PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LIVING WITH SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA

INTRODUCTION

1.0        Introduction

The problem of sickle cell anaemia is in different faces. In this work we are looking at the social aspect of the sickle cell anaemia or the psychological impact of people living with sickle cell anaemia. People do not see them as normal, majority of the people see people with sickle cell anaemia  as a  working corpse that can die at any time.

1.1       Background of study

The condition of having sickle cell disease will be defined as occurring in one or the other of the two following states: (1) sickle cell anemia-a severe, uncorrectable, and often fatal anemia with many clinical manifestations, and (2) sickle cell trait–a relatively benign condition with symptomatology occurring only under extraordinary circumstances.

Hemoglobin functions as the oxygen carrying substance of the blood, and is responsible for the pigmentation of the erythrocytes or red blood cells. The condition of sickle cell anemia results from the presence of an abnormal hemoglobin, known as Hb-S, in the erythrocytes. The presence of this hemoglobin is hypothesized to have been an asset in protecting· its bearer from the effects of malaria in those countries where the occurrence of malaria is common. In 1964, A. C. Allison (Levitan and Montagu 1971), proposed, that the· heterpgygote AS was less susceptible· than the normal homozygotes to Falciparum malaria, an often fatal· malaria constantly reinfecting its victims with severe and prolonged disease.

However, for that segment of the population carry in the abnormal hemoglobins, but residing in no malaria environments, the advantage of hemoglobin S disappears.

In the United States, sickle cell anemia is found predominantly Wintrobe (1967), the “frequency of occurrence of sickle cell trait is 8.5 per cent of the black population. Approximately one out of four hundred blacks (National Sickle Cell Prevention Act, 1971) experiences the anemia itself. The incidence of the disease in other races is quite rare, and when it does occur in members of other races, it is usually experienced by persons of Greek, Italian, East Indian, South American and Middle Eastern origins.

Clinical Manifestations

Sickle cell anemia has been referred to as “the great mimicry” due to the ‘multiphasic manifestations and complexities of its symptoms. Consequently, the risk of incorrect early diagnosis is high. (Lin-Fu 1965)

In infants, symptomatology, particularly in the first few months of life, is bizarre and non-specific’. Major complaints ‘usually include colic, failu~e to thrive, jaundice, nausea and vomiting, recurrent fever, and swelling in hands and feet.

In older children, periodic occurrences of acute episodes with various manifestations, facilitate recognition of sickle cell anemia. These episodes, known 8S “crises”

(Lin-Fu, ibid.), are brought about when the erythrocytes or red blood cells begin to sickle. Sickling is the term used to describe the change that occurs within the cells under conditions of reduced oxygenation. The cells elongate and twist into distorted shapes that prohibit free flowing movement of the blood. It is proposed that “logjams” of these rigid cells form, resulting in impeded circulation in the smaller vessels, thus inhibiting the flow of oxygen to the affected part of the body. This blood flow obstruction causes tissue death, which produces acute, incapacitating pain in any part of the body, fever, and many other non-specific symptoms. This symptom complex comprises the sickle cell crisis.”

Other manifestations include necrosis, which might occur resulting in chronic leg ulcers; however, this is less common among those children afflicted wit~ sickle cell anemia than for adults. Incipient blindness from retinal detachment might also result from sickling and reduced. Oxygenation in the cells of the eyes. The result is an overall retarded growth and development, and increased susceptibility to infections and pneumonia are further manifestations of the anemia. The childhood victim of this illness is usually characterized by a. barrel-shaped chest, enlarged protruding abdomen; and thin extremities.

Sickle Cell Trait

The trait form of· sickle cell disease has no clinical manifestations except under extraordinary circumstances, during which the individual might experience a crisis similar to that of ‘the anemia victims. Thus, symptomatology in sickle cell trait can be virtually obliterated by avoiding those circumstances which would precipitate a crisis conditional Sickle cell trait individuals may be incapacitated by (1) conditions of extreme hypoxia, such as flying in an unpressurized aircraft or with underwater swimming, (2) during anesthesia when anoxia has inadvertently occurred, (3)occurrence of occasional severe pneumonia, .and (4) extr.eme physical exercise.

 Etiology

Sickle cell disease, in both its forms, is a genetically acquired condition. (Song, ibid) Inherited as an autosomal recessive ,pattern (Fraser 1966), sickle cell anemia is the homogygo~s state of the abnormal hemoglobin S gene. The mating of two persons with the sickle cell trait would imply a 25 per cent probability that each offspring will inherit two abnormal genes (Hb-s) ,8 25 per cent probability that the offspring will inherit two normal genes, and a 50 per cent probability that the offspring will inherit one normal gene and one abnormal gene. In other words, based on statistical calculation using ‘a Mendelian model, (Fraser,ibid, Stern and Sherwood 1966) a family consisting of four offsprihg will produce one offspring having sickle cell anemia, one offspring that is free of any sickle cell gene,and two offspring having one normal, and one abnormal gene

The union between one person having sickle cell anemia (the homogygous state of the abnormal hemoglobin S gene) and another person free of a sickle cell gene, will produce’offspring having one normal and one abnormal gene Sickle cell trait is the heterozygous state of the abnormal hemoglobin S gene. The union between a person with the sickle cell trait and a person free of the sickle ‘eelI  gene implies a 50 per cent probability that the offspring will have the sickle cell trait, and. a 50 per cent probability that the offspring will be free of the sickle cell gene .

Inheritance Patterns of Sickle Cell Disease

Treatment

During crisis situations, -treatment is largely supportive and symptomatic. Oxygen administration and the use of analgesics and sedatives seem to be somewhat effective in reducing the painful symptoms of the acute sickling periods.

Management and care must extend beyond medical treatment.Optimal nutrition, satisfactory dental and hygienic care, and avoidance of “exposure to infection and crisis precipitating factors are essential in the care of the individual during quiescent periods.

The use “of urea has received considerable recent interest “in the treatment of sickle cell anemia, and feasibility studies are currently underway to determine the extent that urea is effective as a prophylactiC measure in the prevention of crisis.- Unfortunately, no treatment has been universally demonstrated or accepted as an effective combatant of sickle cell disease.

1.2       Statement of the problem

Sickle cell anaemia has been with man for a long time, a lot myth surrounds its occurrence and management. In recent times science and technology had laid bear on those traditional beliefs. It is now known to all and sundry that it is a disease that is inherited from once parents. Resulting in a sickle shape of the red blood cells. This cause a reduction in the amount of oxygen absorbed into the body by the red blood cells. Aside the disease the traumatic or psychological trauma it causes is another side of the problem entirely. The way to manage this trauma and re-unite the patient to the fold of his or her peer is the focus of this study.

1.3       Objective of the study

The aim of this research among others would be;

  1. To find out if there is psychological assault in Babcock University.
  2. To know the cause of psychological assault on people suffering from Sickle cell Anaemia Babcock University.
  3. To find out possible ways to reduce or eradicate the psychological assault on people suffering from Sickle Cell Anaemia in Babcock University.

1.4       Research questions

This research would be driven by the following questions:

1. Is there any psychological assault on people living with sickle cell anaemia in Babcock University?

2. What are the causes of psychological assault on people living with sickle cell anaemia in Babcock University?

3. Is there any way that people living with sickle cell in Babcock university can be help from psychological assault?

PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LIVING WITH SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA

CLASSROOM GOAL STRUCTURE, STUDENT MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          Academic achievement has become a trending issue of priority to make students academic achievement better and higher (Azmoundeh, 2003).

Academic achievement cannot be executed outside the classroom because from this area where transfer thought begins and students presence in classroom impacts improvement of their ability in doing their best to achieve academic excellence (Appleton,2007).

          The Nigerian classroom has changed significantly over the past 25 years. Computers and interactive software are common in most classrooms today, and rows of student desks have been replaced with moveable tables and chairs that promote collaborative learning among two or more students. Many states and private schools have reduced class size to increase learning opportunities, especially for young or high-risk students (Elias,2002).

          In America, reform at the middle school level has introduced block scheduling, advisory teams, schools-within-schools, and other structural changes to meet the developmental needs of young adolescents (Eccles 2004). Additionally, major professional organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics have called for paradigm shifts in how teachers think about learning and teaching. Rather than focusing on rote learning and memorization, curriculum standards that began to emerge in the early 1990s emphasized the importance of individual inquiry, problem solving, collaborative learning, and mastery of key concepts. As these reforms were beginning to take hold, new federal legislation, the Leave No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, was enacted to increase accountability and performance standards for public schools. It is anticipated that this new legislation will close achievement gaps and ensure that all students, regardless of any existing disadvantage, will make significant achievement gains in school (Maehr,1994)
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CLASSROOM GOAL STRUCTURE, STUDENT MOTIVATION AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

EFFECT OF GENDER AND LOCALITY OF ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOUR AMONG ADULTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          Altruism is a voluntary help fullness that is motivated by concern about the responsibility of personal reward (MidlarskyKahana 1944).

          Altruism as a prosocial behavior is voluntary action that benefits another person. Prosocial behavior can include; comforting, helping, rescuing sharing, and co-operating, (Elsenberg 1992). In general, prosocial children have parents who are nuturant and supportive, often providing a model of prosocial behavior Zahn and Smith (1992). For instance individual who were active in the civil right movement during the 1950’s and 1960’s were likely to have parents who had vigorously worked for social cases in previous decades (Elsenberg 1992). Batson (1995) aggress that altruism is often selfishly motivated. However, people are sometimes purely altruistic and not the least but selfish. Batson (1995) proposes that we often help other people because we experience empathy, which means that we feel the same pain, suffering, or other emotion that someone else feels for example, you may feel empathy for a friend who did not get the job he hoped for.

          For altruism, the degree of familiarity is crucial—and agents act most of the time in a self-interested manner only because they are familiar mostly with their own original sensations than with the original sensations of others. Obviously, there is a stronger motive to help a stranded person if the person happens to be a close acquaintance rather than, ceteris paribus, a distant associate. And man is more motivated to help, after himself, the ones who live in the same house with him than “the greater part of other people”.

          After himself, the members of his own family, those who usually live in the same house with him, his parents, his children, his brothers and sisters, are naturally the objects of his warmest affections. They are naturally and usually the persons upon whose happiness or misery his conduct must have the greatest influence. He is more habituated to sympathize with them. He knows better how every thing is likely to affect them, and his sympathy with them is more precise and determinate, than it can be with the greater part of other people. It approaches nearer, in short, to what he feels for himself (Smith (1976) p. 219).
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EFFECT OF GENDER AND LOCALITY OF ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOUR AMONG ADULTS

GENDER AND PARENTING STYLES AS PREDICTORS OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

          Antisocial behavior is ubiquitous. Its degree differs across cultures and societies. It is the recognized violation of cultural norms. Norms guide virtually all human activities, so the concept of antisocial behavior is quite broad, (Macionis, 2000). It spans a wide range from minor traffic violation to serious offences, such as rape and murder. Over the years, antisocial behavior seems to have assumed gargantuan dimensions. The very existence of some categories of people can be troublesome to others. Most familiar examples of non-conformity are negative cases of rule breaking such as stealing from a convenience store, or driving while intoxicated. Antisocial behavior, which is defined as behavior that violates social norms and the rights of others (Burt, 2012), constitutes an important problem in adolescence. What all antisocial behaviors have in common is some elements of indifference that cause one to regard another as outsiders (Beker, 1966).

          Antisocial behavior include, but are not limited to the following: armed robbery, theft, rape, cultism, corruption, examination malpractice, malpractice in banks, advance fee fraud, money laundering, lying, sexual promiscuity, assault and cruelty to others, physical and verbal abuse. No nation, no matter how developed is immune to the menace of antisocial behavior. In fact, some of the countries most vulnerable to or have more sophisticated types of antisocial behavior are the developed countries. Nigeria like many other countries is equally affected by this phenomenon. The country had enough resources in her treasury to prosecute ambitious socio-economic developments and sustain our collective dreams as a nation. But all these were not to be as the national economy has taken a plunge, unemployment is a staggering reality, armed robbery and crime wave across the country is a clear manifestation of the depth of moral decay (Braithwaith, 1988).
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GENDER AND PARENTING STYLES AS PREDICTORS OF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIOR AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

EFFECT OF DIVORCE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT IN AMAC, FCT ABUJA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the Study

The family is the child’s first place of contact with the world. The child as a result, acquires initial education and socialization from parents and other significant persons in the family. Agulana (2010) pointed out that the family lays the psychological, moral, and spiritual foundation in the overall development of the child. Structurally, family/homes is either broken or intact. A broken home in this context is one that is not structurally intact, as a result of divorce, separation, death of one of parent and illegitimacy. Divorce is a legal termination of valid marriage.

According to Frazer (2004), psychological home conditions arise mainly from divorce and parental deprivation. According to him, such abnormal conditions of the home, are likely to have a detrimental effect on school performance of the child.

Life, in a divorced or broken home can be stressful for both the child and the parent. Such families are faced with challenges of inadequate financial resources (Children Defence Fund, 2004). Schults (2006) noted that if children from unstable homes are to be compared with those from stable homes, it would be seen that the former have more social, academic and emotional problems. Rochlkepartain (2013) is of the opinion that the family and its structure play a great role in children’s academic performance. Levin (2011) states that parents are probably the actor with the clearest interest in a high level of their children’s academic performance. To some extent, there is simple evidence to show the marital instability brings about stress, tension, lack of motivation and frustration obviously, these manifestations act negatively on a child’s academic performance.

According to Fraser (2013) performance and behaviour of children living with a single parent is below that of children living with the two parents. He observed that children who lives with a parent especially a divorced one, usually feels unsecured, always attention seeking and anxious that his/her education may be seriously hindered or disrupted through these feelings and at the end it would affect the child’s total behaviour.
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EFFECT OF DIVORCE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT IN AMAC, FCT ABUJA

IMPACT OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE ON CAREER CHOICE OF SECONDARY STUDENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study Vocational guidance and counseling services are essential tools in student development especially during adolescent stage. Adolescent stage is characterized by rapid growth and change: socially, spiritually, physically, morally and intellectually. Most of adolescents are in secondary schools, that is why guidance and counseling services are very essential. According to Bark (2003), guidance and counseling are the assistances made available by qualified and trained persons to an individual of any age to help him to manage his own life activities, develop his own points of view, make his own decisions and carry his own burden. In addition, Braddock (2001) states that, the purpose of guidance and counseling in schools is to improve academic achievement, foster positive study attitudes and habits, increase acquisitions and application of conflict resolution skills, and decrease school dropouts. Lack of guidance and counseling in adolescence has resulted to increase in unpleasant outcomes in the society. These include school dropouts, drug abuse, crimes, and even failure to secure jobs.

Anastasi (1990) also adds that the task of educational guidance and counseling is to enable a student to adjust himself to his studies by improving his study attitude and removing subject matter difficulties. When guidance and counseling services is lacking in schools, students’ adaptation becomes difficult thus leading to poor performance, misbehavior and dropout. According to Odeke (1996), without sound guidance and counseling, many students loose direction and engage themselves in bad behaviors such as drug abuse and alcohol indulgence, missing classes, dropout and so on; as a result they lack both focus and direction resulting to total failure in life. In this regard, students need guidance and direction to study and choose career.

The necessity of vocational guidance could not be over emphasized that there is the need to put in place a mechanism such as, guidance and counselling in every educational setting to help meet students’ educational, personal-social, and vocational needs. Such guidance services assist students to take meaningful decisions and make positive adjustments in life. Hence, guidance which is a helping service aims at behavioral change toward a functional life. Within the guidance programme are the following services: appraisal, information, counselling, placement, orientation, consultation, referral and follow-up.
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IMPACT OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE ON CAREER CHOICE OF SECONDARY STUDENTS

INFLUENCE OF GENDER AND LOCALITY ON THE ATTITUDE OF ADOLESCENTS TOWARDS AIDS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

        The ravages of the AIDS epidemic have made this disease the highest priority of our health system. In the absence of a cure, or more effective prevention or treatment, it was projected in 1993 (Chesney, 1993) that the world could expect 30 to 40 million new cases by 2000 (Mann, 1991). These projections are on tract or are proving to be underestimated particularly in developing nations.

        In 2000, the total number of people living with HIV was estimated at 34.3 million, in the hardest hit regions in Southern Africa, between 15% and 30% of the adults population are believed to be HIV positive. Furthermore, the United Nations estimated that at least 2 of every 5 girls and boys, who are 15 years old today, in the countries in Southern Africa, will die of AIDS (Schwartlanders, Garnelt, walkers, and Anderson, 2000).

        AIDS/HIV is a disease which affects human immune system. AIDS has become the world’s fourth leading cause of death and number one killer in Africa, where in 1998 it took 1.83 million lives (balter, 1999). AIDS as it name tells us, is an immune disorder an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which is spread by exchange of bodily fluids, primarily semen and blood. AIDS/HIV kills slowly; it ironically can be lethal to more people. When the HIV infections becomes manifest as AIDS, some years after the initial infection, the person has difficulty fighting off other diseases, such as pneumolystis, pneumonia, cancer, dementia, or a wasting syndrome in which the body literally  withers away.

Also after several months to several years with no symptoms, patients may develop minor health problems such as weight loss, fever, and night sweats, symptoms that make up the condition known as AIDS-Related-Complex (ARC).         On June 5, 1981, the centers for disease control reported the first case of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the decades that followed, AIDS grew from an unknown disease into a devastating worldwide epidemic for which no medical cure has been found. According to the world health organization (2002), about 16,000 new infections occur each day. Worldwide, 1 in every 100 adults between the ages of 15 and 49 are infected with the AIDS virus, and the disease has so far claimed the lies of nearly 20 million people of the 3 million people who died from AIDS in 2001, 37 percent were woman and 20 percent were children. In some countries of Southern Africa, 25 to 40 percent of the population is infected, including a third of all pregnant women.
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INFLUENCE OF GENDER AND LOCALITY ON THE ATTITUDE OF ADOLESCENTS TOWARDS AIDS

INFLUENCE OF MARITAL CONFLICT AND PARENTAL OCCUPATION ON CHILD ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

           Academic achievement refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers (Fantuzz, 1991). Academic achievement is the ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate the facts and knowledge verbally or in writing (Grych, Seid, & Fincham, 1992) .The academic achievement of students may negatively correlate with the low parental socio-economic status level as it may prevent the individual in gaining access to sources and resources of learning (Duke, 2000 & Eamon, 2005). Flegm (2005) reports that in educational institutions, success is measured by academic achievement or how well a student meets the standards set by the institution.

            Conflicts occur in all human societies but, it occurs in various degrees, marital conflict is that situation between man and woman (Drennan and Rhode ,2010).This is where husband and wife have different opinion about issues, events or activities which cannot be mutually resolved. Marital conflict usually arises mostly due to lack of understanding between the man and the woman. This comes in different ways such as difference in education and social backgrounds, physical maintenance, love making, extra marital affairs.

Researchers found that the way in which children understood the conflicts between their parents had different effects on their emotional and behavioural problems(Erel & Burman, 1995). Where children blamed themselves for the conflicts between their parents, they were more likely to have behavioural problems, such as anti-social behaviour (Harold, 2005). But if their parents’ fighting or arguing led to a child feeling threatened, or fearful that the family would split up, the child was more likely to experience emotional problems, such as depression (Ajila ,2000). The impact of everyday conflict between parents on their children’s behaviour and mental health is driven by how the children understand the problems in the relationship as well as the nature of the conflict itself, the researchers found (Erel & Burman, 1995). These disagreements include; hostile relationships between parents, poor parenting practices, negative parent-child relationships and maternal depression. Disagreement in marriages will inevitably arise, but it is the way the parents choose to respond o the discord that can create a positive or negative impact on the child (Erel & Burman, 1995).
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INFLUENCE OF MARITAL CONFLICT AND PARENTAL OCCUPATION ON CHILD ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

SHATTERED ASSUMPTIONS AND COPING STYLES AS PREDICTORS OF POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER FOLLOWING A TRAUMATIC EVENT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

          Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a trauma and stress related disorder that may develop after exposure to an event or ordeal in which death, severe physical harm or violence occurred or was threatened (Lodrick, 2007. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or unnatural disasters, accidents, or military combat (Brewin & Lennard, 1999).

          The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV: APA, 2000) outlines PTSD as the development of characteristic symptoms of distress or impairment that are present for over one month after exposure to a traumatic event. Banyard (1999) described its cyclical nature, outlining three main clusters of symptoms: re-experiencing phenomena, avoidance/numbing and increased arousal. In the immediate aftermath of a traumatic event, many individuals experience physiological reactivity in response to reminders of the traumatic event that typically lessens over time(Foa, 1992). However, an overreliance on avoidant coping strategies may interfere with the natural recovery process, particularly for those who are highly reactive to trauma reminders (Riggs,1992).

          In the weeks following a traumatic event, most individuals experience at least some symptoms characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many, but not all, trauma survivors experience a profound reduction or complete remittance of these symptoms over the course of the first several months (Rothbaum, Foa, Riggs, Murdock, & Walsh, 1992). Identifying the subset of traumatized individuals who do not recover but instead maintain PTSD symptoms over time is a critical research question. Physiological reactivity and coping style are two potential risk factors with promising empirical support. For example, increased heart rate measured shortly after a traumatic event is associated with increased risk for PTSD (Yehuda, McFarlane, & Shalev, 1998). Further, increased heart rate reactivity to trauma reminders is associated with greater maintenance of PTSD symptoms over time (Blanchard, 1996).

          Post traumatic stress disorder  occurs in approximately eight percent of the general population in African-Nigeria  and seven percent in Europe, with higher rates in women than in men (de Vries & Olff, 2009; Glynn, Marshall, Schell, & Shetty, 2006; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005; Kessler & Üstün, 2008 for international prevalence estimates). PTSD results in significant social and economic burden and puts individuals at increased risk for physical and mental health difficulties including depression and suicide (e.g., Hidalgo & Davidson, 2000).
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SHATTERED ASSUMPTIONS AND COPING STYLES AS PREDICTORS OF POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER FOLLOWING A TRAUMATIC EVENT

ROLES OF SEX AND PARENT’S LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON SELF-ESTEEM

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the Study

The history of self-esteem as a concept began with known theorists in psychology. William James and Mead (1890) were among the first ones. They postulated that self- esteem was equivalent to success of a person divided by his or her pretensions. One’s self-esteem would be academic success divided by how well one thinks he/she ought to be doing. To increase the sum total of one’s self-esteem, one needs to boost successes or diminish expectations for achievements. This continues to influence the understanding of self-esteem (Wickline, 2003)

The self psychologist, Rogers (1954) was concerned with the general nature of subjective experience of the individual’s acceptance of his/her experience. Bednar and Peterson (1999), believed that each person constructs his/her unique view of reality through the creative self.

Gordon Allport (1961) proposed that the growth of the awareness of self proceeds along development learning lines. He identified 7 different aspects of self- hood. Self- esteem is the third development stage of the proprium. It is the feeling of pride that results when  the child accomplishes things on the child’s success in mastering tasks

In 1979, Rosenberg conducted a study of the adolescent self-esteem and came up with three classifications of the self- esteem: the extant self, the desired self, and presenting self. Rosenberg cautions that no one knows the real self, but each individual creates and interprets images of the self. He differentiated between the self confidence and self-

esteem. To him self-esteem is more of affective sense of efficacy. As such, self confidence may contribute to self- esteem but the two are synonymous.

Coopersmith (1967) cited evidence supporting the importance of self-esteem. He concluded that people with feelings of inadequacy and unworthiness see themselves as inferior and unable to generate inner resources to improve their situation. Feeling of inferiority may result if it does not meet personal aspirations. In his antecedents of self,  he suggested four factors that contribute to the development of self- esteem. These are: the values that the child perceives to have towards the self, the child’s experience with success and his individual definitions of success or failure as well as the child’s style of dealing with negative feedback or criticism.

The humanistic movement of 1950 and the self movement postulated by Carl Rogers and others in 1960’s and 1970’s brought in the self enhancement view of academics, seeing students’ self-esteem as the primary cause of academic achievement. Wickline, (2003) Bednar and Peterson (1999) postulated that each person constructs his/her unique view of reality. They further linked low self esteem with drug abuse, anti-social behavior, teenage pregnancies and poor grades.
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ROLES OF SEX AND PARENT’S LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON SELF-ESTEEM

INFLUENCE OF SHIFT WORK AND OCCUPATIONAL STRESS ON JOB SATISFACTION AMONG POLICE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

          In today‟s technological and moving business world, significant and growing percentage of the population work in formal organizations (Heller and Hindle, 1988). People work under a broad array of conditions. While many of these people work indoors, others work outside. Some of these jobs require exposure to intense heat, cold and/ or noise. Hence, while some of these jobs involve high risk injury or illness, others carry low risks. The average working time in the civil service, public and/or private sector encompasses a major part of the individual‟s life span and occupies a period when physical and mental capacities are fully utilized. Organizations are constantly evolving and the nature of the services provided necessitates differential work schedules.

Here in Nigeria, not all the employees in different organizations do perform the usual 8am to 4pm – five days – a week. Police officers, military personnel, fire fighters, prison warder, nurses, telephone operators among others, do provide 24-hours – a – day service. Muchinsky (1997), posits that in industrial manufacturing companies, some technologies/machine require constant monitoring and operation. Hence, it becomes rational and practical to run these machines continually by having different shift work systems round the clock. He notes further that there are no uniform shift hours, as various companies adopt different shifts.

Usually for nurses, a 24-hour-a-day is broken into three 8-hour- work shifts as follows:

i. 7am to 2pm (day shift):

ii. 2pm to 10pm (swing or afternoon shift)‟ and

iii. 10pm to 7am (night shift).

          Muchinsky finally observes that some companies have employees run only one shift, more so, as workers generally do not like the afternoon and night shift. Consequently, many firms and organizations do rotate the shift on weekly basis so as to carry all the workers along. Psychologists in industrial settings (Muchinsky, 1988), did and still do investigate the degree to which workers‟ job satisfactions are affected by the shift work, and their abilities to cope with these changes in work schedules.

          Since it is the functions of the Nigeria Police Force to maintain internal security here in Nigeria, enforce the laws and orders of the law abiding citizens, arrest, investigate and charge/or prosecute all the offenders in law courts; the police had since adopted three shift work schedules covering from Sunday to

Saturday of every week. In order to cover all these duties and police the country effectively, Udonsy 91976), outlines the shift work schedules in this organization as follows:

(a) Morning shift, from 0600 hrs to 1400 hours;

(b) Afternoon shift, 1400 to 2200 hours; and

(c) Night shift. 2200 hours to 0600 hours.
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INFLUENCE OF SHIFT WORK AND OCCUPATIONAL STRESS ON JOB SATISFACTION AMONG POLICE

THE STUDY INVESTIGATES SOCIAL PERCEPTION OF TRICYCLES RESTRICTION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN ENHANCING ENVIRONMENTAL AESTHETICS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLBEING OF RESIDENTS IN UYO

THE STUDY INVESTIGATES SOCIAL PERCEPTION OF TRICYCLES RESTRICTION AND WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN ENHANCING ENVIRONMENTAL AESTHETICS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLBEING OF RESIDENTS IN UYO

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The progressive deterioration suffered by our physical environments has given rise, over the last years, to a political-social sensitization, focused on the need to increase and guarantee the protection of areas of great aesthetic value. Thus in recent years, several governments have tapped into this ideology by restricting some operation from such reserved environment to improve its aesthetics. The Webster dictionary, (2016) defines an Environment as the air, water, minerals, organism and other external condition that surrounds someone or something; the condition that influences and affect the growth, health, progress of someone or something. On the other hand, aesthetics is concern with the science of emotions in relation to the sense of beauty(The American Heritage, 2016). Environmental aesthetics originated as a reaction to this emphasis, pursuing instead the investigation of the aesthetic appreciation of natural environments. Since its early stages, the scope of environmental aesthetics has broadened to include not simply natural environments but also human and human-influenced ones. At the same time, the discipline has also come to include the examination of that which falls within such environments, giving rise to what is called the aesthetics of everyday life art (Morgan, &Bath, 1998).This area involves the aesthetics of not only more common objects and environments, but also a range of everyday activities. Thus, early in the twenty-first century, environmental aesthetics embraces the study of the aesthetic significance of almost everything other than art (Morgan, &Bath, 1998).

Environmental aesthetics, emerged in the late 1960s and has steadily grown in importance since then. Although discussions of the aesthetics of nature have had a place in philosophy for a much longer time, twentieth-century environmental movements provided the context and conditions within which the discipline of aesthetics began to recognize problems connected to the aesthetic value of the environment and its role in weighing environmental issues and psychological wellbeing art (Morgan, &Bath, 1998).

Environmental aesthetics brings psychological attention to issues in aesthetics as they relate to environments, natural objects within environments, and natural phenomena and processes (as opposed to artworks) (Gilboa, &Rafaeli, 2010). The field has attended mainly to natural environments, but its scope has gradually widened to include mixed environments: those that have been modified or influenced by humans, such as gardens, as well as the human environments of everyday life, such as aspects of the built environment(Gilboa, &Rafaeli, 2010).The study of Environmental aesthetics, is motivated in part by public concern for the aesthetic condition of everyday environments and has broadened beyond mere traditional aesthetics in two respects. First, environmental aesthetics, unlike typical traditional aesthetics, incorporates various kinds of empirical work done on the human aesthetic experience of environments. There are a number of different orientations in this kind of research. For example, one movement grew out of the environmental design and planning disciplines, such as landscape architecture, and attempts to analyse and assess aesthetic experience in terms of the design features recognized and valued by these disciplines. Another kind of empirical work is more closely aligned with resource and recreational management and focuses on measuring aesthetic preferences of different individuals for different environments. In addition, there are also attempts to provide what are essentially sociobiological underpinnings for the appreciation of environments as well as attempts to apply to such appreciation a wide range of models of aesthetic experience grounded in, for instance, developmental and environmental psychology. Moreover, there are different kinds of attempts to link this empirical work with the philosophical side of environmental aesthetics(Gilboa, &Rafaeli, 2010).

The second broadening of the scope of environmental aesthetics concerns its subject matter and may be charted on three scales. On the first, the objects of appreciation of environmental aesthetics extend from pristine natural environments to the very limits of traditional works of art, and by some accounts include even some of the latter. Many typical objects treated by environmental aesthetics are rather large environments: mountain ranges, countrysides, market places. But the field also considers smaller and more intimate environments, such as backyards, offices, living rooms, as well as the objects, both large and small, that populate various environments. Just as environmental aesthetics is not limited to the large, nor is it limited to the spectacular. Ordinary scenery, commonplace sights, and our day-to-day environments are proper objects of aesthetic appreciation. Environmental aesthetics is essentially the aesthetics of everyday life (Gilboa, &Rafaeli, 2010).

Prior to the advancement of science and technology, our air was fresh, and wholesome. Expansion in the economic sector one of which is the introduction of auto mobiles into the society brought along with it advantages and disadvantages such as air pollution, noise pollution and so on. Alongside with other social problems which has through the years has a telling effect on the psychological wellbeing of human being within such environments.There is growing interest in psychological or subjective well-being as an indicator of societal progress among policymakers both nationally and internationally (Dolan, Layard and Metcalfe, 2011).

Psychological well-being is about lives going well. It is the combination of feeling good and functioning effectively. Sustainable well-being does not require individuals to feel good all the time; the experience of painful emotions (e.g. disappointment, failure, grief) is a normal part of life, and being able to manage these negative or painful emotions is essential for long-term well-being. Psychological well-being is, however, compromised when negative emotions are extreme or very long lasting and interfere with a person’s ability to function in his or her daily life. The concept of feeling good incorporates not only the positive emotions of happiness and contentment, but also such emotions as interest, engagement, confidence, and affection. The concept of functioning effectively (in a psychological sense) involves the development of one’s potential, having some control over one’s life, having a sense of purpose (e.g. working towards valued goals), and experiencing positive relationships (Gilboa, &Rafaeli, 2010).

According to the most recent available national survey, 16.4 per cent of the UK population has some form of mental health problem (Singleton et al., 2001). In Nigeria, the prevalence of mental illness is reported at 20% (Shekhar, Gureje, 2006). But what percentage are mentally flourishing -that is enjoying a high level of psychological well-being? According to Keyes (2002), flourishing individuals have enthusiasm for life and are actively and productively engaged with others and in social institutions. Data from the US suggest that only around 17 per cent of adults are flourishing, while 11 per cent are languishing (Keyes, 2002). The term languishing refers to a condition in which a person’s life seems empty or stagnant, a life of quiet despair, although they do not have mental illness (Keyes, 2002). Keyes (2004) has shown that “languishers” are at greatly increased risk of depression and physical disorders including cardiovascular disease. He has suggested that languishing may be highly prevalent among young people, many of whom are seeking ways to fill the void of their lives. Sex, drugs, and alcohol are often used in this way, but these only deepen the void and makethe person more dysfunctional. There are no data at present on the prevalence of flourishing or languishing.

Types of psychological wellbeing includes: evaluative well-being (that is, general satisfaction with life), affective or hedonic well-being (that is, enjoyment, positive affect and depressive symptoms) and eudemonic well-being (that is, purpose in life, self-acceptance and control)(Steptoe, &Demakakos, 2011).Research has shown that Psychological well-being had a curvilinear relationship with age, being higher in respondents aged 60–69 and 70–79 than it was in older or younger participants. A similar pattern has been reported before in highincome countries. There is a pronounced socio-economic gradient in psychological wellbeing, with greater well-being in more affluent sectors of the population. The effects are stronger for evaluative and eudemonic aspects of wellbeing than for measures of positive affect and enjoyment of life. Both paid employment and volunteering were associated with greater psychological well-being(Steptoe, &Demakakos, 2011). Higher psychological well-being is also associated with being married (as opposed to never married, divorced/separated or widowed), being physically active, not smoking and better cognitive function. There are strong cross-sectional associations between psychological well-being and health, particularly in relation to chronic illness and disability, albeit with variations across different aspects of well-being. • There has been a small but consistent deterioration in affective well-being between 2002–03 and 2010–11 in ELSA, with similar patterns in different age groups. Life satisfaction has not shown comparable trends over this period (Steptoe, &Demakakos, 2011).

Psychological well-being refers to how people evaluate their lives. According to Diener (1997), these evaluations may be in the form of cognitions or in the form of affect. The cognitive part is an information based appraisal of one’s life that is when a person gives conscious evaluative judgments about one’s satisfaction with life as a whole. The affective part is a hedonic evaluation guided by emotions and feelings such as frequency with which people experience pleasant/unpleasant moods in reaction to their lives. The assumption behind this is that most people evaluate their life as either good or bad, so they are normally able to offer judgments. Further, people invariably experience moods and emotions, which have a positive effect or a negative effect. Thus, people have a level of subjective well-being even if they do not often consciously think about it, and the psychological system offers virtually a constant evaluation of what is happening to the person.Current social indicators can capture phenomena such as crime, divorce, environmental problems, infant mortality, gender equality, etc. Thus, they can capture aspects of quality of life that add to the description drawn by economic indicators. However, these social indicators fail to capture the subjective well-being of people because they do not reflect the actual experiences such as the quality of relationships, the regulation of their emotions and whether feelings of isolation and depression pervade in their daily life. On the other hand, the physical environment has a telling impact on the psychological wellbeing (klitzman, 1989).klitzman,(1989), found out that environmental conditions such as poor air quality, noise, ergonomic conditions, lack of privacy, may affect workers mental health. Our growing populations has significantly increase these negative environmental conditions as our air is constantly polluted with the increasing number of vehicles most especially the commercial tricycle (keke). Although the introduction of this form of transportation has been cost effective as it flexible nature guarantee its ability to access all forms of road network. However, the presence of these tricycles has also constituted a menace to the society in various ways. Other than noise and the environmental pollutions, most of the drivers of this tricycles were not trained on it proper use leading to various forms of road accident and chaos. Although compared to motorcycle, tricycles are safer and more reliable.

The diffusion of tricycle brands in the Nigerian market can be attributed to the Federal Government’s initiative in 2002 to ease transportation problems and create avenue for self-employment for the unemployed and the jobless (Sun, 2009). However, some states in Nigeria have decided not to adopt the tricycle (Edike, 2009) while some states have whole heartedly adopted its use (Imo, 2009). This commercial tricycle scheme is popularly known as “KEKE NAPEP”. Keke is a native word for tricycle while NAPEP is an acronym for National Poverty Eradication Programme (Josiah, 2008). It is noteworthy to mention that majority of commuters use buses, tricycles and motorcycles for movement while some use the taxis. The increase in urban population, particularly those residing in smaller settlements away from city centers is the primary reason why there is demand of the services of motorcycles and tricycles. Some passengers however prefer the tricycle to motorcycle as a result of its relative affordability, availability and safety (Sun, 2009). In most cities in Nigeria, it is such that the city centre is congested with business premises while the fringes are occupied by low and medium income earners. Faced with this, commuters are forced to make longer trips on vehicles and trek longer distance of a consecutive estimate of two trips per person. With the above, it is clear that there is impending mobility crisis arising from demand/supply gap. The emergence of various modes of transportation gave rise to tricycles especially in view of its flexibility and the need to cope with socio-economic trends. Most tricycle brands in Nigeria are motorcycles with side cars, which have the legal capacity of 4 passengers including the driver. Tricycles are a popular mode of public transportation among commuters due to their high accessibility, availability, affordability, and convenience. Being much less expensive in fares than other vehicles, they play an important role in Nigeria’s overall transportation system. Tricycles are the most convenient transportation in rural areas especially from the central town to the villages. Within big cities, they are usually located in smaller roads, lanes and alleys where other public transportation do not or cannot operate. Despite the need to popularize the tricycles over the motorcycles, which are characterized by fatal crashes and other forms of vulnerabilities, these three wheel – vehicle poses environmental and social challenges such as fine particles emission, noise, absence of paved roads, lack of parks and terminals on designated routes for hitch-free conveyance of passengers, Lack of waste baskets leading to passengers throwing wastes rampantly on the streets. These challenges, however, do not only affect the environmental aesthetic but also may influence the psychological wellbeing of the masses.

Waste management is another factor that contributes to the environmental aesthetics and the psychological wellbeing of the people.Waste has been defined as something that is not or no longer useful and is to be thrown away or disposed of (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2010). Again it has been defined as any material lacking direct value to the producer and so must be disposed of (Ita, 2005). The generation and disposal of waste is an intrinsic part of any developing or industrial society. The defective strategies and arrangements adopted for solid waste management in Nigerian cities create the erroneous impression that urban waste management problems are intractable. This sterns from the fact that the rate of collection and evacuation perpetually lag behind the rate of generation which makes waste accumulation a major source of environmental nuisance in Nigerian cities.  Waste management therefore, concerns the interplay among generation, storage, collection and final disposal (Omuta, 1988). Sada (1984) has observed that in 1980, on the average, a balance of 100 metric tons of solid waste are piled up daily.  Waste, both from domestic and commercial sources has grown significantly in Nigeria over the past decade. Every time a householder shops at the store, and open market he contributes to the mountain of waste. It is possible to quote figures which show that the production of waste amounts to millions of tons. The percentage of Nigeria’s population living in cities and urban areas has more than doubled in the last 15 years(Jimoh, 2005). The cities and urban areas experience continuous growth which contributes to enormous in generation of solid and liquid waste.  The management of waste is a matter of national and international concern. The volume of waste does not actually constitute the problem but the ability or inability of governments, individuals and waste disposal firms to keep up with the task of managing waste and the environment.  There is no doubt that a dirty environment affects the standard of living, aesthetic sensibilities, health of the people and thus the quality of their lives (Mowoe, 1990). The corollary is that improper disposal or storage of this waste can constitute hazards to the society through the pollution of air, land and especially water (Mowoe, 1990). Thus, this research seeks to investigate the perception of vehicular (keke-Napep)restriction and waste management strategies in enhancing environmental aesthetic and psychological wellbeing in Uyo.

 

 

Statement of the problem

The population of Uyo the capital of AkwaIbom state has been on the increase in resent. The city is fast turning into an over populated one. As the population increase, the waste management problems also increases. Waste management is by nature both capital and economic intensive. This requires huge capital outlay. Many state governments spend a good percentage of their funds on domestic waste management. For examples Lagos State Government spends between 20 – 25% of its funds on waste management. But what this amount could accomplish is dwarfed by the population it caters for. The inability to properly manage the waste generated daily does not only affect the beauty of the environment but may also affect the health and psychological wellbeing of the people. The problem of overpopulation has been compounded by the multiplication of tricycles which sometimes makes movement very slow within the city.  Although the recent restriction of tricycle from some part of Uyo has reduced the traffic congestions as well as improving the environmental aesthetics,however, most people are forced to take a long work before they can meet up with their day’s plans. Other than the stress, the area where these tricycles are allowed are often time congested, polluted with both noise and exhaust fume, these pollutions affects the psychological wellbeing of the people. Psychological well-being predicts the onset of disability, slower walking speed, impaired self-rated health and the incidence of coronary heart disease. These findings concerning the development of poor health and mortality suggest that measuring psychological well-being alongside with the environment aesthetics may help identify individuals at risk of future health problems and functional impairment. Thus this research seeks toinvestigate the perception of vehicular (Keke-NAPEP) restriction and waste management strategies in enhancing environmental aesthetics and psychological wellbeing in Uyo metropolis. The following research questions will be tested:

  1. Will waste management strategy influence environmental aesthetics and psychological wellbeing?
  2. Will tricycle restriction influence environmental aesthetics and psychological wellbeing?

 

 

 

 

 

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to examine the social perception of vehicular (keke-NAPEP) restriction and waste management strategies in enhancing environmental aesthetics and psychological wellbeing in Uyo.

Significance of the study

The findings of this study will be of benefit to policy makers, and the community at large in the following ways;

  • It would help policy makers to create laws that will enhance the environmental aesthetics and psychological wellbeing of the masses.
  • It will help the citizen to understand the need to properly manage our waste product in other to maintain a good psychological wellbeing.
  • It will also encourage researchers to carry out research on environmental aesthetics and psychological wellbeing.
  • It will also contribute to existing literature on the subject matter.

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PATRIARCHY AS A HINDRANCE TO FEMINIST EQUALITY IN A TYPICAL AFRICAN SOCIETY USING EFFIONG JOHNSON’S “INSTALL THE PRINCESS”

PATRIARCHY AS A HINDRANCE TO FEMINIST EQUALITY IN A TYPICAL AFRICAN SOCIETY USING EFFIONG JOHNSON’S “INSTALL THE PRINCESS”

PATRIARCHY AS A HINDRANCE TO FEMINIST EQUALITY IN A TYPICAL AFRICAN SOCIETY USING EFFIONG JOHNSON’S “INSTALL THE PRINCESS”

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
All through the years and for several millennia, from the Stone Age to the Modern age – the struggle for dominance and superiority between the two know (female and the male gender) has never abated. Patriarchy – adjudged and described by feminist as the conscious minimization and subjugation of the women folks, deploying ideologies, cultural and metaphysic and even religions of all kinds western Christianity, Islamism, Buddhism and African Traditionalism have spoken with one voice in favour of a male dominated world.
Ever since, especially through the emergence of democracy, the struggle by women to negotiate their voice into main steam of participation in cultural, economic, social, vocational, and even political aspect of the society has been a permanent feature in the world’s development.
As such, feminine dislocation has become a discourse in our current post-colonial society. Head opines that:
The ancestors made so many errors and one of the most bitter-making things was that they relegated to men a superior position in the tribe, while women were regarded, in a congenital sense, as being an inferior form of human life. To this day, women still suffer from all the calamities that befall an inferior form of life (92).
Women all over the world, particularly in Africa have been relegated to the lowest position in the social system through oppression and subjugation which are mostly cultural based.
Women constitute about half of the population of the African society and are known to play vital roles as mothers, producers, managers and so on. Their contribution to the social and economic development of the African race is also more than half as compared to that of men by virtue of their dual roles in the production and reproductive spheres. Yet their participation in formal and informal structures and processes, where decisions regarding the use of societal resources generated by both men and women are made, remains insignificant. A major feature of the African society is the practice of Patriarchy; which Aina defined as “a structure of a set of social of relations with material base which enables men to dominate women (1). Stacey adds that “it is a system of social stratification and differentiation on the basis of sex, which provides material advantages to males while simultaneously placing serve constraints on the roles and activities of females “(3).
A patriarchal society sets the parameters for women’s structural unequal positions in families and markets by condoning gender – differential terms in inheritance rights and legal adulthood, by tacitly condoning domestic and sexual violence and sanctioning differential wages for equal or comparable work salaam stresses further thus:
Tradition, culture and religion have dictated men and women relationship for centuries and entrenched male domination into the structure of social organization and institution at all levels of leadership…justifies the marginalization of women in education, economy, labour market, politics, business, family, domestic matters and inheritance (5-6).
This position of women in society in relation to men and the subordination, oppression and marginalization of women has attracted the attention of scholars, activists, feminists and development workers for a very long time. Thus, dramatists, utizing a variety of subject matters had dived into gender and women issues as a strong subject matter for dramatic creation from tune immemorial. Hence, this work uses Effiong Johnson’s install the princess to present the problems confronting women of the contemporary African society on gender issues.

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Patriarchy has been a source of debate in the African society, because the male gender outrightly seeks to control the female gender. By this, distinct characteristics and social roles, which apart from having negative gender relations, has reduced the development of the women folk in our contemporary society within the framework of their traditional functions as wives and mothers while the men are celebrated for valor and tenacity.

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INFLUENCE OF JOB CHALLENGE AND GOAL AMBIGUITY ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLBEING OF EMPLOYEES OF CHAMPION BREWERIES IN UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE

INFLUENCE OF JOB CHALLENGE AND GOAL AMBIGUITY ON THE PSYCHOLOGICAL WELLBEING OF EMPLOYEES OF CHAMPION BREWERIES IN UYO, AKWA IBOM 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Psychological well-being is about lives going well. It is the combination of feeling good and functioning effectively (Ryff & Singer, 2008; Selingman, 2011). Sustainable well-being does not require individuals to feel good all the time; the experience of painful emotion is a normal part of life, and being able to manage these negative or painful emotions is essential for long-term well-being (Marks & Shah, 2005). Psychological well-being is, however, compromised when negative emotions are extreme or very long lasting and interfere with a persons ability to function in his or her daily life.

The concept of functioning effectively involves the development of one’s potential, having some control over one’s life, having a sense of purpose (e.g working toward a specific goal), and experiencing positive relationship (Wright 2007).

Recent years have witnessed an exhilarating shift in the research literature from an emphasis on disorder and dysfunction to a focus on well-being and positive mental health (Mulgan, 2006, Layard, 2012). That is why world health organization defined health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 2000). Research has shown that employees psychological well-being has several impact on organization, such as performance, productivity, turnover, and indirect cost (Page and Vela-Broderick, 2009; Wright 2007; Danna and Griffin, 1999). As is widely recognized, enhancing employee well-being is essential for a competitive edge and organizational survival (Amabile, 1988; Shalley, 1995). Unfortunately, employee psychological well-being is usually ignored in human resource management in organization (Baptiste, 2008).

However, there are numerous factors which have the potential to influence an employee well-being either positively or negatively. Example job challenge and goal ambiguity (Locke & Latham, 2006).

Job challenge has been conceptualized in different ways (Aneen & Sidewall, 1994; Depater, Van Vianen Beettoldt 2009; Dixo 2005; Huang et al 2007). In general research have referred to job challenge as characteristics of work (De Peter, Van Vianen, Beehtodt 2009; Mecauley et al, 1999). Other researcher used the term job challenge but did not provide definition of the construct in their studies (Bandura, 1986; Maurer & Tarulli, 2005). Job challenge according goal setting theory perspective is a job that is difficult but obtainable. Others see it as meeting performance expectation that are reseasonably high (Berlew & Hall’s, 1966). Demand model (Karasek, 1979) considered job challenge in terms of qualitative (having to deal with goal ambiguity or conflict role) and quantitative (The degree an employee is expected to work fast). Moreover, the best definition comes from (McCauley, Ohlott and Rudeman, 1999) who identified five cluster of job components that represent challenging aspect of job:

  • Job transition, with individuals being confronted with new task and situations in which existing tactics and routines are inadequate,
  • Creating change, which individuals having a clear goals to change a situation, but a loosely defined role that gives them the freedom to determine how to accomplish the goal,
  • Managing at high levels of responsibility characterized by increase visibility, the opportunity to make a significant impact dealing with broader and more complex problems and higher task,
  • Dealing with diversity that is working with people who are different from themselves regarding their values, background experiences and needs.
  • Managing boundaries in which case employees have to work with people over whom they have no direct authority and have to develop strategies for influencing and gaining their cooperation.

The second factor that may affect employee psychological well-being is Goal ambiguity. Organizational goals direct attention, effort, and action aimed to achieve a target with a specified time (Jung, 2012; Locke and Latham, 2002). Importantly, clear goals that are specific and difficult but achievable enhance both individual and organizational performance (Chun & Ramey, 2005a, 200b; Juny; 2012; Lock & Latham, 2002). This is largely because goals serve as the reference point that shape myriad organizational behaviour (Wike & Latham, 2002) such as role conflict and ambiguity (House, 1972) organizational commitment (Chun & Ramey, 2005a), and job satisfaction (Jung, 2013) all of which have strong connections to performance and psychological well-being. Beside, research consistently indicates that clear goals directly contribute to a host of performance related behaviours like happiness enthusiasm etc. Unfortunately, the problem associated with unclear goals may be more pronounced in the public sector. Public organizations often struggle to clarify organizational goals for at least two reasons. First, political compromise among competing demands from constituencies interest groups and authorities result in goals that are numerous, vague and contradictory (Davis & Stazyk, 2014a; Jung, 2014), second, the complex services offered by public organizations do not lead well to economic exchange meaning that prices and profits cannot act as clarifying mechanisms for public organization goals (Chun & Ramey, 2005a; Pandey & Wright, 2006). As such the concept of goal ambiguity is widely researched in public management. Organizational goal ambiguity is defined as the extent to which an organizational goals or set goals, allows for interpretative leeway (Chun and Ramey, 2005a, 2005b).

Moreover, when employees do not perceive their goals as specific, work motivation and satisfaction will decline and the well-being of the employee will be affected which will eventually affect the productivity and performance of the organization (Jung, 2014). The reduction in Job satisfaction due to goal ambiguity likely occur because they compromise individual self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997) and challenge the extent to which one understand organizational expectations (Davis & Stazyk, 2014; Panday & Wright, 2006; Wright, 2004).

 

Statement of the Problem

Having review previous literature from standard sources like: abstract Indexes, Journals and Textbooks . I realized that although few studies had been done in job challenge and goal ambiguity, but it relation to psychological well-being is seldom been addressed.

Besides, different researchers had different view concerning this two aforemention variables. For example, Derue and Wellman (2009) said that job challenge stimulate managerial development and career advancement. While Emmons and King (1993) believed that it result in stress and anxiety. The same contradictory view is applicable to goal ambiguity.

However, the productivity of any organization depend on the well-being of it members (Pase and Vela-Brodrik, 2009). Any thing that influences their well-being negatively, will affect their productivity and performance, which may result in the closing down of the organization or company. The resultant effect of this will be increase in unemployment and other social vices. This is what prompted this study, influence of job challenge and goal ambiguity on the psychological well-being of employees of champion breweries in Uyo.

 

Objective of the Study/Purpose

This study intends to investigate the influence of job challenge and goals ambiguity on the psychological well being of the employees in champion brewery in Uyo. Specifically, the study tends to:

  • Examine the influence of job challenge on the psychological well-being of employees.
  • Investigate the influence of lack of goal clarity on the psychological well being of employees.
  • To see whether there is an interaction effect of employees between job challenge and goal ambiguity on the psychological wellbeing

 

Significance of the Study

The benefit that will come from this study are numerous. First, the result will contribute to the Job challenge and goal ambiguity literature, this is because the literature in these area are scanty.

Besides, the study will help supervisors, managers, human resources personnel and the entire society to know the  level of Job challenge and goal ambiguity that enhance better psychological well-being.

Moreover, it will help managers and employers of labour on how to improve the psychological well-being of their employees by creating enabling environment which is one of the vitamin of psychological well-being.

Most importantly, enabling environment will help to boast the employees productivity and performance which will result in growth. However, the growth of the company will create more jobs for our teaming youths. Thus, reducing social vices like: Armrobbery, prostitution, kidnapping etc. Interestingly, the result of this study will bring about economic stability in Akwa-Ibom state and Nigeria in general.

 

Research Question

  • Does job challenge influence the psychological well being of employees?
  • Does goal ambiguity influence the psychological wellbeing of employees in champion brewery?
  • Is there any interaction between job challenge and goal ambiguity on psychological well being?

 

CHAPTER TWO

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

In social sciences research, theories are then used as framework to guide the researcher to systematically conduct his research. Thus a theory is a systematically organized knowledge applicable to relatively wide variety of circumstances and rules of procedures devised to analyse, explain or predict the nature of behaviou

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INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA AS AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF IMPARTING KNOWLEDGE

INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA AS AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF IMPARTING KNOWLEDGE

BSTRACT

 It is pertinent to deduce that the efficiency of teaching cannot be said to be achieved through only techniques based on teacher characteristics. There are other subsidiaries which buoy the final output, one of these attributes of achieving effective or enhanced teaching is through instructional media; ideas, designs programmes and activities developed as materials to aid in the impartation of knowledge from the teacher to student. The objectives of this study are to ascertain the use, availability and effects of graphic illustrations as a source of instructional media. To achieve these hypotheses are postulated and research questions formulated to ascertain the validity of the hypotheses buoyed with other questionnaires, tests, surveys, and experimentations. The findings reveal that graphic illustration being the chief source of instructional media in schools in Uyo metropolis equally positively affect teaching in the said schools. From this study carried out it is recommend that graphic illustration be encouraged based its positive effects as an instructional medium; its accessibility; cheapness and easy to understand nature. Graphic illustration if well harnessesed portends to be a proficient enhancement in teaching in secondary school in Uyo metropolis of Akwa Ibom State. This study will hopefully contribute positively and enhance the field of education while encouraging for more simplified and result oriented forms of knowledge impartation.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Preamble

          This chapter deals with the general introduction of the research. It touches on the description of the essence, significance, objectives and the general structuring of the mode of achieving all that is desired from the study i.e. formulation of research questions, postulation of hypotheses, and a run down of limitations and delimitations. The chapter presents a general breakdown and structuring of the whole research.

1.2    Background of the Study

          Instructional media as an effective means of imparting knowledge and instructions is strengthened by some components of graphic design, these components include charts, diagrams, maps, etc. they can also be categorized into forms of teaching aids.

The emphasis in arts also revolves in the development of materials that enhances psychomotor coordination, but for the effective use of these materials and for greater results to be achieved, there has to be symbols to show the idea for the psychomotor coordination as well as for the art teacher to effectively transfer the skills, it is pertinent to produce illustration materials showing the processes with examples of usage, the performance of students based on available instructional materials and how they enhance teaching. The production of said materials achieve dual purposes; they serve as material for teaching processes while at the same time explaining those processes. In this context, graphic illustration is understood to be materials created through printing, drawing, painting, or other forms of pictorial representation on flat surface; ink and paper etc to depict an idea with the intention of explaining the said idea to the student (viewer). It is the picturesque element of visual designs that gives room for both the illiterates and literates to easily understand a message, instruction, or intention. When the components of graphic illustration are well harnessed by the instructor, the resultant effect is instructional effectiveness, by this, graphic illustration is a major embodiment of and an instructional medium. Therefore, it is in the interest of a well instructed school system through which well scientifically tested and proven methods of knowledge transfer are imparted from effective use of graphic illustration as instructional materials that this study is necessitated.

1.3    Statement of the Problem

          There are many component attributes that contribute to the successful use of instructional media, the computer programs, the audio, audiovisual and video aids, the sculpted toys, cartoons, charts, diagrams, maps etc. a vast majority of these have graphic elements in them, these elements are highlighted here in view of harnessing their characteristics and subsequently showcasing the relevance of these characteristics to graphics in general and the relevance of graphics to instructions in particular.

It is only through this that the strength of graphics can be found and used to make learning more fun, simplified and ultimately effective. This study also projects the possibility of using graphic illustrations (design) which is visual to teach Fine Art which is also basically about visual perceptions.

There seems to be loss of interest and low acceptance of Fine arts by the senior secondary students given the low number of student that offer the subject. Parents too see art as a subject for dull students and discourage their wards from it, some don’t even see prospects in art as a profession, a visit to Efficient Secondary School to ascertain if the school offers Fine Art shows evidences that as at 1989, 23 students offered Fine Art in Senior Secondary Certificate Examination, 6 years after, the said subject in question was offered by only 2 students. The school authority explained that before reduction to the 2 students the number was reducing regularly through the 6 years and the school authority did not see need the to continue to pay teachers whose subjects were not offered. They subsequently dropped the subject by 2005. Similar experiences were recorded at different times in Modern Secondary School – Aka Road, Uyo (2008) and Uyo High School, the difference being that Uyo High School still pay the teachers since it is a government owned school. This condition of lack of encouragement leads to poor performance of students in public examinations. Several factors have been advanced for the causes but not enough studies has been done to examine the causes of these. It is in this wise that this study tends to examine the use of Graphic illustrations in the teaching/learning process in Fine Art and projects that it appear to be that graphic illustrations can enhance students performance in Fine Art hence the purpose of this research.

1.4    Objectives of the Study

  1. To identify the various graphic illustration materials used in instruction for secondary schools in Uyo metropolis
  2. To assess the availability of graphic illustrations materials as a source of instructional media for secondary schools instruction in Uyo metropolis.
  3. To assess the level of utilisation of graphic illustration as instructional medium for use in teaching of Fine Art in secondary schools within Uyo metropolis.
  4. To ascertain the effect of graphic illustration as instructional medium on secondary school students academic performance in Fine Art in Uyo metropolis.

1.5    Research Questions

  1. What forms of graphic illustration materials are used in instructions in secondary schools in Uyo metropolis.
  2. Are graphic illustration materials available for use in the teaching of Fine Art in secondary schools in Uyo metropolis?
  3. What is the frequency of utilization of graphic illustrations as an instructional medium in the teaching of Art in secondary schools in Uyo metropolis?
  4. Does the use of graphic illustration contribute to the instructional effectiveness and student’s performance in the teaching of Arts in secondary schools in Uyo metropolis?

 

1.6    Hypothesis

Ho1   Availability of graphic illustrations for use does not significantly influence students academic achievement in Fine Art.

Ho2   The frequency of use of graphic illustrations does not significantly influence academic achievement of students in Fine Art.

Ho3   The use of graphic illustrations does not significantly affect academic achievement of students in Fine Arts.

 

1.7    Significance of the Study

          This study will be significant in several ways:-

  1. determining the pertinence of graphic illustration as a source of instructional media, and its effectiveness as an avenue of effective knowledge transfer.
  2. determining the essence of receiving good education through the help of graphic illustration a  little less expensive than it would have been ordinarily; and

iii.      signifies the efficiency of instructional media as a major avenue to encourage teachers intensify use of illustration to enhance learning.

The perception of students on the use of illustration as instructional medium has been highlighted and ways of enhancing learning through simple, but effective methods that arouses interests to sustain memory recall through pictures, plates, diagrams are made known.

 

1.8    Delimitation

          The Senior Secondary School level of education forms the bedrock of intermediate education. This stage transcends into the higher levels as well, the curriculum that has been recently reviewed by the Federal Ministry of Education has recommended for a compulsory study of Fine Art for students of that level and below as a measure of education for self-reliance. This study concentrates on Secondary Schools in Uyo Metropolis that offer Fine Art at the senior level and senior secondary 3 in particular during the period spanning the 2007/2008 academic year.

Consideration dwelled on schools within the Uyo metropolis, even if the Local Government of their site is not Uyo, such schools are Lutheran High school, Obot Idim, West Itam Secondary School, Ibesikpo Secondary Commercial School Nung Udoe and Community Secondary Commercial School, Ibiaku Itam.

This study seeks to achieve that the subject is made more simplified to lay good foundation for higher education. This study is also delimited to the researcher-designed instructional media.

 

1.9    Limitations

          This study is limited to Uyo metropolis. It would have been desirable to exceed the said limits but the current economic climate poses serious financial constraints and adequacy of time based on the schedule of teachers and their other responsibilities and needs. Some principals and heads of school administrations were skeptical of the responses that students might give based on impacts and impression on their schools and educational systems for fear of seeming insubordination either to the government, or school proprietors depending on the proprietary authority.

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EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY AS DETERMINING FACTORS FOR PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT AMONG ADOLESCENTS

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND SELF-EFFICACY AS DETERMINING FACTORS FOR PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT AMONG ADOLESCENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Adolescence is often a stressful period during development because it involves a pivotal transition from childhood dependency to adulthood dependency and self-sufficiency (Smith, Cowie, & Blades, 1998). One major challenge that adolescents encounter during their teenage years involves acquiring a sense of personal agency in what often seems to be a recalcitrant word.

Adolescents in our societies are viewed as leaders of tomorrow. They are endowed with enormous potentials and talents to succeed in their different ambitions and set goals for life. For these goals to be achieved, it requires dedication, sacrifices, self-discipline, motivation and cordial relationship between them as their parents, peers (both in school and social gathering), and from the environment with which they find themselves. Adolescents at this level are saddled with a lot of responsibilities and challenges (Imonikebe, 2009) which may sometimes result in stress. They need good mental health and functional social supportive networks to be able to succeed in these tasks and pursuits. As the responsibilities and challenges increase and new social relations are established, adolescents, sometimes become uncertain of their abilities to meet these demands Dwyer & Cummings (2001). Difficulties in handling the ensuring stressor often lead to decreased performance in areas like academic achievements/performance and interpersonal relations, as such increasing psychological distress and negative attitudes towards learning and life (Dwyer & Cummings, Salami, 2006). All these invariably pose challenges to the much sought qualities social support network, hence the need to elaborate on the concept of social support.

Social support (SS), perception to Bames (1854) is the perception and actuality that one is for, has assistance available from other people, and that one is part of a supportive social network. These supportive network resources can be categorized into emotional support (nurturance), tangible support (financial assistance), informational support (advice), and/or companionship support (sense of belonging). However, other scholars have also view social support in their own perspective. For example Hagihara, Tarumi, and Miller (1998) defined social support as the provision and receipt of tangible and tangible goals, services, and benefits/such as encouragement and reassurance) in the context of informational relationships (e.g. family, friends, co-workers, co-students, and lecturers). It has also been argued that social support is too complex to be limited to a single theoretical concept (Vanx, 1988), as a result, comprehensive models that incorporate the major elements of most current conceptualization of social support have been developed (Cutronor & Rusell, 1987). These vast elaboration of social support, is hereby viewed as a comprehensive dimension towards understanding it effectively (Alankee, Johnson & Hunt, 1998).

Social support has also been defined as the physical and emotional comfort given to us by our family, friend, colleagues and others. It is knowing that we are part of a community of people who love and care for us, valued and think well of us. it is the sum of the social emotional and instrumental exchanges with which the individual is involved having the subjective consequence that an individual sees him or herself as an object of continuing valued in the eyes of significant others (Gordy, 1996). Social support means the sum of all the relationships that make a person feel as if he or she matters to the people who matter to him or her. Social support can come in many different forms. Experts who study human relationship have identified three main types of social support. Alarie (1996), concluded by saying that these forms of social support are meant to have a positive impact on individual adolescents life and health, but they can also have negative consequences. Moreso, many studies have demonstrated that being integrated into social networks and receiving high levels of social support are important for mental health, high productivity and performance, as well as encourages attainment of set goals and well being, particularly for adolescents (Kessler & Mclead, 1995; Alarie, 1996). The number of social contacts, both close and not too close, is related to higher levels of well-being. Within relationships, different types of support from different sources may benefit health-such as emotional practical and informational support (Houze & Kalin, 1995). Stansfelf & Sproton (2002); Alarie (1996) in their different studies observed that on the other hand, close relationship may be stressful as well as stress relieving, and high levels of negative interaction within relationship increase the risk of mental ill-health.

Taken together, Goodenew, 1993; Levitt, Guacci-Fanco & Levitt, 1994; and Wentzel, 1998, viewed social support as a morale booster or forces, on which adolescent enjoyed from their parent peers, and/or teachers based on their life pursuit and target goals. They also expatiate that, adolescent’s perceived social support is associated with their academic achievement, in that they/adolescents enjoying social support) do fare better in both emotional reasoning and self-efficacy and self-esteem than those who do not perceived their socializers as such. In a contrary view, other scholars posited that, despite the growing body of evidence on the associations between the perception of supportive social relationship, academic achievements, emotional reasoning and high self-efficacy/self esteem, the mechanisms through which social support exerts its influence on these achievements are seldom, as such supportive social relationships may influence adolescents’ behaviour indirectly through motivational and affective mechanisms, that is, may precipitate positive or negative affective experiences, such as (enjoyment, anxiety, anger) as well as adaptive or maladaptive self and task related motivational beliefs (example, self competence beliefs and subjective value), which in turn predicts the potency of social support network.

Also, Furman & Buhrmesten (1992), in their own perspective, described social support as a period when youth perceive their parents and teachers as less supportive whereas their perception of peer support peaks to the maximum. Thus, making adolescence stage, an ideal period for the examination of perceived social support on the emotional well-being, self-efficacy as well as behaviour-exhibited, with particular emphasis on affective and motivational mechanisms, which happen to be influx.

Social support can be measured as the perception that on has assistance available, the actual received assistance, or the degree to which a person is integrated in a social network. Social support on the other hand has been linked to many benefits for both physical and mental health, but to an extent, social support is not always beneficial, this is in reference to the two main models as proposed to the link between social support and health: the buffering hypothesis and the direct effects hypothesis.

However, the buffering hypothesis of social support predicts that social support is not always beneficial at all times, rather

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INFLUENCE OF GENDER AND JOB STATUS ON EMPLOYEE STRESS AMONG THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE

INFLUENCE OF GENDER AND JOB STATUS ON EMPLOYEE STRESS AMONG THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

It is therefore no exaggeration to say that people today the world over are being assaulted by stress in their various job activities. Job stress is therefore a common concern among many countries of the world both developed and industrialized. This has led these countries to have a lot of concern on it and its adverse effect on workers health especially among the Nigerian police force worker to which this project will mostly emphasize.

Job stress in general perspective is refer to the discomfort, pressure and hardship experienced by workers in their process of work. By psychological terms, it is the psychological and physical strain or tension generated by physical, emotional, social, economic, occupational circumstances, events or experiences that are difficult to manage or endure by workers.

According to researchers or authors, employee’s stress is a critical factor in the determination of employee’s performance and well-being, it also has important implication for organizational at effectiveness. Contributors to the idea of stress at work are in greet number, some researchers emphasized that stress is a multi dimensional concept that includes  stress stimuli the processing of system, and  the long stress response. This concept was asserted by Steven and Mary (2002) who defined stress as a Perce wed as challenging or threatening for a person’s well being.

According to Ivancerich and Malterson (1980) they conceptualized stress at work as an adaptive response mediated by individual characteristics and or psychological processes that is a consequence of any external action, situation or event that places special demand on a person.

Similarly, Krant, Gruenberg and Baum (1998) captured the meaning of employee stress as an internal state of the individual who perceive threats to physical and or psychic well being. The definition emphasized a person’s perception and evaluation of potentially harmful stimuli and considers the perception of threat to arise from a comparison between the individual’s ability to cope with these demands.

Also, an Australian-born researcher, Selye (1974, 1983) defined stress as the wear and tear on the body due to demands place on it. He used the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) as a term for the common effects on when demand are place on it. The (GAS) he uses consists of three stages: the alarm stage, resistance stage and the exhaustion stage.

In the alarm stage, the perception of a threat on challenging situation causes the brain to send biochemical message to various part of the body, resulting in increased respiration rate, blood pressure, heart beat, Muscle tension and other physiological responses.   The individual energy level and coping effectiveness immediately decreases in response to the initial shocks. In most situations, the alarm reaction alerts the individual to the environmental condition and prepares the body for next stage.

In the resistance stage of Selye’s (GAS), the person’s ability to cope with the environmental demand rises above the normal level because the body has activated various biochemical’s, psychological and behavioral mechanism, for instance there are an increased level of adrenaline more than the normal level which gives energy to overcome or remove street source. However, resistances is directed to one or two environmental demands so that the individual becomes more vulnerable or weak to the sources of stress and individuals at this stage are prone to catch cold or other illness.

The final stage which is the exhaustion stage occurs when people have a limited resistance capacity and if the sources of stress persist,  they will eventually move into it as it diminishes. At this point, the wear and tear on the body takes its toll the person collapses in a state of exhaustion, and vulnerability for diseases increases.

However, the stress level of a worker increases when the Job do not meet their expectation (Rabasca 1999). When employees find their work personally rewarding, they are better able to handle stress at their work place than when the work is not rewarding.

Stress at work emanates form deferent sources. It could be form over work, Job insecurity, information overload, role related stressors etc. Steven and Mary (2000) categorized potential work-related stressors as physical or environmental, role-related, interpersonal and organizational stressors. According to them, physical or environmental stressors such as excessive noise, poor lighting and safety hazard physical stressors are also becoming apparent in office settings such as poorly designed office, space, lack of privacy and poor air quality.

Environmental or physical stress at work according to Steven (1999) includes environmental uncertainties such as economic uncertainties which occurs when the economy of the country is contracting, political uncertainties which occurs when there are political threats and challenges, lastly technological uncertainties which occurs when there are new innovation or introduction of new ideas which can make the skills and experience of employees obsolete or no longer used in a very short time. Such new ideas are threaten and they include automation, robotics, computers etc these and similar other forms of technological innovations are a threat to many people and cause them stress.

The second work-related stressors is the role related stressors which include conditions where employees have difficult in understanding, reconciling or performing the various roles in their lives. There are four main roles related stressors which are role conflicts, role ambiguity, work load and task characteristics. Role conflict occurs when people face competing demand. There are several types of role conflict in organizational setting, such are inter role conflict which occurs when an employee has too many roles that are in conflict with each other.

Intra role conflict occurs when the individual receives contradictory massages from different people. For instance, when one’s boss wants one as a team leader and expects him to take greater control in the decision making, where as the employees on the team would expect the person to give them freedom. Such situation could contribute to stress to the leader. Person role conflicts as form of role conflict occurs when organizations values and work. Obligations are incompatible or not acceptable with personal values.

Michael (1992) also maintains that role ambiguity results from an unclear understanding of the specific responsibilities that constitute a role. This uncertainty can result when it is unclear how much authority an individual has in making an organizational decision and carrying out his or her duties effectively. This tends to occurs when people enter new situation such as joining the organization or taking a foreign assignment. In this case they are uncertain about tasks and social expectations. They can not rely on past routine, so they concentrate on their actions and carefully monitor responses from others.

Work loads according Michael (1992) as another role-related stressors is likely occur when organizations reduce their workforce and restructure work, leaving remaining employees with move task and fewer resources or time to complete them. Work that is under load can also cause stress and it occurs when employees receive too little or are given tasks that do not make sufficient use of their skills and knowledge.

Finally, it is the task characteristics that occurs when work involves decision making, monitoring equipment or exchanging information with others. Matterson and Ivancevich (1982), stated that whatever the causes, the inability to go along with others workers is one of the most common sources of stress in the work place. However inter personal stress results from difficulties in interpersonal relationship on the Job. Such interpersonal stress stems form difficulty in developing and maintaining relationship with other people in the work setting. This type of stressors could be informed of sexual harassment, work place violence and aggression.

The organizational factor is another source of stress, it should not be there fore surprise that major change in a work organization tend to cause stress, according to be(Leiter and Marvie, 1998). Thus, people tend to grow accustomed to certain work procedures and work structures and they resist change. Most people prefer things to remain stable and predictable. Such  stability in the working environment seems comforting and reassuming, therefore, when there  is a restructuring, people tend to be stressed because there will be new demands from the work.

However, there are non-work stressors that affect works effectiveness such as financial difficulties, relationship problems, loss of loved ones, birth of a child and mortgages. These problems are worthy of mention because people do not park them at the door when they enter the work place.  They carry over and literately these affect workers behaviour result to low productivity.

Consequently, there are also heaths risks that are associated with work-related stress which in dangers  the health condition of a worker. Stress has both physiological and psychological dimensions. The predictable result of  greater work related stresses are increased risk of psychological and physical health problem. (Micguine, 1999, Nelson, Quick; Simmons 2001)

Psychological stress can cause dissatisfaction in the Job, this Job-related stress lead to Job-related dissatisfaction. Apart form this common consequence, it can also lead to tension, anxiety, irritability, boredom and procrastination Stephen (1998), asserts that when people are placed in Jobs that make multiple  and conflicting demands or in which there is a lack of clarity to the incumbents duties, authority and responsibilities, both stress and dissatisfaction  are increased. Similarly the less control people have over the space of their work, the greater the stress and dissatisfaction.

Stressed workers also experience what we called Job Burnout that is the process of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment resulting from prolonged exposure to stress. So Job burnout is a complex process that includes the dynamics of stress, coping strategies and stress consequences. This means that it is a complex demand made on people who serve or frequently interact with others. Stress also has behavioural effect or implication on workers. This evidence in Job performance and work place accidents. High stress levels at work impair one’s ability to remember information, make effective decision and take appropriate action when needed. While over stressed employees also tend to have higher levels of absenteeism. Absenteeism is a coping mechanism because an employee temporally with draws from stressful situation so that he or she would have the opportunity to re-energized.

Physiologically, stress takes it toll on human body. According to researcher, health has been implicated in stress. it is liked with diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and the destruction of the immune system, for example,  stress can contribute to cardiovascular diseases in several ways (Fogoras, 2001), people who have major life challenges  such as loss of job and loss of loved ones have higher incident of cardiovascular diseases and early death (Taylor,2003). The body’s internal reactions to stress are not only risky, people who lives in a chronically stressed condition are likely to take up smoking, start over eating and avoid excise. All these stress related behaviour are linked with the development of cardiovascular diseases (Shineiderman, 2001). Also, the immune system is implicated in stress. Three line of research support the conclusion that the immune system and stress are linked (Anderson, 2002) they are acute stressors which are sudden on time line events than can produce immunological changes. For instance, in relatively healthy Hiv-infected individuals, as well as individual with cancer, acute stressors are associated with proper immune system functioning (Reberts, Anderson and Lubarof, 1994). Chronic stressors are those that are long lasting, which are also associated with an increasing down turn in immune system responsiveness rather than adaptation (Irwin, 2002).

The third which is positive social circumstance and low stress are associated with increased ability to fight cancer. For instance having good social relationship and supports the conclusion that the immune system and stress are naked (Anderson, 2002) they are acute stressors which are sudden on time line events than can produce immunological changes. For instance, in relatively healthy HIV infected individuals, as well as individual with cancer, acute stressors are associated with proper immune system functioning (Roberts, Anderson and Lubarof, 1994) chronic stressors are those that are long lasting, which are also associated with an increasing down turn in immune system responsiveness rather than adaptation (Irwin, 2002).

 

The third which is positive social circumstance and low stress are associated with increased ability to fight cancer. For instance having good social relationship and support is often linked with higher NK-cell level (NK stands for “Natural Killer”), whereas a high degree of stress is often related to lower NK-cell level (Levy, 1990).

In a more recent study, combination of personal and job factor placed individuals at risk for getting side (Shanbroeck, Jone, Xic, 2001). Each member of an organisation has his or her own style of behaving. Employees who perceived they had control over the job responsibilities but didn’t have confidence in their problem-solving abilities or who blamed themselves for bad outcome were the likeliest to experience stress. These types of situation place employees at risk of getting infection.

Employee’s stress is inevitable in organizations, including the Nigerian police force. The coping strategies adopted by the stressed therefore makes that paramount different in its effect on human (Passer and Smith 2001). Although men and women both use problem-focused coping , but men are more likely to favour it as the first strategy they use when they confront a stressor at work. On the other hand, women, who tend to have larger support network and higher needs for affiliation than men are more likely than men to seek social support (Billing and Moos 1998, Schwarzer 1998), but if there is a deficiency in this support, it  becomes disastrous to women. Women also are somewhat more likely than men to report using emotional focused coping. This general, pattern of responding to stress is consistent with socialization that boys and girls traditionally experience. In most cultures, boys are pushed to be more independent, assertive and self-sufficient, whereas, girls are expected to be more emotionally expressive, supportive and dependent (Passer and Smith, 2001).

According to (Nolen-Hoeksema 2001) she observed that women are more prone than men to stress and by extension, they are more susceptible to all known anxiety disorders. Compared to men, women have two or three times the rate of panic with agoraphobia, three or four times more specific phobia, one and a half times more social phobia and two times more generalized anxiety disorder (Kessler & Nelson, 1995). All the above disorders are induced by stress. The question now is, why would women be more likely than men to experience stress and subsequently develop these disorders?

Nolen-Hoeksema suggest that women have a greater risk of stress at workplace, less coping strategy and by extension a greater risk of anxiety disorder because of their relationship with others. This idea by Nolen-Heeksema was supported by Chodorow, 1978, Horney, 1934, Miller, 1986 who mention that women generally have less power in organisation than men do and their status are typically tied to the men they are related to. this causes women to ching to others, play passive and subservient roles in relationship, express a sense of being vulnerable and defenseless and be hyper vigilant to any sign of problems in their relationships. For instance in the Nigeria police force, women are generally less in power, even the duties they perform and well specified, thus, secretarial duties, orderly, receptionish and other messelnious duties that may not prone them to tention. Even if she happen to be involve in some adhoelc duties, she must ching to a male canterpart. It has been impossible to have in Africa and world over a woman inspector general of Police, even if there are, it may be few. In Nigeria we have never experience one, not that they are not intelligent to administer, direct or control their subjects unlike the male canterpart, but when the job involves operational in nature which the leader must be physically present it becomes impossible for a woman to withstand the pressure.

In another study by Bruch and Cheek (1995). Women were found to experience greater level of exposure to stress than men in organizations. This also explains that these stressors could be implicated in mood disorder often experienced by women. According to Bruch and Cheek, men feel it is socially unacceptable to express stress and this may be more prone to confront their feared situations and thereby extinguish their anxiety.

Secondly, men appear more likely than women to seek medical help for anxiety symptoms, especially panic attacks. Men may view these symptoms as annoying medical problem rather than signs of anxiety in their personalities. As a result, organizational men may be more likely than women do receive effective treatment in the early stages of possible anxiety disorder. Not all women who have stress symptoms seek appropriate help for them, however.

Furthermore, women in many cultures face threats in their daily life that quite reasonably would lead them to be chronically anxious and more prone to all of the anxiety disorders. In particular, women are more likely than men to be target of physical and sexual abuse.

Girls and women who have been physically or sexually abused are at increased risk for most anxiety disorders. In turn, women who have been abused are more likely to become unemployed, to have reduced income and become divorced thus, these women suffer a host of circumstance that are difficult to control, may be unpredictable and this contribute to anxiety. Even women who have not been victimized may be chronomically anxious due to persuasive threat of violence at work places (Nolen –Hoeksema, 2001).

Both high and low status individuals, while at work place are been prone to stressors in one way or the other, but the facts lies on the question to know at which extent a junior officer are been affected with stress and to his senior.

The evidence therefore explain that in any organizational section then is a great disparity between the employer and employee in all aspect of work activities. Organizations take as its high job status individuals to be managing directors, managers, supervisors etc while low job status individuals as Forman, Messengers, Labourers etc. In the Nigerian Police Force, for instance the high job status individuals are called the Superior Police Officers (S.P.O.’s) which start from the rank of Assistant Superintendent of Police upwards while the Junior Officers are called the Rank and file which start from the rank of constable to an Inspector. The determination of the effect of stress on these two categories of personals in any organisation depends on their scope of responsibility which each group undertake.

The high job status individuals precisely have a greater role or task to do as against the lower job status canterpart. In an organisation, it is the duty of the employer to recruit, select and place its, employee’s in various work position.

In order to enhance effectiveness in organization, the employer tries to direct, supervise, advice, control and instruct employee’s in the job activities to achieve greater result, all these chain of responsibilities contribute to stress on the side of the high job status individuals.

In the Nigerian Police Force, the Superior Police Officers (SPO’s) suffer more stress than the junior police officers due to their scope of responsibility, large coverage and span of control.

They take charge and control the Junior Police Officers on their various duties, visit them at their respective beat posted, supervise them administratively and be at the fore front of any operational duties. The time phrase for the superior police officers are unlimited in the aspect of work activities where as the Junior Police Officers are limited to eight hours (8hrs) depending on the nature of duty performed.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Dealing with stress is a concern both for the individuals and for the organisation. For individuals, it is important because life, health, productivity and income can be affected while for organisation, it is important not only for humanitarian reasons but also performance in all aspect. It therefore follows that organizational effectiveness can be affected if workers are prone to stress.

Therefore the essence of this study is to investigate, how stressful the police job poses on the workers.

  1. The influence of gender on stress of officers in the police force.
  2. The influence of job status on stress of officers in the police force.

PURPOSE OF STUDY

          This study aims at investigating the influence of Gender and Job Status on employees stress among the Nigerian Police Force. In precise terms, it is planed to:

  1. Find out the reactions of policemen and policewomen to stress, in order words, the effect of gender on stress in the Nigerian Police Force.
  2. Find out how senior police officers and junior police officers respond to stress, that is the influence of job status or rank on stress in the Nigerian police force.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Gender:      This is the biological, social and cultural division into which                man is classified. In this study, gender is used to mean                        being male or female participants.

Job Status: This is used in the study to mean junior police officers and                senior police officers.

Job or Employee Stress: This is referring to the discomfort, hardship                 and pressure experience by workers in the process of work.

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INFLUENCE OF AGE AT MARRIAGE AND EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ON ANXIETY LEVEL OF WOMEN

INFLUENCE OF AGE AT MARRIAGE AND EDUCATIONAL LEVEL ON ANXIETY LEVEL OF WOMEN

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

 Marriage is a social contract between two human beings of the opposite gender. The people concerned are not only physiologically mature but also traditionally recognized by their immediate neighbourhood as being qualified for the holy matrimony (OKoro, 1981). This is perhaps based on the fact that marriage is for people that have attended a certain age bracket with high degree of maturity. Marriage as a social contract is permanent and requires endurance and tolerance from both parties.

In some areas, the above concept of marriage has been neglected, thus exposing teenagers to early marriage. Early marriage is synonymous to child or adolescent marriage. A child is not really mature for any appreciable responsibility until he becomes an adult. On that note, early marriage is obviously defined as a union of either or two persons of the opposite sex as husband and wife without attaining physiological and psychological development (Eleonu, 1984).

Education is regarded as all of man’s activities which enable him realize himself and live fully as a human being or a process of influencing the young and inexperienced so that they may become worthy human beings and citizens (Onwuka, 1975). Basically, education is a process of harmonizing the individual within a given environment in such a manner as to enable him to develop his physical, mental, emotional and volitional capacities for the happiness and welfare of all. Based on the definition, education is a means to marital happiness.

The zeal to be educated empowers girls to stay in school, delay pregnancy and marry latter, these are essential interventions that can substantially improve their chances of becoming well informed, productive citizens.

Early marriage has robbed millions of women a whole opportunity for educational development and self-realization in all sphere of human endeavour. Many of them with little or no vocation in all sphere of human endeavour. Many of them with little or no vocational training cannot help but to engage in low-income employment if there is need for them to supplement the family income. Worst still, offspring of such mothers end up marrying early like their mothers and with low level of education. Also, many of these early married mothers and their children usually look wasted, emaciated and older than their age because of the trauma experienced in coping with their marital problems due to lack of education. Many of their children are malnourished and succumb easily to diseases.

Marriage as a union of a man and a woman is not meant for adolescent or children. It is an institution that would last as long as the world continues to exist; it should not be tackled in a haste. According to Obiageli (1989), it requires a thorough examination and re-examination. However, marriage is therefore God’s first human institution with direct responsibility of replenishing the world. It involves joint responsibility of mature opposite gender which are supposed to be ascribed with loving and caring for each other. But because of the rampant nature of teenage marriage, some families and marriage today are facing and experiencing the worst trying period; tension, anxieties, quarrels, fears, fighting, uneasiness and chaos have become the order of the day, thus, creating high blood pressure and premature death. This situation of marriage can be associated with low level of education, orphanage factors, many female children, accidental or unplanned pregnancy and the desire to enjoy the honour associated with matrimony, as well as cultural heritage accorded to married people.

However, motherhood at a very young age entails a risk of maternal death that is much greater than average, and the children of young mothers have higher levels of morbidity and mortality. Early child bearing continues to be an impediment to improvements in the educational, economic and social status of women in all parts of the world. Overall for young women, early marriage and early motherhood can severely curtail educational and employment opportunities and are likely to have a long term adverse effect on the quality of life of young women and their children. Against all odds, it takes mental and physical maturity to make a successful marriage. Anatomically, it is known that bones continue to grow and stops between 18-20 years. By international conventions, 18 years has been established as the legal age of consent to marriage. Before this age, mental and physical maturity are inadequate. Hence, a youth who gets married before this  age definitely does not have the where without to make a successful marriage.

Inspite of the desire of most teenagers in many culture these days to make great progress in their chosen fields and to lead a life of self reliance, the priority with many of them is marriage and a settled home with a living partner and children. But because of the problems accruing from early marriage and low level of education, these dreams have in most cases become a mirage. Perhaps, since the beginning of the world, the belief has been that a woman is created for nothing else but for marriage and rearing of children hence neglecting education. Thus, most culture however, have come to resolve that the earlier a girl takes up this role for the reason of her existence, the better.

Early marriage and low level of education lead to beginning sex quite early and this could cause some havoc on a girl’s physiological and emotional health. Based on that, it has become an absolute necessity to enact laws to safeguard the lives and health of our young girls to make sure that something that can be prevented is avoided. However, for the health and well been of the mother and child, it would be desirable to postponed marriage and face education till above the age of 20 years when the  woman is mature enough both emotionally and physically. This in turn would reduce maternal and infant mortality rate, slow population growth and thus contribute to the improvement of the quality of the family generally.

 

Statement of the Problem

In view of the peculiar nature of women, physiologically and psychological, as well as their cultural and familial roles, their status fluctuate. Their mental health are more at risk, resulting sometimes in certain gender specific disorders like pauperial psychosis and menopausal complications due to hormonal imbalances. Based on the fluctuating mental health of women, the researcher wonders if some variables related to women have any link in their mental health. Such variables inherent in the women’s world are their personality, age at marriage, level of education, locality, socio-economic status etc.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the present study is to investigate if there is a relationship between early marriage and educational level of women on their levels of anxiety.

Specifically, the researcher assessed if there is a link between:

  1. Age of marriage and level of anxiety of women
  2. Educational level of women and their level of anxiety

 

Definition of Terms  

Early Marriage: Marriage in which the female is below the age of 18 years which has been established as the legal age of consent to marriage.    

 

Educational Level: The extent and quality of training acquired by an individual. Here low educational level is having little or no educational training as below SSCE while high educational level is having acquired enough educational training of B.Sc. or HND & above.

 

Anxiety: Feeling of dread, apprehension or fear that is often accompanied by increased heart rate, perspiration, muscle tension and rapid breathing as measured here with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory.

 

Women: Adult females of the human race or wife’s. Those used for the present study were selected from those that had early and late marriage.

 

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