CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION ON RURAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME(A CASE STUDY OF AKAMPA CROSS RIVER STATE)

CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION ON RURAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME(A CASE STUDY OF AKAMPA CROSS RIVER STATE)

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include  conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss and aridity. It has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial agriculture is responsible for 32% of deforestation; logging is responsible for 14% of deforestation and fuel wood removals make up 5% of deforestation. Other causes of contemporary deforestation may include corruption of government institutions, the inequitable distribution of wealth and power, population growth and overpopulation, and urbanization. Globalization is oen viewed as another root cause of deforestation, though there are cases in
which the impacts of globalization (new flows of labor, capital, commodities, and ideas) have promoted localized forest recovery. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is oen cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse eect. Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. In deforested areas, the land heats up faster and reaches a higher temperature, leading to localized upward motions that enhance the formation of clouds and ultimately produce more rainfall. The water cycle is also affected by deforestation. Trees extract groundwater through their roots and release it into the atmosphere. When part of a forest is removed, the trees no longer transpire this water, resulting in a much drier climate. Deforestation reduces the content of water in the soil and groundwater as well as atmospheric moisture. The dry soil leads to lower water intake for the trees to extract. Deforestation reduces soil cohesion, so that erosion, flooding and landslides ensue.

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Forests cover almost a third of the earth’s land surface providing many environmental benefits including a major role in the hydrologic cycle, soil conservation, prevention of climate change and preservation of biodiversity (Sheram, 1993). Forest resources can provide long-term national economic benefits. For example, at least 145 countries of the world are currently involved in wood production (Anon., 1994). Sufficient evidence is available that the whole world is facing an environmental crisis on account of heavy deforestation. For years remorseless destruction of forests has been going on and we have not been able to comprehend the dimension until recently. Nobody knows exactly how much of the world’s rain forests have already been destroyed and continue to be razed each year. Data is oen imprecise and subject to diering
interpretations. However, it is obvious that the area of tropical rain forest is diminishing as observed in the case of Odighi forest in Odighi Local government area of Edo State and the rate of tropical rain forest destruction is escalating worldwide, despite increased environmental activism and awareness. Deforestation is the conversion of forest to an alternative permanent non-forested land use such as agriculture, grazing or urban development (van Kooten et al, 2000). Deforestation is primarily a concern for the developing countries of the tropics (Myers, 1994) as it is shrinking areas of the tropical forests (Barraclough et al,
2000) causing loss of biodiversity and enhancing the greenhouse eect (Angelsen et al., 1999). FAO considers a plantation of trees established primarily for timber production to be forest and therefore does not classify natural forest conversion to plantation as deforestation (but still records it as a loss of natural forests). However, FAO does not consider tree plantations that provide non-timber products to be forest although they do classify rubber plantations as forest. Forest degradation occurs when the ecosystem functions of the forest are degraded but where the area remains forested rather cleared (Anon., 2010).
Thirty per cent of the earth’s land area or about 3.9 billion hectares is covered by forests. It was estimated that the original forest cover was approximately six billion hectares (Bryant etal., 1997). The Russian Federation, Brazil, Canada, the United States of America and China were the most forest rich countries
accounting to 53 per cent of the total forest area of the globe. Another 64 countries having a combined population of two billions was reported tohave forest on less than ten per cent of their total land area and unfortunately ten of these countries have no forest at all. Among these countries 16 are such which had
relatively substantial forest areas of more 1than one million hectares each and three of these countries namely Chad, the Islamic Republic of Iran and Mongolia each had more than ten million hectares of forest. The forest area remained fairly stable in North and Central America while it expanded in Europe
during the past decade. Asian continent especially in India and China due to their large scale aorestation
programme in the last decade registered a net gain in forest area. Conversely the South America, Africa and Oceania had registered the net annual loss of forest area (Anon., 2010).

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
There is enough evidence that the whole world is facing an environmental crisis on account of heavy deforestation. For several years, there has been remorseless of destruction which must be put under control to avoid some bad consequences associated with deforestation. Nobody knows exactly how
much of the world’s rainforests have already been destroyed and continue to be razed each year. Data is oen
imprecise and subject to diering interpretations. However, this research work will focus on the consequences of deforestation on the rural house hold income especially as observed in Odighi
in Edo State.

AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to determine the causes and consequences of deforestation in Odighi and the following objectives are stated for this research study:
1. To find out the causes of deforestation in OdighiEdo State
2. To find out the consequences of deforestation on rural house hold income in OdighiEdo State.
3. To determine the strategies for reducing deforestation.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the causes of deforestation in OdighiEdo State?
2. What are the consequences of deforestation on rural household income in OdighiEdo State
3. What are the strategies for reducing deforestation?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research are:
1. To provide solutions which can assist educators, general public and the government on the causes and consequences of deforestation thereby raising an awareness about unwanted outcomes of deforestation.
2. Findings from this research work will also ascertain the extent of deforestation in OdighiEdo State
This research work will help to improve the existing literatures on deforestation thereby contributing to the body of knowledge.

 

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CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION ON RURAL HOUSEHOLD INCOME(A CASE STUDY OF AKAMPA CROSS RIVER STATE)

THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OKWANGWO RANGE OF CROSS RIVER NATIONAL PARK

THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OKWANGWO RANGE OF CROSS RIVER NATIONAL PARK

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Wildlife conservation is to prevent individual species of wild animals, or sometimes whole communities from becoming extinct either regionally or globally. Nigeria is blessed with a rich and unique array of ecosystems and great variety of wildlife, but the conservation of these resources remains precarious. The
National Parks developed and managed by the Federal Government under the exclusive legislative list, are to enhance the protection of endangered species, promote scientific research, encourage educational knowledge and promote ecotourism. The enforcement of conservation by national parks in Nigeria has yielded limited results. Beyond the establishment of reserves, parks and sanctuaries to protect landscapes, game, fauna, flora cultural and scientific sites, no concrete eorts have been put in place check the current and increasing challenge of land and resource alienation of indigenous population. This neglect threatens the objective of conservation and integrity of protected areas. To check this looming threat, the Federal government should move beyond fortress conservation to practice conservation with rural development. This involves the recognition of indigenous historical rights over protected areas and collaboration with locals to manage national parks found within underdeveloped communities. Within protected areas, economic growth and development is rudimentary. To achieve harmony in nature and society, the state should adopt and expand conservation with development. Park partnership or collaboration should involve provision of non-agro forestry livelihood alternatives to reduce local dependence on the forest. The provision of funds by the state and international organizations to retrain locals on sustainable agriculture, social development in areas such as spatial development, education, health care delivery, will encourage local communities to co-operate with the park by providing skilled, semi-skilled security labour within protected areas. Non-Governmental organizations are largely or totally independent of government, and they exist for a variety of reasons, usually to further the political or social goals of their members or funders. They function as charitable or religious associations, mobilize private funds for development initiatives and
programmes, raise awareness and influence policies in pursuance of the ideals of democracy, good governance as well as undertake diverse humanitarian projects that could better the lots of the grassroots. Examples include improving the state of the national environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. To conserve our forests eectively, there is need for NGOs to study the inherent dependence of the local people on forest resources and then find ways to implement development projects which will deter them from degrading the forests. Information on sustainable forest conservation needs to be disseminated so that the communities will know the state of forest exploitation, the problems and consequences of their actions, and the need to participate in conserving the forest. The most successful conservation project is that which puts conservation and development activities under the control of the local people (1UCN, 2009). Ekum (2006) pointed out that, there is an urgent need for initiating “sustainable livelihood options” that strengthens rural livelihood security through self-identified and community managed projects. This will certainly improve standard of living for present and future generations, economic security, selfimprovement guided by their knowledge and strategies which will lead to sustainable livelihood. Yamamotu (2011) wrote that participatory forest conservation involving NGO’s and community members helps to protect renewable forest resources with proper consideration of the social status of the rural communities or forest dwellers. NGO’s play vital roles in biodiversity conservation particularly in CRNP and their impact on the communities cannot be overemphasized. They help to build harmonious relationship between the natural resources it seeks to conserve and the people who depend directly on these resources for survival. It also tries to integrate conservation with the natural development in order to achieve long term sustainable development of our forests for the benefit of all. The essence of this research is therefore to determine the role of NGO’s in wildlife conservation, using Okwangwo Range of Cross River National Park as a case
study.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The Cross River National Park (CRNP) was established by the Federal Military Government Act of 1991, with the Cross River gorilla chosen as the theme animal. CRNP is a home to valuable flora and fauna species. It has two ranges (Oban and Okwangwo) which are threatened by illegal logging, slash and burn
farming and poaching. The Government tried to stop these forest degrading illegal activities but maximum result was not seen, which is why Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) waded in to assist Government in park conservation. It is believed that NGOs play important roles in the management and conservation of the park to include creation of awareness and enlightenment programs, provisions of funds for park management, provision of skilled personnels to run and monitor the aairs of the park, bringing citizen’s concerns to Government, advocating and monitoring policy programme encouraging participation of civil society and stakeholders in park management. However, agilations from other roles are the provision of basic infractures to local communities to improve on their livelihood, park management and local communities have indicated that the support from these organization are not adequate enough to meet their needs. This position is also held by the management of Okwangwo range of cross river national park. This study is therefore expected to evaluate the role of three of the NGOS operating around the range.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to assess the roles of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in wildlife conservation in Okwangwo Range of Cross River National Park. The specific objectives are as follows:
1. To examine the impact of the NGOs in the management of Okwangwo Range of CRNP
2. To evaluate the level of conservation education programmes organized by NGOs in support zone communities.
3. To assess the impact of NGO programmes on the livelihoods of support zone communities.

 

 

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THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OKWANGWO RANGE OF CROSS RIVER NATIONAL PARK

THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OKWANGWO RANGE OF CROSS RIVER NATIONAL PARK

THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OKWANGWO RANGE OF CROSS RIVER NATIONAL PARK

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Wildlife conservation is to prevent individual species of wild animals, or sometimes whole communities from becoming extinct either regionally or globally. Nigeria is blessed with a rich and unique array of ecosystems and great variety of wildlife, but the conservation of these resources remains precarious. The
National Parks developed and managed by the Federal Government under the exclusive legislative list, are to enhance the protection of endangered species, promote scientific research, encourage educational knowledge and promote ecotourism. The enforcement of conservation by national parks in Nigeria has yielded limited results. Beyond the establishment of reserves, parks and sanctuaries to protect landscapes, game, fauna, flora cultural and scientific sites, no concrete eorts have been put in place check the current and increasing challenge of land and resource alienation of indigenous population. This neglect threatens the objective of conservation and integrity of protected areas. To check this looming threat, the Federal government should move beyond fortress conservation to practice conservation with rural development. This involves the recognition of indigenous historical rights over protected areas and collaboration with locals to manage national parks found within underdeveloped communities. Within protected areas, economic growth and development is rudimentary. To achieve harmony in nature and society, the state should adopt and expand conservation with development. Park partnership or collaboration should involve provision of non-agro forestry livelihood alternatives to reduce local dependence on the forest. The provision of funds by the state and international organizations to retrain locals on sustainable agriculture, social development in areas such as spatial development, education, health care delivery, will encourage local communities to co-operate with the park by providing skilled, semi-skilled security labour within protected areas. Non-Governmental organizations are largely or totally independent of government, and they exist for a variety of reasons, usually to further the political or social goals of their members or funders. They function as charitable or religious associations, mobilize private funds for development initiatives and
programmes, raise awareness and influence policies in pursuance of the ideals of democracy, good governance as well as undertake diverse humanitarian projects that could better the lots of the grassroots. Examples include improving the state of the national environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda.
To conserve our forests eectively, there is need for NGOs to study the inherent dependence of the local people on forest resources and then find ways to implement development projects which will deter them from degrading the forests. Information on sustainable forest conservation needs to be disseminated
so that the communities will know the state of forest exploitation, the problems and consequences of their actions, and the need to participate in conserving the forest. The most successful conservation project is that which puts conservation and development activities under the control of the local people (1UCN,
2009). Ekum (2006) pointed out that, there is an urgent need for initiating “sustainable livelihood options” that strengthens rural livelihood security through self-identified and community managed projects. This will certainly improve standard of living for present and future generations, economic security, selfimprovement guided by their knowledge and strategies which will lead to sustainable livelihood.
Yamamotu (2011) wrote that participatory forest conservation involving NGO’s and community members helps to protect renewable forest resources with proper consideration of the social status of the rural communities or forest dwellers. NGO’s play vital roles in biodiversity conservation particularly in CRNP
and their impact on the communities cannot be overemphasized. They help to build harmonious relationship between the natural resources it seeks to conserve and the people who depend directly on these resources for survival. It also tries to integrate conservation with the natural development in order to
achieve long term sustainable development of our forests for the benefit of all. The essence of this research is therefore to determine the role of NGO’s in wildlife conservation, using Okwangwo Range of Cross River National Park as a case study.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The Cross River National Park (CRNP) was established by the Federal Military Government Act of 1991, with the Cross River gorilla chosen as the theme animal. CRNP is a home to valuable flora and fauna species. It has two ranges (Oban and Okwangwo) which are threatened by illegal logging, slash and burn
farming and poaching. The Government tried to stop these forest degrading illegal activities but maximum result was not seen, which is why Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) waded in to assist Government in park conservation. It is believed that NGOs play important roles in the management and conservation of the park to include creation of awareness and enlightenment programs, provisions of funds for park management, provision of skilled personnels to run and monitor the aairs of the park, bringing citizen’s concerns to Government, advocating and monitoring policy programme encouraging participation of civil society and stakeholders in park management. However, agilations from other roles are the provision of basic infractures to local communities to improve on their livelihood, park management and local communities have indicated that the support from these organization are not adequate enough to meet their needs. This position is also held by the management of Okwangwo range of cross river national park. This study is therefore expected to evaluate the role of three of the NGOS operating around the range.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to assess the roles of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in wildlife conservation in Okwangwo Range of Cross River National Park. The specific objectives are as follows:
1. To examine the impact of the NGOs in the management of Okwangwo Range of CRNP
2. To evaluate the level of conservation education programmes organized by NGOs in support zone communities.
3. To assess the impact of NGO programmes on the livelihoods of support zone communities.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the contribution of the NGOs in the management of Okwangwo Range of CRNP?
2. To what extent have NGO activities contributed to the enlightenment of local communitie

 

 

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THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE MANAGEMENT OF OKWANGWO RANGE OF CROSS RIVER NATIONAL PARK