service without coming into contact with any banks staff.  The ratio of machine is guided through instructions programme into the machine.  Users can gain access into ATM system through a personal identification pin number give to, the customers and must be discloses to a third party.

A mechanical cash dispenser, arguably an ATM, was developed, and build by Luther George Simjian and installed in 1939 in New York city by the city bank of New York, but remove after 6 months due to lack of over 25years, Nut ill, De ta Rue developed the first electronic ATM, which was installed first in Enfield, Town in north London on 27m June 1967 by Barclays bank.

This instance of innovation was credited to John shepherd Barron, although various other engineers were awarded patents to related technologies at the times.  Shepherd.  Barron was awarded on OBE in the 2005 New Year’s honour.  The first person to use the machine was Reg verney of’’ on the buses fame, a British television programme from the 1960.  The first ATMs accept only a single – use taken 1- voucher, which was retain by the machine.  These worked on various principles, including radiation and low-coercivity magnetism that was wiped by the card reader to make fraud more difficult.

The deal of a pin store on the card was developed by the British engineer James Good fellow in 1965.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In the course of this paper answer will be provided to the following questions.

  1. What is the historical background ATM
  2. What are the reason for introducing ATM
  3. What is the effects ATM
  4. Does ATM solve any problem facing ATM in Nigeria Banking industry

payment

THE IMPACT OF ACCOUNTING PROFESSION AND ACCOUNTING PRACTICE ON NIGERIA ECONOMY. (A CASE STUDY OF KAYODE OLAYEMI & CO CHARTERED ACCOUTANTS)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Content

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

1.1    Statement of the problem

1.2    Objective of the study

1.3    Scope of the study

1.4    Significant of the study

1.5    limitation of the study

1.6    Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

  • Introduction

2.1    The Accountancy profession

2.1.1 Public Accounting

2.1.2 Private or industrial accounting

2.1.3 Accounting in the Non- profit making sector

2.2    Formations of professional bodies

2.3    Role of Accountants

2.4    Challenge for the professional Accountants

2.5    The Nigeria Economy Scene and the Accountant

2.6    The professional Accountants and Anti-corruption crusade

2.7    Accountancy profession and Economic Restructing.

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Introduction

3.1    Population

3.2    Source of Data Collected

3.3    Method of data analysis

3.4    Historical Background of the study.

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1    Presentation and analysis of data

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Accounting as a noble profession, is a disciplined profession one must be disciplined from day one as a professional accountant and the discipline starts from up-dating ones knowledge by going into studies come rain or sunshine. The “PROBITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY” is regarded as watchwords of accountants.

The history of accounting dates back to 5000 B.C. when the temple priest of summer operated a tax system that brought under their control rests stock and estates. It then becomes necessary for these priests to develop accounting method to maintain managerial control of transaction and to give an account of their management over these holdings.

Institutionalization of accounting as a profession started in 1853 from Britain. The main objective behind this is to regulate the profession in an economy and to determine from time to time what to what would be required of an accountant to be able to qualify. Also to determine standard and degree of knowledge needed before a member could be admitted.

Accountancy as a discipline and noble profession that command respect from oil other disciplines and social recognition as exhibited versatility, boldness and sensivity to environment in all its ramification with an all-round competence and readiness to handle the issues and challenges thrown forth.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

The accountancy profession over the year, has been seen by the public mainly from the perspective of the work of an auditor who comes to audit after the year-end and all they see is just a one-page report to shareholders.

Another problem is the fate of the young up-coming accountants in Nigeria in the face of the Association of National Accountants of Nigeria (ANAN) and Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN) embolic and the possible effects on the profession is another thing that needs to be checked.

Another Economy is made up of both private and public sector. The private sector are organizations owned by individual whose aim and objectives are the provision of goods and services for profit maximization. The public sector on the other hand, are all organizations which are established and run by government on behalf of the public.

In the private sector, the impact can be viewed from the point of accountant in the preparation of financial statement and that of the auditor in the expression of opinion on the account prepared. If the auditor qualifies his report, such account will have bad impression on the management and can cause fall in the stock price. However, such qualified audit report may have little or no effect when considering public sectors accounting since the account is based on fund system (i.e. service oriented rather than profit making).

The problem of the study in view of the above, therefore are as follows:

  1. Difficulties in weighing the impact of the profession in private sector and public sector of the economy with each other.
  2. Problems of knowing the role of such accounting report on the economy when considering a single entity.
  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this research is to look into the accountancy profession and the impact in an economy.

This project is designed to enlighten the public that the work done by the professional accountants is very much more than just auditing and book-keeping. The importance of professional body in full professional cannot be over-emphasis in an economy.

This write up will therefore analyse the issue of association of National Accountant of Nigeria (ANAN) and Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN) and make recommendation in an economy.

  • SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Looking at the accountancy as a profession constitute the premises of this project work. Professional Accountants have crucial role to play in the stream of an economy.

The kind of professional services they render have direct relationship with integrity, honesty, accuracy, transparency, probity, and accountability. The above qualities are what we expected in the performance of their professional engagements.

The above mentioned area are the means through which the impact of the profession can be felt and this what the write-up is set to focus on.

payment

THE EFFECTS OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON PRIVATE BUSINESS (A CASE STUDY OF GLOBAL SOAP AND DETERGENT INDUSTRY ASA-DA, ROAD, ILORIN)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                                       iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                      iv

Table of content                                                                              v

Proposal                                                                                          vi

CHAPTER ONE

  1. Introduction
    1. The aims and objective of the study
    1. Definition of the related concepts
    1. Scope of the study
    1. Research methodology
    1. Source of data

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature

  • introduction
    • government policy
    • instruments of economic policy
    • effects of investment policy on private enterprises

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    Methodology

  • Reasons for establishment of global soap and detergent
    • Transportation department
    • Aims and objective of global soap and detergent
    • Productive department

CHAPTER FOUR

Data analysis and presentation

4.0 Introduction

4.1    Provision of essential basic infrastructural facilities

4.2    Problems of global soap and detergent industry as a result of government policy

4.3    Problems of global detergent area.

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

Conclusion

Recommendations

Reference

PROPOSAL

The basic problem to be identified in this study will be to determine global survive and prosper in spite of the operation condition. I will also examine how changes in reserves requirement affect commercial global. It subsequences amendments its subsequent amendment s constitute the relevant legislation in wide in terms of the regulatory power confers on the global and detergent industry in Nigeria. It also enables the global to go through periodic examinations of the books and affairs of the licensed global. Grants the power to query a global for not complying with the provisions of the global decree or for any floating of its directives. The decree also impose penalty for breaches. The actors in the formulation of management are: the federal ministry of global, the federal ministry of national planning which plays an indirect role. The aims and objectives of this study is to examine the effects of management of global on financial institution with particular emphasis on global soap and detergent industry and investment which is one of the most important sources of funds to the financial institutions. Both primary and secondary data collections techniques will be use in the collection of data in this study. The primary data will be obtained through the means of personal interview from experts in the field while secondary data will be through lecturer, papers, management of Global circulars, journals of other professional bodies and other relevant text books will also be used as secondary.

CHAPTER ONE

There many theories or how and when government came into an existence the origin of government has over the year generated much controversy. Some people have argued that the constitution of the state or government originated from the will of God. (The fall of man in the Garden of Eden). The force theories where by the strong imposed their will upon the weak, the social contact (by which men consciously established government) the family (the pantriachal or matriarchal model, the class struggle the Marxist explanation and processes of evolution) the government having developed like a living organism etc.

The ideal government is for managing the affairs of the whole society. The society conpase of bourgeoisies, the artisan, the tecnocrats the peasants or the masses. All are in an effort of making the society worthy of living for it citizing.

The government has the power to make law and enforce them with all the mean of collusion it care to employ. This could be upon individuals, clubs or association, companies or industries within its area of jurisdiction.

The set of rules or regulation made by government to control all spheres of the society it governed could be found stated in its policy like government policy, foreign police, education policy and socal policy etc. the position of any government on any matter can easily be acquainted will through the study of its policies.

Generally speaking, government policies are means to set standard of operation procedure. A policy is designed to facilitate strategy implementation and how to counter act tendencies for part of the organization to resit or reject the chosen strategy.

At this juncture therefore this research work aims at bringing to limelight the effect of government policy on private enterprises with much emphasis on global soap and detergent industry Asa-dam area Ilorin Kwara state.

1.2    THE AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

     The aims and objective of the study are to give detailed information in respect of effect of government policy on Global Soap and Detergent Industry Asa Dam Road Ilorin. The study is also to analysis the effort of government policies on the industry and the people. The study is also aimed at bringing forward instrument of government economic policies and their uses.

THE EFFECTS OF GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON PRIVATE BUSINESS (A CASE STUDY OF GLOBAL SOAP AND DETERGENT INDUSTRY ASA-DA, ROAD, ILORIN)