SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF METRONIDAZOLE (FLAGYL) DRUG – METAL COMPLEXES OF NICKEL (II), MANGANESE (II), COPPER (II) AND IRON (II) IONS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                                     i

CERTIFICATION                                                                              ii

DEDICATION                                                                                   iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                   iv

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                      v

ABSTRACT                                                                                       vii

1.0    CHAPTER ONE

1.1    Introduction                                                                           1

1.2    Antibiotic : Classification and side effect.                             2

1.2.1  Classification of Antibiotics                                                  2

1.2.2   Side effect of Antibiotic                                                        3

1.3      Flagyl (Metronidazole)                                                          4

1.3.1   Mechanism of action                                                            4

1.3.2   Resistance                                                                            5

1.3.3   Spectrum Activity of metronidazole.                                   5

1.3.4   Pharmacokinetic of Metronidazole                                     6

1.3.5   Toxicity of Metronidazole                                                     6

1.3.6    Half-life of Metronidazole                                                   7

1.3.7    Topical Administering of Metronidazole                            7

1.4       Metal Complexes                                                                 8

1.5       Properties of Ligands                                                8

1.6       Properties of Nickel, Biological importance and Toxicity.          9

1.7       Properties of Iron, Biological importance and Toxicity     10

1.8       Properties of Cobalt, Biological importance and Toxicity 10

1.9       Properties of Manganese, Biological importance and Toxicity  11

1.10     Aim of the project                                                                12

2.0 CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Apparatus, reagents and experiments                                    13

2.1 Flagyl Fe(ii) complex formation                                                15

2.3 Flagyl Co(ii) complex formation                                                15

2.3 Flagyl Ni(ii) complex formation                                       16

2.4 Flagyl Mn(ii) complex formation                                               16

2.5 Characterization                                                                       17

2.6 Melting point determination                                                     17

2.7 Atomic Absorption Spectra                                                      18

3.0 CHAPTER THREE

3.1 Result of flagyl Fe(ii) complex formation                                  19

3.2 Result of flagyl Co(ii) complex formation                                 19    

3.3 Result of flagyl Mn(ii) complex formation                                19

3.4 Result of flagyl Ni(ii) complex formation                                  19

3.5 Result of solubility test                                                             20

3.6 Result of melting point determination                                     20

3.7 Result of Atomic Absorption Spectra (AAS)                             21

4.0 CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 Conclusion and Recommendation                                           22

4.2 References                                                                                 23

ABSTRACT

Metronidazole (flagyl) metal complexes were prepared from the reactions of metronidazole (flagyl) and FeS04.7H20, NiCO3.7H2O, MnSO4.7H2O and CoSO4.H2O. The complexes were characterized using physical properties such as melting point determination; solubility and Atomic Absorption spectra (AAS), the result obtained from each property showed that the drug metal complexes were more effective and powerful than the parent drug.

CHAPTER ONE

1.l INTRODUCTION

Antibiotics belong to a class of compounds of biosynthetic or semi-synthetic in nature. Most of them are produced by various species of microorganisms and other living synthetic and are capable in small concentrations of inhibiting the growth of or killing bacteria and other micro-organisms. An extensive review on the metal complexes of various antibiotics was published (1) It includes complexes of tetracycline and bleomycin, valinomycin, beauverian and otherenniatins, gramicidins, nactins, lasalcid, monensin, calcimycinand related antibiotics D-eycloserine and related aminoacids with antibiotics properties and iron-containing antibiotics.

Chlorotetracycline (aureomucin) and oxytetracycline (terramycin) were shown to have high affinity for the cations of heavy metals, the acidity of terracycline towards first row transition metals ions and the corresponding stability constants of the metal complexes have been reported. The stoichiometeries and concentrations of the different metal complexes formed by tetracyclines in vivo could be assessed on a quantitative basis by using high speed.(2) Thiadiazole derivates have been reported to be biologically versatile compounds, possessing anti­viral, anti-bacterial, anti-pyretic, antifungicidal and analgesic activities. Complexes of 4-acetyl-2-(ace- tylamino)-5-dimethyl- 2-l, 3, 4-thiadiazole with cadmium, mercury and first row transition metals have been described.

1.2   ANTIBIOTICS -.CLASSIFICATION AND SIDE EFFECT

An antibiotics are drugs that kills or slow down the growth of bacterial, antibiotics are one class of antimicrobials, a large group which also include anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-parasitic drug. Antibiotics are chemicals produced by or derived from microorganism (i.e bugs, germs such as bacteria and fungi), the first antibiotics was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928 in significant breakthrough for medical science.(3)

Antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed medications in modern medicine , some antibiotics are bactericidal meaning that they work by killing bacteria ,other antibiotics are bacteriostatic meaning that they work by stopping bacteria multiplying each different type of antibiotics affect different bacteria in different ways for example an antibiotics might inhibit a bacterium ability to turn glucose into energy or it ability to construct its cell wall when this happens the bacterium dies instead of reproducing.

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF METRONIDAZOLE (FLAGYL) DRUG – METAL COMPLEXES OF NICKEL (II), MANGANESE (II), COPPER (II) AND IRON (II) IONS

ORGANOIRON COMPLEXES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

INTRODUCTION

1.1  COORDINATION COMPOUNDS

The transition metals and ion have much higher tendency to form coordination compounds as compared to the S- and P-block elements. It is because of their relatively smaller sizes, higher ionic charges and the availability of d- orbital for bond formation. Coordination compounds, unlike normal compounds retain their identity even when dissolve in water or any other suitable solvent. The properties of the compounds are totally different from those of their constituents.

The most distinctive aspects of transition metal chemistry is the formation of coordination compounds. A coordination compound is a complex substance in which atoms or group of atoms have been added beyond the number possible in the basis of electrovalent binding or covalent binding. In such a compound the linked atom of the coordinated group furnishes both electrons of the additional linkages. More simply, when a metal ion combines with an electron donor, the resulting substance is said to be a coordination compound. For example the ferrous ion combines with four ammonia molecules, in which the nitrogen atom is an electron donor to produce [Fe(NH3)4 ]2+ (2)

The molecules or ions that surround a metal ion in a complex are known as ligands. Ligands are normally either anions or polar molecules. Furthermore, they have at least one unshared pair of valence electrons, as illustrated in the following examples.

The type of bonding between the metal and ligand may be electrostatic or covalent. Ligands may be classified on the basis of their ability to form two bond with the metal ion unidentate ligands, such as    and     use a single donor atom or their ability to form two bonds (bidentate). Ligands that are divalent or contain two donor atoms, like ethlenediamine (H2 N  – CH2 – CH2  – NH2), are bidentate because they contain two pairs or sites that enter into bonds with the central ion. Examples are oxalato (C2  O­42- ), acetylacetonate (aCac), ethane – 1, 2 – diamine (en) etc.

1.2  WERNER’S THEORY OF COORDINATION COMPOUNDS (4)

Alfred Werner can be considered to be the pioneer in the field of coordination chemistry and he received noble prize in 1913 in recognition of his efforts. He showed that Neutral molecules were bound directly to the metal so that complex salt such as CoCl     is correctly formulated as [Co CNH3]6)3+(cl )3. G.N lewis and N.V sidgwick proposed that a chemical bond recquired the sharing of an electron pair. This led to the idea that a neutral molecule with an electron pair can donate these electrons to a metal ion or other electron acceptor. Thus, in a coordination compound, the metal species acts as electron acceptor (lewis acid) and neutral molecule with lone pair of electrons or anins as electron donor (lewis base). A metal atom or ion when bonded directly to a fixed number of anions or molecules constitutes a coordination entity. For example [pt (NH3)2cl2] is a coordination entity in which platinum is surrounded by two ammonia molecules and two chloride ions. Other examples are [Fe (CN)6]+,

2+ [Ni (co)4] etc. In a coordination entity, the atom/ion to which a fixed number of ions/groups are bound in a definite geometrical arrangement around it is called the central atom or ion. For example the central atom in [Ni (NH3)6]2+ is [Ni (ii)] in [mo (CN8)]3+ mo  (v) and in [co (pr3)3], co (i). The charged ions or neutral molecules bound to the central atom in the coordination number of Mo and Co are 8 and 4 respectively. The central atom and the ligands bonded to it are enclosed in square bracket [ ] and is collectively termed as the coordination sphere. For example in the complex [Ni (NH3)6]cl2, the coordination sphere is [Ni (NH3)6]2+.The spatial arrangement of the ligands around the central atom is termed as coordination polyhedron. The most common coordination polyhedral are octahedral, tetrahedral, and square planar.

ORGANOIRON COMPLEXES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

CHEMISTRY OF TRAMADOL

CHAPTER ONE

  1.  INTRODUCTION

Tramadol hydrochloride [TMH],chemically known as [1R,2R]-vel-2-[dimethlamino]-1-[3-methoxyphecy] cynonexanol[figure]is asynthetic analogue of codine and is a antrally acting analgestic agent.

  1. It is metabolized by the anytochrom P450 enzyme system in the liver to form eleven matabolites of which 0-desmethy tramado [M1] predomilate and has anagestic properties
  2. It has been used since 1977 for the  relief of severe physical pain and has been the most widely sold opioid analgestic drug in the world.
  3. TMH is official in European pharamacopeia [EP]
  4. It describe nonaqueoua titration with perchloric acid as tritrant the end point being located pontentiometically ultraviolet spetrophometry.

High perfomance liguid chometrography, thin layer chomatrography –detromrtry capillary isotachophysis flow injection chemileum nescence spectrometry, voitametry ion-setective-bised potentionmetry visible spectrometry, and trtrimetry for determining TMH in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

In addition, there have been part of its assay when present in combination with other drugs. TDH and ibuprofen ware assayed simultaneously by the first –order denvative spetrophytometry and HPLC with UV-detected. The TMH along with detetroprofen and haloperidot have been determine by HPLC-deode array detection [DAD] method simultaneous analysis of TMH and acceclofenac  in a commercial tablet was accomplished also by HPLC with UV-detection method. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, TNH and dompenriodone in combine dosage form using RP-HPLC has been reported by karun akaran etal.

 In recent years, there has been an increased tending towards  development of stability –indication analysis, using the approach to stress testing enshrimed in international  conference harmonization [ICT] guideline Q2A[R2].this approach is being extended to pharmaceutical to enable accurate and prease gualification of drugs in the presence of their degradation products. Though there are many reported methods of the analysis of TMH either alone or in combination with other drugs in pharmaceutical dosage forms, the literate on the stability –indication method is scarce. Mohammed etal have elevated the stability of tramadol enantiomers using a chiral stability – indicating capillary electrophoresis  method and its application to pharamaceutical analysis. Chemical stability of TMH in infection has been reported by Gupta.

   Ultra performance  liquid chromatography  [UPEC] is a relatively  new technique giving new possibility in liquid  chromatography especially concerning stecrise of time and anal solvent consumption. UPLC system is designed in a special way to withstand high system back pressure special analysis colume UPLC acquity UPLC BEH C18 packed with 1.7 jum partickes are used in the system. The UPLC system allows shortening analysis time up to nine time compared to used convention of HPLC system, but separation efficiency remains the same or even improve as efficiency and speed of analysis are of great importance in many application of liquid chonmatography, especially in pharmaceutical, toxicological and chemical analysis, where cost, UPLC could play significant role in the future of liquid chromatography.

   Three report are found in the literature dealing with the application of UPLC with mass spectrometric dectection for the determine nations of TMH in different matrices. A sensitive UPLC-MS\MS method for TMH in urine and whole blood in forensosn  context has very recently been reported kasprzk-hordarn etal. Determine TMH in surface water by solid-phase extraction and UPLC-positive etectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

 Simultaneous screening and quantification of 29 drugs abuse including TMH in oral third has seen reported by badawi atai sohd phrase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS.

     Chromatography research international.

  TABLE 1: linearity and regression paremetas with pressision data

Perameters                                                                                 Value

Linear range ng ml-1                                                                  0.5-300

Limits of quantification [LOG], ng ml-1                                            0.2

Regression equation

 Slope [b]

Intercept [a]                                                                               19330.0

Correlation coefficeient [r]                                                        0.9999

Standerd deviation of b,[sb]                                                              76.0

Standerd deviation of a [sa]                                                    13694.5

By liquid chromatography positive etectrospray ionization tender mass spectrunetry has recently been used for the multiresidue analysis  of drugs of abuse in waste water and surface water.

Though a member of  liquid chromate graphing method have earlier propose for TMH no attempt has been made to apply these new type of LC [UPLC] for pharmaceutical except in body fluids oral fluids and surface and waste water despite its many fold advantages.

  The aim of this work was to develop a rapid, precise, accurate and validated stability indication UPLC method for  the determination of tramadol HCL in bulk and tablet. This was accomplish with a water acquity UPLC system and acquity UPLC system and acquity BEH column [C18,100mm 21MM,AND 1.7 JUM]. The stability indicating power of the method was established  by comparing the chromatogram obtained under optimize condition before forced degredation with those after degredation via acidic, basic, hydrytitic, oxidative then and photolytic stress condition.

        HISTORY OF TRAMADOL AND ITS STASTITICS

Tramadol [brand name ultra ] is an oral, opiod pain relieving drug that is marketed under a veriety of trade names with ultram and ultracent being the most widely prescribe and recognized.

   Tramadol is most often prescribe to that moderate level of pain including dental, osteoporosis, and neuropathy in both acute and chronic setting it is also improved for treating cancer pain in period lees than three months.

    Tramadol is thought to be safe due to lower risk of tolerance abuse, and dependence, but it has lower clinical value then other opiates. The drugs has only about one-tenth of the pain-reducing qualities of morphine.

      Tramadol stand apart from other operates for two reasons;

  • Tramadol is a fully synthetic drug, which means that it is man-made and does not occur in nature. This is in contract to morphine and codine-which are natural operates derived from the opium poppy. It also differs from drugs like hydromorphine, hydro codeine, and oxycodone which, whole also semi synthetic and made in a laboratory, still retain some natural qualities.
  • Tramadol has an uncommon, anal- acting benefit. Tramadol works as an opiate in the expected way to manage the perception of pain, but be young that, it allows increase availability of two other neuro transmitter chemical in the brain called norepinephrine and Serotonin-Norepinephrine is note for its ability to improve concentration, and serotonin manges an array of function including sleep and mood.

 Comepared to others drugs and medications, tramadol is relatively young. The drugs was created by a German drugs and company that specialize in treating pain in 1962. The medication was tested for 15 years in 1977 under the name tramal. The drugs was a success for the company tramadol is widely prescribe around the world for pain relief .however it was not until 1995 that the drugs become available in the US. Now, the medication is quite popular in America

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME AMPHIPHILIC STYRYL DYES AND THEIR APPLICATION ON WOOL FABRIC

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME AMPHIPHILIC STYRYL DYES AND THEIR APPLICATION ON WOOL FABRIC

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Dyes

A dye is a coloured compound that has affinityand able to be retained on the substrateto which it is applied. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution, and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fibre.Both dyes and pigments appear to be coloured because they selectively absorb some wavelength of visible light. In contrast with a dye, a pigment is generally insoluble in the media in which they are applied. Some dyes can be precipitated with an inert salt to produce a lake pigment, and based on the salt used they could be aluminum lake, calcium lake or barium lake pigments (Zollinger, 2003).

Dyed flax fibre has been found in the Republic of Georgia dated back in a prehistoric cave to 36,000 BC. Archaeological evidence shows that, particularly in India and Phoenicia, dyeing has been widely carried out for 5,000 years. The dyes were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral origin, with none to very little processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from plant kingdom, notably roots, berries, bark, leaves and wood, but a few have ever been used on a commercial scale (Zollinger, 2003). Dyes can be broadly divided into two major types i.e. Natural and Synthetic dyes

1.1.1 Natural Dyes

The majority of natural dyes are from plant sources – roots, berries, bark, leaves wood, fungi and lichens. Throughout history, people have dyed their textiles using common, locally available materials. Scarce dyestuffs that produced brilliant and permanent colours such as the natural dye tyrian purple and crimson kermes were highly prized luxury items inthe ancient world. Plant-based dyes such as woad, indigo, saffron and madder were produced using resist dyeing techniques to control the absorption of colour in piece-dyed cloth. Dyes such as cochineal and logwood were introduced in Europe by the Spanish treasure fleets, and the dyestuffs of Europe were carried by colonists to America (Zollinger,2003).

The use of natural dyes in textile application is gaining popularity because of the quality of the natural colour obtained as well as the environmental compatibility of the dyes. In addition, natural dyes can exhibit antimicrobial and deodorant properties. Nevertheless their inferior fastness compared to synthetic dyes is a deterrent to their use as there is difficulty in extracting and storing the colourant (Deo and Dasa, 1999). The discovery of man-made synthetic dyes late in the 19th century ended the large-scale market for natural dyes.

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SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME AMPHIPHILIC STYRYL DYES AND THEIR APPLICATION ON WOOL  FABRIC

 

REMOVAL OF SOME HEAVY METALS FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS USING TWO COMPLEXING AGENTS

REMOVAL OF SOME HEAVY METALS FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS USING TWO COMPLEXING AGENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Industrial development and urbanization have led to increase in the amount of solid wastes frequently discharged into the natural environment. This has increased the amount of many chemical substances in the environment. The chemical substances which are of great environmental interest are the heavy metals. Heavy metals are of special interest because of the major risks they contribute to the environment. They are toxic to humans as well as other organisms; they are released by metal-bearing soil constituents and migrate through the soil solution downward to the water table (Van Oort et al., 2006; Shina and Alok, 2010). The contamination by these metals is a threat to the quality of groundwater, if these metals are not properly treated. Unlike organic compounds that can be biodegraded with time or can be incinerated, metals are robust and remain a potential threat to the environment and human health for a long time (Hong et al., 2002). Soil and sediments are rich in these heavy metals since they are not subject to degradation phenomena. They can easily be suspended or dissolved by surface water, hence become available to plankton, nekton and deposit feeders. The consequence of this is that, they can enter the food chain and become concentrated in fish and other edible organisms (Di Palma and Mecozzi, 2007).

The environmental impact of soil contamination depends not only on the total amount of metals in the soil but mainly on their mobility and availability. This is influenced by leaching and interactions with other components of the ecosystem such as air and water. Soil washing remediation technology is used to remove undesirable contaminants in soil and sediments by dissolving or suspending them in a washing solution (Freeman and Harris, 1995; Moutsatsou et al., 2006; Weihua et al., 2010), and also by concentrating contaminants in small volume of soil through particle size separation (Detzner et al., 1998; McCready et al., 2003). This is based on findings that contaminants tend to bind either physically or chemically to clay, silt or organic soil particles.

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REMOVAL OF SOME HEAVY METALS FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS USING TWO COMPLEXING AGENTS

QUANTUM MODELING OF SOME POTENT NON-TOXIC ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS COMPOUNDS

QUANTUM MODELING OF SOME POTENT NON-TOXIC ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS COMPOUNDS

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Despite the fact that tuberculosis (TB) has been recognized for thousands of years and despite the fact that the etiological agent has been identified since earliest days of medical biology, the global burden of TB continues to loom as one of the largest among infectious diseases, with an enormous toll in morbidity and mortality (Leonard and Rachael,2009).This disease which is caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isthe leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, after the human immuno deficiency virus (HIV) (WHO, 2013). Currently, one-third of the world harbors the latent form of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with a lifelong risk of activation and disease development, particularly in people co-infected with HIV (Anil et al., 2011). The World Health Organization (2014) reported 1.5 million deaths from tuberculosis globally in 2013 andout of this number, 360,000 were HIV-positive. Ironically, available therapeutic agents are highly efficacious in TB treatment, withcure exceeding 95% during clinical trials (Frieden, 2003). The natural question is; why then has the control of TB been so problematic?

The answer lies in the indolent clinical nature of the disease, whichneeds prolonged complex therapy and the unusual microbiological properties of the pathogen(Leonard and Rachael, 2009). The actual drug therapy for tuberculosis involves the administration of multiple drugs because it was clear that monotherapy led to the development of resistance (Barry and Blanchard, 2010).The current short-course TB therapy used to treat drug-susceptible MTB consists of months of treatment with four so-called first-line drugs including rifampin (RIF), isoniazid (INH),pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol (EMB), followed by 4- months treatment with RIFand INH (Sunduru et al.,2010). Infection by multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MTR-TB) strains requires treatment with second-line drugs such askanamycin, amikacin, capreomycin,p-aminosalicylate (PAS), fluoroquinolones(levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin), ethionamide (ETH), and cycloserine wheretreatments often extend for up to long 2 years (Janin, 2007). This Chemotherapy is less effective, longer, expensive and more toxic than the short course therapy (Ma et al., 2010). Third line drugs include rifabutin, macrolides (clarithromicin), linezolid, thiacetazone, thioridazine, arginine, vitamin D are still being developed, have less or unproven efficacy and are very expensive (Lalloo and Ambaram, 2010).

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QUANTUM MODELING OF SOME POTENT NON-TOXIC ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS COMPOUND

KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF THE REDOX REACTIONS OF 2,6-DICHLOROPHENOL INDOPHENOL WITH OXYANIONS, HYDRAZINE AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF THE REDOX REACTIONS OF 2,6-DICHLOROPHENOL INDOPHENOL WITH OXYANIONS, HYDRAZINE AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Inorganic chemistry is the chemistry of all elements in the periodic table and the compounds they form based on the concept of structure, bonding and reactivity (Cox, 2004). Areas of research in inorganic chemistry includes organometallic chemistry, synthetic inorganic chemistry, cluster chemistry, bioinorganic chemistry, industrial chemistry, kinetic and mechanistic inorganic chemistry (Miessler and Tarr, 2003).

In the last few decades, studies of electron transfer reaction in inorganic chemistry have developed tremendously both theoretically and experimentally as witnessed by large number of research articles (Gennady et al., 2013). In chemical system, mechanism of electron transfer gives kinetic explanation of elementary steps by which the overall chemical reaction change occurs (Espenson, 2002). The mechanisms of such reactions have been generally grouped as either the inner-sphere mechanism; that involve formation of bridging ligand between the reacting species centre prior to electron transfer or the outer-sphere mechanism; that involve direct transfer of electron between reacting species without change in the coordination sphere of the species (Jagannadham, 2012).

2,6-Dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) with a molecular formular of C12H7Cl2NO2 is a quinone imine dye that can be synthesized as a dark green powder, stable, odourless and freely soluble in water (Cabello et al., 2009). Several kinetic process for its oxidation have been used for the determination of chemical reductants in food, as biological sample for making microscopic object more clearly visible than they would be when unstained and in pharmaceutical industries because of it chemical stability, systemic deliverability and membrane permeability (Cabello et al., 2009).

Metabisulphite ion (S2O52-) is an inorganic compound with a wide range of application. It is a good reducing agent used as antioxidant, antimicrobial agent in variety of foods and drugs, antichloride and as sulphonating agent (Quanxi et al., 2015; Ivana et al., 2011), it is also used in wine and beer making to inhibit the growth of wild yeasts, bacteria and fungi (Miline, 2005).

Sulphite ion (SO32-) is an inorganic compound that has a powerful reducing ability. Its sulphur atom is double-bonded to one oxygen atom and single-bonded to two other oxygen atoms that carries a formal charge of -1, together accounting for the -2 charge on the ion. It has a resonance equivalent structure due to the resonance hybrid involving pπ-pπ S-O bonding (Catherine and Alan, 2008). It is used in pharmaceutical industries, paper industries, textile industries, as oxygen scavenger in water treatment and also as preservative additive in food (Hassan and Neil, 2012).

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KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF THE REDOX REACTIONS OF 2,6-DICHLOROPHENOL INDOPHENOL WITH OXYANIONS, HYDRAZINE AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF THE OXIDATION OF AMINOCARBOXYLATOCOBALTATE(II) COMPLEXES BY HYPOCHLORITE AND SILVER-CATALYSED PERSULPHATE IONS IN AQUEOUS ACIDIC MEDIUM

KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF THE OXIDATION OF AMINOCARBOXYLATOCOBALTATE(II) COMPLEXES BY HYPOCHLORITE AND SILVER-CATALYSED PERSULPHATE IONS IN AQUEOUS ACIDIC MEDIUM

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Electron transfer (ET) reaction is simply the transfer of electrons between two species like ions, molecules, biological systems etc. The reaction usually involves rearrangement and transfer of outermost shell electrons of reacting species in order to gain stability. Thus, oxidation is the loss of electrons while reduction is the gain of electrons (Wong et al., 2002). Many reactions in inorganic and biological systems involve transfer of electron, thus, electron transfer reaction plays a key role to various physical and biological systems (Onu et al., 2008, 2009, 2015 and 2016; François and Jamal, 2016; Idris et al., 2015; Ilbert and Bonnefoy, 2013; Xie et al., 2012; Xiang-Rong and Xiang-Zhong 2010; Naik et al., 2007 and 2010).

Both Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and dioxygen radical/hydrogen peroxide (O2-./H2O2) are generated in living cell by electron transfer. ATP is the product of oxidative phosphorylation whereas O2-. is generated by singlet electron reduction of dioxygen, O2 which is reduced by superoxide dismutase, SOD to H2O2 (Mailloux, 2015). Importantly, the controlled production of O2-./H2O2 is required for intrinsic mitochondria signaling (e.g. Modulation of mitochondria processes) and communication with the rest of the cell. This can be checked by understanding the effect of various parametres on the reaction. Moreover, the damaging effect of oxygen towards anaerobic organism is associated with its free radical properties (Ilbert and Bonnefoy, 2013). One of the promising areas that explains the effect of various parametres on this electron transfer reaction is chemical kinetics.

Chemical kinetics also known as reaction kinetics is the area of Chemistry concerned with reaction rates, factors affecting the rates and sequence of steps (mechanistic pathways) by which reactions occur (McMurry and Fay, 2008). The two well established general mechanisms of electron transfer reactions are the outer-sphere and the inner-sphere mechanisms (Cox, 2004). In the outer-sphere mechanism, no substitution of the ligands into the inner coordination spheres of either reactant is needed for electron transfer to take place (Housecroft and Sharpe, 2008). On the other hand, the inner-sphere mechanism involves distortion of the inner-coordination sphere of reactants with the formation of a bridged activated intermediate prior to electron transfer (Jagannadham, 2012).

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KINETICS AND MECHANISMS OF THE OXIDATION OF AMINOCARBOXYLATOCOBALTATE(II) COMPLEXES BY HYPOCHLORITE AND SILVER-CATALYSED PERSULPHATE IONS IN AQUEOUS ACIDIC MEDIUM

IN VITRO PREPARATIONS AND STUDIES ON THE SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM AND LEAD IONS ON BIOMIMETIC HYDROXYAPATITE NANOCRYSTALS

IN VITRO PREPARATIONS AND STUDIES ON THE SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM AND LEAD IONS ON BIOMIMETIC HYDROXYAPATITE NANOCRYSTALS

 

ABSTRACT

The hydrothermal and wet precipitation methods are successful routes to synthesize high purity hydroxyapatite (HA) as well as Cadmium and Lead doped hydroxyapatites at physiological conditions.

In this research, Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and NH4H2PO4 were chosen as the precursor materials used to synthesize HA. HA was first synthesized via optimization of the wet precipitation method under vigorous stirring using various precursor concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0M. The prepared HA powders were calcined at different temperatures of 300, 500, 800 and 1100oC for 3 hours and were characterized using XRF/EDX, FTIR and XRD. The FTIR bands were distinct, narrower with increased intensities when the precursor concentration and calcination temperature increases. XRF/EDX indicates an increase in Ca/P ratio as calcination temperature increased from 300°C to 500°C and at a particular calcination temperature, an increase in precursor concentration showed an irregular increase in the Ca/P ratio, an indication of a weak effect of precursor concentration on Ca/P ratio. XRD showed that as the precursor concentration is increased, with respect to the calcination temperature, peak intensities increased.

These observations of peak intensities and degree of crystallinity are reflected with a corresponding increase in crystallite size (D) with increase in both the precursor concentration and calcination temperature. The result showed that the HA particles were all in nano regime for all the precursor concentrations, although, the 0.5M precursor concentration and calcination temperature of 300oC gave the HA with greater similarity to the natural bone apatite as regards the Ca/P ratio. Based on the optimum conditions (0.5M and 300 oC) investigated at the first stage of the synthesis, further synthesis was carried out using the wet precipitation and hydrothermal methods at physiological conditions of pH and temperature (7.4 and 37 oC). The as-prepared powders were characterized via XRF/EDX, FTIR, XRD, SEM, PSA, BET, TEM and TG/DTA. The result obtained indicated particle nano-size particle with sizes of 26 nm ± 5% and 29 nm ± 5% respectively for the wet precipitation and hydrothermal methods and these were found to be thermally stable up to 1200oC. SEM images showed a non-uniform particle with various degrees of agglomeration that were observed to be highest for the hydrothermally prepared HA compared to the wet precipitated HA

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IN VITRO PREPARATIONS AND STUDIES ON THE SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM AND LEAD IONS ON BIOMIMETIC HYDROXYAPATITE NANOCRYSTALS

DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN DUMPSITE SOIL AND Abelmochus esculentus FRUIT GROWN NEAR DUMPSITES IN

DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN DUMPSITE SOIL AND Abelmochus esculentus FRUIT GROWN NEAR DUMPSITES IN

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0         INTRODUCTION

1.1         Heavy Metal Pollution

Pollution is the cause of many diseases, which affect not only the old but also the young, the energetic likewise animals and plants (Kanmony, 2009). Pollution is a worldwide problem and its potential in influencing the health of human population is great (Khan and Ghouri, 2011). The impact of pollution on overcrowded cities as a result of industrial effluents and automobile discharge has reached a disturbing magnitude and is arousing public awareness (Begum et al., 2009). Excessive levels of pollution has caused a lot of damage to human and animal health, also to plants including the tropical rain forests as well as the wider environment (Khan and Ghouri, 2011). Pollution and subsequent contamination of the environment by toxic heavy metals are of great concern due to their sources, widespread distribution and multiple effect in the ecosystem.

Heavy metals are elements of high molecular masses, most of which belong to the transition elements (Silberberg, 2000). Studies have shown that soils of refuse dumpsite contain different kinds and concentrations of heavy metals (Odukoya etal., 2000). In recent times, it has been reported that these elements accumulate and persist in soils at an environmentally hazardous levels (Alloway, 1996) Heavy metal concentration in soil is associated with biological and geochemical cycles and are related to actions such as agricultural practices, industrial activities and waste disposal methods (Eja etal., 2003). The knowledge of heavy metal accumulation in soils, the origin of these metals and their possible interactions with soil properties are a priority in many environmental monitoring (Qishlaqi and Moore, 2007).

The most common environmental pollutants in the world are heavy metals (Papatilippaki etal., 2008). The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils is of increasing concern due to food safety issues and potential health risks, as well as its detrimental effects on soil ecosystems (Qishlaqi and Moore, 2007). The presence of heavy metals at trace level and essential elements at elevated concentration do cause toxic effects if exposed to human population (Fong et al., 2008).

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DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN DUMPSITE SOIL AND Abelmochus esculentus FRUIT GROWN NEAR DUMPSITES IN

DETERMINATION OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ELEMENTS, HEAVY METAL LEVELS AND MICROBIAL QUALITY OF KILISHI FROM SELECTED AREAS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

DETERMINATION OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ELEMENTS, HEAVY METAL LEVELS AND MICROBIAL QUALITY OF KILISHI FROM SELECTED AREAS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

I.0          INTRODUCTION

I.1          Background

Meat and meat products are important for human diet because they provide the needed proteins, minerals and trace elements. Meat and meat products are extremely perishable mainly because preservation app.liances are hard to come by and where they are available, erratic power supply in the country is a main problem. Many methods of preserving meat have been used throughout history such as the use of high temperature (e.g. canning), low temperature (e.g. chilling), freezing and pasteurization, drying (e.g. hot air drying, wind and sun drying), smoking, use of radiation and the use of chemical preservatives (Alonge and Hiko, 1981).

As a means of preserving meat, the early Fulani and Hausa herdsmen of Northern Nigeria and the Sahelian Africa have introduced Kilishi (Alonge and Hiko, 1981). The use of seasonings such as salt, spices, herbs and fermented sauces had been employed to enhance the acceptability of traditionally processed meat product like Kilishi. Study has revealed that Kilishi has a shelf life of 12 months at room temperature (Igene et al., 1990).

The pollution of the environment with heavy metals has become a worldwide problem and of scientific concern because the metals are indigestible and most of them have toxic effects, which constitute a potential danger to humanity (Khan et al., 1996). Heavy metal pollution is a serious threat to the high demand of Kilishi because of the toxic effect which they impact in the Kilishi, bioaccumulation and biomagnifications in the food chain (Demirezen and Uruc, 2006). In addition, the microbiological pollutants acquired through the food chain of Kilishi products poses serious danger of diseases to humans. Toxicity is realized when these heavy metal levels are higher than the recommended limit which varies for individual elements in meat and meat products.

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DETERMINATION OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, MINERAL ELEMENTS, HEAVY METAL LEVELS AND MICROBIAL QUALITY OF KILISHI FROM SELECTED AREAS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

DETERMINATION OF IRRADIATED CONTROL ROD WORTH OF NIGERIAN RESEARCH REACTOR – 1 (NIRR – 1) USING THE OPERATIONAL DATA

DETERMINATION OF IRRADIATED CONTROL ROD WORTH OF NIGERIAN RESEARCH REACTOR – 1 (NIRR – 1) USING THE OPERATIONAL DATA

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Introduction

Nuclear reactors are initially loaded with a significantly large amount of fuel than that required to achieve criticality, because the intrinsic multiplication factor of the core will change during operation due to fuel burn-up and fission products. Sufficient excess reactivity is also provided to compensate for negative reactivity feedback effects due to temperature and power defects reactivity (Dudersadt, 1976). Therefore the core loading or enrichment will be determined by the desire to build into the core enough excess reactivity to allow power operation for a predetermined period of time.

The basic purpose of the reactor control system is to provide a means for starting the reactor, that is, bringing the power output up to the desired level, for maintaining it at that level, and for shutting it down in the course of routine operations. As an adjunct to the control system, a power reactor has a protection system designed to shut the reactor down automatically in the event that potentially unsafe conditions should arise. Safety rods was also designed and proposed for MNSR facilities (Ibrahim et al, 2012). An essential requirement of the control system is that it must be capable of introducing enough negative reactivity to compensate for the built-in (positive) reactivity at initial startup of the reactor (Glasstone and Sesonke, 1967)

The power level of the reactor depends on the macroscopic fission cross-section and the neutron flux. Over a short time interval, the cross section remains essentially constant, although it may not have the same value at all locations in the core. Hence, the power level at any instant can be considered proportional to the neutron flux. Four general methods are possible for changing the neutron flux in a reactor: they involve temporary addition or removal of (1) fuel, moderator, (3) reflector, or (4) a neutron absorber (poison).

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DETERMINATION OF IRRADIATED CONTROL ROD WORTH OF NIGERIAN RESEARCH REACTOR – 1 (NIRR – 1) USING THE OPERATIONAL DATA

ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF SOAPS PRODUCED FROM BLENDS OF Butyrospermum parkii FRUIT OIL (SHEA BUTTER), Sesamum indicum (SESAME) SEED OIL AND TALLOW

ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF SOAPS PRODUCED FROM BLENDS OF Butyrospermum parkii FRUIT OIL (SHEA BUTTER), Sesamum indicum (SESAME) SEED OIL AND TALLOW

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0: INTRODUCTION

Soap may be defined as a chemical compound or mixture of chemical compounds resulting from the interaction of fatty acids or fatty glycerides with a metal radical or organic base (Kirk-Othman, 1963). Soaps are mainly used as surfactants for washing, bathing, and cleaning, but they are also used in textile spinning and are important components of lubricants. Soaps for cleansing are obtained by treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strongly alkaline solution. Fats and oils are composed of triglycerides; three molecules of fatty acids are attached to a single molecule of glycerol (Cavitch and Miller, 1994).

The alkaline solution, which is often called lye (although the term “lye soap” refers almost exclusively to soaps made with sodium hydroxide), brings about a chemical reaction known as saponification. The metals commonly used in soap making are sodium and potassium, which produce water-soluble soaps that are used for laundry and cleaning purposes (Kuntom et al., 1994). The qualities of soap are usually determined by the amount and composition of the component fatty acids in the starting oil.

Blends of oils can be used in both the hot and cold soap production methods. Vegetable oil blends could be obtained by mixing different vegetable oils such as the mixture of coconut oil, palm kernel oil, groundnut oil and shea butter in different proportions (Kuntom et al., 1996) and soaps of desirable quality can be produced by blending butyrospermum parkii fruit oil, tallow and sesamum indicum seed oil. The quality of soap produced is usually comparable to the quality of commercially available soaps. This research work involves using various blends of Butyrospermum parkii fruit oil, tallow and Sesamum indicum seed oil for the production of various soaps reported.

 

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ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF SOAPS PRODUCED FROM BLENDS OF Butyrospermum parkii FRUIT OIL (SHEA BUTTER), Sesamum indicum (SESAME) SEED OIL AND TALLOW

ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY AND STABILITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CONOIDES MILLER AND LONGUM NIGRUM (CAPSICUM ANNUUM).

ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY AND STABILITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CONOIDES MILLER AND LONGUM NIGRUM (CAPSICUM ANNUUM).

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1  Food Additives

Food additives are substances usually added to foods in small quantities during the process of production, storage and/or packaging in order to improve the appearance, texture, taste, colour, smell, durability, or nutritional value (FI, 2010). In the United States, colours added to foods are referred to as food additives under the 1958 Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act and are defined as ―any dye, pigment or substance which imparts color when added or applied to a food, drug or cosmetic, or to the human body‖ (USFDCA 2014). Consumers naturally enjoy bright colours in food because, as the saying goes, people ―taste‖ first with their eyes, then their mouths (Chaitanya, 2014; Matulka and Tardy, 2014).

Colour is one of the most important sensory qualities as it helps us to accept or reject particular food items. It is used as a measure of the quality and nutrient content of foods (Chaitanya, 2014). Colour is important in consumer perception of food and it is often associated with a specific flavour and intensity of flavour (Abdeldaiem, 2014). People often associate certain colours with certain flavours, and the colour of food can influence the perceived flavour in anything from candy to wine (Jeannine, 2003). It is very unfortunate that most manufacturing process in food processing decreases the inherent colour(s) contained in food. For instance, the simple act of heating can destroy pigment molecules like anthocyanins that provide the attractive bright red and blue shades in fruits and berries (Laleh et al., 2006).

Food colour is an additive in the form of any dye, pigment or any substance that is used to give  foodstuff  a  more  attractive  look  or  impart colour.  They  come  in  numerous  forms consisting of liquids, powders, gels  and pastes.  Some are natural colours, but  most are artificial  and  may  have  toxic  properties  (Abdeldaiem,  2014;  Eissa  et  al.,  2014).

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ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY AND STABILITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CONOIDES MILLER AND LONGUM NIGRUM (CAPSICUM ANNUUM).

ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION STATUS IN ASHA AND SABOEREGI MINING AREAS OF NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION STATUS IN ASHA AND SABOEREGI MINING AREAS OF NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

 

Abstract

This research work investigated the water and soil pollution status of Asha and Saboeregi mining areas of Niger State using standard analytical methods. The physico-chemical parameters of water (pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, dis-solved oxygen, chloride, alkalinity, sulphide, colour, suspended solid, total solid, bio-chemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate and phosphate) as well as soil (pH, organic carbon, organic matter, available phosphorus, cation exchange capacity, sand, silt and clay) were determined. The water, soils and Sorghum bicolor grains were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer to determine the concentrations of Au, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn. Statistical analysis on the results were carried out using One –way analysis of variance (ANOVA).

The results indicated that of the fifteen physical and chemical properties of waters from Rivers Gbako and Tangale studied, seven of the properties (turbidity, alkalinity, sulphide,, colour, suspended solid, nitrate and phosphate) exceeded the acceptable World Health Organisation (WHO) standard limits for surface waters while four of these properties (total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity, chloride and biochemical oxygen demand) were found to be below the acceptable WHO standard limits for surface waters and the remaining three properties (pH, dissolved oxygen and chemical oxygen demand) were within the acceptable WHO standard limits for surface waters during the period of study.

The distribution of heavy metals in surface water of Rivers Gbako and Tangale indicates that anthropogenic activity was an important factor contributing to increased metals (Au, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) concentration in the water. The metal concentrations were higher than the values obtained for control sites except for Cd and Pb. The metal concentrations were also higher than the recommended limits given by Joint Food Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). The soils at Asha mining site were sandy loam while those of Saboeregi were sandy clay loam in texture and showed Saboeregi soils had better structural stability, water holding capacity and high nutrient. The concentrations of the metals (Au, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) in the soils from the mining sites were higher than the corresponding values from the control sites, and also higher than the recommended limits given by Joint FoodOrganization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO).

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ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION STATUS IN ASHA AND SABOEREGI MINING AREAS OF NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

RENAL PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GINGER ON WISTAR ALBINO RAT FED WITH DRINKING WATER CONTAINING NITRATE

RENAL PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GINGER ON WISTAR ALBINO RAT FED WITH DRINKING WATER CONTAINING NITRATE

ABSTRACT

This work is to check for the renal protective effect of ginger on rats which were given nitrate-treated drinking water. 21 wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (A, B, C, D). Group A which contains 5 rats served as the control group. They were fed with normal feed and normal drinking water. Group B (made up of 6 rats) were fed with feed formulated with 2.4g of ginger and water treated with 400mg/l of NaNo3. Group C (containing 5 rats) were fed with normal feed and water treated with 400mg/l of NaNO3. Group D (containing 5 rats) were fed with feed formulated with 2.4g of ginger and 2% ascorbic acid, and water treated with 400mg/l of NaNo3. Kidney function tests-urea and creatinine, were carried out on the blood samples of all the 4 groups. The results of the analysis were as follows: urea level; for group A (control) = 4.42mmol/l; group B (nitrate + ginger) = 6.03mmol/l, group C (nitrate only) = 5.36mmol/l, group D (nitrate + ascorbic acid = 6.06mmol/l. creatinine level; group A (control) = 96µmol/l, group B = 106.33µmol/l, group C = 105.4µmol/l, group D = 92.2µmol/l. Using creatinine which is strong biomarker for kidney dysfunction, there was no significant difference between the normal control and the treatment groups (p>0.05). So 400mg/l level of nitrate administered to the rats did not have significant adverse effect on them and the 2% ginger helped in the proper functioning of the kidney as shown in their increased final weights.

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RENAL PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GINGER ON WISTAR ALBINO RAT FED WITH DRINKING WATER CONTAINING NITRATE=

IOREMEDIATION OF OIL-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING EMULSIFIER (LIQUID SOAP), NPK FERTILIZER AND MICROBIAL (BACILLUS SP) TREATMENT

IOREMEDIATION OF OIL-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING EMULSIFIER (LIQUID SOAP), NPK FERTILIZER AND MICROBIAL (BACILLUS SP) TREATMENT

Abstract

Two different set of soil samples were collected near Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company Limited (KRPC), a Subsidiary of Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) Kaduna. The first set of samples labelled (D) was obtained from areas where diesel from the refinery spilled into the environment and the second set of samples labelled (P) was collected from areas where petrol leaked and spilled into the environment. The pH of the soil was found to be 5.9 and 6.2 for D and P samples respectively. The cation exchange capacity (CEC) was higher in sample P than in sample D (32.0 and 30.0 mmol/kg of soil respectively). P has high concentrations of cations ( Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ with concentration values 3.6, 1.17, 0.50 and 0.22 mol/kg respectively) because of its high CEC while sample D with a lower CEC has a lower concentration of cation (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ with concentration values 1.20, 0.27, 0.25 and 0.17 mol/kg respectively). The oil (contaminant) was extracted in dichloromethane and a GC-MS analysis was run to determine the nature (composition) of the oil and the concentration of the contaminant was determined using gravimetric method. Results revealed that the total concentration of the contaminant (oil) before treatment was 398 g/kg and 194 g/kg for sample D and P respectively. The GC-MS results obtained showed that in both samples (D and P) linear and branched alkanes(n-Tetratetracontane, 3,6-Dimethyldecane, n-Pentadecane, 2-Bromodecane, n-Heptadecane etc. and n-Tetradecane, 2-Bromododecane, n-Octadecane, 14-Methyl-8-hexadecenal etc. respectively) were the main contaminants. Bioremediation was initiated and examined by applying separately fertilizer (F), bacteria inoculation (B), emulsifier (E) on the contaminated soil and by combining bacteria inoculation and fertilizer (B and F), fertilizer and emulsifier (F and E), bacteria inoculation and emulsifier (B and E) also a combination of bacteria inoculation, emulsifier and fertilizer (B,E and F) on both sample D and P . Bioremediation was determined by weight lost method throughout the 28days of treatment and the trend of degradation is thus: (B, E and F) > B > ( B and E ) > (B and F) > (E and F) > E > F. Results obtained showed that treatment with B,E and F combined together yielded the highest percentage of oil degradation (97%, and 95% for samples P and D respectively), followed by B (96% and 81% for samples D and P respectively). This finding suggests that Bacillus sp is a viable microbial strain for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil when biostimulated by adding fertilizer combined with emulsification (B, E and F). The percentage of oil degraded in sample P and D are almost the same (97 and 95% respectively) and there is significant difference (P < 0.05) in the trend of degradation for D and P this may be because, even though the samples contained oil (contaminant) with almost the same composition but differ in the number of carbon chain and other physical factors like density, viscosity etc.

 

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IOREMEDIATION OF OIL-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING EMULSIFIER (LIQUID SOAP), NPK FERTILIZER AND MICROBIAL (BACILLUS SP) TREATMENT

CHEMISTRY AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ANALGESICS

CHEMISTRY AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ANALGESICS

ABSTRACT

This work, Chemistry and Therapeutic Effects of Analgesics is an effort to bring together various works which has been done about drugs with analgesic properties, comparison of their effectiveness to pain management and the chemistry associated to pain. It also seeks to bring to the interest of a chemist, the import of application of a specialize knowledge such as chemistry to preparing selected analgesics, showing latent potency of chemical knowledge in solving the problem of various types of pain, with relatively less cost. The effectiveness of analgesics cannot be over-emphasized; hence this work to an extent reveals the broad world of analgesic and enclosed it with such truth as how it’s been chemistry all along even to the therapeutic nature of these analgesics.

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CHEMISTRY AND THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF ANALGESICS

EFFECTS OF ROOFING SHEETS ON HARVESTED WATER RUN OFF

EFFECTS OF ROOFING SHEETS ON HARVESTED WATER RUN OFF

ABSTRACT

Harvested water run-off from five different houses with stone coated roof were sampled in Ichida, Anambra state for the effect of the roof on the harvested water. The pH and metal content of the harvested water run-off were analyzed. The result of the analysis where compared with the World Health Organization standard. The results showed that the pH ranged from 6.4 – 7.2 and the concentration of the heavy metals for lead range from 0.143 –­­ 0.244, for copper 0.011– 0.066, for aluminum range from 0.00 – 0.085, for silicon range from 0.0191 – 0.748, for iron rage from 0.033 – 0.122, for zinc range from 0.323 – 0.665 and for chromium range from 0.108 – 0.213. it was observed that all the lead, silicon content of all the 5 houses and aluminum content of house 2 and 5 were above the WHO standard, whereas others were all below the WHO standard. Harvested water run- off is hazardous to health

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EFFECTS OF ROOFING SHEETS ON HARVESTED WATER RUN OFF

EXTRACTION OF LOIGNIN FROM COCOA POD HUSK THEOBROMA CACAO)

EXTRACTION OF LOIGNIN FROM COCOA POD HUSK THEOBROMA CACAO)

ABSTRACT

Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) fruits are important commodity of economic value since the seeds or beans is used to produce high demand products such as cocoa powder, butter and chocolate. The processing of cocoa fruits generates a large amount of cocoa pod husk discard as wastes (Alemawor et al., 2009). Cocoa pod husk represents between 70 to 75% of the whole cocoa fruit weight where each ton of cocoa fruit will produce between 700 to 750 kg of cocoa pod husks (Cruz et al., 2012). In Malaysia, the plantation of cocoa is over 20,643 hectre (Malaysia Koko Board, 2011). Hence, it can be estimated at least 320,000 kg of cocoa pod husk is generated after processing. Conventionally, these organic wastes is shipped away for processing or disposed to landfill. These large quantities of cocoa pod husk could yield a large quantity of fibrous materials which might be suitable as alternative resources especially in pulp and paper making industries

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EXTRACTION OF LOIGNIN FROM COCOA POD HUSK THEOBROMA CACAO)