THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL WORKERS IN AN HOSPITAL

THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL WORKERS IN AN HOSPITAL

ABSTRACT

This research work was conducted precisely to find out the need for the awareness and relevance of medical social worker in the hospital. The main instrument that was used in this study was the questionnaire which was designed in a way that will enable the researcher to have strong evidence about the importance of social worker in the hospital, particularly in the Psychiatric Hospital, Uselu, Benin City. It was also aimed at identifying the various important roles social workers play in the rehabilitation of patient in the hospital. At the end of the work, useful recommendations were made; some of which are government should encourage all social workers by way of providing them with in-service training. Enhance remuneration and regular elevation in their places of work as they are made to face the challenges of societal problems everyday.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstact vii
Table of Contents viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background of the Study 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem 5
1.2 Objective of the Study 6
1.3 Scope of Study 7
1.4 Significance of Study 8
1.5 Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Psychiatry Social Work 12
2.1 Rehabilitation 17
2.2 Social Welfare services to Patient and Relatives 18
2.3 Patient Employer Consulting Services 19
2.4 The Doctor Patient Relationship 20
2.5 Admission Problems, such as Non-compliance with
Treatment 24
2.6 Case Conference 29
CHAPTER THREE:

3.0 Research Methodology 38
3.1 Population of Study 39
3.2 Sample Size 39
3.3 Method of Data Collection 39
3.4 Method of Data Analysis 40
CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Data Analysis 41
4.1 Discussing the Result 42
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0 Summary 58
5.1 Conclusion 59
5.2 Recommendations 61
References 63
Appendix 65
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

2.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There are many notions of what the role of a social worker should be; we identify the more prevalent of them. They are not presented in terms of any historical or chronological continuity but – to assist this brief analysis – almost as ideal type Francozo and Cassorla (2004). They are readily identified in the literature about social work. They are also inextricably associated with the value and principle seen to underpin social work in general.
Social workers in hospital necessary work alongside other health care professionals and other relevant health care profession and the perspectives on social work held by doctors and senior nurses are relevant both to their relationship with social workers and to the smooth running of the hospital (Kearney, and Skehill, 2005).
The nurses and doctors roles rated the quality of social work practice predominantly by the extent to which the social worker was seen to identify unambiguously with the hospital and its ethos: but they also set great store by the presence and easy accessibility of a social worker, and they preferred regular contact with the same person (Popple, Philip N, 2008). They saw the social worker as a lay agent within the health care framework, and acknowledge that the social care role and the social worker’s link with the community were crucial component of a good hospital practice.
Medical social work is a sub-discipline of social work, also known as hospital social work. Medical social workers typically work in a hospital, skilled nursing facility or hospice, have a graduate degree in the field, and work with patients and their families in need of psychosocial help. Medical social workers assess the psychosocial functioning of patients and families and intervene as necessary. Interventions may include connecting patients and families to necessary resources and supports in the community; providing psychotherapy, supportive counseling, or grief counseling; or helping a patient to expand and strengthen their network of social supports.
Medical social workers typically work on an interdisciplinary team with professionals of other disciplines (such as medicine, nursing, physical, occupational, speech and recreational therapy, etc.)
The medical social workers job is to perform assessment with patients to assess for any physical, mental or emotional needs they assess the family support system and link the patient with service to help with care if needed. Baresford, (2000) assistance with financial concern,such as not being able to afford medication or pay household bills. Gould (2006) some social workers provide counselling to patients who are suffering from depression or who are having difficulty coping. Ultimately, a social worker links and makes referrals to agencies to assist the patient with all of these services. Butlerlan and Giverda (2004) in most cases, social worker can provide a great deal of assistance and support to help a patient cope emotionally and financially deals with illness. In addition, healthcare staff also feel comforted when they know the social worker is going to help the patients because it means that they have fewer problems with the patient not getting necessary treatment.
Refugee Council (2005) social workers help educate and provide support to patients and their families. Just like nurses, physicians and therapists, social workers are experts in their field. One of the main benefits of a social worker is helping to be sure the patient knows what servicesare available. This can help increase patient’s safety and increase the possibility that the patient will not return to the hospital.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The rate at which people are affected by mental illness is alarming in the world and Nigeria in particular (WHO, 2001), and at times the psychiatrist alone will not be able to manage the problems of most of the neurological patients. Hence the role of social workers in psychiatric hospital is vital, to help diagnose the social problems of patients. In recent years, evidence has shown that increase in mental disorder are attributed to social problems such as unemployment, divorce, retrenchment, addiction, religion, low standard of living, loss of parental love, lack of educational achievement etc.
Such a situation does concern all mental health and allied professionals, essentially of social worker practicing in mental health institution believes that mental health disorder are directly attributable to social problems that characterize society.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

i. To create awareness about how social workers work with patients and their families.
ii. To enlighten the public about how medical social worker assess the psycho social functioning of patients and their families.
iii. To create awareness on how medical social worker counsel mental patients and their families. And how social workers help to expand and strengthen the network of support to patients.
iv. To create awareness based on how social worker’s plan and conduct programmes to prevent substance abuse or improve health and counselling in community.
v. To educate the public about how medical social worker’s intervene as advocate for patients to resolve emergency problem.
vi. To create awareness, formulate or co-ordinate programmes plan for treatment, care and rehabilitation of patients based on social worker experience and knowledge.
1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY

This study will focus on the roles of a social worker in psychiatric hospital, Uselu, Benin City. The focus will be the patients in Psychiatric Hospital, Uselu, Benin City.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The significance of this study is to create awareness on the importance of medical social worker towards promotion of psychological well being of individual, families and community. It will also reveal how medical social workers work with other medical practitioners with the aim of finding resolution to patients’ problems, with intention to ameliorate or solve their problems.
1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS
INDIVIDUAL AND CHILD WELFARE

This is concerned with the social worker getting to know the well being of the patients or family as a whole.
COUNSELLING
This involves social worker listening and attempting to understand the patient and provide answers or solutions to patients’ problems.
Counselling is mostly conducted in private and the discussion is confidential. Counselling is concerned with problems solving behaviour modification process.
CHILD WELFARE
This is concerned with the social worker’s finding solution for the well being of the children in the hospital, various humanitarian organization and meaningful individual.
RECONSTRUCT
This is concerned with conversing a patient in ways in which is expected to change his/her behaviour.
1. To help them to have a normal life again.
2. To make sure they stop associating with their bad peer group which always lead them to drug.
3. To counsel them about the danger of taking hard drugs like Indiam hemp, cocaine, heroin, etc.
HOMELESSNESS
If a patient is homeless the medical officer/social worker will liaise with the voluntary/statutory agencies that specialize in working with homeless person in the state, to provide shelter fot the patients.
DISCHARGE PLANNING
This complex process which begins on a person’s admission in hospital, involves assessing, counselling and planning. It may involve issues as:
1. Loss of independence and control
2. Separation from loved ones
3. Adjustment to life style changes and or possibilities of not returning home.
NETWORKING
Is the practice of liaising with statutory and voluntary services and agencies, to keep patient/families/careers informed of their right and linking them with appropriate support network and group.
ELDER ABUSE
The practice of helping the elderly people in society (Greene Roberta, 2008), if any individual has any suspicion/concern that any elderly has been abuse or may be at risk of abuse, they should contact the medical social worker immediately.

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ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS THE STUDY OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS THE STUDY OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

abstract

Social studies, as a course of study constitutes a special field within the educational system of many advanced countries. In developing countries like Nigeria, the course is relatively a new subject, which was introduced in schools in the early 1963.
Since then, the subject has continued to give immense recognition from government circles. The importance of the subject was further given a boost when it was made one of the core subjcts in school curriculum National Policy on Education (NPE), 1981.
In this NPE, social studies was made compulsory for both primary and junior secondary school levels. Thus, in a place like United States of America, social studies is virtually synonymous with citizenship education. The subject provides significant means of helping citizens to use schooling effectively to attain self-empowerment and help the individual to look at his society, understand its problems and seek solutions to them. Different societies have different problems. Hence, the concept of social studies in any given society must take into account the peculiarities of each. The concept of social studies in Nigeria is closely tied to the changing needs, problems and challenges of our society as they occur over time.secondary schools
Although, social studies aims at impacting knowledge and providing valuable information necessary for life, its function is to help inculcate in students desirable social habits, attitude and values so much needed for their survival in the society. A major aspiration of every nation is the desire for rapid development which naturally depends on the quality of leadership, followship, honesty, self discipline, resource endowment, use of science and technology, rational utilization of her human and natural resources and above all unity and stability of the nation. All these can be solved through the studying of social studies. secondary schools
In the Nigerian context, social studies have been regarded as one of the subject that can bring about fulfillment of all these demands of the society. The introduction of the subject in our school curriculum is aimed at bridging the loop holes of colonial education, which was mainly to pacify Africans. The reason why the government introduced social studies into the Nigerian school curriculum, was to make education relevant to the socio-economic and political needs of the country. secondary schools
Okam (2008) is of the view that social studies is expected to provide students with insight to the use of various knowledge, structure and procedures that have relevance to modern civilization by fostering understanding of the movement of events and personalities that have influenced the history of Nigeria. secondary schools
Awe (2001) saw social studies as a problem-solving discipline. She declared that: social studies as a discipline if properly programmed and effectively taught should help to solve social problems that are facing developing countries like ours (Nigeria) where the old norms are fast losing their grips and no effective substitutes to replace them. secondary schools
NERC (2007) defined social studies as a way of seeing, viewing and approaching things with special regard to their proper place and function in the ordering and management of man’s total natural social and technological environment.
CESAC (2002) defined social studies as a relationship between man and his physical and social environment as well as his relationship between science and technology. secondary schools

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ATTITUDES OF UNDERGRADUATE YOUTHS TOWARD DEMOCRATIC VALUES:Â IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL STUDIES

ATTITUDES OF UNDERGRADUATE YOUTHS TOWARD DEMOCRATIC VALUES:Â IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL STUDIES

ABSTRACT

This research work sought to assess the attitude of undergraduate youths toward democratic values and the implication these would have on social studies education in Nigeria. The youths of Nigeria has been confirmed to form the bulk of the citizens which is the decision making group in the society. The lack of a democratic attitude of mind has been identified as the major obstacle that has mar democratic consolidation in Nigeria. Thus, both elites and youths have been observed to surprisingly shown weak commitment to the basic symbols and values of democracy. The youths must possess a good grapse of democratic values which will aid, guide and direct their conducts in the discharge of their civic responsibilities. And that the possession of democratic values is not only essential for youths to participate in democracy but is essential for them to participate well and positively.
In order to carry out this study, nine research questions were raised to investigate the attitude of youths to some selected democratic values. The survey research design, using the descriptive method was employed in the study. Six hundred subjects were selected from the four universities in Edo State. The study made use of the frequency and percentage statistical tools to analyze the research questions raised and t-test for the hypotheses raised.
At the end of analysis the following underlisted findings were arrived at; that:
Youths hold the values of respect and tolerance in high esteem why discharging their civic duties.
Youths hold in high regard the virtues of equality and the rule of law as a necessary tool for effective civil participation.
Youths hold in high regard the value of one-man-one vote during civic practices (why exercising their franchise).
Youths hold in high esteem the virtues of honesty and patriotism why carrying out their civic duties, etc.
And based on the above findings, some useful suggestions and recommendations were offered and were as follows; that:
Social studies curriculum selection and organization should be reviewed regularly to cater for the constant changes in societal values, attitudes and behaviours which tend to affect citizens adherence to democratic values.
New democratic values such as transparency, due process, your vote must count and one-man-one vote etc that are currently gaining access into Nigeria core democratic values need to as a matter of urgency be introduced into social study curriculum.
All agencies, bodies, organizations like INEC, NOA, civil society groups and Non-Governmental Organizations should assist to create the awareness, understanding and internalization of democratic values in youths that have missed the opportunity of been imparted with such values through social studies teachings.
These suggestions and others if carried out would help to forestall/reduce the undemocratic attitude and behaviours prevalence in our society.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
List of Tables
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses
Significance of the Study
Delimitation
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

Conceptual Clarification
Positive View, Belief and Regard for Democratic Values and Effect on Participation of Nigerian undergraduate youths in Democracy
Negative view, Belief and Regard For Democratic Values and Effect on Participation of Nigerian undergraduate Youths in Democracy
Social Studies and Citizenship Education – Its Role in Entrenching Right Democratic Values in undergraduate Youths
Summary
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

Research Design
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Instrumentation
Validity of Instrument
Reliability of Instrument
Method of Administration of Instrument
Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF DATA, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

Analysis of Data, Interpretation
Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary
Conclusion
Recommendations
Suggestions for further studies
References
Appendix (Questionnaire)
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Citizens are the hearts and soul of democracy and hence there must be active and informed involvement of the people at all levels of governance as willing participants in defining and maintaining their democracy. The youths of any society are a potential force to reckon with in that society, Nigeria not exempted. They constitute a large chunks of the decision making groups in the society. The Nigerian youths form the bulk of the citizens which is the decision making groups in our democracy. Youths must not be unlookers but the driving force behind democracy and their participation must not be limited to elections only, but a continuing engagement with the process of democratic governance. In line with this assertion, NERDC (2005) agreed that, The role of the youths as electorates does not just stop at voting. The youths must constantly engage in the political process in order to strengthen democracy. Thus, the youths must ensure that government policies truly represent people’s best interest and not those of a handful of rulers. Undergraduate youths
Corroborating the above assertion, NOA (2006) posited that, For democracy to succeed, citizens must be active, not passive, because the success or failure of the government is their collective responsibility. The citizens must ensure that they shape the government of their choosing. The youths can individually, collectively and through various civil society groups get mobilized and involved in citizenship and governance by joining political parties and contesting elective offices wherein they can influence government policies and programmes. To participate well in democratic activities, the youths must possess a good grapse of democratic values which will aid, guide and direct their conducts in the discharge of their civic responsibilities. In line with this, NOA(2006) asserts that: “For democracy to be sustained, it is essential that citizenry possess the requisite skills, demonstrate the values, and display the behaviours that accord democracy”. That is democracy is nurtured and sustained only when democratic values are rooted in the minds and actions of citizens (NOA, 2006). Undergraduate youths
Ojo in Iyoha, Aghayere and Oviasuyi (2003) advanced that “it is required at the level of both elites and the youths that attitude and behaviour supportive of democratic consolidation be appropriately developed”. Thus, it is crystally clear that the possession of democratic values is not only essential for youths to participate in democracy but are essential for them to participate well and positively. CIVITAS (1991) and Avaro (2001) defined democratic values “as the fundamental beliefs and constitutional principles which guide the democratic government put in place in a particular society”. They are ethos that regulate the extend, level and involvement of participants in a democracy. CIVITAS and Avaro went ahead to identify and itemize life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, the common good, justice, equality, diversity, truth, popular sovereignty and patriotism as fundamental beliefs. And rule of law, separation of powers, representative government, check and balances, individual rights, freedom of religion, federalism and civil control of military as constitutional principles, both making up the American core democratic values. Most of these core democratic values identified by CIVTAS and Avaro were derived from the speeches of American presidents, chiefly by Thomas Jefferson.
Here in Nigeria, it need to be pointed out that there is no unanimous agreement as to what constitute our democratic values or that there is no single document that contain such values as in the case of the U.S and other older democracies. What we can distill as our democratic values are excerpts from our constitution, speeches of past leaders and governments and writings contained in some available literature. A thorough search and comparison of findings with that of the U.S core democratic values. The researcher concludes that the following values of happy life, freedom, equality(one-man-one vote), justice, toleration of diversity, unity(national integration), national loyalty(as against sectional loyalty), rule of law, separation of powers, checks and balances, transparency, patriotism, dignity of human person, representative government, self-reliance, due process, electoral credibility(citizens vote must count), common good(acting in the best interest), popular consent, supremacy of the people, toleration of opposition and legitimacy are Nigeria’s core democratic values. While the underlisted values of honesty, discipline, integrity, dignity of labour, humaneness, mutual respect, orderliness etc. should remain simply as democratic values or civic values or traits that make democracy possible (FGN, 1999; Ojo in Iyoha et al, 2003; NERDC, 2005 & Nnamdi, 2009).
So the decision of the youths to participate or not to participate depends on their awareness adherence and internationalization of these democratic values and this has serious consequences on democracy and the general polity. And it is in turn determined by the factors of or the interplay of political culture, civic or citizenship education and the political experiences of the society in question. Ojo in Iyoha, et al (2003) advanced that “the lack of development of democratic attitude (values) is one major obstacle that has mar democratic consolidation in Nigeria. Thus, it is the obstacle to youths positive participation in our democracy”. However, Nigerian youths have contributed immensely to the growth and development of their various communities and the country in general. Their struggle and move have always been a sacrificial one which outcomes are not only their selfish interest alone but for the generality of the people (Aghayere in Iyoha, et al, 2003). Aghayere (2007) further asserts that,
Nigerian youths, particularly Nigerian students, have been known for their active participation in nation building. Their sustained struggles and agitation against colonial exploitation and domination of the political system, amongst others, paved the way for the termination of colonial rule and attainment of independence.
The youths also played important roles of facilitating the democratization of Nigeria (demilitarization of Nigeria). Their selfless activities largely contributed to the enthronement of democratic rule that culminated in the 1979 and 1983 civilian rule in Nigeria. The youths protest that greeted the annulment of the June 12, 1993 presidential election cannot go unmentioned.
Contributing to this, NOA (2006) also identified other areas of youths positive participation in democratic governance. These it outlined to include the following activities, Meeting with political officials to express their concerns and desires, petitioning and demonstrating peacefully, voting, registering, contesting elective offices, demanding accountability from elected representatives, scrutinizing and criticizing government policies, writing articles in newspapers, boycotts and labour unions strikes. In addition to these, the youths also served as Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) staff, provided services or items (electoral materials) to INEC as self employed youths and defended their vote casted when results were hijacked by political warlords. On the other hand, most of the actions and involvement of Nigerian youths have portrayed negative influence on our democracy and the polity in general. In line with this view, Ojo in Iyoha, et al (2003) pointed out that, Much of the deviance in political behaviour can be traced to the youths and are correctly attributed to lack of a democratic attitude of mind. The ultimate manifestation of the absence of a democratic attitude of mind is electoral rigging, intolerance of political dissent, alternative or opposing view points.
He asserts further that “both the elites and youths have surprisingly shown weak commitment to basic symbols and values of democracy”. Hence, there is serious manifestation of greed, inordinate ambition to win power, thuggery, dishonesty, personalization of political/public offices, insincerity, disrespect for others, intolerance etc in our national polity. The disposition that forms democratic ethos are not inherited or passed down through the genetic mode; it is required that each generation of society learn civic facts, explore democratic ideas and values and connect such concepts to the responsibility of citizenship. Such disposition must be fostered and internalized by word, study and by power of example. It is in this regard social studies as a school subject is highly imperative in fostering these learnings and to sustain our nascent democracy. The many years of military rule in Nigeria have been marred by uncivil political behaviours that ranged from political apathy to electoral fraud. The attendant effect has been lack of popular participation, and disengagement of many Nigerians, particularly youths, from political processes. These development suggest weak civil support for democratic values and institutions.
The focus of this study is to ascertain the extent to which youths are aware/unaware, have positively/negatively internalized these democratic values in the discharge of their civic duties and more importantly, the extent to which social studies education can help to learn or unlearn these values in youths.
As pointed out earlier that democracy is nurtured and sustained only when democratic values are rooted in the minds and actions of citizens. Civic and citizenship education, which are vital aspects of social studies is essential in the inculcation and entrenchment of these vital knowledge, values and actions in citizenry. This brings to mind the definition of social studies given by Kissock (1981) when he defined social studies as a programme of study which a society use to instill in students the knowledge, skills, values, and actions it considers important according to the relationship human beings have with each other, their world and themselves (Iyamu and Onyeson, 1991). To Kissock, social studies can be used to instill in learners those desirable attitudes and actions (i.e. democratic attitudes and values) that a society feels desirable to its survival as a people. Undergraduate youths
Youths acquire the status of citizenship in any particular society after undergoing certain psychological awareness and social training as well as some specific skills (Aghayere in Iyoha, et al, 2003). The age at which such is reached varies from society to society. But subscribing to the argument of Agbebaku and Agbebaku(2007) that, “youths in Nigeria are people normally between the ages of 18 to 45 years”. Their reasons for the choices of 18 as the lower age was derived from the fact that the 1999 constitution of Nigeria sets that mark as the minimum acceptable voting age for Nigerians. And that of 45; it is the peak where people still demonstrate youthfulness and energy for civic activities. Therefore, for the purpose of this study, Nigerian undergraduate youths will mean persons between the ages of 18 and 45 years who are currently undergoing their first degree programmes in any Nigerian universities.
Statement of the Problem

This study was undertaken to investigate the perception of Nigerian youths of democratic values. From experience with youths during elections and civic activities, the extent to which youths are aware of, understand and/or have internalized these values is not certain. This has serious implication for social studies education, our democracy and the Nigerian nation as a whole. Thus, there is apprehension when one takes a cursory look at the undemocratic attitudes, level of incivility prevalence among our youths and the ultimate manifestation of negative behaviours such as electoral rigging; kidnapping/killing of political opponents; writing or sponsoring the publications of damaging articles in our media; tearing, removal or defacing of posters belonging to political opponents/parties; youths enlisting into various cult groups to be used as party kingpins/political thugs; the general apathy/indifference of many youths to elections and democratic process; youths mortgaging their conscience after being induced with meagre amount of money or materials like face-caps, T-shirts, umbrellas etc to support the wrong candidates/parties knowing fully well they have no political will and the reputation to deliver on electoral promises and thereafter put their future in jeopardy and perpetual wants. The end result is bad leadership/government, high number of electoral cases in court, lack of basic infrastructure, unemployment, and underdevelopment. Recently, the National Orientation Agencies, has embarked on mass mobilization to raise people’s awareness of democratic values in the country. Even at that, what can we say about the present perception of Nigerian youths of democratic values? How much does social studies have to offer in promoting these values in the youths?
Purpose of the Study

This study was carried out to assess the attitude and conduct of Nigerian youths so as to ascertain the extent to which they are aware, understand, and have imbibed the democratic values that guide Nigerian democratic process; the extent to which democratic values regulate our youths as participants in the various democratic processes.
Specifically, it is to find out the attitude of youths toward:
the virtues of respect and tolerance while indulging in/carrying out political activities;
the virtues of honesty and patriotism while discharging their civic duties;
transparency and following due process in their civic practices;
the provision of justice for every citizens in our democracy;
equality of every citizens in our democracy;
the principle of one-man-one vote in the political process;
freedom of action in the democratic process.
Research Questions

The following underlisted research questions were raised to investigate the study:
What is the attitude of youths to the virtues of respect and tolerance in the political process?
What is the attitude of youths to the virtues of honesty and patriotism in the democratic process?
What is the attitude of youths to the virtues of transparency and due process in the democratic process?
What is the attitude of youths to the provision of justice in our democratic process?
What is the attitude of youths to the provision of freedom of action in our democratic process?
What is the attitude of the youths to the virtues of equality and the rule of law in the political process?
What is the attitude of the youths to the principle of one-man-one vote in the political process?
Does the attitude of the students in public universities toward democratic values differ from those of the private universities?
Does the attitude of full-Time students of democratic values differ from those of the Part-Time students?
Hypotheses
The Attitude of students in public universities of democratic values do not differ significantly from those of the private universities.
The attitude of full-time students of democratic values do not differ significantly from those of part-time students.
Significance of the Study

This study was undertaken at the time the Nigerian state is passing through a trying moment in its democratization process. Undergraduate youths
The study will specifically expose what social studies as a school subject has done so far in terms of citizenship transmission – producing citizens (youths) that are civically conscious, responsible and competent. And the lapses in the school subject why it is not living up to expectation. Undergraduate youths
The work will also be useful to curriculum developers when deciding which subjects should feature as core; and at which level should they feature and when should they not. That social studies education terminating in JSS III in our school system before now has done great disservice to good citizenship transmission. And thanks to the newly introduced civic education that will be offered at senior secondary school (SSS) in our schools.
The study will also be useful in identifying the democratic values that would be taught to the youths in our school system. It will also be useful in the informal settings or gatherings organized by MAMSER, INEC, political parties such as rallies venues, campaign grounds, sensitization programmes etc as there is acute limited work or literature on the concept, democratic values. Undergraduate youths
It will also help to identify the undemocratic attitudes and behaviour Nigerian youths are associated with/indulged in our democratic process so as to provide INEC, security agents and political parties with the adequate information and possible ways of forestalling such ugly menace. Undergraduate youths
Finally, it will help to correct the attitude of indifference and general apathy of many Nigerian youths to electoral process and democracy in general. That is to sensitize the youths to be a part and parcel of the mechanism that makes and shapes the decisions and policies that determine their future rather than living it in the hands of few elites who are selfish and parochial in their judgments. And why acting in this capacity to imbibe the democratic ethos that ensure electoral credibility and democratic consolidation. Undergraduate youths

Delimitation

The scope of this study was restricted to the attitude of Nigerian youths within the ages of 18 and 45 years of democratic values. The composition of youths for this study was made up of undergraduate students of the universities in Edo State. In a nutshell, the study is restricted to the attitude of subjects in Edo State but the findings will generalized on the entire Nigerian undergraduate youths. Undergraduate youths
Definition of Terms

The core words or concept are defined operationally as used in this study:
Democratic Values: Are the fundamental belief and the constitutional principle which guide the democratic government put in place in a particular society. They are the ethos that regulate the extent, level and the involvement of participants in a democracy. Examples are rule of law, patriotism, equality, freedom, self-reliance, the common good, justice, toleration of diversity, transparency, etc.
The scope of this study was restricted to the attitude of Nigerian youths within the ages of 18 and 45 years of democratic values. The composition of youths for this study was made up of undergraduate students of the universities in Edo State. In a nutshell, the study is restricted to the attitude of subjects in Edo State but the findings will generalized on the entire Nigerian undergraduate youths. Undergraduate youths
Definition of Terms

The core words or concept are defined operationally as used in this study:
Democratic Values: Are the fundamental belief and the constitutional principle which guide the democratic government put in place in a particular society. They are the ethos that regulate the extent, level and the involvement of participants in a democracy. Examples are rule of law, patriotism, equality, freedom, self-reliance, the common good, justice, toleration of diversity, transparency, etc. Undergraduate youths

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Application of audio visual aids in teaching social studies in senior secondary schools in igbo – eze north local government area.

Application of audio visual aids in teaching social studies in senior secondary schools in igbo – eze north local government area.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to apply for audio-isual aids in schools in Igbo-Eze North local government area in Enugu State, this research work is a descriptive survey research and the researchers selected two hundred (200) subjects from the population of two thousand (2000) people through simple random sampling.
After the research, the researchers found that audio – visual aids have a lot of advantages on the teaching of English language in schools in Igbo-Eze North local government area.
These advantages are:
Audio visual aids like television and radio makes the lessons to be simple, clear and more understandable.
Audio visual enables the students to perform well in examination.
Audio-visual aids reduce the complex nature of teaching English language.
It helps the students to recall lessons in English language.
Audio-visual enables the students to gain proficiency in English language.
The following are the recommendations from the researchers
The use of radio as a teaching aids in the teaching of mathematics in secondary school system.
The use of television as a teaching aids in the teaching of science subjects in the secondary school system.
Table of Content
Title Page
Approval Page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Table of Contents
List of Tables
Abstract
CHAPTER I
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Research Questions
Delimitation of the Study
Definition of the Terms
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Importance of Teaching Aids
The Uses of Audio Materials in Teaching
Poor Performance of Students in English
The Concept of Teaching
Teaching Effectiveness
Objectives
Summary of Related Literature
CHAPTER III
Design of the Study
Area OF Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Instrumentation For Data Collection
Validation of Instrument
Reliability of Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
CHATTER IV
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
Research Question 4
Research Question 5
Research Question 6
Research Question 7
Research Question 8
CHAPTER V; SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussions of the Findings
Implications of the Findings
Conclusions
Recommendations
Suggestions for Further Study
References
Appendix
Introduction
The introduction of this research is only available in the paid version.
Application of audio visual aids in teaching social studies in senior secondary schools in igbo – eze north local government area.

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THE EXTENT OF USE OF AUDIO–VISUAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

THE EXTENT OF USE OF AUDIO–VISUAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to find out the extent to which audio-visual materials are used in teaching the English Language in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu East Local Government Areas of Enugu State. The work will be divided into five chapters. Chapter one is the introduction; chapter two reviews the literative; chapter three is the methodology; chapter four is the analyses while chapter five is the summary, conclusion, recommendation and implication of the study. The study will be guided by four research questions. Survey design will be used. A portion of the entire population will serve as the sample size. Audio–Visual Materials
The instrument of the study will be adopted to get the sample size. The instrument of the study will be questionnaire. It will be face validated. A reliability exercise will be carried out whereby the questionnaire will be given to ten teachers from another local government Area for the first time; after two weeks they will be given the same questionnaire items to respond to. Their responses in the first and second times will be analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation co-efficient. Any result from 0.50 and above that is realized shows that the instrument is reliable. The research questions will be answered using mean scores. The analyses will be presented in tables and statements of inter-presentation will be made after each of the tables. Findings will be made. There will be recommendation and implications for the study. Finally, suggestions for further studies will be equally made. Audio–Visual Materials
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Certification
List of Tables
Table of Contents
Abstract
CHAPTER ONE:
Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 The Scope of Study
1.6 Research Questions
1.7 Research Hypotheses
CHAPTER TWO:
Literature Review
Theoretical Perspective
2.1 The Nature of English Language
2.2 The Concept of Audio-visual materials
2.3 The Importance and Functions of Audio-Visual Materials
2.4 The Place of English Language in Junior Secondary Schools in Nigeria.
The Empirical Studies
2.5 The Extent of Differences of Teachers in the Use of Audio-Visual Aids.
Summary of Related Literature
CHAPTER THREE:
Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5 Instrument for Data
3.6 Validation of the Instrument
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
3.8 Method for Data Collection
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR:
Data Analysis and Result
4.1 Result Research Analysis
4.2 The t-test Analysis for Hypothesis
4.3 Summary of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE:
Discussion, Conclusion, Implication and Recommendation
5.1 Discussion of the Finding
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Implications
5.4 Recommendation
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research
Bibliography
Appendices

 

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Problems Of Teaching Social Studies In Nigeria Secondary School (A Case Study Of Igbo Etiti Local Government Area)

Problems Of Teaching Social Studies In Nigeria Secondary School (A Case Study Of Igbo Etiti Local Government Area)

ABSTRACT
Although Social Studies is now the language of government, business and commerce, education, the mass media, literature and internal as well as external communication, there are still problems in the teaching of Social Studies
as a second language in secondary schools. Students presume that Social Studies is a difficult language to learn and so do not make effort to learn it. Teachers also find it difficult to cope with the heavy demand required for effective teaching and learning of Social Studies. This research work was carried out using the twenty secondary schools in Igbo Etiti Local Government Area of Enugu state. Six boys secondary schools, eight girls secondary schools and six co-educational schools. The target population was one thousand, eight hundred and fifty four students in JS III and one thousand, eight hundred and eighty eight students in SS III and one hundred and five Social Studies teachers. Ten schools and two hundred students from both junior and senior secondary schools were used for the study. Forty teachers were also selected and analyzed using mean. Based on the findings some recommendations were made. Teaching Social Studies
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGES
Title page:
Approval page:
Certification:
Acknowledgement:
Dedication:
Table of contents:
List of tables:
Abstracts:
CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study:
1.2 Statement of the problems:
1.3 Purpose of the study:
1.4 Significant of the study:
1.5 Research question:
1.6 Scope of the study:
1.7 Limitation of the study:
1.8 Definition of terms:
CHAPTER TWO:
REVIEW OF RELATED LITRATURE
2.1 Origin and importance of Social studies (L1):
2.2 Social studies as a second language (L2):
2.3 Problem of mother tongue (L1) interference in Social studies learning:
2.4 Problem of shortage of specialist teacher in Social studies:
2.5 Students physical and psychological problems:
2.6 Lack of basic and necessary equipment constitute a problems:
2.7 The problem of teaching method and strategies:
2.8 Time allotted to Social studies on the time table:
2.9 Summary of literature review:
CHAPTER THREE:
RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Design:
3.2 Area of study:
3.3 Population:
3.4 Sample techniques:
3.5 Instrument for data collection:
3.6 Validation of instrument:
3.7 Method of data collection:
3.8 Method of data analysis:
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Data presentation and data analysis:
4.2 Research questions:
CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Discussion of the results:
5.2 Summary of findings:
5.3 Recommendation:
5.4 Conclusions:
References:
Appendix:

 

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The Effects Of Qualification Of Social Studies Teachers On The Performance Of Secondary School Students In External Examinations (A Case Study Of Selected Schools In Nsukka Local Government Area)

The Effects Of Qualification Of Social Studies Teachers On The Performance Of Secondary School Students In External Examinations (A Case Study Of Selected Schools In Nsukka Local Government Area)

Abstract
The study was designed to find out if the qualification of the Social Studies teachers has direct or indirect bearing on the performance of the students in Social Studies. The topic was built on the assumption, apparently shared by most people especially our educational policy makers, that any fluent speaker or native speaker of Social Studies automatically becomes an effective Social Studies teacher. Three secondary schools within Nsukka were selected for the study. Questionnaires were distributed to the students, teachers and principals in the selected schools. The responses were analyzed using simple statistical methods. The study found out that teachers qualifications do affect students performance. Recommendations were made on how to improve on the quality of teachers already in the classroom.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Approval Page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Table of content
List of table
Abstract
CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problems
1.3 Significance of the study
1.4 Hypothesis
1.5 Objectives of the study
1.6 Operational definition
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study
CHAPTER TWO:
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Academic and professional qualification of Social Studies teachers
2.2 The curriculum of qualification of Social Studies teacher education
2.3 Instructional methods used by Social Studies teachers
2.4 Teachers’ attitude
CHAPTER THREE:
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Source of data
3.2 Samples
3.3 Method of data collection
3.4 Procedure of data analysis
3.5 Method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR:
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Interpretation of students’ response
4.2 Teachers’ qualification and teaching experience
4.3 Interpretation of the qualification of teachers’ response to questionnaire
4.4 Analysis of principals response to items in questionnaire
CHAPTER FIVE:
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Major findings
5.2 Tenability of assumption
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendations

    Bibliographical References

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THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU SOUTH L.G.A)

THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU SOUTH L.G.A)

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Social Studies was introduced in the Nigerian School Curriculum as part of the instrument for achieving national development (National Policy on Education (NPE) 1981). This was what informed its designation as part of the core curriculum at different levels of education in Nigeria.
Social Studies curriculum development agencies such as the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) and experts further identified and disseminated the curriculum goals or purposes of the subject in the school curriculum. These include citizenship education, reflective inquiry and social science education, (Barth-shermis, 1920; Barth-Norris, 1976; Dubey and Barth, 1980; Olawepo, 1984) among others. These broadly stated goals must be clare to, and recognized as important as well as attainable by teachers and other participants connected with the Curriculum if the intentions or purposes must be realized and the investment of effort is to be considered worthwhile (Feather, 1982; Meece, Blumenfeld, & Hoyle, 1988). These intentions or purposes are prima facie stated with clarity, but their perception or conceptualization by teachers and scholars is still in doubt as Onyabe (1980) observed that the philosophy, content and methodology of social studies has remained vague to both scholars and teachers. The incidence of conflicting conceptions of social studies curriculum is a cause for concern for three major reasons. First, the anchor or strategic position of purposes or intentions in the curriculum development process (Pratt, 1994) as illustrated in Tyler (1949) (Linear) and Wheeler (1980) (cyclic) curriculum models, among others.
Secondly, curriculum goals or purposes, are indispensable elements in instructions as far as effective implementation of an already developed curriculum is concerned. Thirdly, the correct conception, investment of efforts and ultimate realization of the purposes of the curriculum will facilitate the realization of the overall aims of the Nigerian educational enterprise.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Presently, junior secondary school students’ interest and academic achievement in social studies is declining. Lemchi (2001) noted that some students are losing interest in the subject.
Attitudes associated with Social Studies appear to affect students’ performance in the subject. Also, many Social Studies teachers teach Social Studies without instructional materials and facilities (Mberengwa 2004). The quality of teachers, and class room facilities are grossly inadequate and obsolete. Owolabi et al. (1991) also indicated that a serious disconnection exists between Social Studiestraining in secondary schools and the needs of the labour market, as students that do not proceed to higher education have been found to be incompetent in the field of work. Where students consistently perform poorly, the implication is that adequate teaching and learning has not taken place in schools. Therefore, the problem of this study is to examine the problems of teaching and learning of Social Studiesin secondary schools in Anambra State. teaching social studies
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to examine the problems of teaching and learning of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Anambra State, Nigeria. Specifically, this study sought to:
Find out the extent to which students’ attitudes constitute problems to the teaching and learning of Social Studies.
Assess the extent to which teacher quality and quantity constitute problems to the teaching and learning of Social Studies.
Find out the extent to which instructional materials constitute problems to the teaching and learning of Social Studies.
Determine the extent to which curriculum issues pose problems to the teaching/learning of Social Studies.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
To what extent do attitudes of Anambra State Junior Secondary Schools Students constitute problems to the teaching of Social Studies?
To what extent to teacher quality and quantity cause problems to the teaching of Social Studies?
To what extent do instructional materials pose problems to the teaching and learning of Social Studies?
To what extent do curriculum issues pose problems to the teaching and learning of Social Studies?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study gives various insights into the challenges of teaching social studies in junior secondary schools in Nigeria. These highlighted challenges will enable stakeholders in the education sector to take adequate measures in tackling these challenges, and make learning of social studies a lot easier for both teachers and students in junior secondary school levels. teaching social studies
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study covers the challenges and prospects of teaching social studies at junior secondary schools in Nigeria using Anambra state as a case study. Findings and recommendations for the study may not reflect the true view of the challenges of teaching social studies in Nigeria, as the researcher could not cover a wider area in Nigeria due to time and financial constraints. teaching social studies
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
There are some limiting factors which influence the researcher’s effort towards developing this work (project). The most prevailing being time factor as other school extra curricula activities that had to be met with teaching social studies
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Social studies is the “integrated study of the social sciences and humanities to promote civiccompetence. Social studies is most commonly recognized as the name of a course or set of courses taught in primary and secondary schools or elementary, middle, and secondary schools, but may also refer to the study of aspects of human society at certain post-secondary and tertiary schools around the globe. Many such courses are interdisciplinary and draw upon various fields, including sociology but also political . teaching social studiesscience, history, economics, religious studies, geography,psychology, anthropology, and civics. teaching social studies
A challenge is a general term referring to things that are imbued with a sense of difficulty and victory. teaching social studies. teaching social studies

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FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MASS FAILURE OF STUDENT IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF ENUGU STATE)

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MASS FAILURE OF STUDENT IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF ENUGU STATE)

ABSTRACT
This study was on the factors associated with mass failure of students in the social studies in secondary schools in Nsukka L.G.A of Enugu State. Using simple random sampling procedures, the researchers drew 128 students and 50 teachers from nine state owned secondary school of Enugu State.
Questionnaires were used to elicit information from the respondents- Teachers and students on the problems associated with mass failure of secondary school student in social studies in WAEC Examinations. The questionnaire items included qualification and experience of the social studies teachers, the methods they adopt in teaching the subject, the materials available to them foe use in teaching the subject, the influence of the vernacular language in student learning of the subject and home environment.
In analyzing the data collected, means scores were used to answer the research questions. The results showed among other things, that the teachers knowledge of teaching the subject is not updated often times and that there is absence of teaching facilities in most of the schools while vernacular language and home environment have negative impacts, towards the students’ the findings, recommendations were made and implications were highlighted. This was followed by suggestion for further studies, summary of the study and conclusion.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables vii
Abstract viii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction of “Factors Associated With Mass Failure of Student in Social studies in Secondary Schools”
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significant of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Research Question
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review of “Factors Associated With Mass Failure of Student in Social studies in Secondary Schools”
2.1 Conceptual frame Work
2.2 Empirical Study
2.3 Summary of Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research Methodology of “Factors Associated With Mass Failure of Student in Social studies in Secondary Schools”
3.1 Design of the Study
3.2 Areas of the Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instrument for Data Collation
3.6 Validation of Instrument
3.7 Method of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data presentation and analysis of “Factors Associated With Mass Failure of Student in Social studies in Secondary Schools”
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion, Conclusion, Implications, Recommendations and Summary of “Factors Associated With Mass Failure of Student in Social studies in Secondary Schools”
5.1 Discussion of Findings
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Implication of Findings
5.4 Recommendations
5.5 Limitations of the Study
5.6 Suggestion for Further Research
5.7 Summary of the Study
References
Appendix

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COMPARISON OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN EXTERNAL EXAMINATIONS FROM 2003-2007

COMPARISON OF ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN EXTERNAL EXAMINATIONS FROM 2003-2007

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables vii
Abstract viii

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction of “Factors Associated With Mass Failure of Student in Social studies in Secondary Schools”
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significant of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Research Question

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review of “Factors Associated With Mass Failure of Student in Social studies in Secondary Schools”
2.1 Conceptual frame Work
2.2 Empirical Study
2.3 Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research Methodology of “Factors Associated With Mass Failure of Student in Social studies in Secondary Schools”
3.1 Design of the Study
3.2 Areas of the Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instrument for Data Collation
3.6 Validation of Instrument
3.7 Method of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Data presentation and analysis of “Factors Associated With Mass Failure of Student in Social studies in Secondary Schools” External Examinations

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Discussion, Conclusion, Implications, Recommendations and Summary of “Factors Associated With Mass Failure of Student in Social studies in Secondary Schools” External Examinations
5.1 Discussion of Findings
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Implication of Findings
5.4 Recommendations
5.5 Limitations of the Study
5.6 Suggestion for Further Research
5.7 Summary of the Study
References
Appendix

 

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Effective Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies In Junior Secondary School : Teachers And Students Perceptions Of Problems, Enugu Educational Zone

Effective Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies In Junior Secondary School : Teachers And Students Perceptions Of Problems, Enugu Educational Zone

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to find out theTeachers And Students Perceptions Of Problems Of Effective Teaching And Learning Of Social Studies In Junior Secondary School, Enugu Educational Zone. The population for this study comprised all the Social Studies and computer science teachers and student in junior secondary in Enugu Educational zone.
The sample was drawn from the population. The sample consisted all the teachers teaching Social Studies and computer science in junior secondary school. The instruments used were questionnaire and data were collected analysis by use of percentage.
The major findings of the study are as follows:
1.It was found that they lack concentration in Social Studies because of mother tongue interference.
2.Also the lack qualified teachers
3.They also lack teaching aids like books.
4.They lack fund and equipment for computer laboratory so it affect teaching and learning the subject matter
5.We found out that short time of teaching leads to lack of understanding of the subject.
6.We found out that lack of communication affect teaching and learning effective.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Certification
Approval page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problems
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Research question
1.5 Scope of the study
1.6 Signification of the study
CHAPTER TWO
Literature review
2.1 Concepts of teaching and learning
2.2 Social Studies learning and computer science learning
2.3 Important of Social Studies and computer science
2.4 Problems of effective teaching and learning of Social Studies and computer science.
2.5 The prospects of English language and computer science
2.6 Appraisal of the method of teaching Social Studies and computer science
2.7 Teachers perceptions of the problems of effective teaching and learning of Social Studies and computer science
2.8 Student perception of the problems of effective teaching and learning of Social Studies and computer science.
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Research methodology and design
3.1 Area of the study
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Sample and sampling techniques
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Presentation of data analysis
CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, conclusion and recommendation
5.0 Summary of findings
5.1 Recommendation
5.2 Conclusion
Reference
Appendix

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Secondary School Students In School Certificate Social Studies From 2004-2015: Relative Academic Performances (A Case Study Of Enugu North L.G.A)

Secondary School Students In School Certificate Social Studies From 2004-2015: Relative Academic Performances (A Case Study Of Enugu North L.G.A)

ABSTRACT

The study examined the perception of students and teachers on the cause of poor academics performance among secondary school students in Enugu North, Enugu State. Subjects for the study were fifty (50) students and fifty (50) teachers randomly drawn from four secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. Questionnaire was used to collect relevant data for the study. Percentages and Chi-square were used to analyze the research questions. Responses of teachers showed that teachers’ qualification and students’ environment do not influence students’ poor performance but teachers’ methods of teaching influence poor academic performance. Students’ response on the other hand showed that while teaches’ qualification and students’ environment influence students’ poor performance teacher methods of teaching and learning materials do not. The implications of these findings for secondary school guidance counselors interested in counseling adolescents for good academic performance were discussed.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgment
Abstract
Table Of Contents
Chapter One:
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Purpose Of The Study
1.2 Research Questions

Chapter Two:
2.0 Review Of Related Literature
2.1 Causes Of Poor Academic Performance Among Secondary School Students
2.2 Family Background And Poor Academic Performance Of The Child
2.3 Factors Affecting The Child’s Academic Performance And Socialization Processes In The Family
2.4 Types Of Family And Student’s Academic Performance Family
2.4.1 Size And Position In The Family
2.4.2 Family Educational Background And Socio-Economic Status
2.5 Socio- Economic Status (Ses) And Academic Achievement Of Students
2.6 Types Of Disciple At Home Finance School Factors
2.7 School Location And Physical Building
2.7.1 Interpersonal Relationship Among The School Personnel
2.7.2 Quality Of Teaching Staff
2.7.3 Teachers Method Of Teaching
2.8 Classroom Management
2.9 Learning Environment
2.10 Peer Group Influence

Chapter Three:
3.0 Method Research Design
3.1 Method Of Research Design
3.2 Procedure For Data Collection
3.3 Research Instrument

Chapter Four
4.0 Method Of Data Analysis And Discussion Of Result
4.1 Analysis Of Data Analysis And Discussion Of Result

Chapter Five:
5.0 Discussion Of Result
5.1 Discussion Of Result
5.2 Implications For Counseling
5.3 Summary
5.4 Conclusion
Suggestions For Further Studies
References
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The differential scholastic achievement of students in Enugu North has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country. All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education in Enugu State (Adebule, 2004).
Parents and government are in total agreement that their huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend. Teachers also complain of students’ low performance at both internal and external examination. The annual release of Senior Secondary Certificate Examination Result (SSCE) conducted by West African Examination Council (WAEC) justified the problematic nature and generalization of poor secondary school students’ performance in different school subject. For instance, the percentage of failure compared with students who passed English language and Mathematic between 2004 to 2008 is shown below.
Table 1: The West African Examination Council (WAEC) performance in the senior school certificate examination: May/June, 2004-2008: Mathematics.

 

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Relationship Between Students Academic Achievement In Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination In English Languages And Integrated Science (A Case Study In Udi Lga)

Relationship Between Students Academic Achievement In Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination In English Languages And Integrated Science (A Case Study In Udi Lga)

ABSTRACT
This study relationship between students academic achievement in Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination in English Language and Integrated Science from 2006-2009 in Udi Local Government Area in Enugu State. The need for the study arose to know the relationship between the students academic achievement in junior secondary school certificate examination in English language and integrated science.
This study need covered the selected twenty-three (23) junior secondary school in Udi Local Government Area in Enugu State. This designed was ex-post Facto design. The JSSCE were served as the main instrument used. Data were analyzed using percentages. Finding of the study indicated that the relationship between students academic achievement in junior secondary school certificate examination in English language and Integrated science in the study area was not so encouraging.
It is recommended that there is need for students, teachers, Government and curriculum planners to co-operate and improve learning of English language and Integrated science.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table Of Contents

Chapter One
1.0 Background Of The Study
1.1 Statement Of The Problem
1.2 Purpose Of The Study
1.3 Significance Of The Study
1.4 Scope Of The Study
1.5 Research Questions
Chapter Two
2.0 The Growth Of Science And Language
2.1 Historical Perspective Of Integrated Science And English Language.
2.2 Objective Of Integrate Science And English Language
2.3 Relevance Of Integrated Science And English Language
2.4 Student Academic Performance In Integrated Science And English Language.
2.5 Relationship Between English Language And Integrated Science.

Chapter Three
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area Of The Study.
3.3 Population Of The Study
3.4 Sample And Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instrument Of Data Collection
3.6 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four
4.0 Data Analysis And Presentation Of Results

Chapter Five
5.0 Discussion Of Findings
5.1 Implication Of Study
5.2 Recommendation
5.3 Suggestions For Further Work
5.4 Conclusion
Reference

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Education is one the important factors which helps in bringing about rapid social and economic development in any given nation. It is a medium through which various categories of man power is developed and sustainable development achieved. It is the manpower resources that utilize the available physical and financial resources to provide the services and function that eventually bring about economic and social development.
According to Onah (2008), education refers to a family process or activities intend to bring about learning. It is a process of developing knowledge, ability in learners in such a way that they use this knowledge to improve themselves and the society. The process of education involves different methods of transmitting information with the intention of bringing about positive change in the behaviour of the students. The best way of developing human resources and human capital is through education within the context or framework of their level of understanding.
Education of students is the best way through which teachers find their fulfillment and actualization. The Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) is a public examination in Nigeria conducted by each state of the federation through their respective Ministry of Education (MOE) for final year students of the junior Secondary School. Each state also develops administer marks, awards, grades and certificate to all public schools under its jurisdiction. Since English language and Integrated science are meant to serve as the yardstick for admission into the senior secondary school as the core subjects. A student who is there by admitted is assumed to posses the abilities and skills necessary to cope with the academic challenges.
According to Oga and Udemba (2007) posited that English language is one of the major languages out of about 5,000 estimated languages spoken in the world. It is one of the most influential and fastest growing languages spoken across the globe. One fifth of the earth’s land surface use English language either as native tongue or official language. It is the most widely studied language used by entire world especially in areas where it is not native. Likewise integrated science according to Oladimeji in Ene (1991) is defined as amalgamated course designed to show the unity, wholeness and interrelationship of the distinct disciplines of Biology, Chemistry, Physics and so forth, should not be discernible. It is the virture of its name by bringing together of different branches of science as a unified whole through the concepts and methods which pervade the natural science. English language as the major language makes the transmission of integrated science effective and efficient (from new encyclopedia Britannica vol. 27p 32 2005).
Science is simply defined as knowledge for natural process that are universal among mankind, which has existed since the dawn of human existence. It is the study of nature, which includes man and his environment. The study of science is the effort the discover and increase human understanding of how the physical world works.
According to Otiji (2008), the early modern science, this period is believed to have started in 1543 when De Revolution Ibus by the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus was first printed, which hinged on the assumption that the earth moves round the sun. The introduction of science as the iron age that set in metals such as bronze, copper and gold. It brought the transformation of Local technology to modern technology which the junior secondary students do as integrated. Science as a subject. The science and technology of today is said to have evolved gradually through the period of 300-500 BC to the present day advanced stage with the invention of very advanced cutting edge technologies. It is borne out of man’s desire and curiosity to know more about himself, his environment and how to solve his problems to make life more comfortable.
Ofuebe (2007) views science as a variety of information, abilities and operations about the natural environment. Science is more concerned with various investigative processes and activities with regards to developing, acquiring and controlling knowledge, skills, capabilities and attitudes about the natural factors of the environment. From these processes, reliable and verifiable information are accumulated for used in science and other disciplines.
Okebukola (2001) explain science as a human enterprise involving systematic study of an environment with a view to make logical and reasonable explanation about nature and find solution to the problems that confront man.
According to Ekere (2003) Science is defined as an attempt by human beings to organize their experiences about nature into meaningful systems of explanation. This experiences includes knowledge of human actions on things, events or situations and also the result or consequences of such action.
Everett (1993), wrote that science is the kind of knowledge that is based on facts established by careful observation experiment and repeatedly verified. By observation and experimentation, the scientist collects facts that seen to apply to his particular problem and can be tries to classify them to some kind of other system. From these, science is the study of knowledge about the structure and behaviour of the natural and physical world, based on the fact that you can prove for example by experimenting the new developments in science and technology. It can also be a system for organizing the knowledge about a particular subjects especially one concerned with aspects of human behaviour or society.
DOTT (2003) Commented that science consist simply of the formulation and testing of hypothese based on observation evidence, experiments are important where applicably but their function is merely to simplify observation by imposing controlled conditions. It is the concerted human effort to understand or to better to the history of the natural world and how the world works with observing natural phenomena and discovering new things.
Dienye and Gbamanja (1990) posited that human survival is dependent on knowledge, and this survival is enhanced by man’s ability to integrated several disparate realities for his use. With aims of training the students in the process of scientific investigation. Integrated science means the combination of various disciplines of science with eliminates and which does not recognize the traditional subject boundaries when presenting topics.
Ogbonna (1982) cited by Ene (1991) that Integrated science by virtue of its name is the bringing together of different branches of science as a unified whole through the concepts and methods which pervade the natural science. Integrated science is therefore defined as an approach to the teaching of science which concepts in science discipline are combined and presented in such a way that the students learn science as a whole instead of learning it as a separate disciplines. This helps the students to know the basic concepts and keys idea which proving opportunities for students to learn reasoning skill and a new way of thinking about their environment.
Science can also be view as a method of obtaining knowledge. This can be achieved through many skills and some of the process skills involved in scientific inquiry includes observation, verification and experimentation. In English language, however the procedural processes are syntax, semantic, structure, lexical, morphology, phonetic and phonology etc. Integrated science it’s origin between 1957 and 1969. When growing awareness was generated and efforts made towards developing functional, and integrated science curriculum.
Integrated science covered only two years programme but this was up-dated in 1982 and redesigned to cover three years programme. With the new policy in education and the introduction of 6-3-3-4 educational systems in the country. Integrated science as a subject has been made compulsory in the junior secondary school.
This therefore serves as starting point for teaching of introductory part of other areas of science subjects. The survey of English language is an indisputable fact that language like every other subject has its history. It has undergone a lot of changes in its original structure. The old English is not appreciated by the modern speakers of English language unless such speakers have undergone some special training in that area. But inspite of this, through all the centuries the continuity in the development of the proper and sound system of English language has been ensured and maintained.
According to Jowith (1991), English language is known as standard English from nineteenth century, this was the period in which British men began coming to the country in steadily increasing numbers as missionaries, trader, soldiers and government officials. Their presence helped to ensure that standard British English has a prestige in Nigeria as in Britain. This was the modal held up in schools for Nigerian learners to emulate in primary, secondary and higher education.
From Deignton (1997), the early modern period of English began in the late fifteenth century with the publication by William carton of his first book printed in England with the end of the wars of roses. There was a great difference between the early modern English and the present day English. In a bid to draw distinction among the various types of English language used in this period has emphasized that “Although the English language is considered to have entered into its modern period after 1450, the language of Shakespear (1564-1616) and the King James bibles (1611) certainly differs in many ways from the English of the twentieth century”. Accordingly, a distinction is usually made from 1,700 n words. It must be emphasized at this point that English language continued to change in various forms, ranging from the syntax, morphology, grammer, phonetic and phonological symbols to semantic and linguistic pattern English as a language is used in several countries and is widely studies.
English language is used as an official language “Lingua Franca”. It is the language fro unification. In primary and junior secondary education, it is used to teach other subjects and to pass information from the teacher to the student. (from new encyclopedia Britannia vol 4 p. 500 2005) English language has flexibility of education functions. This means that one word can function as various parts of speech in different contexts like in verb, noun, adjective and give different meanings.
Anibueze (2009) views English language from the stand point that educational pre-requisite for advancement and career success in the country. It means a lot in the life and progress of a student, as it is a key subject with profound influence in all the other school subjects.
According to Ozohili (2007), poisted that English language has an important role because it is concerned with those abilities of speaking, listening, reading and writing that are required for learning in all areas of life. Integrated science is the combination of subjects like chemistry, biology and physics, therefore from all indication occupying very important position in junior secondary education. Any amount of financial resources spent on their research, verification, experimentation, drills, observation and study to improve effectiveness and productivity seem to be investment in the right direction. English language and integrated science occupies a special position in the junior secondary school curriculum. The central focus of learning English language and integrated science is to produce skillful and science oriented individuals who will have a good knowledge and methodology. On the other hand, the blames for poor academics achievement of the student should be opportuned to both principals, teachers and government agencies. Academic Achievement
Akabogu and Ndu (1992), puts the blame on the teachers, principals, students and government agencies for low academic achievement of junior secondary school students in the junior secondary examination certificate in the area of English language and Integrated science.Academic Achievement
Again Ukeje, Akabogu and Ndu (1992) views student low academic achievement in junior secondary and primary school thus “A large number of principals of junior secondary school and headmistresses of primary school has become absentee school administrations. The classroom teachers consequently have generally abandoned their teaching responsibilities. Lack of instructional materials like textbooks, computer, charts, apparatus for experiments etc. implies failure to the students. For English language and Integrated science which is taught in junior secondary school to be functional, it requires enough qualifies teachers and adequate teaching aids for teaching. Therefore, laboratory contributes immensely to the academic performance of students in integrated science students achieves more when they receive education that will train their entire body. The classroom work takes cares of the intellectual aspect of the students and practicals brings out what they have done in full. Therefore, in the school system, it is necessary to ensure that all the variable relating to junior secondary school student academic performance in certificate in English language and Integrated science are positively oriented so as to bring out the highest performance in their result.Academic Achievement

Statement of Problems
The problem of this study is ascertaining the relationship between junior secondary school students academic achievement in certificate English language and Integrated science between 2006 to 2009. English language and Integrated science are the core subjects in Junior secondary schools as English is a language of communication and used to teach any other subjects, like wise integrated science as a key subject to all science courses is known to be a very useful tool technology advancement.Academic Achievement
Unfortunately, students are no longer interested in the study of science. It appears that this is a big decline of interests in the study of science subjects especially in our junior secondary schools. With this considerable decline in interest in the sciences, the technological development will continue to lure the country in spite of abundant resources at our disposal. A great need therefore is no how to rule off there wrong attitude and stimulate our young scientists. Students in the junior level are meant to understand these science subjects as unified whole and this application of knowledge of integrated science as a subject in our junior secondary schools.
According to Maduabum (1989) in Ene (1991) includes:
1. Lack of appropriate training of teachers.
2. Lack of adequate number of qualified integrated science teachers.
3. Inadequate or total absence of laboratory facilities
4. Insufficient time spent on teaching and learning of integrated science.
According to Anbuese (2007) the problem of English language include:
a. Inadequate of teaching aids or instructional materials.
b. Lack of appropriate background knowledge of English language by student.
c. Lack of development of listening and speaking skills.
In other to test what Maduabum and Anibueze wrote, the researchers tried to carryout this research in Udi Local Government Area to find out if these enumerated points are also the problems encountered by students in learning English language and Integrated science in Udi Local Government Area.
Other problem the researcher think that is against learning of English language and Integrated science are inadequate of integrated science and English language textbook. The inappropriateness of the methods used by the teacher. All these have contributed to poor performance in English language and Integrated science.
It is for these reasons that the researchers planned to find out or rather look into the relationship between junior secondary school students academic achievement in certificate English language and Integrated science from 2006 to 2009 in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State.Academic Achievement

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between junior secondary school students academic achievement in their certificate English language and Integrated science, to find out
1. The relationship between students performance and their achievement in English language and Integrated science.
2. The overall performance of students in junior secondary school certificate examination in English language and Integrated in the selected schools in Udi Local Government Area from 2006 to 2009.
3. The level of performance in English langue and Integrated science in junior secondary school examination in Udi Local Government Area.
4. The high quantity pass (HQP) and low quality pass (LQP) over the year of the study.
5. If the academic performance of junior secondary school certificate Examination in English language and Integrated science is improving or declining in term of quality pass (TQP) and failure (F9).
6. Differences in academic performance of schools in English language and Integrated science in the term of school type.Academic Achievement

Significance of the Study
This refers to the members that will benefit from the study like the students, teachers, Government and curriculum planners.Academic Achievement
The result obtained from this research work will help teachers of English language and Integrated science to have better insight into student’s area of difficulties and problem inherent in the learning of English language and Integrated science and will ultimately find solutions to it.Academic Achievement
The result of the work will also show that Government and curriculum planner the level of performance in junior secondary certificate, so also the inspector will be aware of the level of performance. It will also enable them know the qualification of teachers in the field and to make any possible change when necessary.
Finally, if decline in performance is detected suggestions will be proffered towards assisting students to change their habits and overall attitude towards the study of English language and Integrated science. This study will provide the students with knowledge in the live of performance and there encourage them to work harder if performance is low.

Scope of Study
The scope of the study is delimited in the relationship between junior secondary school student’s academic achievement in certificate English language and Integrated science from 2006 to 2009 in Udi Local Government Area.Academic Achievement

Research Questions
1. What is the relationship between students academic achievement in English language and Integrated science in junior secondary certificate examination?
2. What has been the overall academic performance of students in junior secondary school certificate examination in English language and Integrated science in Udi Local Government Area from 2006 to 2009?
3. What has been the level of Academic performance in English language and Integrated science in junior secondary school certificate examination in Udi Local Government Area in 2006 to 2009?
4. Are the performance in junior secondary school certificate examination improving or declining in terms of quality pass (TQP) and failure (F9)?
5. What are the change in high quality pass (HQP), and low quality pass (LQP) and failures (F9)?
6. Are there difference in the Academic Performances of schools in terms of Gender?

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Impact Of Language Laboratory For Effective Teaching And Learning Of Oral English In Junior Secondary School(A Case Study Of Enugu North Local Government Area)

Impact Of Language Laboratory For Effective Teaching And Learning Of Oral English In Junior Secondary School(A Case Study Of Enugu North Local Government Area)

ABSTRACT

The theoretical frame work for this study was provided by the review of literature was also prepared to enable the researcher collect enough data in regards to the study. Information was sought through primary sources such as questionnaires were used in data collection. The findings of the research work were presented in tabular form and analyzed using simple percentage. The purpose of the study is that, to find out if there are enough language laboratories available for effective teaching and learning of the English language in secondary schools. Their significance, is to provide invaluable information to the government, the Nigeria Educational Research center, the curriculum planners. The design of it is to determine the impact of the Language Laboratory on effective teaching and learning of English Language in secondary Schools. The population of the study were 25 teachers in number and there was no sampling. Administration of instrument and data collection are primary data and secondary data. The information instrument used for this research study. The supervisor approved the questionnaire before we used it.Everything was gotten as a result of hard work and since the Enugu North Local Government Area was interviewed by the researchers are reliable personal and their contribution has helped the researchers to carryout the research work effectively, method of data analysis, the researchers got their information from newspapers,TABLE OF CONTENTTitle PageAcknowledgmentDedicationAbstractContentChapter One1.0 Introduction1.1 Background Of The Study1.2 Statement Of The Problem1.3 Purpose Of The Study1.4 Significance Of The Study1.5 Scope Of The Study1.6 Research Questions
Chapter Two2.0 Review Of Literature2.1 Mother Tongue Interference2.2 Interference In Pronunciation2.3 Interference In Meaning2.4 Qualification Of English Teachers2.5 Teaching Methods2.6 types Of Language Laboratories2.7 Kinds Of Installation2.8 The Impact Of The Language Laboratory On Student’s Performance2.9 The Student In The Laboratory2.10 Advantages Of The Language Laboratory2.11 The Availability Of The Language Laboratory2.12 Limitations Of The Laboratory2.13 Problems In Connection With The Use Of The Language Laboratory
Chapter Three3.0 Research Design And Procedure3.1 Research Design3.2 Area Of Study3.3 Population Of The Study3.4 Instrument For Data Collection3.5 Validation Of Instruments3.6 Administration Of Instrument And Data Collection3.7 Method Of Data Analysis
Chapter Four4.0 Data Analysis/And Result4.1 Research Questions 14.2 Research Question Two:4.3 Research Question Three (3)4.4 Question Iv (Four):
Chapter Five5.1 Discussions, Conclusion, Implications, Recommendations Summary5.1 Discussion Of The Findings5.3 What Are The Worst Problems Encountered In The Teaching And Learning Of English Language Without The Language Laboratory?5.4 Do You Use Any Of The Following Methods In Teaching English Language?5.5 Conclusion5.6 Educational Implications Of The Findings5.7 Recommendations5.8 Suggestions For Further Research5.9 SummaryReferences
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTIONBackground of the StudyIn one sense, we are being educated all the time, to the extent that everything that happens to us may bring about some changes in the way we feel, think, act and obviously the way we speak. We learn from the things we hear, from the circumstances in which we live, the people we meet, ideas in books or papers. In fact everything that surrounds us and of which we experience is educating us and our children all the time.For the process of education to function effectively, the school curriculum is taken into consideration. Therefore, curriculum is the term used to indicate a group of subjects or field of study arranged in a particular sequence. According to Puckett (1979) Curriculum is the selection, organization and administration of a body of subject matter designed to lead the pupil on the same definite life objective.In spite of the fact that so many aspects of man’s knowledge compete today for inclusion as subjects in the school curriculum, at least one modern language continues to maintain the right to a place in the secondary school curriculum. All those who believe that the study of a modern language other than one’s own has an important part to play in the development of the adolescent, a part which perhaps today is even more essential than in the past, are content that this should be so. It has been observed that in theory and practice whenever circumstances allows the advantages inherent in such a study are beneficial to children in secondary schools.Language according to Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language: Is the body of wards and systems of use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area or the same cultural tradition. Language is human speech either spoken or written. Whenever there is a human society, there is language. Most forms of human activity depend on the co-operation of two or more persons. A common language enable human beings to work together in an infinite variety or ways.Lieberman (1984) argues that human language is built on a biological based that is present in other primates, and that both humans and animals have innate neural mechanisms which are matched to their respective sound producing mechanisms. Yet most linguists will readily agree that only human’s have language proper and that the possession of language put humans at considerable advantage compared with other species.English is one of the major languages out of about 5000 estimated language spoken in the World. About 200 years ago, English was simply the language of less than 15 million peoples. Today, however, English is used by more than 300 million people and second only to Chinese as regards the number of people using a particular language. English is one of the most influential and fast growing languages spoken across the globe.One fifth of the earth’s land surface use English either as native tongue or official language. Of the entire world’s languages, English is the most widely studied language; especially in areas where it is not native. Today, English is used in several countries in the American continent including the United States of America and Canada, New Zealand, Republic of South Africa, Australia and Canada, New Zealand, Republic of countries in the Wes African subcontinent. Though English was actually the language of colonization in these countries, like India colonized territories.In other countries including Japan and China English is usually taught as the chief foreign language. Equally about half of the world’s scientific and technical journals, as well as newspapers, are printed in English. The spread of English is further enhanced through the establishment of British Council and United States information service by the British and U.S. governments respectively with centers and libraries in various countries including Nigeria. All these factors have therefore made it easy for anyone who understands and speaks English, and moves around major cities in the world to communicate effectively with one another.According to Anibueze, (2007), English Language is a lingua franca. As lingua franca, it is the Language for unification. It is highly established so that the people of varied languages will have purposes to relate together mutually and work in union. For example, Hausa man may comfortably stay and effectively speak with a Yoruba man or an Igbo man, and vice versa.The English Language had remained a very important tool for socialization and bureaucratic activities in Nigeria, since the days of colonialism. It was only natural that emphasis was laid on spoken English only and either on written English or both of them. However, with the emergence of a new class of people, with time, the civil servants, and their new roles in the colonial administration, the teaching and learning of the language took another form.Today, English is the Language for the international community, according to Ezugu (1998), the English Language is the most widely spoken language in the world. It is used as either a primary or secondary language in many countries. It is the language of education, administration, law, world trade, international diplomacy as well as that of cultural.It is, therefore worth while acquiring mastery of this very important language for whoever does not, has deprived himself of access to the world’s brightest ideas and modern technologies.In Nigeria today, English remains the language of pedagogy, students can hardly make commendable progress in their studies without adequate mastery of English through which most of the course in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions are taught and examined.This calls for a system that would be both rudimentary and functional its approach.This is important for according to Umaru (2005) as a student learns a new Language, very often he does not know how to express what he wants to say in writing.Since the student uses a foreign Language as a medium of communication, he has to start from the scratch to learn the rudiments of the Language. It is natural then that this is the function where the various problem arising then that this is the function where the various problem arising from the teaching and learning of the Language meet the need to do so properly.Language Teaching, according to Oluikpe (2005) stated that the basic criteria for assessing students’ proficiency in writing and speaking are generally control of the basic grammatical categories such as punctuation, tense, number, gender etc. Language Teaching in Nigeria had fought with deficiencies. The major reason for these deficiencies is our English teacher who are not well-trine only but are also non-professionals. And even if they are somewhat trained, their training is rooted in to the work. A situation where a teacher of the language has no mastery of its grammatical categories, as we see today, does not mean well for the system. Also writing on these problems facing Language teaching, according Regner et al (2001) ascertained that “many good teacher are adaptive rather than rigid in their approach to teaching children and only loosely base on their instruction on a given method.Language is the official medium of communication of humans, it is one of the things that differentiate man from animals. Signs and symbols have no international understanding and may be difficult to understand. Picture, painting and sculptures cannot be read by all. This makes Language superior to all of them because it is easily understood and generally used. According to Ozohili (2007) Language literally means the “tongue” a human organ used in speaking. Traditionally, language is defined as system of arbitrary vocal symbols by which thoughts are communicated from one being to another.Language Learning; Human beings have the ability to learn and to understand and think about things. He has the capacity to gain and use knowledge. He can as well explore situations, collect information, plan and execute the plans. Man’s high intelligence has also enabled him to evolve a level of linguistic communication by which life can be regulated. Theodore (2001) stated that Language learning requires thoroughly time, patience and practice. It cannot be done solely in school with the large class but requires few minutes of daily practice for individual students.Therefore pupils, and students should be encouraged to practice this language in their leisure in order to master the language as required.Methodology: The methodology here refers to the method by which the teacher presents his materials to the learners and engages them in the task at hand.Methodology is very vital in every teaching-learning situation. For according to Robert (2003) for effective teaching and learning to take place, the skillful teacher needs to use the many different methods and techniques at his command. Even though there is a great diversity in teaching methods and techniques there is no one of them that can be regarded as the best for every teaching situation. This is however assumed that carefully designed teaching method can work wonders in making learning more effective.The teaching materials: The teaching materials involves the dominance of textbooks, dictionaries, chalk boards work books. (which are rarely used) and posters in the teaching of English Language in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State has been counter-productive. Modern media such as: audio and video tapes, Language Laboratories, programmed texts, flash cards, computers, magazines and newspaper are not in use. These findings agree with those of Kolawole (2000) who found that with many problems, such as inadequate and useful resources.Modern language laboratory is really one of the newest media that is making a lot of impact in our educational scene. The language laboratory is an audio or audio-visual installation used as an aid in laboratory each student is able to replay one track of a tape and at the same time record his response on another track. He is then able to rewind the tape to listen to both the master track and the recording to his own response comparing the two recordings.
Statement of the ProblemThe problem of this study is to find our f the language laboratory has an impact on effective teaching and learning of English Language in secondary schools.The most serious problem confronting learners of a second language is that the language is not widely used in their immediate environment. As a result, the learner has no exposure to the language of his immediate environment has many teachers made up of the people with whom he interacts daily. The second language learner has to make up for out-of-school opportunities to learn.In most cases, teachers who teach second languages are themselves not native speakers. So they neither speak the language fluently nor intelligibly. But they are not to be blamed because of the interference of the mother tongue.The researchers, therefore, deemed it necessary to find out the impact of the language laboratory n the teaching and learning of English language.
Purpose of the StudyThe aim of this research is to highlight the impact of the language laboratory on effective teaching and learning of the English language.1. To find out if there are enough language laboratories available for effective teaching and learning of the English language in secondary schools.2. To find out the major inputs of the language laboratory on the effective teaching and learning of English language as it affects the teachers of the language in secondary schools.3. To find out the major impact of the language laboratory on the effective teaching and learning of the English language as it affects the teacher trainee of the language in secondary school.
Significance of the StudyFindings from this study will provide invaluable information to the government, the Nigeria Educational Research centre, the curriculum planners, because through this research an awareness will be created for the installation of language laboratories.The research is expected to enable teachers of the English language to identify problems and becomes aware of the factor that hamper the teaching of English and how to deal with them. Students will also be aware of their major “road blocks” to speaking and be able to find means of overcoming them.Finally, findings from this study will be to all those involved in the teaching of English language in Enugu North and country at large.

 

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Identification Of Difficult Teaching And Learning Topics In Senior Secondary School Curricula In Nigeria A Case Study Of Ss3 Curricula Of Chemistry, Physics And English Language

Identification Of Difficult Teaching And Learning Topics In Senior Secondary School Curricula In Nigeria A Case Study Of Ss3 Curricula Of Chemistry, Physics And English Language

 

Abstract

This research work was conducted to identify difficult topics in teaching and learning topic in senior secondary schools curricula in Enugu urban of Enugu state, Nigeria. (A case study of SS3 curricula of chemistry, physics and English language). Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. A survey design was adopted for the study. A sample of 16 teachers in the subject areas and 200 students were drawn from the 16 senior secondary schools of SS3 in the Enugu South and Enugu North Local Government Areas. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and the data collected were analyzed using percentages, mean deviation and t-test for hypothesis. The finding of the study showed that, most of the teachers did not cover those areas when they were students, which made them to shy away from teaching those difficult topics in physics, chemistry and English language. The following recommendations were made:Difficult Teaching
The teachers should attend workshops, seminars and conferences. Resource personnel should be used to teach difficult topics, and they should be provided with adequate instructional materials for the teaching and learning of the difficult topics. The strategies identified by the study should also be used to stimulate the teaching and learning of physics, chemistry and English language and other science subjects in senior secondary schools.Difficult Teaching
Table of Content

TITLE PAGE
APPROVAL PAGE
CERTIFICATION
DEDICATION PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENT
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research Question
1.6 Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO:
Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Concept of difficult topics
2.3 Strategies for enhancing effective teaching and learning difficult topics in chemistry, physics and English language curricular in SS 3
2.4 Related Empirical studies

CHAPTER THREE:
3.1 Method of Research
3.2 Design of the study
3.3 Area of the study
3.4 Population for the study
3.5 Sample and sampling technique
3.6 Instrument for data collection
3.7 Validation of the instrument
3.8 Method of data collection
3.9 Method of data analysis
3.10Design Rule
3.11 Hypothesis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.2 Research Question I
4.3 Research Question II
4.4 Hypothesis
4.5 Discussion
4.6 Strategies for effective teaching and learning of difficult topics of chemistry, physics and English language in SS3

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.2 Re-statement of the problem
5.3 Purpose of study
5.4 Description of procedure used
5.5 Principal finding
5.6 Implication of the study
5.7 Conclusion
5.8 Limitation of study
5.9 Recommendations
5.10Suggestions for further research
References
Appendix I
Appendix II

 

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN WAEC BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY AND ENGLISH(Case Study Of Enugu North Lga)

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN WAEC BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY AND ENGLISH(Case Study Of Enugu North Lga)

ABSTRACT
In this study the researchers want to know to what extent the student performance in English varies from the student’s performance in biology and to what extent the student performance in English vary from chemistry. This has motivated the researcher towards reviewing all the related literature necessary on the performance of the student in WAEC. The population of the study is all the candidate that took chemistry, biology and English in WAEC from 2004 to 2008 in Enugu North Local Government Area in Enugu State, four (4) school were selected for this study which are:
1. City Girls Secondary School
2. Urban Girls Secondary School
3. Queens Secondary School
4. Metropolitan Girls Secondary School
The instrument for the data collection is self reporting inventories which was collected through the vice principal of the sampled schools, the data collected is the total score of the student who took chemistry, biology and English language from 2004 to 2008, the statistically tools used in the data analysis is person correlation co-efficient i.e.
N∑XY – ∑X∑Y
(N∑X2 – (∑X)2) [N∑Y2 – (∑Y)2
And the data analyzed and presented shows that there is significant difference between the student’s performance in WAEC English and biology and there difference between the student performance in WAEC English and chemistry the conclusion is that the student’s performance in science varies from the student’s performance in English based on the finding and conclusion the following recommendation were made, employment of qualified science teacher (e) provision of good equipment for science practical and good training of science teachers.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Certification
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Chapter One
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background Of The Study
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
1.4 Significant Of The Study
1.5 Scope Of The Study
1.6 Research Question
1.7 Hypotheses

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 The Role Of Nigeria Examination Committee On Waec
2.2 The Performance Of Student In The Core Subjects
2.3 The Roles Of Government On The Performance Of Student In Waec
2.4 The Roles Of Parent On Student Academic Performance In Waec
2.5 Waec Role In Student’s Performance In Waec
2.6 Summary Of Review

Chapter Three
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area Of The Study
3.3 Population Of The Study
3.4 Sampling And Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instrument For Data Collection
3.6 Methods Of Data Collection
3.7 Methods Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four
4.0 Data Analysis And Result

Chapter Five
5.0 Discussion Of The Finding
5.1 Summary Of The Study
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation
Reference
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction

Background of the Study

Meaning of academic performance of student is challenging, since science student performance is the produce of socio-economic, psychological and environmental factors. Education ought to be growing as a profitable industry with prime objective of maximizing profit by delivering high quality education that produces well educated, skilled and manned student according to needs and requirement of the dynamically growing market. There are two group of student as generally perceived. That is those who improve and those who don’t improve. This student performance can be affected by different factors such as learning abilities because new paradigm about learning assumes that all student can and should learn at higher levels, but it should not be considered as constraints because there are other factors like race, gender, sex that can affect students performances (Hansen 2000).
Meshiachoudis (2001) explained the effect of age, qualification and distance from learning place on the student performance. Qualification in his explanation concerns the readiness of student in joining a particular discipline in the school for instance a student that is not capable of doing science in the secondary school joins science because his/her friends are offering the subject.
Kirby (2002) added that the academic performance of student is also affect by student impatience. Yronne (1998) further elaborated that student academic performance is very much dependent on SEB (Socio-economic background) as per his statement secondary school student performance is with satisfically significant different.
Alexander (2001) explained that some of the practice adopted by secondary school administration can also influences their academic performance, such practice like club, media and culture clubs etc. Meanwhile, looking at the fact that our main focus of this writing is to compare how student perform or the performance of student offering biology, chemistry and English in Enugu North Local Government Area from 2004-2008. You find out that most of the subject are science subject (biology and chemistry), which involve student who are brain is sharp and hot, not student who’s I que is low and cannot perform or solve any mathematic problem rather they move to the simplest subject that they can perform better (i.e. English language etc). That is why when you go into all this clubs mention above you find out that most of the student there are not in science class. Science student don’t have time and chance for all this because of their mathematical involvement reflecting to point out that they do not have time for grammer”. But of a truth that they do not have chance of joining some of the above mentioned practice (clubs, cultural groups and media) which is of great help to passing English Language in WAEC as it is well known that most of the essay in WAEC are debts. Articles and letter writing of which the English student do well in the subject because they joined the practice.
According to Bello an Abuja based educationist a member of all Nigeria Committee of principals of secondary schools ANCOPSS. The truth is that the reading culture in Nigeria is generally poor. To make it worse, these days most of our student hardly read listed they waste their precious time watching television or films, listening to music, playing video/computer games.
Another educationist, MOhmud (2009) attributed the dismal performance in WAEC examination to the lactadaisical attitude of the government and its refusal to adequately fund the education sector. According to him on several occasion we clamoured for improved budgetary allocation to the education sector but all these have fallen on deaf ears. For instance UNESCO recommend that 26 percent of any country’s budget should be allocated to the education sectors, but instead what do you have in Nigeria? Government paying lip service to education sector, other countries who understand the importance of education have taken, proactive steps to adequately fund their education sector. For instance Ghana has allocated 29 percent to its education sector, even for more than the UNESCO recommendation. The same thing with South Africa and but ward who allocated 35 percent and 57 percent respectively to their education sectors. So until these thing are implemented we would continue to montage the future of our children.
Comparative study refers to the comparism of different capabilities or abilities of different groups or individual of the same or different categories wikipedia (2009). Comparative study of the performance of student in WAEC in biology, chemistry and English language from 2004-2008 deals with comparing the performance ability of student in biology chemistry and English language.

Statement of the Problem
The comparision of student performance in WAEC has been a confusing issue even to WAEC body as the case may be taken a close instance as regard this confusion. WAEC could not present the highest or the best performed student in WAEC each year as they use to do formally as at 1990. This day results are released without comparism and grades to enable student really know their level of performance when compared to the subjects, that is why these study focuses on identifying the following;
1. Comparing the performance of student in biology and English language in WAEC from 2004-2008.
2. Comparing the performance of student in chemistry and English in WAEC from 2004-2008.

Purpose of the Study
The main purpose underlying the project is to investigate the performance of the secondary school student in WAEC taking their comparative performance on Biology, Chemistry and English Language from 2004-2008 in Enugu North Local Government Area. The study specifically seeks to determine.
a. The performance of student in WAEC Biology and English from 2004 – 2008 in Enugu North.
b. The performance of student in Chemistry and English language from 2004-2008.

Significant of the Study
The usefulness of this research work in education system cannot be over emphasized of the result of the study is properly utilized, it is going to be benefit to the student because it will enable them to really know their performance in WAEC in some subject like chemistry, English and biology etc to either improve on those subjects. The research work is of great importance to the WAEC officials themselves in that it will enable them to know t

 

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INSTRUCTIONAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE POOR PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL CERTIFICATE ENGLISH LANGUAGE BY STUDENTS(A Case Study Of Enugu North Local Government Area)

INSTRUCTIONAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE POOR PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL CERTIFICATE ENGLISH LANGUAGE BY STUDENTS(A Case Study Of Enugu North Local Government Area)

ABSTRACT
Survey research design was employed in the study because it helps in collecting and analyzing data on issues as they exist. The study covered the nine (9) secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu State. The population of the study comprises all the secondary school students in Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu State. Five (5) schools were purposively selected out of (9) schools in the Area, of study using random sampling technique. The instrument used was questionnaire designed to elicit responses on the subject of study. Data collection was done personally by the researchers with help of three research assistant. Copies of the questionnaire were distributed and collected on the spot. This is to ensure adequate return rate. The data collected were analyzed using the mean and standard deviation. A criterion mean of 2.5 was established. Means scores of 2.5 and above were regarded as high extent instructional problem while mean scores below 2.5 will be regarded as low extent instructional problem.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table Of Contents

Chapter One
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background Of The Study
1.2 Statement Of The Study
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
1.4 Significance Of The Study
1.5 Scope Of The Study
1.6 Research Question
Chapter Two
2.0 Review Of Related Literature
2.1 Conceptual Framework
2.2 Poor Methodology
2.3 Explanation Method
2.4 Demonstration Method
2.5 Lack Of Instructional Materials
2.6 Wrong Usage Of Instructional Material
2.7 Summary Of Literature Review

Chapter Three
3.0 Research Method
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area Of The Study
3.3 Population Of The Study
3.4 Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instrument For Data Collection
3.6 Method Of Data Collection
3.7 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four
4.0 Data Presentation And Analysis

Chapter Five
5.0 Discussion Of Findings, Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
5.1 Discussion Of Findings
5.2 Educational Implication
5.3 Summary And Conclusion
5.4 Recommendation
References
Appendix A
Appendix B

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Teaching is communication. In a good communication, there are three important aspects. These include the person giving the information, the message that is to be passed and the receivers.
According to Wikipedia Encyclopedia, instructional refers to the practice of maximizing the effectiveness, efficiency and appeal of teaching and learning experiences. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner defining the end goal of instruction and creating some “intervention” to assist in the transition of knowledge. Instruction may be aimed at teaching learners problems solving skills, thinking and reasoning skills including perception memory, language etc. many would agree that people learn better when they can build on what they already understand known as “schemes” but the more a person has to learn in a shorter amount it is to process that information in working memory.
Dick and Carcy (2004), presented an instructional model which addressed instruction as an entire system, focusing on the inter-relationship between contest, content, learning and instruction. According to Han, the component such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, learning and performance environments interacts with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes.
Horaby (2001), defined problem as anything that is difficult to deal with or to understand, therefore the problem associated with the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning processes could be centered on its misuse with the set objectives. It could be regarded as obstacles against the smooth process of communication with the learners. According to Ashby (2001), performance refers to how well or badly somebody do something; meanwhile instructional problem affects the academic performance of the students. If the processes used in communicating with the students is not smooth or the instructional material is misuse with the set objective, then the students will perform negatively. Instructional problems therefore are those obstacles that pose difficulty in dealing with in the process of communicating skills, attitudes and values to the learner.
These obstacles which among others include:
Methodologies: According to Abdullahi (2009), methodologies employ in any teaching matters in that it acts as a driver that drives the instructions to the learner.
Meanwhile if wrong methodology is employ to a particular instruction while teaching it present confusion to the learner.
Wrong usage of the Instructional Materials with the set Objective: The set objective is a point of focus of the teacher while teaching. Akinsoba (2009) added that the usage of instructional material should be done in accordance with the set objective otherwise it leads the learners far from what they ought to understand on a particular topic.
Improvisation of Instructional Materials: According to Dahar, M.A., Faize, F.A., Nywaz, A. and Dahar, R.T., (2010), improvisation is making something or someone using whatever is available usually because you do not have what you really need. It presents obstacle to communicating skills, attitudes and values improvisation does not suit the topic because improvisation are made when there is no instructional materials. Okeke (2009) stressed on the need to provide adequate instructions for the teaching and learning of English language.
Lack of Instructional Materials: Some of the topics being treated or thought in English Language do not lend themselves to usage of instructional materials. Onuigbo (2003) outline some of the topics in English Language that do not lend themselves to instructional materials, these include word stress, sentence stress, intonation and the second system of English. Nelson-Jones, R. (1996) published an influential taxonomy of what he termed the three domains of learning; cognitive (what one knows or think), psychomotor (what one does physically) and affective (what one feels or the attitude one has). These taxonomies as stated by him are what instructional material touches, so any topic that does not have instructional materials cannot reflect to the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domain of the learners. Sweller (2006), measured the effects of working memory load, and found that lack of instructional materials has a direct effect on the performance of the learners.
Language of Instruction: The language used while teaching with instructional materials matters. Langdon (1998) added that the outcomes of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically misused or completed and assumed when it is used with wrong language. Languages of instruction have far reading implications on the performance of the students in various areas. One of the areas is in School Certificate English language. Poor performances have been recorded in School Certificate English Language in recent times. According to Richard (1999) the poor performance of students could be attribute to misuse of instructions, wrong application of methodologies to reflect to cognitive, psychomotor and Affective domains of the learners. It will not be out of place for one to blame these poor performances on the instructional process. Poor performance in school certificate English language is an unacceptable development in the students’ carrier.
In this study, instructional problems associated with the poor performance of student in school certificate English language will be determine, with particular reference to those in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Statement of the Problems
The aim of instruction is to inculcate into learners, the ability to build on what they already understand. Instructional problems are those obstacles that pose difficulties in dealing with in the process of communication skills, attitudes and values to the learners. The problems which among others include; the language of instruction, methodologies, lack of instructional materials with the set objectives and the problem of improvisation of instructional materials; These problems effect of the academic performance of the students. It was on this ground that the researchers choose to write on the instructional problems associated with the poor performance in school certificate English language by students in Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu State.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to find out, the instructional problems associated with the poor performance in English Language by students in Enugu North. Specially, the study aims to find out:
1. The extent to which poor methodologies pose problems to instructions while teaching English Language.
2. The extent to which lack of instructional materials pose problem in teaching of English Language.
3. The extent to which wrong use of instructional materials contribute to poor performance in English Language.

Significance of the Study
The usefulness of this research work in the educational system cannot be over emphasized. If the result of the study is properly utilized, it is going to be of benefit to the students, teachers and policy makers.
The research work will help to educate students on the instructional problems associated in teaching and learning English Language.
The study will disclose to the teachers the obstacles that pose problem in dealing within the process of communicating skills, attitude and values to the learner.
The study will also disclose the topics that do not have instructional material, so that the government can help and make provision of such materials.

Scope of the Study
The study focuses on the instructional problems associated with the poor performance in school certificate English language by students in Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu St

 

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Comparative Analysis Of Academic Performance Of Computer Science And English Language In Junior Secondary School (a Case Study Of Enugu North))

Comparative Analysis Of Academic Performance Of Computer Science And English Language In Junior Secondary School (a Case Study Of Enugu North))

ABSTRACT
This research work was conducted to ascertain the comparative analysis of academic performance in English language and computer science in junior secondary school, Enugu North Educational Zone. A survey design was adopted for the study. A sample of 42 teachers both English language and computer science 110 students were drawn from 7 (seven) junior secondary schools in Enugu North. A structured Questionnaire was used to collect data and data collected were analyzed using frequency and percentage. The finding of the study showed that lack of quality instructional materials in the school can cause poor performance of students, inability of a teacher to give test and assignment to student will make student dull in their study, effectiveness of note making and note taking by the student will activate their attitude of learning, continuous assessment tasks practicing will embark on the academic performance and government should make incentive regular payment of salaries and allowances to the teacher to motivate them into effective teaching.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CERTIFICATION
APPROVAL PAGE
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Significant of the Study
1.5 Scope of the Study
1.6 Research Questions
CHAPTER 2:
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Use of Ranking Method of Influencing Factors in Predicting Student’s AcademicPerformance in the Study
2.2 Enhance and Determining the Academic performance of the students by effective use of instructional materials.
2.3 The Measure in which the academic Performance of Students on computer science and English language can be identify
2.4 The steps that would enhances the proficient intellectual performances of student in study the both subjects
CHAPTER 3:
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Design of the Study
3.2 Area of the Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and sampling technique
3.5 Instrument for data collection
3.6 Validation of the study
3.7 Method of data collection
3.8 Method of Data analysis
CHAPTER 4:
DATA ANALYSIS
4.1 Research Question 1
4.2 Research Question 2
4.3 Research Question 3
4.4 Research Question 4
CHAPTER 5:
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation
References
Appendix

 

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THE EFFECTS OF MOTHER TONGUE INTERFERENCE IN THE STUDY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

THE EFFECTS OF MOTHER TONGUE INTERFERENCE IN THE STUDY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study.

Language is a creation which every human being is endowed with or blessed; a unique gift of language is used naturally as one tool of expression consisting of different sub skills.

The English language is the official and native language of Britain, Ireland, North America, Australia, America and most of the British colonies, (for the colonies, it is regarded as the official language rather than native). It is commonly divided by periods into Anglo-Saxon, or old English (about 450-1100 Bc), Middle English (about 1100 to 15Bc) and modern English (from 1500 to date).

Mother tongue is one’s native language. A language besides being the major distinguishing phenomenon between man and other creatures is evidently the most enduring of every people’s cultural heritage. It reflects the culture of a people and it is in extricable bound up with it.

Language is an important tool that enhances human communication and interaction. It is a vital instrument in cultural transmission and preservation of a social group. It is in a fundamental sense, a crucial tool in the preservation and propagation of the human species. An examination of the linguistic content of a particular speech community can provide information about the life style, occupation etc. of a given people.

The English language beings the national official language for the British colonies of which Nigeria is among makes it our second language. Hence, our respective mother tongue exists before colonization. This has necessitated the teaching and learning of the English language and its consequent interference in our mother tongue in various study points nation wide. It is therefore, glaring to state that, Nigeria is a linguistically complex society by the mere fact of the history of its creation. It is estimated that there are between 250 and 400 language spoken in Nigeria (INTER NET).

This linguistic heterogeneity promotes the continued use of English in Nigeria. Ethnologic include English amongst its list of Nigeria language this hardly supervising since the role of English language in Nigeria diverse and ubiquitous, especially as a means of intra and inter national communication. It is as a result of the negative effects which the mother tongue had caused the study of English language on the educational structures of the attempt to determine the effect of the use of mother tongue on the teaching and learning process in secondary schools.

Statement of the Problem.

Before the advent of British traders, missionaries and colonialists, indigenous Nigerian language defined every aspect of the speech community from its religious, cultural, political, Economics, social to whatever else that can be through of the language functioned effectively to deal with every thing relating to the day existence of the people. The arrival of the British, concomitant with the English language provided a language contact situation with an attempt to a language shift in the population.

New sets of ideas, concepts and values were introduced to the system where indigenous local language had previously been self-sufficient, rendering them inadequate to deal with the new concepts introduced by the British, particularly in the areas of formal education, Western law etc. the result was the initial subtle and later blatant intrusion & influence of English language on domains that were the exclusive preserve of indigenous language.

Now, the English language is generally an accepted language which was introduced into Nigeria through colonialism and missionary activities is now spoken, thought and learned in Nigeria.

Where English language sentence are made, they are characteristically uttered with variation in pitch often referred to as intonation. This is often an area of difficulty for second language, users of English language who have tonal? Language as their first language. This is one of the major problems encountered by learners of English language. Other areas of problem encountered are’, Sentence and word stresses, vowel sounds and English suprasegmental of pitch. The study intended to identify the effect of mother tongue in the study of English language in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Significance of the Study:

This study will help to expose the numerous factors that influence the interference of the study of English language by the mother tongue or native languages. It will also identify the effects of this interference on other study area that are based on the use of the English language as the basic communication.

This study will enable teachers to identify their problems in English language. This study will also enable student to understand how to make use of English words especially in pronunciation, intonation and phonetics. It will also enable the teachers to make more research on the use of English language.

Since English language has been used as a second official and some times even as a foreign language in Nigeria for along time and give the inescapable behaviour of language in contact, it is normal to expect it to have factors which can identify it as bonafide subject, dialect, variely or idiom of world English. These may be seen as research findings relating to interference, derintation and creativity as are seen to obtain among speakers. In Nigeria. English is now the term Nigerian English is used to refer to the subject of English spoken or written by Nigerians, it is commonly known that the features of Nigerians English language, like those of other new English, are essentially inherent particularly at the early stages of learning by the mother tongue features.

Purpose of the Study:

To find out the level at which mother tongue can interfere in the learning of English language in secondary school.
To investigate the qualifications of English teachers in secondary school in Enugu North.
To know how teachers makes use of correct methods in teaching of English language in secondary school in Enugu North
Reasarch Question

Does mother tongue actually interferes in the learning of English language in secondary school?.
Are the English language teacher in schools qualified­­?
Does English language teachers adopt correct teaching methods in teaching?

Hypothesis

Ho Mother tongue interfers in the learning of English language.

Hi Mother tongue dose not interfers in the learning of English language.

Ho2 English language teachers makes use of correct method of teaching in teaching and learning of English language.

Ho2 English language teacher do not make use of correct teaching method.

The Scope of the Study.

This research is the effect of mother tongue interference in study of English language among secondary school students in Enugu North Local Government Area.

It is based on the available result gotten from continuous assessment and summative examinations of schools such as West Africa Examination Council, the national examination council and examination development centre for senior school certificate examination all in English Language.

Definition of Terms:

It is imperative to properly defined the terms that make the heading of the research topic under study. This will go along way at giving direction to the research work.

These includes:

MOTHER TONGUE: The native language one first learns to speak before other language.

INTERFERENCE: In this context, interruption of a language by another especially in pronunciation and intonations.

ANGLO-XASON: A person whose an cestors were English. (2) An English person of the period before the norman conquest.

FUNDAMENTAL: Serious and very important affecting the most central and important parts of something. (2) Foundation of reality.

HETEROGENEITY: Consisting of many different kinds of people or things (2) Uniformity/Alike.

ETHNOLOGICAL: The moral ideas and attitudes that belong to a particular group or society (2) peculiar to a race or nation.

 

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