THE PROBLEMS FACED BY NEWLY EMPLOYED OFFICE TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT GRADUATES (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE OWERRI)

THE PROBLEMS FACED BY NEWLY EMPLOYED OFFICE TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT GRADUATES (A CASE STUDY OF FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE OWERRI)

ABSTRACT

This research is aimed at evaluating the problems faced by newly employed office technology and management graduates in Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri Imo state. It focused on the effect of the job performance on office technology & management graduates with the introduction of modern office equipments, the changes and challenges it posed on them using about 30 new graduates of office technology & management in the institution as the study population. The result of analysis shows that graduates of office technology and management in federal polytechnic agreed that the introduction of modern office equipments affects their performance. But despite the problems, office equipments have the tendency of improving the office manager’s job performance. Conclusion was drawn based on these findings that graduates of office technology and management job performance depend on their level of acquiring machines operating skills necessary for operating those equipments. The researcher therefore recommended that organizations should endeavor to train and re-train their newly employed graduates of office technology and management in order to meet the changing nature of technology.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page ——————————————       i

Approval page————————————- ii

Dedication —————————————-  ii

Acknowledgement——————————-    iv

Abstract—————————————–           v

Table of contents——————————-            vi

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      1

Background of the study       –      –      –      –      –      3

Statement of the study  –      –      –      –      –      7

Significance of the study       –      –      –      –      –      8

Research questions –      –      –      –      –      –      9

Scope and limitations of the study –      –      –      10

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review    –      –      –      –      –      –      11

Modern machine and office equipment  –      –      11

Deficiency communication and language-     –      16

Strategies for improving in graduates of Office technology and management performance   –      17

Terminologies used in the organization –      –      21

Deficiency in records management       –      –      22

Summary of literature review –      –      –      –      23

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology   –      –      –      –      –      26

Research design     –      –      –      –      –      –      26

Area of the study    –      –      –      –      –      –      27

Population of the study  –      –      –      –      –      27

Sampling techniques      –      –      –      –      –      27

Method of data collection             –      –      –      –      28

Validity and Reliability of Instrument     –      –      28

Definition of terms  –      –      –      –      –      –      29

CHAPTER FOUR

Data Presentation and Analysis      –      –      –      32

Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      32

Data presentation   –      –      –      –      –      –      32

Analysis of data      –      –      –      –      –      –      32

Interpretation of results –      –      –      –      –      40

CHAPTER FIVE

Restatement of problem –      –      –      –      –      43

Summary of findings      –      –      –      –      –      43   Conclusion     –      –       –      –      –      –      –      45

Recommendation    –      –      –      –      –      –      47

References      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      49

Appendix               –      –      –      –      –      –      –      50

Questionnaire  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      51

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The office manager is an important personnel and a public relation on the business world.  This view of the office technology and management graduate’s functions are archaic one in view of the changes that have taken place in her training and her job, but one might ask “is there anything so unique about the office manager and her ability in handling medium office equipments?”  The answer is “Yes”.,  the office manager  besides being an official who is in charge of correspondence  or records  should be able to know how to operate the modern  office equipments ranging from type-writers to  computers.

In every area of human Endeavour, new entrants are naturally faced with certain challengers or problems are not usually very simple. Some are not complex and so frightening that they can easily throw the ill equipped out of the track. This phenomenon is found in every profession including office managers.

However, the intensity of the problem varies according to the circumstances and the demands of the jobs. The newly employed Office Managers in Federal Polytechnic Nekede are prone to these problems much more than other staffs. One of the major problems they faced is that of acceptability. Before an office manager can comfortably work in any office, there must be an evidence of co-operation among the staffs. This co-operation is born out of the willingness of the senior staffs to accommodate the new staff. The co-operation is expected from both the super ordinate, coordinate and subordinate staff of the organization.

Before such cooperation is given however, the newly employed office managers must show an evidence of proficiency. She must display the skills, qualities and attribute which are required of her. Furthermore, she must understand that most of her sub-ordinate staff have been in the school for many years. They are more experienced in the jobs than her presence in the organization is a threat to their chance of moving forward.

It is hoped that at the end of this study,  its will provide or identify the problems facing the newly employed graduates of Office Technology and Management in their office environment  and ways to improve their performance.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In every work place, there is every tendency to experience difficulties in the course of performing one’s duties particularly in the higher institution of learning. Going by these pressing issues, there is a lot of problem faced by newly employed graduates of office technology and management in work. They are expected to face some challenges and some of these problems are inherent to today’s institution while some emanates from academic environment, visitors and other staff of the institution.

According to Njoku [2005] some of the problems inherent from today’s graduates of office technology and management may be inadequate equipment or unfamiliarization with some modern office equipments for production of satisfactory work.

Ifedili (1995)  noted that office managers are one of the most indispensable tools needed in all spheres of  human Endeavour. He further added that government parastatals, ministries, companies and private organization and institution need office managers for the smooth operation and achievement of their set objectives.

Elendu (2000), described office managers as the life –wire of organization. He further defined office managers as the pivot on which the  management of any organization revolves. He describes the office managers as an assistant to the executive, possessing mastery of office skills and the ability to assume responsibilities without direct supervision, who display initiative, exercise judgment and makes decision without the scope of her authority.

But research have shown that the newly employed office managers in Federal Polytechnic Nekede and other institutions are found wanting in these attributes. The newly employed office managers are fresh graduate managers who have little experience. They were trained with absolute equipment.

Okoye (1999), stated that employers expects their office  manager  to be  able to operate electronic gadgets such as word processors, computer, telex, fax machines, the switch board equipment and other office equipments. It has been discovered tha the new graduate of office manager cannot operate these machine (a part from  computer) because they were not exposed to these machines during their training. This has placed a question mark on their skills.

The newly employed graduates of office technology and management do not understand the objective of the institution, how it functions and what is expected of employees. The tremendous innovation in office equipment in few decades has caused revolution changes in both the nature of work and that of the secretary’s role. Whitehead [1981].

These equipments innovation, which is mainly in the one of computer, reprographic machines, world processor etc, posed a lot of problem to the office technology and management graduates in the institution. Institution is advance with the use of all these new equipment like computer electronic typewriter, word processor, to be skillfully utilized by office managers in any institution and organization so that its goal will be achieved.

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THE ROLES OF OFFICE MANAGERS IN RECORD MANAGEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK NIGERIA Plc, OWERRI)

THE ROLES OF OFFICE MANAGERS IN RECORD MANAGEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK NIGERIA Plc, OWERRI)

ABSTRACT

This work has been designed to look at the various roles played by office managers in record management and carefully investigate the problems and solutions to these problems office managers encountered while managing record. The need for the study has arisen from the recognition of the important role office managers play in an organization especially in information or record management.

The research study is divided into five sections. Chapter one has the introduction, which introduces the subject matter. It also contains the background of the study where the researcher unveiled the roles office managers played in effective record management. This is followed by the statement of the problems where the researcher enumerated the problems the office manager observes that impale her to embark on this research work. It also has the objectives of the study, research questions, significance and scope of the study. Chapter two contains all related literatures of different authors who have written on the subject matter. Chapter three emphasis on the research methodology. The research method adapted is survey research. Data was obtained through the use of questionnaire and oral interview. In chapter four, the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data was formulated. Chapter five has the summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the study——————–      1

1.2   Statement of the Problem——————–      5

1.3   Objectives of the study————————–  8

1.4   Research Question—————————-     9

1.5   Significance of the Study———————     9

1.6   Scope & Limitation of the study—————   10

1.7 Definition of terms     –       –       –       –       –       11

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • introduction

other literature relevant to the topic

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Research design————————— 22

3.2   Area of the study——————————      23

3.3   Population and sample size————————     23

3.4   sampling Techniques————       23

3.5   Description of Instrument———————    24

3.6   Method of data collection———————-   25

3.7 reliability and validity of measuring instrument

3.8   Method of data Analysis———————–    25

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

  • Research Question 1————————— 26

4.2   Research Question 2—————————    28

4.3   Research Question 3————————–     29

4.4   Research Question 4————————–     32

4.5   Research Question 5————————–     33

4.6   Discussions of Findings———————–    34

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION REFERENCE

5.1   Summary of Findings—————————–        37

5.2   Conclusion————————————-     38

5.3   Recommendations—————————–    39

5.4   Area of further Research———————-     41

Appendix 1

Letter————————————————       44

Appendix   2

Questionnaire———————————      45

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

As you know in every office, a large volume of information in form of letters, circulars, and telegrams are sent to outsiders or received from them. Inside the organization also written materials are exchanged between different departments. All this items when received need to be documented by an office manager for future reference. A planned and efficient handling of these records is essential for the success of any business organization. It is described as the backbone and an integral part of an office.

Hicks (1964) described that In the course of doing business, records are created through a variety of government activities such as vehicle registration, professional licensing, procurement contract transactions, general correspondence, and other external and internal business processes. Records may be created and transmitted in a variety of ways:

  • Handwritten.
  • Typewritten.
  • Audio/video recording.
  • Computer generated (including e-mail and databases).

These records support, document, and provide evidence of a variety of organizations activities including:

  • Business processes.
  • Program evaluation.
  • Information policy making processes.
  • Accountability ensurance.
  • Facilities planning.

This paper addresses the role of office managers in record management, real world dilemmas of what a record is and the task of its lifecycle management by proposing a working definition of a record, discussing the challenges of managing records by office managers, and identifying a set of best practice recommendations.

1.1   Background of the Study

Records capture information used to protect the rights and interests of governments, businesses and citizens and to preserve history and culture by documenting information about noteworthy people, issues, places, and events.

Most of these records are useful for a relatively short period of time and can then be destroyed. Some of the records will represent the agency’s business record and need to be maintained for stewardship and public accountability purposes. Some records need to be preserved for many years, and a few should be preserved permanently to maintain the historical record. The challenge for public officials is to manage each of these types of records, making sure that those records with important information are preserved, while records that are no longer valuable are disposed of in an appropriate and legal manner.

The office managers is the back-bone of any organization, thus, she is also important to the organization because of her ability to remain calm under extra-ordinary conditions of the work pressures and human demand.  This view of the secretary’s functions are archaic one in view of the changes that have taken place in her training and her  job, but one might ask “is there anything so unique about  the office managers and her ability in handling office records.?”  The answer is “Yes”, the office managers besides being an officer who is in charge of correspondence or records or confidential personnel should be able to know how to handle office records properly.  It is hoped that at the end of this study, its will provide or identify the roles office managers played in record management.

Handling of office records by office managers has always been a problem and office managers has a serious role to play in organizing and preserving these records for the organization productivity. It was under this background that the researcher is prompt to carry out this research.

1.2   Statement of the Problems

Although the main purpose of managing office records properly is to keep information safe and readily available to the office managers and the organizations as when needed. Improper handling of records can pose or may involve an element of risk to the office managers and the entire organization as well as affecting her performance.  The office managers has to be aware and prepared for these.  Ahukannah (2000) stated that the cause of the problems militating against handling of office records properly by the secretaries are lack of training, inadequate knowledge of the computer in storing information in the company’s database, lack of office record and filing equipments, management attitude, lack of technical know-how by the office managers in storing these records, etc..  Inadequate training and skills requirement is another problem associated with bad record management.

1.3   Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to identify the various roles of office managers in record management using first bank as a reference or case study.  Specifically, the study attempt to:

1)  Identify the various kinds of office records available in the organization.

2)    Determine the skills needed by office managers in handling these office records.

3)    Find out if records are adequately handled in the organization or bank.

4)  Evaluate the extent to which the office managers can operate some record processing or storage equipments such as computer system.

5) Identify the problems which the office managers encounters in the handling of these office records.

6) To make suggestions on how these problems can be resolved.

THE ROLE OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING ON SECREATARY A SURVEY OF STUDENTS ON INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT IN OWERRI URBAN

THE ROLE OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING ON SECRETARY A SURVEY OF STUDENTS ON INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT IN OWERRI URBAN

ABSTRACT

This study is designed to determine he impact or contributions the students of accounting derive from students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) and to investigates the hindrances if any, the students of accountancy encounter in the course of gaining practical knowledge, pre qualification or pre-graduation experience has become an often – quoted criteria on for manpower selections as required by all employers. In keeping to this requirement most employers search for persons who have had enough on-the-job experience to fill certain positions in the establishment. In order to carryout the research, two research questions were stated.

  1. What are the major impacts or contributions that students from accounting education derived from students’ industrial work experience scheme {SIWES}?
  2. What hindrance the students of accountancy encounter in the course of gaining the practical knowledge?

A cross- sectional survey design was used to obtain data. Instruments for data collection were questionnaire having three options. The major findings include:

  1. Every institution should set up coordinating units as advised by the industrial training fund (ITYF) so as to reduce the communication gap between the students and institutions.
  2. The induction/orientation of students should be organized to involve the institution, the industrial training fund (ITF) and employer. In that induction course, every information concerning the students must be made available to them.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                         i

Certification                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                       iii

Acknowledgement                                                            iv

Abstract                                                                           v

Table of contents                                                             vi

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study                                           1
  • Statement of the problem   4
  • Scope of the study
  • Purpose of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Research Question

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

  • Theoretical Framework
  • Conceptual Framework
  • Placement of students and code of conduct of

Students during Industrial Training

  • The Role of Relational Bodies on students

Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES)

  • Challenges Students Faces During Industrial Training
  • The relationship between ITF and accounting education
  • Summary

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN AND PROCEDURES FOR RESEARCH WOK OR METHODOLOGIES 

  • Introduction
    • Research Design
    • Population for the Study
    • Sampling and Sampling Procedure
    • Instrument for Data Collection
    • Procedure for Data Collection
    • Method of data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

Results of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION OF THE RESULTS AND SUMMARY OF REPORT

  • Discussion on findings
  • Recommendation, Summary and Conclusion
  • Summary and Conclusion

REFERENCE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter, the researchers present the background to the study, statement of the problem, scope of the study, purpose of the study, significance of the study, research questions and/ or Hypothesis (es).

  • BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Industrial attachment is a system whereby a student before graduating is sent to an industry or a training centre to have practical experience on the job. It is either for a year, six months or two months depending on which categories of students are involved. At the training centre, only the practical aspect of the course is emphasized, that is, attention is paid to technical skill development.

In other words, industrial attachment as applied is to the undergraduate a form of practical training in industry where the student is expected to acquire professional practical experience and scale in the activities of a particular industry or establishment and having a physical feeling of those things learnt in theory.

Industrial attachment as it is called to day is the brain child of the industrial training fund (ITF) otherwise known as students’ industrial work. Experience scheme (SIWES) which was introduced by the industrial training fund (ITF) since 1973.

According to Awan (1979) the industrial training fund (ITF) was established in Decree NO.47 of 8th October 1971 with the aim of “promoting and encouraging the acquisition of skills in industry and commerce with a view to generating a pool of indigenous trained man power sufficient to meet the needs of the Nigerian economy”.

Before the beginning of this scheme, various institutions made their own arrangement with industries/companies where their students go to hare the practical experience to enable them match theory with practice. The pioneer of these private institutional arrangements was institute of management and technology-(IMT) Enugu.

It was the first of the three manpower training and development agencies created by the federal military Government during the 2nd National Development plan period (1970-1974). The other bodies were the Nigerian count for management development (NCMD) and Administrative Staff Collage of Nigeria (ASCORL).

According to Ayoade (1994), the provision of the above decree which established the industrial training fund (ITF) empowered it among other things to.

  • Encourage employer to train and retain their workers.
  • Provide facilities for industrial training in general.

It is in realization of this noble role that the industrial training fund in 1973 launched the students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES). The idea was to use facilities in industry and commerce to supplement institutional education and training, because of huge financial burden which this scheme placed on ITF. The fund in 1979 decided after due consideration to terminate the scheme. This decision was without prejudice to the consequences of their action on the students and their staff who had already seen the scheme as the only hope of preparing students very meaningfully for the worked of work.

In order to sustain the expectation of the students and the need for manpower development in the nation, the federal military government continued to fund the scheme from 1980 to 1984 through the National Board for technical Education (NBTE). The supervision of the scheme was once more passed over to the industrial training fund (ITF) in 1985, while the funding remained the responsibility of the federal Government.

The scope of the fund left with administrative functions is limited to college of technology, and Education, University of technology and Polytechnics all over the nation.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

The need for work experience has become an often mentioned criterion for man power selection as required by all employers. Evidence has shown that students in industrial training come back to complain adversely on the lag existing between industrial experience or practical aspect of their studies with what is obtainable in the classroom, and the need to fill this gap is inevitable if the required manpower needed/expected of our students from accountancy should be acquired and harnessed. These calls for the need for our curriculum planners and implementers to look into the problem the students encounters while in industrial training (IT) so that there will be a similar relationship with what nis obtained in theory and that obtainable in their practical experience.

Therefore, efforts should be made by lecturers handling most of these courses like financial accounting, taxation, mathematics or business mathematics, auditing and investigation, computer and other management courses etc to see that the students will not mess themselves up while in their industrial training.

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THE IMPACT OF MODERN OFFICE EQUIPMENT ON THE SECRETARYS PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENTS IN OWERRI MUNICIPAL

THE IMPACT OF MODERN OFFICE EQUIPMENT ON THE SECRETARYS PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENTS IN OWERRI MUNICIPAL

Abstract

This research was conducted to ascertain the impact of modern office equipment on the secretary’s performance in selected government establishments in Owerri municipal. Related literature was reviewed to determine the advantages of these equipments to the secretary for effective performance. The four likert point and mean scores were used to analyze the data collected. It was discovered from the data collected and analyzed that the challenges facing the availability, adequacy and functionality of these equipment were attributed to lack of fund, lack of fund for maintenance, lack of operational knowledge. Finally, recommendations were made for enough funds to be provided by the government and institutions of higher learning to acquire these equipments. Also organizations should encourage their secretaries’ to participate in on-the-job and off-the-job training programmes.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of contents

Abstract

Chapter One

1.0   Introduction

1.1   Background of the Study

1.2   Statement of Problems

1.3   Purpose of the Study

1.4   Research Questions

1.5   Significance of the Study

chapter Two

2.0   Review of Literature

2.1   Availability of Modern Office Equipment

2.2   Impact of Modern Office Equipment

2.3   Reasons for Installing Modern Office Equipment

2.4   Functionality of Modern office Equipment

2.5   Problems Facing Modern Office Machines

2.6   Summary of Literature Review

Chapter Three

3.0   Research Methodology

3.1   Design of the Study

3.2   Area of the Study

3.3   Population of the Study

3.4   Sample Size and Sampling Techniques

3.5   Instrument for Data Collection

3.6   Validity and Reliability of Instrument

3.7   Method of Data Collection

3.8   Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Data Presentation and Analysis

Chapter Five

5.0   Discussion of Findings, Summary,

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1   Summary of Findings

5.2   Conclusion

5.3   Recommendation

5.4   Areas for Further Research

References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

The development of modern office equipment has brought closer the “Electronic” office which is the term used in describing the way modern office is developing. The development of modern office equipments has made it possible for workers to be versatile in their career. Additionally, ethnological changes have brought about job changes in organizational structure (Abdullahi, 2002).

Anyautonwu (1987) opined that the use of modern office equipment in the highly industrialized countries has made so much progress in the world of business that people now evaluate its true impact on the secretary in particular and workers generally. Increasing use of modern office equipment tends to create some uncertainties and insecurity on the part of the workers. As a result, there is this fear of human labour displacement in the minds of the workers which can create unemployment to many people especially to those with little or no knowledge of manipulating these machines.

Within the last two decades many achievements were recorded in the area of technological office work which would have been too cumbersome without the use of these office technologies. New job opportunities are generated everyday for the secretary wishing to match the challenges.

Anionwu (1993) is of the opinion that as new machines and equipment are developed new skills and knowledge are required by the secretary for the operation of these modern facilities.

The development and installation of modern equipment have made possible an office processing revolution by offering everyone means of sending and retrieving information quickly and cheaply within an organization and throughout the world office work generally is all about handling and processing of information despite the wide use of the telephone and computers. Office work has also been associated with paper pusher (Burn, 1985). The modern office machine according to Ohakwe Idih and Chukwumezie (2002) are those tools or instruments that are used to perform office functions. These machines are of immense importance to every worker and to the organization of all sizes. This implies that with the use of modern office equipment every establishment aims at enhancing productivity onward movement towards achieving greater effectiveness and efficiency in organization objectives.

However, with the current pace in the development of technology worldwide, modern office equipment is experiencing a dramatic evolution. This has actually been made possible because of the introduction of telephone which has gone revolutionized from analogue to digital cordless to mobile cellular system.

Today, the functions of secretaries have shifted from the use of traditional equipment such as manual typewriters to sophiscated once like electronic typewriter, computer, photocopier, fast machines, word processor, and telecomputers. Analysis system (RAS) and computer information management. Dictating and recording also affect secretary performance. Alozie (1995) opines that in the past many offices were organized traditionally so that many people handled the same sheet of paper as it passes through the organization. Today, this procedure has changed and will continue to change as new technologies are introduced in the work place.

Nwosu (1996) also remarked that office work could have been very cumbersome and indeed unattainable without these modern equipments. Elendu (1988) noted that modern office equipment from the most import and tools which when put into proper use bring about efficiency in work.

Okafor (1987) stated that for nearly three decades secretary’s performance has been portrayed as the application of skills to business operations. He further stated that recent developments have called for and indeed dictated the need for a new orientation on the impact of modern office equipment in a secretary’s performance. Following the above assertions one can say that the secretary has been identify as key factor in the fulfillment of organization goals, keeper of secret’s and resource person in every organization sincere effort should be made to provide her with adequate modern equipment. This will enable her cope with diverse challenges posed by the global emphasis on office machines. It was rightly observed by some authors that modern office equipment has led to highly skilled secretaries which in effect have resulted to the increase in competence and efficiency in productivity of the secretaries achievement in an organization.

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THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNET SERVICES ON OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT PROFESSION IN SELECTED BUSINESS ORGANIZATION IN ENUGU METROPOLIS, ENUGU STATE.

THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNET SERVICES ON OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT PROFESSION IN SELECTED BUSINESS ORGANIZATION IN ENUGU METROPOLIS, ENUGU STATE.

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to find out the impact of internet services on Office Technology and Management Profession. This research covers the selected organization in Enugu Meropolis. In this research, the related literatures were reviewed.

The populations used for this study were thirty office managers which were picked from the selected organization in Enugu metropolis.

The instruments used for this study were questionnaires which were administered to office managers in few organizations in Enugu metropolises.

The data collection were analyzed and presented in tables.

Having analyzed the findings in the previous chapter and the results one find out was that, the internet is a helpful device to the office Technology and Management’s profession in Enugu metropolis.

In the light of the result, the researchers suggest that the office managers should be able to know the operational mode of the internet, since it is very important to their profession. And also, it will help the office managers to get needed training they required by giving them time after work..

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page————————————————————————i

Approval page——————————————————————ii

Dedication———————————————————————-iii

Acknowledgement————————————————————-iv

Abstract————————————————————————-v

Table of content—————————————————————vi

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction—————————————————————-1

1.1 Background of the study————————————————–1

1.2 Statement of the problem ————————————————4

1.3 The objective of the study ———————————————–5

1.4 Scope of the study ———————————————————5

1.5 Research questions ——————————————————— 6

Chapter two

2.0 Review of related literature ———————————————– 8

2.1 The meaning and purpose of the internet —————————— 8

2.2 The effect of internet on the office managers ————————– 9

2.3 Record keeping———————————————————– 13

2.4 Enhancing the office manager through the internet —————– 14

2.5 Summary of related literature —————————————– 20

Chapter three

3.0 Research methodology ————————————————— 22

3.1 Design of the study ——————————————————- 22

3.2 The population of the study———————————————- 22

3.3 The sample size———————————————————— 24

3.4 Instrument of the study————————————————– 24

3.5 Method of data collection ———————————————– 24

3.6 Procedure for data analysis ——————————————— 25

Chapter four

4.1 Presentation and analysis of data ————————————– 26

Chapter five

5.0 Summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations ———- 31

5.1 Restatement of the problem ———————————————- 31

5.2 Summary of findings —————————————————– 32

5.3 Conclusion —————————————————————– 33

5.4 Recommendations ——————————————————— 33

5.5 Suggestions for further research —————————————– 35

5.6 Limitation of the study ————————————————— 35

References ———————————————————————- 36

Appendix A——————————————————————— 37

Appendix B (questionnaire) ————————————————- 38

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          The country if not the whole world is on the immense of technology, and this phenomenon has got in far reaching effect on almost all spheres of human endeavour.

Different people have perceptions of what impact the modern technology via the internet is playing, to address the issues of performance of the Office Technology and Management profession in the new millennium.

To be precise, many scholars have dealt on this topic but the researchers of the project work have tried to portray actually what the impact of the internet is regarding the performance of Office Technology and Management profession.

The internet according to Cerfi (1996) president of the internet society is a specific collaboration of independently managed networks that allow users at disparate heterogeneous computer networks to communicate with each other across organization geographical boundaries. Its main function in any social system may be identified as information, education, entertainers, communication and integration. Therefore, the internet as an information superhighway has been aroused to perform all these immeasurable impact for the rest of the world.

One cannot talk about information and access without making regular reference to the information technologies and their convergence particularly the INTERNET.

Information and communication technology rapidly changing the way we work and live, most especially regarding the way the office is handled. We see a world of network. That is bringing new opportunities and options to people at work, at home and on the movies directly stating how our society live, learn, work play and our society evolves.

Information itself drives it valve from the meaning that an entity (a human being) assigns to data. It therefore becomes a performed in an organization.

The question now is, how far this form of inexhaustible resource can carry the users with special internet on office technology and management profession.

The machines used in the office technology and management profession are involved effectively to perform the work in business media, the mass media, the information gathering media, and the likes, have seen the different faces of typewriters. Mail exchange, computers, cellular, fax telephone and other technological information gathering system.

Stressing more on the meaning of the internet and how it works Rutherford F. July 22 1997, described the internet as ‘a global collection of many different types of computers and computer networks that are linked together.

The office technology and management profession, people who are conversant with the services that the personal computer renders will no doubt find the internet fascinating job-made-easy and enjoyable.

But many people cannot purchase or acquire this precious information superhighway, what risks are involved. Who are supposed to use these inexhaustible resources?

The aim of the study is to know the impact of internet more on information and communication in office technology and management profession.

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB SATISFACTION AND SECRETARIES’ PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF UGHELLI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL, OTU-JEREMI, DELTA STATE)

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB SATISFACTION AND SECRETARIES’ PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF UGHELLI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL, OTU-JEREMI, DELTA STATE)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                         i

Approval page                                                                        ii

Certification                                                                                       iii

Dedication                                                                                iv

Acknowledgement                                                                             v

Table of contents                                                                      vi – viii

Abstract                                                                                  ix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study 1 – 4
  • Statement of the Problem                           4
  • Purpose of the Study 4 – 5
  • Research Questions 5
  • Significance of the Study 5
  • Scope of the Study        6

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Introduction 7

2.1     Attitude of Employers toward Job Satisfaction                      7 – 8

2.2     The Need for Job Satisfaction                                                  8 – 9

2.3     Perceptions of Secretaries about Job Satisfaction                    9 – 10

2.4     Effects of Job Satisfaction and Job Dissatisfaction                  10 – 12

2.5  Factors enhancing Job Satisfaction                                              12 – 13

2.6     Summary of the Literature Reviewed                                       14

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.0     Introduction                                                                               15

3.1     Design of the Study                                                                   15

3.2     Area of the Study                                                                       15

3.3     Population of the Study                                                              16

3.4     Sample and Sampling Techniques                                             16

3.5     Method of Data Collection                                                         16

3.6     Questionnaire Administration and Retrieval                              16 – 17

3.7     Method of Data Analysis                                                            17

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.0     Introduction                                                                                 19

4.1     Analysis of Data                                                                          20 – 26

4.2     Discussion of Findings                                                                26 – 28

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Summary                                          29
  • Conclusions 30

5.3      Summary of Findings                                                               30

5.4     Limitation of the Study                                                              31

5.5     Recommendations                                                                      31

5.6      Suggestions for further Study                                                   31

References

Appendixes

ABSTRACT

The major purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and secretaries’ performance.  The design of the study was a survey research.  The population consisted of 25 secretaries of Ughelli South Local Government council, Otu-Jeremi.  Mean score was used to analyze the 29 items questionnaire used for this research work.  The major findings of the study were that the secretaries are not given privilege to make contributions and take decisions on matters affecting the organization on behalf of their boss, and they are not appreciated and recognized by their boss and colleague, therefore, lead to job dissatisfaction.  The high point of the findings shown that the relationship between job satisfaction and secretaries’ performance is cordial as it revealed that if secretaries are satisfied, they will be committed to their job, and this will improve their productivity.  To make this possible, it was recommended, among other things, that employers of labour should endeavour to better the conditions in which their secretaries work.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

The relationship between job satisfaction and secretaries’ performance is very imperative to the well being of any organization. The problem of job satisfaction has been a great concern to employers of labor and employees alike. In regard to this, Pamela, Stephen and Patricia, (1995), see job satisfaction as the degree to which individuals feel positively of negatively about their job. Secretaries hold important positions in an organization; as a result, they are viewed as the medium by which organizational goals are realized. Without them, an organization cannot function effectively and successfully. The effective performance of the secretary is dependent on the level of his satisfaction on the job. Hence, there is the need for job satisfaction among secretaries.

The role employers of labor have to play in any organization in order to ensure, maintain and improve job satisfaction is very important. Many employers of labor ignore the positive relationship between job satisfaction and the performance of their secretaries in the office. Some organizations or employers of labor ignore the positive relationship between job satisfaction and the performance of their secretaries in the office. Some organization or employers of labor are doing this intentionally because they feel that resources require to put in place job satisfaction are too expensive an detrimental to the well being of the organization. They therefore, claim that there is no resources to acquire such facilities that can improve job satisfaction and to afford the payment of some bonuses, allowances or fringe benefits which are believed will give job satisfaction to the secretary.

However, the important role the secretary plays in any organization necessitates the need for job satisfaction. In fact, employers or organizations are under obligation to make sure that their secretaries are satisfies. Cole, (1986), sees the need for job satisfaction and comments that people report of their satisfaction with their jobs are directly related to the extent to which their jobs provides them with such things as rewards, outcome as pay, variety in stimulation, consideration from supervisor, a high rate of promotion, close interaction with co-workers, an opportunity to influence decisions and control their pace of work. This assertion explains the common saying, “a happy man, is a productive man”. When secretaries are satisfied and their morale is high, the organization benefits in many ways. For one thing, satisfied secretaries are committed and loyal; they are more likely to work harder to make useful contributions to the organization. They are more likely to come to work everyday and remain with the organization.

Moreover, job dissatisfaction has negative effects in an organization. Just as the rewards of high workers satisfaction are great, so also are the disadvantages of job dissatisfaction. It poses bad effects on the organization if secretaries are not satisfied with their job. That is why secretaries who are not experiencing job satisfaction cannot give their best to the organizations in which they are working. There are certain factors that are assumed to make secretaries dissatisfied with their job. Among them are: unfavorable condition of service, denial of fringe benefits, lack of promotional opportunities, job insecurity, inadequate salary, poor personal relationship with supervisor and colleagues, etc. If these factors are experienced by secretaries, it is believed that they cannot give the organization their best. It will make them to best. It will make them to be unfaithful in their jobs, and they will not be committed. This in turn adversely affects organizational goals and prospects.

However, it is well know that the development of the economy requires a proportionate growth in qualitative human resources as well as a sound educational system. Knowing what to do, and doing it effectively, make workers to be satisfied in their job. As far as it is not very easy to achieve a high productivity level among secretaries because of lack of job satisfaction, Hellriegel, Slocum, and Woodman, (1998), has this to say, “Employers of labor must ensure they put five specific aspects of person’s job into consideration. These are: pay, promotion, supervision, the work itself and the relationship with co-workers”. In addition, a good condition of service, societal recognition, allowances, the rights to contribute in decision making, make them feel their work is meaningful. If these factors are put into practice in an organization, it is strongly believed that is will increase secretaries’ job satisfaction and therefore, enhance their performance.

  • Statement of the Problems

The vital roles which secretaries usually play in an organizations call for employers of labor to understand the relationship between job satisfaction and secretaries’ performance because this will make the organization or employer of labor to know how paramount it is to achieve job satisfaction. It is job satisfaction that makes secretaries fell they are part of the organization. However, there are some problems that are believed militating against job satisfaction of secretaries in many organizations. The inability of employers to understand the relationship between job satisfaction and secretaries’ performance, employers’ insensitivity to job satisfaction, are some of the assumed problems affecting secretaries’ job satisfaction in organizations.

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THE CHALLENGES FACING THE NEWLY EMPLOYED SECRETARIES IN SELECTED MINISTRIES IN IMO STATE

THE CHALLENGES FACING THE NEWLY EMPLOYED SECRETARIES IN SELECTED MINISTRIES IN IMO STATE

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page——————————————————-i

Approval page————————————————–ii

Dedication——————————————————iii

Acknowledgement——————————————-iv-v

Table of content——————————————-vii-viii

Abstract——————————————————–ix

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction
  • Background of the Study——————————1-6
  • Statement of the problem—————————–6-7
  • Purpose of the study————————————-8
  • Research questions—————————————8
  • Significance of the study—————————–9-10
  • Scope of the study————————————–10

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  Literature review

  • The secretary and her roles————————-11-20
  • The challenges automation and societal

Misconception—————————————-21-24

  • Secretarial skill and human relations—————24-33
  • Summary of the literature review——————33-34

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Research Methodology———————————-35

3.1  Design of study——————————————35

3.2  Area of study——————————————–36

3.3  Population of study————————————–36

3.4  Sample and sampling techniques———————-37

3.5  Instrument for data collection————————–37

  • Validation of instrument——————————–38
  • Method of data analysis———————————38

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Presentation and analyses of data——————-39

  • Research question 1——————————-39-41
  • Research question 2———————————41-42
  • Research question 3———————————43-44
  • Summary of findings——————————–44-45

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0   Discussion of findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations

5.1  Discussion of findings——————————-46-48

5.2  Conclusions———————————————-49

  • Recommendations———————————–50-51
  • Suggestion for further studies————————–51

References——————————————-52-53

Appendix 1———————————————–54

Appendix II——————————————55-57

ABSTRACT

This research study focuses on an investigation into the challenges facing the newly employed secretaries in selected Ministries in Imo State. Specifically, five Ministries located in Owerri, Imo State were investigated, Ministries of Lands and Survey, Ministries of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Works and housing, Education and Finance.

The study adopted simple random sampling techniques taking into consideration the five ministries and the “secretaries” experiences with much emphasis on newly ones. Instrument for data collection was the questionnaire.

In this study, three research questions were formulated for the purpose which include the roles expected of the newly employed secretaries in selected ministries in Imo State, the office skills expected of newly employed secretaries in the ministries, and the various challenges facing the newly employed secretaries in the ministries.

The result of the findings reveals that the general agreements on the first research question are endorsed as strongly agreed. Also the calculated mean responses for the items under research question two reveals that the respondents strongly agree to all the skills identified as the required office skills expected of the newly employed secretaries in selected ministries in Imo State.

In research question three, four out of the seven challenges indicated were strongly agreed to as the challenges facing the newly employed secretaries, while the remaining three were strongly disagreed upon as challenges facing newly employed secretaries.

It was therefore, recommended that the executives and indeed all staff should extend their hand of fellowship to the newly employed secretaries. They should neither be abused nor misused. The secretaries on their own part should work with caution.

Chapter One

Introduction

1.1  Background of the Study

In every area of human endeavour, new entrants are naturally faced with certain challenges. The challenges are not usually very simple. Some are complex and so frightening that they can easily throw the ill equipped out of the track. This phenomenon is found in every profession including secretarial profession.

However, the intensity of the challenge varies according to the circumstances and the demands of the job.   The newly employed secretaries in the ministries such as ministries of lands and survey, ministries of agriculture and natural resources, work and housing, education and finance, are prone to these challenges much more than others. One of the major challenges they face is that of acceptability. Before any secretary can comfortably work in any office, there must be an evidence of co-operation among the staff. This co-operation is born out of the willingness of the senior staff to accommodate the new staff. The co-operation is expected from both the super ordinate, coordinate, and subordinate staff of the organization.

Before such co-operation is given, however, the newly employed secretary must show an evidence of proficiency. She must display the skills, qualities and attributes which are required of a secretary. Furthermore, she must understand that most of her sub-ordinate staff have been in the ministry for many years. They are more experienced in the jobs than her and mighty even think that her presence in the organization is a threat to their chance of moving forward.

Ifedili (1995) noted that secretaries are one of the most indispensable tools needed in all spheres of human endeavour. He further added that government parastatals, ministries, companies and private organizations need the secretary for the smooth operation and achievement of their set objectives.

Elendu (2000), described the secretary as the life-wire of any organization. He further defined secretary as the pivot on which the management of any organization revolves. The Secretaries Association of United States of America (SA USA) describes the secretary as an assistant to the executive, possessing mastery of office skills and the ability to assume responsibilities without direct supervision, who display initiative, exercise judgement and makes decision within the scope of her authority.

But research have shown that the newly employed secretaries in some of our ministries are found wanting in these attributes. The newly employed secretaries are fresh graduate secretaries who have little or no previous work experience. They were trained with obsolete equipment.

Okoye (1999), stated that employers expects their secretaries to be able to operate electronic gadgets such as word processors, computers, telex, fax machines, the switch board equipment and other office equipments. It has been discovered also that the new graduate secretaries cannot operate these machines (a part from computer) because they were not exposed to these machines during their training. This has placed a question mark on their skills.

A good human relation is very important in every office without good human relations, there would not be the co-operation, which is vital for the smooth running of the office. According to Azuka and Agomuo (1993), human relations refer to the relationship between individuals and group of people within an organization.

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THE IMPACT OF MOBILE TELEPHONE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN OWERRI METROPOLIS

THE IMPACT OF MOBILE TELEPHONE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN OWERRI METROPOLIS

Abstract

       The basic aim of any business is to make profit in the most effective and efficient way.

These profit motive is what makes the business enterprise to work hard in order to achieve his objectives.

Profit is a major target of any business and no business can survive without profit.

This research project has its main focus on the impact of mobile telephone in business development in Owerri.  As there exist no9 business without adequate information that communication should be courageous in order to have a high performance in business.  In this view our advice is that means of communication should be available in order to develop our business.

In this very research project a questionnaire was given out to know the response of people on the effect on mobile telephone in business development many responded that the introduction of mobile telephone affected their business development positively.  While some insisted that the introduction of mobile telephone affected their business development negatively.

In trying to achieve these objectives, the method used in this research draw much from both primary and secondary source of data.  Simple percentage was used in presentation of the data, while chi-square was used to analyze the data.

The following findings were made from the study; the introduction of mobile telephone has not affected the business development.

Mobile telephone as a necessity, mobile telephones have a positive effect and negative effect etc.

Subsequently, in order to consolidate on the success of mobile telephone so far recorded, the study recommended that the Federal Government in collaboration with the corporate affair commission (C.A.C ) should make sure that every business enterprises must have a strong means of communication like mobile telephone.

Table of Contents

Title Page

Approval page                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                  iii

Acknowledgment                                                         iv

Abstract                                                                             v

Table of Contents                                                             vi-vii

Chapter One

1.0    Introduction                                                                1

1.1    Background of the study                                               1

1.1    Statement of the Problem                                     4

1.2    Purpose of the Study                                           5

1.3    Research Questions                                                     6

1.4    Significance of the Study                                              7

1.5 Scope of the Study                                                         7

Chapter Two

2.0    Review of Related Literature                                 8

2.1    The Concept of Mobile Telephone                           9

2.2    The Role of Mobile Telephone in Business Development

10

2.3    The Various Ways of Acquiring Mobile Telephone      11

2.4    Demerits of Mobile Telephone                                        11

2.5    Impact of Mobile Telephone in the Development of Small Scale Business in Owerri Metropolis                  12

2.6    Summary of Literature Reviewed                           15

Chapter Three

  • Research Methodology 16

3.1    Design of the Study                                                     16

3.2    Area of the Study                                                        17

3.3    Population of the Study                                                18

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique                            19

3.5    Instrument Used For Data Collection                       19

3.6    Method of Data Collection                                     20

3.7    Method of Data Analysis                                               21

Chapter Four

  • Data Representation And Analysis 22

4.1    Response Rate to Questionnaire                             22

4.2    Data Presentation                                                        24

Chapter Five

  • Summary of Finding, Conclusion and Recommendation.    35
  • Summary Of Findings 35
  • Conclusion 36
  • Recommendation 38

Reference                                                                  40

Appendix     A                                                             41

Questionnaire B                                                   42

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background To The Study

According to the concept of management, business management provides people in the whole world with a general background to the elements and characteristics of business.  Regardless of the educational goal of a person be it in accounting, finance, business marketing, engineering, art etc. There is every certainty that he will end up in having some close connection with business therefore, Independent observers may classify such Institutions.  Independently owned business such as patrol services station, restaurant etc.

Business could be classified into the following industries:

  1. Retailing Industries
  2. Wholesaling and services Industries
  3. Manufacturing and services Industries
  4. Non project public enterprises.

Most of these Industries do one important thing providing the needs of the society.  The needs of the society have gone much further than the basic needs of food, clothing and shelter.  Our needs are complex therefore, complex business Institution are needed to fulfill the needs of the society.  The Individual in the society decides what enterprise makes effort to fulfill such needs.

Our approach in the study of business course is to provide an instant into how business is one entity and the consumers are another entity both needing to work together to make their ambitions become a reality, any individual business under Nigerian system has two major objectives which is services and project.  These objectives apply whether the business is a mammoth organization as the general motors in America the largest world single business enterprise providing employment for 728,000 men and women throughout the world or a small neighborhood grocery store at sure leer Lagos. Every business must satisfy human wants if it is to continue to exist.

The primary objective of a corporation is service, if service is given, profit will flow (RALPHC).It is wise for us to know through this study that the mobile telephone that is commonly used among business enterprises in Owerri metropolises is known as global system, for mobile communication (GSM).

It is on this note that the researcher has the intention of knowing how business enterprises sees the effect of mobile telephone on these issue and many others hinge the motive of this study. The researcher has not been encouraged by the answer of existing Indigenous literature on these issues. However, he made effort to proceed, if only Nigerians will believe that the effect of this study will have tar-reaching and positive impact if accepted and implemented.

1.2    Statement Of The Problem

       The major problems the researcher wish to identity and pose to solve in this study are:

  1. The bad attitude from people using mobile telephone
  2. Problems created by the introduction of mobile telephone in the society that is the evaluation of the positive and negative impact on the part of business
  3. Wrong ways of acquiring mobile telephone
  4. Unsatisfied services by the companies rendering the services.
  5. Wrong ways of using mobile telephone by drivers while driving.

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THE CHANGING ROLE OF SECRETARY AND ITS IMPLICATION ON PRODUCTIVITY

THE CHANGING ROLE OF SECRETARY AND ITS IMPLICATION ON PRODUCTIVITY

ABSTRACT

The specific aim of this work was to know the changes in the role of the modern secretary and its implication on the productivity secretary, which is run in institutions of higher learning. The population comprised of all secretaries working in selected modern offices in Aba metropolis and the sample was all the secretaries holding National Diploma/Higher National Diploma qualifications in secretarial Administration programme.

An office to office inquiries were made, out of which first handed information were gotten and used for analysis.

The method of office to office inquiries showed that the facilities used in the higher institutions in training the secretary are not adequate while most of them are not in line with the ones available in modern offices, and of course not used by modern secretaries in doing their work.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction

1.1  Background of the study

1.2  Statement of the problem

1.3  purpose of the study

1.4  Significance of the study

CHAPTER TWO

  • Review of related literature

2.1  The classical and modern views of  the Secretary

2.2  The traditional role of the secretary

2.3  The modern role of the secretary

2.4  Secretarial administration programme in institutions

of higher learning

  • Secretarial administration curriculum
  • Summary of literature review

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research Methodology

3.1  Design of the study

3.2  Area of the study

3.3  Population of study

3.4  Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.5  Instrument for data collection

3.6  Method for data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation and analysis of findings

4.1  Analysis of research question

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary of Findings, conclusion and

Recommendations

5.1  Findings

5.2  Conclusion

5.3  Recommendations

5.4  Suggestion of Further Research.

References

Appendix One Letter of transmitter

Appendix two Questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

Secretary is said to be an important tool in any organization (Azuka and Agomuo, 1993). This statement could be confirmed form the total organization goals. The role o secretary, however, has assumed some changes over the years from traditional role to modern role. The secretary formally was known for performing the traditional role which included typing of documents, taking dictation in shorthand transcribing the dictation materials with the typewriter, and carrying out other clerical work (Austine 1974).

During that period, the training if a secretary was obtained trough commercial or vocational schools, mainly owned by private individuals such establishment  had no certificate examinations, or if they pretended to  have , such in house examination were not recognized by employers, rather students  of such institutes went out on their own to enter for single –subject or composite subject examinations given by recognized examining bodies such as royal society of arts (RSA) the pitman faculty of secretaries, London chambers of commerce ands the like in stages J. II, III – (Amaefula, 1997). The role of secretaries presently. Has been enhanced to meet the requirement of modern business world. The work of a secretary does not end at traditional role as mentioned above but also managerial and administrative role. Thus secretary can now sit in for the personnel manger, administrative/office manager book-keeper, correspondent, organization and  methods manager, public relations  manager, etc which are part of the  modern role of the secretary (Maduabuachi, 1993). This has been made possible by the training she received in the institution of higher learning under secretarial administration programme.

Secretarial administration programme is one of the technical/business education programmes approved by National Board for Technical education (NBTE) to be offered in accredited universities, polytechnics and collages of education in Nigeria. This programme is introduced to ensure effective ad adequate preparation pf prospective secretarial in skills, general business and offices so that on graduation the secretary would have acquired sufficient academic and  professional knowledge.

Giving strong idea to this, the NBTE curriculum and course specification on secretarial administration (1990) states only proficiency in the use of the typewriter and phonographic skills as was the cased in the previous years, but has to acquire a thorough detailed knowledge of office administration and management which can make work only not as a secretary but also as an office manager when occasion demands.

With technological advancement, most office work processes are automated; word processing facilities and computer technology have been universally acclaimed to make a significant contribution to secretarial administration.

This development in secretarial administration has brought about some negative thinking in some quarters. Some have expressed the fear that new trend in secretarial profession will translate into unemployment for those who are not adequately trained and prepared to cope with challenges secretary. This fear is however, forded to secretarial staff it may nevertheless after the duties but will not remove the secretarial functions. Marvin and Maqera (1984) stated that office automation should help to remove waste, improve productivity and create thousands of new and more challenging jobs for these willing to adapt and train themselves. It is true that machines which listen speak, write, correct spelling errors, store and file will largely do away with need fore secretaries dictationists, stenographers and even the traditional secretary. But is also true that office automation will free those people for other tasks likely to require more training but also offering better pay and greater jobs satisfaction.

The secretary is now faced with the challenge of using electronic and computerized systems to do her work. For quite some time now, the issue of adequacy and proper implementation of secretarial administration programme for keeping pace with modern role of the secretary has remained a source of great concern to institutions running the programme, secretaries and employers. Therefore, this study is intended to examine this issue properly in order to offer objective and useful recommendations.

  • Statement of the Problem

In today’s rapidly changing world, organizations are now much bigger and things change at an even increasing pace. Traditional management style or organization has given way to modern management style in response to environment pressures. This means that top management personnel can now delegate duties to their subordinates who now participate in decision making and policy formulation of the organization.

The secretary as an assistant to the chief executive is therefore an important member of the management team in business, industry, government education, communication, media etc (Okonye 1992). It is no longer practicable for a secretary to discharge her duties effectively by doing merely proficient in the use of the typewriting and phonographic skills as was the case some decades ago. She now has to acquire an in-depth knowledge of office administration and management, which will enable her fit into any organization and performs not only as a secretary but also as an office manager.

This was underscored by Onyemade (1993) who stated that not only has the role of the secretary changed on the use of equipment but also their administrative processes, office routines management systems are similar evolving into new forms. Unfortunately, most secretaries who passed through secretarial administration programme find it difficult to carry out administrative responsibilities properly without supervision advancement in word processing and computer technology  has  brought with it new challenges to the secretary. It is quite paradoxical and indeed humiliating that most secretaries in modern offices cannot operate most f the modern office machines installed to facilitate the office work.

The problem of this study is that the objective of the secretarial administration programme are not fully realized and the course contents and facilities of the programme are not adequate to meet with the challenging role of the secretary

1.3  Purpose of the Study

This study was designed to determine the changing role of the secretary and its implication on the productivity secretary specially. To:

  1. Determine the traditional role of the secretary.
  2. Identify the changing role of the secretary.
  3. Evaluate how this changing role affects the training needs of the secretary.
  4. Determine the adequacy of the facilities for the training of students.
  5. To determine the relevance of these equipments to the secretary’s role.

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PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AND MORALITY REQUIRED OF SECRETARIES IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE

PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AND MORALITY REQUIRED OF SECRETARIES IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC NEKEDE

ABSTRACT

 

This study was a build up of additional information on the extensions of knowledge in the area of secretarial profession. It stipulated the professional ethics and morality required of secretaries in the Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri. Based on the observation that most secretaries are ignorant of the set of codes of conduct required of them in  carrying out their duties in office organization, this research serves as guide to both executives and to employers in recruiting their secretaries. The secretaries oftentimes are faced with difficulties that hinder them from being ethical.

It is therefore not out of place to conclude that the secretaries, though may encounter some obstacles in the bid to be ethically principled in the workplace, they should also strive hard to handle these obstacles with diplomacy as professional ethics and morals have great positive impact on the job of the secretary.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                              i

Approval                                                               ii

Dedication                                                             iii

Acknowledgement                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                v

Table of contents                                                    vi

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction                                                          1

Background of the Study                                                1

Statement of the problem                                        4

Purpose of the Study                                              5

Research Question                                                  5

Significant of the study                                           6

Scope of the Study                                                 7

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature                                      8

Ethics                                                                   8

CHAPTER THREE

Research Methodology                                             29

Research design                                                     29

Area of the study                                                    30

Population of the study                                           30

Sample of the study                                                      30

Instrument for data collection                                         31

Method of data analysis                                           32

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation and analysis of data                              33

Presentation of data                                                       33

Data Analysis                                                         33

Discussion of findings                                              45

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary of findings, Conclusion and Recommendations 46

Re-statement of problem                                         46

Summary of findings                                               47

Conclusion                                                             49

Recommendations                                                  50

Limitations of the study                                           51

References                                                      53

Appendix

Questionnaires

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       In as much as, there are acceptable natures of morality and ethical standards of a class or a society, also there exists some specific rules of conduct for the increasingly growing number of professional activities which refer to well rooted standards of right and wrong that prescribe what humans, especially the office secretaries ought to do,                   usually, in terms of rights, obligations, benefits to the society, fairness in judgment or specific rules and virtues, Richard, Donald, Arnold, Bernard, Presha (2005).

Elaborating further, they explained ethics as the system of conduct, science of morals or moral soundness which depicts a professional body and its members. By the above definition, one can simply say that ethics is a study that mould ones standard and imposes reasonable obligation on a particular class of people in order to act right. Therefore, a secretary who is indispensable has special jobs she/he performs in the organization and the level of her ethical conduct goes a long way in making him/her outstanding in the workplace. On the other hand, morality refers to an adopted code of conduct within an environment and a set of agreed upon rules for what is right and wrong. Morals have formed the spine of modern society, religion, and every individual’s conscience. For example, “murder is immoral” but on the battle field murder is permissible. In a way, morality is sync with ethics, while morality is abstract in understanding. Ethics is defined in the form of written code, Iweajunwa, Nnorom, Iheukwumere, Uteh, Obeka, (2011).

Today, many professional bodies have developed policies and professional codes for practitioners and the secretary is not exempted from such rules that govern the behaviour of professionals. These set of codes of conduct are strictly adhered to and inculcated in the discharge or conduct of these professional bodies. Professional ethics and morality play an important role in ensuring the continuity in the moral conduct development of the society. Besides, they enhance a stable code in the moral life of people especially where forces of simple moral commandments grow weaker or flat. The ethics and social behaviour as well as the interest of a secretary is certain only in the extent to which she puts into practice. The general principle of social and moral attributes adopted to the specific features of his/her profession, and the degree of her/his awareness, his/her responsibility to the performance and conduct of his/her job.

A low level of professional ethics and morality is a major destructive administrative and protracted consequence of the unwanted professionals as regards to their careers, e.g. doctors, lawyers, secretaries, engineers, accountants, teachers, etc are expected to behave in a certain way or follow specific codes of conduct in performing their jobs as this guards against their actions or behaviour towards bringing their professionals to disrepute.

Since secretaryship is a profession, it must have a set of codes of conducts expected from its practitioners. Therefore, this project discusses those professional ethics and morality which are required in the conduct of secretarial jobs to make for better performance.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Professional ethics and morality are part of the requirements for efficiency and productivity in the conduct of a secretary’s job. The secretary is required to keep the secretes of her employer and the entire organization in which she works with, as this determines her duration as a confidential secretary. The problem of this study posed as a question in line with Kelinger 1995 which asked such question as this: apart from keeping secrets and confidentiality, are there no other ethics or set of code of conduct for the professional secretary? In the bid to answer this question, this project is set to address and generate empirical data on the professional ethics and morality required in the conduct of the secretary’s job for a better performance.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY                  

              The major purpose of this study is to determine the professional ethics and morality which are required of secretaries in Federal Polytechnic Nekede, in the conduct of their job for better performance.

Specifically, the study attempts to:

  • Find out the professional ethics of a secretary
  • Evaluate the impact of code of ethics on the job of a
  • Narrate the positive and negative work ethics of a secretary.
  • Enumerate the admirable secretarial work ethics and morality .
  • Identify problems and proffer solutions as well as highlights some benefits of ethical standards and morality on the job of a secretary.

RESEARCH QUESTION

       For the objective of this research to be realized, the following questions are put forward as guide for the search. The responses received from them will be basis for the decision making in this project.

  • What are the professional ethics of a secretary?
  • What are the impacts of code of ethics on the job of a secretary?
  • What are the positive and negative work ethics of a secretary?
  • What are the admirable secretarial work ethics and morality?
  • What are the benefits of ethical standards and morality on the job of secretary?

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THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON TODAY’S BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON TODAY’S BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

ABSTRACT

The research work has been carried out to find “the impact of information and communication technology on today’s business environment”. From the research carried out, it was found out that with the help of ICT, information has been disseminated without stress. Chapter one of the research work contains the introduction, background of study, statement of problem, research questions etc.

While chapter two is the literature review, chapter three contains the research methodology, chapter four presentations and interpretation of data. Finally chapter five contains the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page-      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      – i

Approval page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      -ii

Dedication –    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      -iii

Acknowledgement –       –      –      –      –      –      –      -iv

Abstract –       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      -v

Table of content –   –      –      –      –      –      –      -vi

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION –   –      –      –      –      –      –      -1

1.0  Background of the study –     –      –      –      -1

1.1  Statement of the problem –   –      –      –      -5

1.2  Purpose of the study –   –      –      –      –      -6

1.3  Significance of the study –     –      –      –      -8

1.4  Research questions –      –      –      –      –      -9

1.5  Scope of the study –      –      –      –      –      –      -10

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW –   –      –      –      –      –      -11

General Impact of information and communication

Technology in respect to its existence – –      –      -12

Level of knowledge / skills needed by the undergraduates

In the area of information and communication tech -21

Hindrance to technology and learning information

Communication technology – –      –      –      –      -25

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology – –      –      –      –      –      -39

Design of study –    –      –      –      –      –      –      -40

Area of study –       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      -40

Population of the study –       –      –      –      –      –      -41

Sample and sampling techniques – –      –      –      -41

Instrument for data collection –     –      –      –      -41

Method of data collection –    –      –      –      –      -42

Method of data analysis –      –      –      –      –      –      -43

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data –       -48

Discussion of findings –  –      –      –      –      –      -56

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary of findings –   –      –      –      –      –      -60

Conclusion –    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      -61

Recommendations –       –      –      –      –      –      –      -62

Suggestions for further research – –      –      –      -64

References –   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      -65

Appendix I –    –      –      –      —    –      –      –      -68

Questionnaire. –     –      –      –      –      –      –      -69

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In this fast growing and moving world faced with globalization, the core of economic development today depends on knowledge and technology but successful economic excel at generating and disseminating knowledge, as well as exploiting it.

Technology is the engine that change transforms resources based economy to knowledge – based economy. But at the macro level, technology enables national leverage in the modern world and it brings about wealth and better welfare for the people.

In as much as development is concerned, this is now a new trend of religion that is sweeping across the world like a wild fine in both length and breath and hereby transforming across the entire world as a global unit. Information and communication technology (ICT), the information and communication technology (ICT) has been defined by many elites from different perspectives thus, Lacy (1990) defined it as term involving the process of acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of local pictorial textual and numeric information.

Information and communication technology (ICT) is not merely seen as hardware development but also as software, which is advantageous in the changing works, attitude to work, in establishing efficiency in business transaction, in achieving efficiency in communication, increasing profits in creating new jobs and effective in mass education, Ohakwe (2001).

Information Technology (ICT) has applications in almost all spheres of human endeavours. Akpore (2005) states that developing suitable economy through information technology implies that applying information and communication technology in all the main sectors of the economy hence the world is transiting from being a resource based one into a knowledge based one. Such natural resources can provide as much s it can be realized from the output of a society that has truly become a knowledge – based society. Sadly enough, our schools. The (learning environment is a shadow of itself in terms of quality and quantity of items of information and communication technology) the result being that we are using yesterday’s knowledge, skills abilities and competencies in this era.

Consequently, the introduction and use of such technologies in communication and information such as internet, computers, micro-electronics, telecommunication tools as the email, e-commerce, e-banking just to mention but a few, even many educators and students in higher institutions are yet to be in abreast with some of these soft and hardware. What an education tragedy. (Ohakwe 2001). Recently, in e-learning, that is electronic learning, project embarked by Zinox Technology across 40 institutions of higher learning with the aim to train Nigerian undergraduates to international acceptable students.

Coming to the heels of computerizing, Nigeria thereby taking this venture to all the nook and crannies of this country, hence the establishment of information and communication technology parks in institutions of higher education with Imo State inclusive therefore, it becomes increasing to determine the information and communication technology in today’s business environment in Imo State.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The information and communication technology (ICT) as a new trend in linking several African university to the global village with ultra modern world class information and communication technology tool is aimed at capacity building, youth empowerment, expert information and technology skills in the country and in the long run as a lunch pad from attracting global out-sourcing opportunities for Nigerians with graduates in particular.

Therefore, this approach towards capacity building as an effective model to bring training, technology and digital access to people within these geographical education and the need for effective global competitiveness. But in higher institution in Imo state, especially the universities polytechnics, this approach towards capacity building seems to be a far coy. As much information and communication technology (ICT) is not seen either to be talked about or thought, its existence and usage among the students are nothing to write home about. Even the skills required in the application is very shaking on its foundation thereby using the yesterday’s knowledge abilities, competence in today’s educational sector. Therefore, learning their undergraduates grouping as far as modern and the things t information and communication technology (ICT) is concerned.

Based on the foregoing, the researcher was motivated on ascertain the information and communication.

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ELECTRONIC OFFICE EQUIPMENT USED BY SECRETARIES IN MODERN BUSINESS OFFICES IMPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT OF SECRETARIES

ELECTRONIC OFFICE EQUIPMENT USED BY SECRETARIES IN MODERN BUSINESS OFFICES IMPLICATIONS FOR EMPLOYMENT OF SECRETARIES.

ABSTRACT

This study examined the Electronic Office Equipment used by secretaries in modern Office. The purpose of this study is to determine the electronic factors that give secretaries and thereby enhance job performance and efficiency. Three (3) research questions guided the study. The respondents were 50 secretarial staff. Data c0ollected were analyzed using mean score of 3.00 and above.

Base on these. Conclusion were reached which include  that electronic Office equipment  of secretaries  through  provision  of good working condition and  provision  of office equipment,  machinery and infrastructural facilities will greatly result in efficient job performance  of  secretaries should be employed by organizing training and retaining exercises.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page——————————————-       i

Approval Page————————————– ii

Dedication——————————————-      iii

Acknowledgements———————————       iv

Table of contents———————————–       v

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction———————————– 1

1.1  Background of the study——————— 1

1.2  Statement of the problem——————–       6

1.3  Purpose of the study————————–       7

1.4  Significance of the study———————-      8

1.5  Research Questions—————————       9

1.6  Scope of the study—————————-       10

CHAPTER TWO

  • Review of related Literature—————-  11

2.1  Electronic used by secretaries———–             11

2.2  Electronic equipment in today’s office–       29

2.3  Summary of literature review———-         38

CHAPTER THREE

  • Introduction——————————- 41

3.1  Design of the study———————–            41

3.2  Area of the study————————-             42

3.3  Population———————————            42

3.4  Sample and sampling technique———             43

3.5  Instrument of data collection————-            43

3.6  Method of data collection—————–            44

3.7  Method of data analysis——————             44

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation and analysis of data——        45

4.1  Introduction——————————             45

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Conclusion——————————- 54

5.1  Recommendation————————              56

5.2  References——————————-              57

5.3  Appendix———————————              59

5.4  Questionnaire—————————-              60

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The tremendous innovation in office equipment in the last few decades has caused revolutionary changes in both the nature of office work and the role of secretaries. Whitehead (1981).  This electronic office equipment innovation which are maintained  in  the  one  of computer telecommunication and information  technology  posed  a lot  of challenges to secretaries in modern business  offices. The modern business office is advanced with the use of new machines like computer for machines, electronic typewriters, word processors, telex, teletypewriters, photocopies, telecommunication equipment. These machines make up modern business offices and of skillfully utilized by secretaries, organization goals will be achieved.

Greater success has been achieved through the use of these electronic office equipment by secretaries depending on their ability to operate them. A secretary who was trained with manual typewriter is faced with the word perfect or computer in modern business office. Modern business office expert secretary to master the use of modern office equipment in view of the modern trend, Nwosu (1999).

Typewriter is the most commonly used in offices before electric typewriter was developed. The standard (18 inches) model of the manual typewriter is designed on quota, foolscap or A4 sizes of papers. Some typewriter are  pica  or bold characters which  have ten  letters on an inch or 250mm while some  are elite  or small characters which  have twelve  letters on the inch or 25mm. The manual typewriter are operated by hand, the keys are struck so that the required printers are made on the paper. Electronic-typewriters was developed and may office was equipped with it because of the advantages they have over the manual machines. The secretary exerts less physical effort and can type for much longer period than she could on the manual typewriter. Onasany (1990).

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CAUSES AND REMEDIES TO JOB DISSATISFACTION AMONG SECRETARIES IN SELECTED PRIVATE AND GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENTS

CAUSES AND REMEDIES TO JOB DISSATISFACTION AMONG SECRETARIES IN SELECTED PRIVATE AND GOVERNMENT ESTABLISHMENTS

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                     i

Approval page                                               ii

Dedication                                                    iii

Acknowledgment                                           iv

Abstract                                                       v

Table of content                                            vi

Chapter one

  • Introduction 1
    • Background of the study
    • Statement of the problems 4
    • Purpose pf the study 5
    • Research questions 6
    • Significance of the study 6
    • Scope of the study 7

Chapter two

  • Review of related literature 8
    • The concept of dissatisfaction
    • Lack of modern office facilities in organizations 11
    • Effect of uncomfortable environments 13
    • Some minor jobs which secretaries are

reduced to undertake by their bosses      14

  • Adequate languages secretaries lack that limit

their jobs                                           16

  • Summary of literature reviewed 18

Chapter three

  • Research methodology 20
    • Design of the study 20
    • Area of the study 20
    • Population of the study 21
    • Sample/sampling techniques 21
    • instrument for data collection 21
    • Method of data collection 23
    • Method of data analysis 23
    • Decision rule 24

Chapter four

  • Presentation and analysis of data 25
    • Research question 1 25
    • Research question 2 28
    • Research question 3 29
    • Research question 4 31
    • Research question 5 32
    • Discussion of findings 34

Chapter five

  • Summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations 37
    • Restatement of the problems 37
    • Summary of findings 38
    • Conclusion 40
    • Recommendations 41
    • limitation of the study 42
    • Implication for further research 43
    • Suggestion for further research 44

References                                              45

Appendix I                                               47

Appendix II                                           52

Appendix III                                         54

Appendix IV                                          55

Appendix V                                           56

Appendix VI                                          57

ABSTRACT

This research work was deigned to find out the causes and remedies to job dissatisfaction among secretaries in selected private and government establishments in Imo state. Seventy (70) of the secretaries were used as the sample of the study. The instrument for data collection used was the questionnaire, which consists of 5 research questions. The result of the study showed that job dissatisfaction emanated from secretary’s job relationship and environment and have a lot of effects to secretaries but could be managed when a clear job descriptions and definition are made. Conclusions were based on the result of the findings while recommendations were proffered based on the conclusions drawn from the findings.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

The dream of every establishment is to achieve its set out goals, therefore, employers need secretaries who will give them the best of their services and the secretaries also need to employers who will satisfy their purpose of employment.

Whenever this set out goal and objective are lacking , it result to job dissatisfaction.

Okereke (2003) stated that, may boss? Today do not realise that  the secretarial service go a long way in helping them perform their duty. They felt that they can work effectively without the secretary. This bring about anxiety and dissatisfaction to some secretaries hence  they would want to change to other profession.

Therefore, a secretary is supposed to be provided with an atmosphere that would encourage and stimulate maximum efficiency and satisfaction. The  average secretaries will be happy to have  their area of  responsibility and authorities overlapped because of lack of proper definition, it creates unnecessary conflicts, stress and dissatisfaction which retard productivity in any establishment.

Isiaku (2009), stated that offices and its appearance, condition of work, job security, materials available and their location, medical care, relationship among the members of staff, the employee remuneration and other social welfare are recognized to be the main element in every organisation.

The nature of work environment invariably, has direct effect on the morale and states of healthy of secretary, hence his general performance in the discharge of his duties is highly determined by office environment.

Secretary as the image of every organisation needs to be motivated in intrinsic and extrininsic measure.

Ohakwe(2012), was of the view that motivation is an inner drive that activate actions. In a work situation, where motivation is lacking, one would expect secretaries to dislike their work, avoid responsibility, have no interest in organisational goal, resist change, thus creating a self –fulfilling properly which result in job dissatisfaction.

  • Statements of the Problem

A secretary is someone to whom an absolute confidence is reposed on and who is expected to carry out his duty effectively with no or less supervision. He is the image projector of very organisation in both  private and Government establishment.

It was found out that secretaries are been felt dissatisfied when there  needs are not met, Therefore there is concerted effort by the Government and the organised private sector  to enhance the performance of secretary by dictating those factors that result in Jib dissatisfaction. Is the dissatisfaction as a result of uncomfortable environment or human error was it lack of adequate language. Is it lack of modern office equipment.

  • Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to determine the causes and remedies to job dissatisfaction among secretaries in selected private and government establishments in Imo state specifically, this study will attempt to:

  1. Discuss the concept of dissatisfaction
  2. Identify those facilities secretaries lack in the organization.
  3. Determine the uncomfortable environments where secretaries are kept in some organizations.
  4. Identify various menial jobs which secretaries are reduced to undertake by their bosses.
  5. Identify those adequate languages secretaries lack that limit their jobs in the offices.
  6. Identify those human error that limit secretaries to perform so effectively.

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DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED BY SECRETARIES IN HANDLING MODERN OFFICE EQUIPMENTS

DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED BY SECRETARIES IN HANDLING MODERN OFFICE EQUIPMENTS

ABSTRACT

This research is aimed at evaluating the difficulties encountered by secretaries in handling Modern office equipments.

It focused on the difficulties in modern office equipments operation, the extent to which the secretary can overcome the problems. Also it looks at the training, skills and knowledge required by secretaries in operating, maintaining, controlling, handling modern office equipment, and also the problem of power supply in operating these equipments.

Based on the result of the analysis, the secretaries find it difficult to operate the modern office equipments due to lack of training, skill acquisition and epileptic power supply. Lack of maintenance technology is also a problem faced by the secretary.

Finally, it looks at the solutions and recommendations to these problems faced by the secretaries.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the study——————– 1

1.2   Statement of the Problem——————–        5

1.3   Purpose of the study————————–        8

1.4   Research Question—————————-        9

1.5   Significance of the Study———————        9

1.6   Scope of the study—————————-        10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1   The various kinds of office Equipment——–       12

2.2   The need for functionality of the Equipment–      13

2.3   To ascertain if the equipment are Adequate–       17

2.4   The skills required by secretaries in

operating the Equipments——————- 18

2.5   Problems encountered by secretaries

in handling The Equipments—————– 19

2.6   Summary of literature reviewed————- 20

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Design of the study————————— 22

3.2   Area of the study——————————        23

3.3   Population of the study————————       23

3.4   Sample and sampling Techniques————       23

3.5   Description of Instrument———————       24

3.6   Method of data collection———————-       25

3.7   Method of data Analysis———————–       25

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

  • Research Question 1————————— 26

4.2   Research Question 2—————————       28

4.3   Research Question 3————————–        29

4.4   Research Question 4————————–        32

4.5   Research Question 5————————–        33

4.6   Discussions of Findings———————–        34

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION REFERENCE

5.1   Summary of Finds—————————–       37

5.2   Conclusion————————————-       38

5.3   Recommendations—————————–       39

5.4   Area of further Research———————-        41

Appendix 1

References———————————— 42

Appendix   2

Transmitted Letter—————————-        44

Appendix   3

Questionnaire———————————        45

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

Hicks (1964) described office as a central place where all vital information to economic growth of any organization are processed.  From the above definition, it is understood that office is the place where actions on all the organizational decisions are implemented.  The office is also seen as a place where work in relation with the preparation and furnishing of information is done.  It is also defined as a place where all clerical and administration functions are carried out in order to co-ordinate and control the affairs of the whole establishment.  Azuka (1991) defined it as a place where management functions such as planning, staffing, controlling and motivating activities are carried out for the achievement of the statutory objective of the organization.  It may be open or close type depending on the pattern and type chosen by the management of the organization. On the other hand, office machines and equipments are those tools used by the management to accomplish those managerial functions vested in an office for effective and efficient performance of the organization.

Denger (1998) stated that the mechanization of office which dates back to twentieth century had since become increasingly the importance of any office activities .He maintained that office machines extended from ordinary office stapling machines to computers.  The office equipments range from office pins to electronic computers.  The office tools are used to carry out office function.  The above definitions have made it extremely difficult to generalize office machines and equipment.  Office machines and equipments generally are labour saving devices used in the office to enhance the efficiency of methods of producing management information.  Ahukannah (2002).

From the above definition, it is understood that office machines and mechanization is the process of introducing machines and equipments in order to facilitate the functions of an organization with the sole aim of increasing productivity and discouragement of frauds.  It is also aimed at knowing or identifying the importance of the modern office machines and equipments in the performance of the day-to-day activities of an organization.

Ohakwe (2002).  Advised that attempt should be made to look at the office. Furthermore, the secretary’s works in a dynamic environment packed full with conflicting situations and instructions so much that no two days are exactly the same.  The conflicting decisions and instructions crops up all the time demanding or needing prompt attention and decision.   Secretary is a vital person in the administrative machinery that working with an out-modeled and un-serviced machines can make the job unattractive and the secretary unproductive and inefficient.

Kanu (2001), the secretary is an important personnel and a public relation expert on the business world; and that the work in an organization can not improve or prosper with the absence of the secretary and her ability to handle modern office equipments.  The secretary is the back-bone of any organization, thus, she is also important to the organization because of her ability to remain calm under extra-ordinary conditions of the work pressures and human demand.  This view of the secretary’s functions are archaic one in view of the changes that have taken place in her training and her  job, but one might ask “is there anything so unique about  the secretary and her ability in handling medium office  equipments.?”  The answer is “Yes”.,  the secretary  besides being an official who is in charge of correspondence  or records or confidential personnel should be able to know how to operate the modern  office equipments ranging from type-writers to  computers.  It is hoped that at the end of this study, its will provide or identify the problems facing the secretary in handling modern office equipments.

1.2   Statement of the Problems

Although the main purpose of office automation is to increase office productivity and quality of products, these significant transformation may involve an element of risk to the secretary as well as affecting her performance.  The secretary has to be aware and

prepared for these.  Ahukannah (2000) stated that the cause of one of the problems militating against automation of office, many firms that could use automated systems effectively may not have the resources that match their demands.  Inadequate training and skills requirement is another problem associated with automatics.  It is difficult to get and retain the services of qualified operators, office automation functions will work well in environment where electricity supply is constant.  Some of these automated machines  cannot function in the observe of electricity because  power supply in Nigeria is unreliable, generators ought to be provided but the cost  is much and  not every organization that are willing or desire  can afford the amount for it.  Consistent use of machine can be monotonous to a worker, shifting initiative and creativity since every duty is routinized and this renders work uninteresting.

Due to availability of various type and models of office machines and equipment in the market, nowadays, one finds sit difficult to make a choice due to it’s sophisticated in choosing a suitable machines and equipments.  One of the factors in choosing any office equipment is the type of work for which it is needed for.  For instance, a printing company that specialized in the production of scientific text-books should prefer a computer has all the required scientific signs or symbols needed for their production.

Elendu (1983) advised that the following factors should be taken into consideration when choosing any office machines.  The required work and the manner of accomplishing it whether the employees (other users)

Have a special performance for a particular machine and the cost implication of the equipment.

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PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF MARRIED FEMALE OFFICE MANAGERS IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT BANK)

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF MARRIED FEMALE OFFICE MANAGERS IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT BANK)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGES

Title Page                                                                                                                i

Approval Sheet                                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                    iv

Table of Content                                                                                                     v

Abstract / preface                                                                                                   vi

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                                    1       

  • Introduction 1-3

1.1       Statement of the problem                                                                                     3-4

1.2       Objective of the Study                                                                                4

1.3       Research Questions                                                                                    5-6

1.4       Significant of Study                                                                                    6

1.5       Scope of Study                                                                                           6

CHAPTER TWO                                                                                                    7

Literature Review                                                                                                   7-19

CHAPTER THREE                                                                                                         20

Research methodology                                                                                           20-25

CHAPTER FOUR                                                                                                  26

Data Presentation and Analysis                                                                             26-30

CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                                    31

Summary of Finding                                                                                                        32

Conclusion and Recommendation                                                                          33-34

Appendix                                                                                                               35

References                                                                                                              36

ABSTRACT

  This study focuses on the problems and prospects of married female office managers in business organizations. The population consisted of thirty (30) office. Managers in various selected organization. In these organizations 30 respondent were used for analysis. The questionnaire was the instant used for data collection. A mean distribution table was used to analyze the data collected. The data collected should that married female office managers faced the problem of combining official duties with domestic responsibilities and the problem of sexual harassment by their bosses, amongst others. In the cause of the above findings recommended were made based on the research findings which revolved around creating a cordial working relationship between the office managers and his/her boss, colleagues and subordinates.

Finally, it was recommended that married female office managers should not be distracted by family affairs. She should develop an act of mechanism which concentrates her on the work as soon as she enters the office and should not let domestic affairs to intrude.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

This topic intends to look into the problem and prospects of married female office manager do not accomplish or complete favorable with their single counterparts in business organization.

Many think that married female office manager are official wives to their bosses are more or less being misused by men subjective thinking. Married female office manager have chances of advancement to higher position in their organization. They perform creditably well when compared with their unmarried counterparts. They are trained professional office managers and can use the experience and training to the best advantages when attending to visitors, directing subordinators or relating to colleagues in the business organization they also maintain very good relationships with bosses.

WHO IS AN OFFICE MANAGER

An office manager is a staff  or executive responsible for the smooth operation of day-to-day business of the company. Here also make it possible for other people to functions effectively and efficiently, he works closely with company partners, owners or president to meet there companies set objectives. Office manager perform the following functions:- Photocopying document, searching for information, retrieving information, arranging meetings, maintaining financial record, preparing out going mails, accommodating costumers, composing letters and memorandum, maintaining files and data bases to maintain but a few. With all the above listed duties or functions of an office manager many people begin to doubt the possibility of married female office manager adapt to the situation. A married female office manager faces with two things which are her marital responsibility and office work. In the domestic the married office manager must additional take care of the house or her house and fulfill her marital obligation. She have to give full service or take care of her children and husband. Given the amount of domestic responsibility of a problem of combining the services of her boss and services to her family. An office manager might be required to travel with her boss for conferences and board meetings, but when the married female office manager is involved, some problems are encountered as it is not easy for her to have her family being, as she travels with the boss and leaving the office at the peak time.

According to Njoku C.U and Nwosu A.N. (2010) some of the problems encountered by married female office manager may be inherited in todays office while some include those emanating from her boss, visitors and other staff of organizations.

Those problems inherited  in today’s office may be the nature of the work. A honest married female office manager will find it very difficult to cope with the challenges of the office work more especially when it comes to traveling with her boss. And again during pregnancy she is most likely to find it difficult to carryout her responsibilities. Given all these responsibilities, a married female office manager in a chosen business organization has a number of problems to encounter.

Married female office manager are misused and underutilized. They are been given jobs that normally meant for their inferiors or subordinates they are not motivated and again they are not regularly promoted and at the same time not rewarded by their employers. They are not provided with adequate equipment therefore, this research probes into the causes of this problem.

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IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL AND COMMUNICATION SKILL NEEDED BY A SECRETARY IN TODAY’S WORLD

IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL AND COMMUNICATION SKILL NEEDED BY A SECRETARY IN TODAY’S WORLD

Abstract

The researcher aimed at identification, technological and communication skills needed by secretaries in today’s world. The work is divided into five chapters the first chapter worked. Into the background of the study, statement of the study, purpose of the study, significance of the study, research question, and scope of the study. The chapter two talked about  review of related literature, on office information and communication system skill needed by secretaries in today’s business and authors name. The chapter three aimed of finding the solution to some specific problems. The research design and methodology  of the study, area of the study, population of the study, sample technique  instrument of data collection,  validation of the instrument, method of data collection, method  of data analysis. The chapter four present the data collected in the course of the  research  not is the  data presentation analysis  and discussion of findings. In chapter five, the whole chapter was by marine, were drawn. It was concluded that officer managers are required to acquire Technology Communication skill in order to handle their duties effectively. Based on this, some recommendation were made.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page                                                        i

Dedication

Acknowledgement                                            iii

Abstract                                                               iv

Table Content                                                  v

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Background of the study                                           1

Statement of problem                                       6

Purpose of the study                                         7

Research question                                            8

Significant of the study                                     9

Scope of the study                                           10

CHAPTER TWO

Review of related literature                                 12

telecommunication skills                                           15

telecommunication equipment                                 16

Compute /word processing skills                        19

Internet relay chart (IRC)                                  23

Video Conferencing skills                                   24

Summary of related literature review                  26

CHAPTER THREE

Research Methodology and Design                        28

Design of the study                                                   29

Area of the study                                               29

Population of the study                                       29

Instrument for data collection                                    30

Validation of the instrument                                31

Sampling of technique                                        31

Method of data collection                                   31

Method of data analysis                                      32

CHAPTER FOUR

Data presentation analysis                                33

Research question 1                                               33

Research question 2                                               35

Research question 3                                                37

Research question 4                                               39

Research question 5                                               41

Discussion of finding                                         44

 CHAPTER FIVE

Summary of finding                                         50

Conclusion                                                       52

Recommendation                                              54

Reference                                                        56

Appendix                                                         59

CHAPTER ONE

              INTRODUCTION

       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The technology today has greatly improved as well as widened both in meaning  and in scope by constant improvements  in the  field of technology  unlike in the by gone years. Offices are now equipped with how modern electronic machine.

At the turn of the century most written information was compiled by hand, in pen and ink, copies were made by hand, a communication was by letter, telegraph or in person. Today most of the  tedious  functions related to information handling  and processing  and done through the  computer and telecommunication systems, these systems have evolved to the point where a manager can be in touch with his  business  form his or her home, car or in mid-flight

Managing communication is one of the most challenging tasks facing most business offices today, be it private public, government or multi-national corporations. Recants innovations information technology have necessitated  the need for constant review of  new technical  method and equipment in information  processing. This  will also  result in constant review of our information  processing  system. This new innovations should help keep the business  information  system current and every accurate  so that quality  decisions can be made at every level.

Today, the outcome of technology is newspaper less  office occasioned by office information and communication system  with the tools of information  and communication system such as E-mail, internet,  fax telex, telephone, world wide web (www) and  video conferencing the etc. office and services  have  become much easier, faster, and satisfaction  the world has  turned  into a computer age,  through the element of office  information and  communication system. It was and is still the key enabler  to this new way of working  that has  transformed the landscape  of todays business  Umunnah, 2003.

In the view of O. bring (2002) office information and communication system is the use of microelectronic equipment for processing information and communication. Information  and communication system is the  discipline encompassing  computer systems, telecommunication  networks and  multi- media application, little wonder Ojukwu and Ojukwu, (2002) defined the term as the acquisition  processing, storage, and dissemination.  Of vocal pictorial textual and numerical information by microelectronic based on combination of computing and telecommunication. Office information and communication system are advantageous in changing workers attitude to work especially the secretaries in establishing efficiency in communication, in profit, in operating new jobs and effective in mass education. In deed, office work would have been cumber some and organization goals and objective unattainable without the tools of office information and communication system.

There is need that current development in the area of office information and communication system, should be investigated with view of identifying skills that should be infused onto  today’s secretaries.

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FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SECRETARIES IN IMO STATE CIVIL SERVICE (A CASE STUDY OF MINISTRIES OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY AND, EDUCATION)

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE OF SECRETARIES IN IMO STATE CIVIL SERVICE (A CASE STUDY OF MINISTRIES OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY AND, EDUCATION)

ABSTRACT

This research work was carried out to find out factors that affects the effective performance of secretaries in Imo State.

The population of this study was 50 secretaries employed in the Imo State Civil service. 30 secretaries were sampled from the different categories. Questionnaires was administered to the respondents and returned. The data collected were analyzed using a 4 points likert scale and mean score. 5 research questions were used to guide the study. The researcher found out those factors that affects the effective performance of secretaries is the major factors that stabilize organizational goals. Recommendations were made based on the findings, which would help secretaries to perform very well in the organizations

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page    –  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      i

Certification –  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      ii

Approval page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

Dedication   –  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      iii

Acknowledgement –       –      –      –      –      –      –      –            iv

Abstract      –  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      v

Table of contents    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      vi

CHAPTER I

1.0 Introduction     –      –      –      –      –      –      –

1.2 Background of the study  –      –

1.3 Statement of the problem       –      –      –      –

1.4 Purpose of the study –      –      –      –      –      –

1.5 Significance of the study  –      –      –      –      –

1.6 Research question    –      –      –      –      –      –

1.7 Delimitations    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

CHAPTER II

2.0 Review of Related Literature    –      –      –      –

2.1 Factors that affect the performance of secretaries –

2.2 Adequate incentives available to the secretaries

2.3 Modern office equipment available for effective training of the secretaries

2.4 The Remuneration for the Secretaries     –      –      –

2.5 The organizational Value of the Secretaries    –      –

2.6 The Physical and Socio-Political Environment of the place  –

2.7 Summary of Related Literature Review   –      –      –

CHAPTER III

3.0 Research Methodology     –      –      –      –      –

3.1Design of the study          –      –      –      –      –

3.2 Area of the study            –      –      –      –      –

3.3 Population of the study    –      –      –      –      –

3.4 Sample and sampling techniques    –      –      –

3.5 Instrument for data collection –      –      –      –

3.6 Method of data collection        –      –      –      –

3.7 Method of data analysis          –      –      –      –

CHAPTER IV

4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis       –      –      –

4.1 Data Analysis    –      –      –      –      –      –      –

4.2 Discussion of Findings     –      –      –      –      –

CHAPTER V

5.0 Summary of findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary findings    –      –      –      –      –      –

5.2 Conclusion       –      –      –      –      –      –      –

5.3 Recommendation     –      –      –      –      –      –

5.4 Suggestion for further study   –      –      –      –

5.5 References       –      –      –      –      –      –      –

5.6 Appendix   –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

Questionnaire –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Ministries of Commerce and Industry and , Ministries of Education is indeed  among the best ministries in Imo state Civil Service that propels the development of Imo state. Vision without action remains merely a dream and it is a vision with action that brings hope and succor to the society, it is the role of management to transform vision into reality. In Imo State Civil service is the management arm of government, and if the civil service performs below the standard expected of them, all the dream and vision will be in vein.

According to Olusanya (1997:3) even the secretary who is looked upon as the pivot of any organization cannot perform effectively in the government ministry.

To achieve growth in the organizational setup, the management required people who are creative, so as to assist the various organizational heads in turning their priorities into concrete realities. This can only be done if people who are involved in the skill of co-ordinating the development of people, information resources and technology. People who play the role of linking their bosses and the outsiders, by dealing with businesses that are transacted over telephone, manage and co-ordinate the executives appointments and prepare, preserve and transmits all types of communication and are ready to keep accurate and up to date records and information are employed. By virtue of his training, the secretaries are expected to posses mastery of the office skills (Ohakwe 2005).

This according to the National Secretary Association is that what makes an efficient secretary. In our present day office, the secretarial staff performs an important role in the realization of organizational goals and objectives. The occupies a leading role position in the operating and functioning of the organization. The secretary in any organization is of great importance as they embraces and cut across every sphere in life of the organization. They must ensure efficient use of resources and at the same time, the long time effectiveness in a changing environment, including being able to ensure flexibility and adaptability necessary for changes to be achieved. In this era of information and communication technology, the secretary should be compliant and keep at pace with all the changes around then, since change is a constant thing. Okoye (2000) stated that secretaries are important members of the management team in business, industries, government, education, communication media and other areas of human endeavours. This implies that secretaries duties are mult-dimensional and they occupies a strategic and challenging positions in the organization. Their ability to perform creditably or not, depends on a long way to make the business of the organizations.

Despite the roles and importance of the secretarial staff in an organization, there are also some factors which are militating against the performance of secretaries in an organization, particularly of secretaries in an organization, particularly, the Ministries of Commerce and Industry and, Ministries of Education . These factors make it difficult for the secretary staff to meet up the demands by the organization. Secretarial profession is being erroneously relegated to the background, probably due to varied opinions attached to it by some un-informed people.

There is therefore the need to systematically investigate dominant problems posing threat to effective performance of secretaries in Ministries of Commerce and Industry and , Ministries of Education . Against this background, the question is, what factors are responsibly for ineffective performance of secretaries in the Ministries of Commerce and Industry and , Ministries of Education

Statement of the Problem    

In every organization, the secretary’s looked upon as the administrative live wire, the hob and the image maker. According to Elendu (1990:2). This because of the important role they played in the realization of the organization goals and objectives. Over the years, however, most secretaries have failed to measure up with the demand by organizations as they are seen to be inefficient and ineffective in the performance of the roles expected of them.

Due to the innovations of computers of various designs with different operating systems. Most secretaries have also failed in their job performance, since they are not acquired knowledge in various fields of study and they still find it difficult to adapt to changes.

The researcher is therefore, spurred into carrying out this study to know what could affect the effective performance of the secretaries in the selected ministries in Owerri, Imo State capital, in order to determine whether this ugly trend contributed to the quality of their training, socio-political and organizational environment.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to discover those factors associated with the performance of the secretaries in the Ministries of Commerce and Industry and , Ministries of Education

Specifically, the study attempted to:

  1. Identify the factors that affect the performance of secretaries
  2. Determine the type of equipment and level of their adequacy for the effective performance of secretaries.
  3. Determine the difficulties encountered by secretaries in the operation of the equipments.
  4. Determine the place of secretaries in terms of their physical and social-political environment.

Significance of the Study

The main objectives of this study is to determine the factors that affect the performance of secretaries in the  Ministries of Commerce and Industry and , Ministries of Education especially in Nigeria and also make suggestions to solutions that will ensure that these factors doesn’t affect the performance of secretaries negatively, but improve the positive performance of the secretaries.

This research will be beneficial to the students of school of business and management technology in Federal Polytechnic, Nekede towards improving their performance, such that, they will not be affected in the practice of their professions. The study will also enable institutions of higher learning to engage in the training of future secretaries and administrators to enrich their course in the training of effective performance.

This study will help in identifying the factors that affect the performance of secretaries both positively and negatively in the organization, especially secretaries in Imo State Civil Service. It will also be a source of information that researcher will rely on in future. However, this research will provide additional information that researchers need, that will extends the frontier of knowledge in secretaries profession as well as education. It is expected tat if the findings from the research is applied, it will go a long way to affect the performance of secretaries positively.

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EMPLOYER’S EXPECTATIONS OF SECRETARIES IN AN AGE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) DRIVEN BUSINESS OFFICES IN OWERRI

EMPLOYER’S EXPECTATIONS OF SECRETARIES IN AN AGE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) DRIVEN BUSINESS OFFICES IN OWERRI

ABSTRACT

This, study focuses on employers’ expectations of secretaries in an age of ICT driven business offices in Owerri. Four research questions were used as a guide to the study.. The target population used for the study was 26 employers from some selected private and public business offices in Owerri. The sample of the study was the same as the population because the population was very small in order to avoid sampling bias. In carrying out this study the survey research method, which makes use of questionnaire as the main instrument for data collection was adopted. The data collected was analyzed using mean, mean score of 3.00 and above was considered relevant,, while mean score of below 3.00 were considered not relevant and four-likert scale. Analysis showed that secretaries should strive hard to fit into the current age of ICT to, meet the expectations of employers’. After-analyzing the data obtained it was found that; employers’ are highly selective on competent secretaries who have good communicative skill. Based on the findings it was concluded that since ICT innovation era poses a lot of challenges to both prospective and practicing secretaries, the prospective secretaries should strive to develop themselves to suite the expectations of employers’ in an age of ICT driven business offices. It was recommended that institutions of higher learning should introduce the use of modern ICT equipment in their training course curriculum in order to produce well-groomed secretaries who would keep the academic name of the institutions to high esteem.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page—————————————————i

Approval page———————————————-ii

Dedication————————————————–iii

Acknowledgment——————————————-iv

Abstract—————————————————–v

Table of content——————————————–vi

 

Chapter one

Background of the study———————————-1

Statement of the problem———————————6

Significance of the study———————————-7

Research questions—————————————-8

scope of the study—————————————–9

Chapter two

Review of related literature——————————-10

ICT innovation———————————————10

Types of ICT equipments———————————-12

Information and communication technology

Office a secretary needs for performance of her

duties——————————————————-13

Training programmes available for secretaries———–20

Format for training secretaries—————————-20

Functional training models——————————–23

Types of off-the job training——————————24

Types of modern office environment———————25

Summary of literature review—————————-28

Chapter three

Methodology———————————————-30

Research design——————————————30

Area of the study—————————————–30

Instrument for data collection—————————31

Validity of the instrument——————————–32

Method of data collection——————————–33

Chapter four

Presentation and data analysis————————–34

Discussion of the findings——————————-40

Chapter five

Summary, conclusion and recommendations———-42

Summary of findings————————————42

Conclusion———————————————–43

Recommendation—————————————-44

Areas and suggestion for further research————-45

References———————————————–46

Appendix 1———————————————–49

Appendix II———————————————–53

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 Background of the study

The world of business is changing rapidly as a result of new development in- information and communication technological offices. The business scene is moving very fast. There is remarkable departure: from traditional office machines like manual typewriter, Grammar-phones .and other stereotypes office machines to electronic information communication system like the computer, internet, electronic typewriter, fax dictating machines etc.

Information and communication technological offices can be regarded as the modern office where all the equipment is electronic. As it is widely acknowledged secretaries provide unseen, yet broad shoulders in which most ICT offices in Owerri Urban stands. Secretaries are the prospective walls and gates along the corridors and within the secret chambers of power. In this age of information and communication technology, the role of secretaries of all types are assuming greater significance and those secretaries with analogue typing and shorthand skills will be thrown off-balance Nwosu (1999).

Moreover, with regards to the employers’ expectations of secretaries, the secretaries therefore have been surrounded with challenges of varying degrees and dimensions. She is beset with diverse challenges if she lacks the knowledge of information and communication technology (1.CT) as it is an umbrella term that Includes any communication device or application, including Radio, Television, Cellular phone, Computer and network, hardware and software satellite and so on Osuala (1998).

According to the European commission, the importance of ICT lies less in the technology itself but in its ability to create greater access to information and communication.  The modern age secretary in offices will not only excel in present duties but also explore   and   add   new   ideas   to   their   work.   This   will therefore be interwoven with the work of every other person in the organization. The standard of work done by them will not be affected” to a great extent that the employers will attach little or no importance to the values of their secretaries expectations perhaps their ability to fit in to an age of information and communication. technology. Information and communication technological advancement therefore involve a change in   the methodology of secretarial duties from manual or semi-mechanical means to purely mechanized and digitalized processes. Automation is the mechanization of secretarial and office functions, that is to say that technology involves the use of the machines, how, and when to use them. Information and communication technology means the application of automated systems in the execution of clerical and secretarial processes. Technological systems are self-sufficient in that they are self propelled and operated with a minimum of human efforts Osuala,(1998).

However, information and communication technology is a convergence of tools of microelectronic, telecommunication and computers. This equipment helps o revolutionaries every aspect of secretarial functions. These machines/equipment are generally self-operated with a minimum of human intervention.

Azuka (1993) indicated that employers’ require from secretaries such skills as competencies in operating micro filers, word processors, shredding machines and so on in managing records. The place of effective information technology in providing control over the records in standardizing procedures and equipment in the management of records can hardly be over stressed.

Hence technology originated in the factory and later found its ways into the offices.

The subject of information and communication technology could not be considered entirely as abstract and, neither does it sound, strange. It is made up of various inter­related functions such as communication as a preliminary planning,     communication     must     consciously     or unconsciously   assume   great   significances’ within   the  information    encompassing;    Radio,   Television,    Cellular phone, Computer Satellite and so on.    It serves as an ‘effective style of control. For  proper storage in this age of ICT, the idea of large and long lasting storage system has to be in place such as computer, which  consists of two main classified areas of storage example primary storage device and secondary storage devices.

The Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary 6th  edition defined the word secretary as a person who works in an                                                                                                                                                                                    Office, working for another person, dealing with others and Telephone calls, typing,   keeping   records and arranging Meetings with people.    Robert (1981) defined the word secretary as a person who assists a top-level executive by    displaying  expertise in performing his/her duties in the  office   without  close   supervision   by   the   executives   or designated   administrator.       A  secretary   has initiative,   skill,   good   judgment   and   makes   decisions within the limits of her scope of authority.

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AUTOMATION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE OFFICE (A CASE STUDY OF UGHELLI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL, UGHELLI, DELTA STATE.

AUTOMATION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE OFFICE (A CASE STUDY OF UGHELLI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL, UGHELLI, DELTA STATE.

ABSTRACT

The study examined the automation and its impact on the office. This research covers the selected local government council in Ughelli, delta state. In this research, the related literatures were reviewed. The populations used for this study were thirty office managers which were picked from the local government council. The instruments used for this study were questionnaires which were administered to office managers in the local government council. The data collection were analyzed and presented in tables. Having analyzed the findings in the previous chapter and the results one find out was that, the automation is helpful to the office Technology and Management’s profession hence following merit were found that automation helps to increase the knowledge of individuals office managers, helps in online truncation, prompt dispense of information, increase in productivity, fast information gathering, group discussion and many others. In the light of the result, the researchers suggest that the office managers should be able to know the operational mode of the office automated machines, since it is very important to their profession. And also, it will help the office managers to get needed training they required by giving them time after work.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Certification         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Approval page     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication- –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgements        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract-    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of content   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

List of tables        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        x

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction-  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.1 Background of the study-  –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2 Statement of the problem-         –        –        –        –        –        –        3

1.3 The purpose of the study- –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.4 Significance of the study-  –        —       –        –        —       –        5

1.5 Research questions-          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.6 Delimitation of the study – –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.7 Limitation of the study –    –        –        –        –        –        –        7

Chapter two

Literature review –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        8

2.0     Introduction         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        8

2.2     The effect of automation on the office managers  –        –        – 13

2.3     Enhancing the office manager through the automation:          –        – 14

2.4     Benefits of automation to its users (office manager)      –        -19

2.5     Summary of review related literature         –        –        –        –        – 20

Chapter three

Research methodology- —                 –        –        –        –        –        – 22

3.0   Introduction-          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 22

3.1     Research design-  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 22

3.2     Area of the study-          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 23

3.3     The population of the study:  –         –        –        –        –        – 23

3.4     Sample of the study-      –        –        –        –        –        –        – 23

3.5    Instrument for data collection-          –        –        –        –        –        – 24

3.7     Method of data analysis –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 24

Chapter four

Presentation and analysis of data     –        –        –        –        –        – 26

4.0    Introduction–       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 26

4.1 Data presentation    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 26

4.2 Data analysis –                  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 27

4.3 discussions of findings-     –        –        –        –        –        –        – 33

Chapter five

Summary of findings, Conclusions and Recommendations.

5.0  Introduction –          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 35

5.1 Restatement of the problem-       –        –        –        –        –        – 35

5.2     Summary of findings-    –        –        –        –        –        –        – 36

5.3     Conclusion.-         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 37

5.4     Recommendations-        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 37

5.5     Suggestions for further research –     –        –        –        –        – 38

5.6     Limitations of the study:         –        –        –        –        –        –        – 39

Reference-   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 40

Appendix   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 41

Questionnaire       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        – 42

LIST OF TABLE

Table 4.1               Impact of automation  services on the office technology &  Management-          –        –        -26

Table 4.2              Use of computer on monotonous task to an office manager   –  –          –        –        –        -28

Table 4.3              Impacts of the automated mahcines on the lives of individuals’ office managers –        -29

Table 4.4              Skills required of an office managers using the modern  office equipment.-      –        -30

Table 4.5              Problems encountered by office managers using automated machines in their organization-        –        –        –        –        -31

CHAPTER ONE

1.0          INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

          The whole world is on the immense of technology, and this phenomenon has got in far reaching effect on almost all spheres of human endeavour.

Different people have different perceptions of what impact the modern technology via the automation is playing, to address the issues of performance of the Office Technology and Management profession in the new millennium.

To be precise, many scholars have dealt on this topic but the researchers of the project work have tried to portray actually what the impact of the automation is, regarding the performance of Office Technology and Management profession.

Automation according to Oladipupo (2008), is a massive network of computers that can offer users access to vast amount of information and easy global communication. Its main function in any social system may be identified as information, education, entertainers, communication and integration. Therefore, the automation as an information superhighway has been aroused to perform all these immeasurable impact for the rest of the world.

One cannot talk about information and access without making regular reference to the information technologies and their convergence particularly automated machines.

Information and communication technology rapidly changing the way we work and live, most especially regarding the way the office is handled. We see a world of network. That is bringing new opportunities and options to people at work, at home and on the movies directly stating how our society live, learn, work play and our society evolves.

Information itself drives it valve from the meaning that an entity (a human being) assigns to data. It therefore becomes a performed in an organization.

The question now is, how far this form of inexhaustible resource can carry the users with special automated mahcines on office technology and management profession.

The machines used in the office technology and management profession are involved effectively to perform the work in business media, the mass media, the information gathering media, and the likes, have seen the different faces of typewriters. Mail exchange, computers, cellular, fax telephone and other technological information gathering system.

Emphasizing more on the meaning of the automation and how it works Rutherford (2007), described the automation as ‘a global collection of many different types of computers and computer networks that are linked together.

The office technology and management profession, people who are conversant with the services that the personal computer renders will no doubt find the internet fascinating job-made-easy and enjoyable.

But many people cannot purchase or acquire this precious information superhighway, what risks are involved. Who are supposed to use these inexhaustible resources?

The aim of the study is to know the impact of automation on the  office as regard to secretaries work.

 1.2    Statement of the Problem

Most people believe that the automation has no impact on office technology and management profession. That office manager does not need the automated machines services at all. They also say that office manager’s only need typewriter carry out their duties. They also say that if office managers include the use of the internet in their profession, that work will be tedious.

According to Sir Walter ford (1992), says that the duty of the office manager/secretary is to take down records, minutes of the meetings and typing of orders by the above authorities and it involves the use of the typewriter.

Pluto (1990) says thus, ‘the automated machines are used by high senior officials and those trained personnel and as such the office manager/secretaries who are regarded as a low staff do not fit into this cadre’.

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A STUDY OF EFFECT OFFICE ENVIRONMENT ON THE SECRETARY’S JOB PERFORMANCE

A STUDY OF EFFECT OFFICE ENVIRONMENT ON THE SECRETARY’S JOB PERFORMANCE

ABSTRACT

This research work is titled “a  study of the effect of office  environment for secretaries Job performance” identifying and employing possible techniques applicable  and base on the result make recommendation and decision. However, the  cause of  these work  the researcher review  some relevant literature necessary    for the work and duties were collected which include questionnaire, tax journal and other information circular. The data collected in the questionnaire were analyzed using simple percentage method and chi-square  and the following  were tested.

Hypothesis 1 How secretaries who work on  an unsafe  office environment makes a very clear distinction  between fact and  motion.

 TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                    

APPROVAL PAGE                                                  ii

DEDICATION                                                        iii

ACKNOWLDEGEMENT                                             iv

ABSTRACT                                                           v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                           vi

CHAPTER ONE

  • Background of the study 1
    • background of the study 1
    • statement of the problems 5
    • purpose of the study 5
    • research questions 6
    • scope of the study 7
    • significance of the study 8
    • Deliminations of the study 9

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature review 11
    • The secretary and environment 12
    • Classification of the office environment 16
    • Office decoration 23
    • Summary of literature review. 24

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research methodology 27
    • Design of the study 28
    • Area of study 29
    • Sample and sampling techniques                29
    • Population of study 30
    • Instruments for data collection                  30
    • Method of data  distribution and collection  31
    • Method of data analysis. 32

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data 34
    • data presentation 35
    • Data Analysis. 36

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary, conclusion and recommendation 46
    • Summary 46
    • Conclusion 48
    • Recommendation 49

References                                               52

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

  1. O INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background   Of The Study

Behind every successful man there is a woman so  runs and adage. Similarly behind any  successful organization there must be a  competent secretary  for smooth  and efficient running of the daily business. Therefore it will be  incompetent  to proceed with the above mention topic without defining who is a secretary , to many people and employer who sits behind a type writer is a secretary and  almost  every one who is involved in a secretarial work in the office may be referred to as a secretary due to the multifafirious nature of work secretary does, the above assumption becomes rather mere misconception going by the  definition.

WHO IS A SECRETARY?

According to the national secretaries associated of America, a secretary is an  assistant to an  executive posing mastery of office skills and ability to assume responsibility, without direct supervision who  display initiatives exercise judgment and makes decision without the scope of her authority.

Recently, there has been a  general observation  that secretarial workers are not very productive.

But productivity appear to depend on any factors prominent among which is it has been shown that poor management can lead to low morale and low productivity. Given that this is so, what is then quantity of the environment under which most of our secretaries work ?. These does not appear to have been a systematic investigation directed to evaluation of the quality of the environment under which our secretaries work.

In addition to the  foregoing, it is  notable   that  the effect of office environment on the secretaries job performance of secretaries expected to be used at work. This question found are asked.

  • “does she have the aptitude”
  • “ can she be knowledgeable”
  • “can she be pertinent to take up the tedious and strenuous work of a secretary”

If  the  see questions are in the  affirmative, invariable productivity can be hampered by not providing the adequate physical condition., office machine and equipment are even  the man power.

In all, this topic shall give concern to the prerequisites needed for the effective productivity in the office  environment  of the secretary.

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