THE IMPACT OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN OYO. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

THE IMPACT OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN OYO. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

CHAPTER ONE
1.0    INTRODUCTION
1.1    Background of the Study
The term environmental is better appreciated as perceived. Thus, the term defined a universally acknowledge method of description or definition. For instance, environment has been conceived as a system within which living organism interact with physical element (Sada, 2001). This means that, environment can be conceived as the condition, circumstances and influences of organism (Strahler and Strahler, 2007).
In addition, the environment is made of a number of spheres which include the hydrosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. Within these spheres are a number of interrelate activities in operation. Consequently, t he environment is perceived in this work as the general surrounding where a number of interrelate activities take place within the environment system and between man the environment.
Man‘s relationship with his environment has always changed with time depending  on his understanding and knowledge of physical environment. However, the natural environment is generally endowed with the space (Simons, 1981). Thus, man has come to regard his environment as a depot housing his needs and is a therefore resources within it.
According to Jimoh, (2000), environmental degradation has become a major problem facing people in most societies of the world. This includes pollution, climate change, causing drought and excessive rainfall, deforestation and desertification among others.
Environmental degradation increases the vulnerability of the societies. It affects and contributes to the scarcity of resources, climate change will lead to increase the intensity and frequency of weather extremer’s such as heat waves, food, droughts and tropical cyclonic (Faniran, 2002). The area is facing a lot of problems. As rural settings, harmful materials like faces, urine and disposal of non-degradable materials into the areas has led to the degradation of the area (Miller 2002).
 Environmental degradation is the disintegration of the earth or deterioration of the environment through consumption of assets, for example, air, water and soil: the destruction of environments and the eradication of wildlife. It is characterized as any change aggvation to nature’s turf seen to be pernicious or undesirable. Ecological effect or degradation is created by the consolidation of an effectively substantial and expanding human populace, constantly expanding monetary development or per capital fortune and the application of asset exhausting and polluting technology. It occurs when earth’s natural resources are deflated and environment is compromised in the form of extinction of species, pollution.
Environmental degradation is one of the largest threats that are being looked at in the world today. The United Nation International Strategy for Disaster Reduction characterizes environmental degradation as the lessening of the limit of the earth to meet social and environmental destinations and needs. Environmental degradation can happen in a number of ways. At the point when environments are wrecked or common assets are exhausted, the environment is considered to be corrupted and harmed. There are a number of different techniques that are being used to prevent this, including environmental resources protection and general protection efforts Amicus journal staff (2000).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE IMPACT OF HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN OYO. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

TO INVESTIGATE THE COMPETENCIES POSSESSED BY  STUDENTS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THREE NIGERIAN INSTITUTIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

TO INVESTIGATE THE COMPETENCIES POSSESSED BY  STUDENTS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THREE NIGERIAN INSTITUTIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

ABSTRACT

 

The study examined the entrepreneurship competencies possessed by students in three Nigerian Universities. The overcrowded job market in Nigeria is forcing thousands of graduates into unemployment and its associated consequences of kidnapping, drug addiction, youth restiveness and general poor standard of living. Thus, in this era of high information generation and usage, there has become the need for  students to acquire the competencies required to shift from the traditional models of librarianship to the digital models in order to remain at the vanguard of information generation and management as information professionals and be able to secure the many self- employment opportunities available in libraries, content management organizations, NGOs, knowledge resource centers and corporate organizations. Specifically examined in this paper were an overview of entrepreneurship, the need for entrepreneurship education in tertiary institutions, the roles of entrepreneurship in economic development,entrepreneurship competencies and opportunities created by ICT, challenges associated with the acquisition of competencies for entrepreneurship  and the appropriate strategies for enhancing the acquisition of entrepreneurship competencies. Descriptive survey design and Oral interview was adopted in which one hundred and ninety (190) final year and masters students in the three Universities were purposively sampled using a researcher-structured questionnaire. Frequency tables mean and percentages were used to analyze data. Findings showed that up to 70% of the students have not possessed entrepreneurship and ICT competencies crucial for the entrepreneurship opportunities. Moreover these students are yet to develop the culture and mindset toward entrepreneurship, because of some major challenges which have been identified as inadequate education and training resulting from lack of entrepreneurship and ICT courses in their curriculum, absence of qualified and suitable educators in entrepreneurship courses, unavailability of ICT facilities, lack of self-confidence and fear of failure among students and high interest of graduates in paid employment. The paper recommended that entrepreneurship courses and practical training in various aspects of ICT be included in the curriculum and educators trained to teach the courses. Similarly, technology-based teaching should be adopted and workshop cum information processing laboratory be provided where students should carry out practical assignments and projects based on real life problems that graduates face so as to inculcate in their mindset the culture and build their interest towards entrepreneurship.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Background of the Study

 

It has become increasingly apparent that entrepreneurship play a significant role in the socio-economic development of a society. Economically, entrepreneurship invigorates markets and promotes job creation through the formation of new businesses. History has shown that economic progress has been advanced by pragmatic people who are entrepreneurial and innovative, able to exploit opportunities and willing to take risks. Hence transforming ideas into opportunities is the crux of entrepreneurship which undoubtedly raises productivity and enhances the transfer of technology. Socially, entrepreneurship empowers citizens, generates innovation and changes mindsets (United Nations, 2010). Fostering entrepreneurship means promoting the competitiveness of a business especially in an increasing globalized world economy. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) opined that entrepreneurship make entrepreneurs adaptable to changing situations by promoting self-reliance thereby alleviating the problem of unemployment. In addition, Nwachukwu (1990) stated that entrepreneurship harnesses the interests and innate potential of individuals, prevents wastes of human resources and serves as alternative in the absence of structured-employment.

Steinhoff and Burgess (1993) pointed out that it takes special skills and attitudes to succeed as an entrepreneur hence the need for competencies in entrepreneurship. Competency is needed to sharpen the ideas, thoughts and capabilities of entrepreneurs which facilitates good and effective management and improved services. Section 1 of the Nigerian policy on education (FGN,2004) states that for functional education to be relevant, practical acquisition of appropriate skills and development of competencies are required for the individual to live and contribute to the development of his society. In effect, graduates need competencies to exercise their talents and be able to transform their education into entrepreneurship ventures.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

TO INVESTIGATE THE COMPETENCIES POSSESSED BY  STUDENTS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THREE NIGERIAN INSTITUTIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The effect of globalization on the economy of many nations can be traced to as far back as 16th century during the time of Adam Smith, David Ricardo and Reverend Malthus. Specifically, the early influences and contributions of these scholars to labour as input of production had early globalization implications (Hoass and Madigan, 1999). The various theories of international trade evolved from these early contributors. Over the past two decades, the Nigerian economy has become more open and liberalized due to the influence of globalization of the world economy. In Nigeria, The amalgamation of the Southern and Northern protectorates in 1914 by Lord Lugard of England had globalization implications.

Furthermore, the establishment of Nigeria Breweries Plc in 1946 (Nigerian Breweries Plc (2010), Guinness Nigeria Limited in 1963 (Guinness, 2006) and other Multi-National Enterprises (MNEs) had globalization implications.

Driven by technological advances, improved communications, economic liberalization, and increased international competition, globalization has brought in an era of economic, institutional and cultural integration (Ali, 2005). Scholars are not only analyzing the benefits and the deleterious effects of this phenomenon on the employment relations of developed and under-developed nations, they have also stirred up the old controversy regarding the longer-run trajectory of employment relations systems under the pressures of globalization. The contention is whether the industrial relations systems in the context of globalization are converging or diverging. In comparative employment relations, there are contrasting arguments that there are international pressure leading to convergence and national pressures leading to divergence (Martin and Bamber, 2005).

Literally, globalization entails the process of the transformation of local or regional phenomena to global ones. The process encompasses economic, technological, sociocultural, political and biological factors (Croucher, 2004). Essentially, the process is holistic and transcends the interaction and integration among people, companies and government of different nations. Friedman (2000) in Yazdani (2009) stresses that the globalization process of today is farther, faster, cheaper and deeper. This position signals the fact that globalization is given impetus by some key drivers such as international trade and investment across national frontiers, liberalized economic policies, technological advancements, information and communication, and migration.

The multi-dimensional nature of globalization phenomenon leads to the multiplicity of the concept and definition. Ritzer (2004)characterizes globalization as the worldwide diffusion of practice, expansion of relations across continents, organization of social life on a global scale and growth of shared global consciousness. Implicit in this definition is the stress on globalized practices, social interrelationships, and the consciousness of the global world as a whole among key players that involve societies (inter governmental agencies, nation states, companies and individuals (Robertson, 1991, 1992).  In consonance with the world culture theory, Robertson (1992) advocates a global world thinking that replicate pattern of socialization, internationalization, individualization and generalization of the consciousness of human kind. Ostry (1977) in Nwosu and Oludayo (2007) opines that among the many domestic policies and institutions that are being and will continue to be subject to the pressures of globalization, none is more fundamental or more politically sensitive than industrial relations.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

EFFECT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

GROWTH STRATEGIES AND CORPORATE SURVIVAL OF SELECTED MONEY DEPOSIT BANKS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

GROWTH STRATEGIES AND CORPORATE SURVIVAL OF SELECTED MONEY DEPOSIT BANKS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 

1.1  Background of the Study

The business environment of the 21st century has been more volatile and challenging than earlier centuries (Onodugo and Ewurum, 2013). Zuzana (2006) asserts that today’s organizations have to deal with dynamic and uncertain environments. In order to be successful, organizations must be strategically aware of the changing environment. They must understand how such changes in their competitive environment are unfolding. They should actively look for opportunities to exploit their strategic abilities, adapt and seek improvements in every area of the business, building on awareness and understanding of current strategies and successes. Organizations must be able to act quickly in response to opportunities and barriers (Pearson, 1990; Robbins and Stuart-Kotze, 1990). In a hyper-competitive environment, companies must continually improve their people, processes, and technologies to create a competitive advantage. The ability to accurately predict consumer demand in addition to the capability to rapidly react and readjust to environmental changes, supply and demand fluctuations; separates the winners from the losers (Rai, 2005).

Jonathan (2011) submits that in this highly competitive environment at present, businesses are always coming up with new ideas that turn markets upside down. Hence organizations’ management are put under pressure not only to sustain current trading performance but to improve it through increased margins, reduced costs and greater market share. Too often, companies employ strategies to exploit external opportunities rather than first looking internally to see what operational inefficiencies are there to be improved. Business firms operate in a society to satisfy individual and societal needs through the production of goods and services. Their decisions are influenced by what is happening in the society. The social, economic, and political institutions that make up a society constitute in a broad sense, the environment of business enterprises, and the way they work affect the operations and fortunes of every business unit.

The motivating factor for the entrepreneur to go into business is to make profit. The objectives of a business firm, goes beyond profitability only. It includes growth in size, increase in market share, innovation, and social objective. The realization of these objectives will be determined largely by events in the environment. Specifically, the environment of business comprises those activities that can hinder or facilitate the achievement of its objectives. They include population, technology, social infrastructure, economic system and competitors. To this end, this study focuses on the impact of the activities of the competitors on a business organization, its survival and growth strategies adopted.

Customers have a choice to go elsewhere if a particular firm’s products or services do not meet their needs. They can switch brand and patronize a competitor who may claim to provide a better product or service. This means that the activities of the competitors in the same industrial sector may invariably affecta firm’s prospects and operations. The type and quality of product that competitors offer, the prices they charge for their products or services, their size, locations, reputation, distribution channels and usual stock level are some of the things about competitors which shape the operations of a business. No organization can ignore the actions and decisions of its competitors in a modern economy characterized by competition.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

GROWTH STRATEGIES AND CORPORATE SURVIVAL OF SELECTED MONEY DEPOSIT BANKS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND VIABILITY OF SMALL BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND VIABILITY OF SMALL BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

        1.1     Background of the Study

The survival of business organizations hinges on the availability of capital to keep the business running. However, central to the growth, viability and continued survival of any organization be it private or public, academic or social, manufacturing or non manufacturing; is the utilization of capital by the human element of the organization.  The quality of human resources ensures effective combination of other resources – time, money (no matter how vast the financial resources), materials, technology (no matter how sophisticated the machines, tools and equipment), etc. in the most appropriate manner in order to achieve stated organizational objectives. Human resources or human capital is so critical to organizational survival such that it has, judging by today’s complex business environment, been acclaimed as the most important resource available to any organization going by the assertion of Nnadozie and Nwana (1993) that employees are the most valuable resources of any organization. This view is also echoed by Ewurum and Unamka (1995) who argue that the most important asset of an organization is its human resources, otherwise referred to as manpower.

The success or failure of the organization hinges on the calibre of its work force and the quality of the effort put in the service of the organization. The policies and programme an organization devises for its manpower resources are of crucial importance because people differ widely in the range and type of their abilities, in their character, attitudes, general behaviour, in their interests and motivation. To achieve maximum efficiency, therefore, individuals and jobs must be managed and matched. In an ideal business organization, human resources and management enjoy a symbiotic relationship which ensures none can survive or grow without the other. It is the human element in the organization that performs its management functions while management is also burdened with the responsibility of combining and coordinating the human, financial, material and other resources to achieve the goals of the organization. Griffin (1997) defines management as a set of activities (including planning and decision-making, organizing, leading and controlling) directed at an organization’s resources (human, financial, material and information) with the aim of achieving organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner. Therefore, human resources are very important and occupy a cardinal position in management. This implies that one is safe to say that human resource management is the pivot of all sorts of management in an organization.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND VIABILITY OF SMALL BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

MANAGEMENT OF VALUE ADDED TAX AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

MANAGEMENT OF VALUE ADDED TAX AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

Value Added Tax (VAT) is a form of taxation levied on various commodities consumed by people. The introduction of VAT like every other economic policy generated both positive and negative responses from economic observers. Most of the observers were forecasting that VAT could influence the overall consumption habits of people and increase the cost of production. The implication is that it will ultimately worsen the rate of inflation in the economy. Apart from generating revenue for the government, VAT which shifted taxation from production to consumption, could thereby cause cost-push inflationary effects on taxation and on production (Adeniyi, 1993:134).

The idea of introducing VAT in Nigeria came from the report of the study group set up by the federal government in 1991 to review the entire tax system. VAT was proposed and a committee was set up to carry out feasibility studies on its implementation (Philips, 1991: 102).

Value added tax (VAT) has become one of the major sources of revenue in many developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, for example, VAT has been introduced in Benin Republic, Coted’ivorie, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Niger Republic, Senegal, Togo and Nigeria. Evidence suggests that in these countries,

VAT has become an important contributor to total government tax revenues (Ajakaise, 2000). Shalizi and Squire (1988), find out that VAT accounted for about 30% of total tax revenues in Coted’ivoire, Kenya and Senegal in 1982. The oil producing countries are not excluded from the list of countries introducing this tax hurdle. This impressive performance of VAT in virtually all countries where it has been introduced clearly influenced the decision to introduce VAT in Nigeria in 1994 (Ajakanje, 2000: 203).

Value added tax (VAT) is a consumption tax that is relatively easy to administer and difficult to evade and it has been embraced by many countries World- wide (Federal Inland Revenue Service, 1993; 560). Evidence so far supports the view that VAT revenue is already a significant source of revenue in Nigeria.

Anyanwu (1993), stresses that, tax is a deliberate effort by the monetary authorities (the Central Bank) to control the money supply and credit conditions for the purpose of achieving certain broad economic objectives.

One of the fiscal instruments employed by the government to influence economic activities in the countries is taxation, put simply: “Taxation is a compulsory payment made by individuals and organization to the relevant Inland Revenue Authorities at the federal, state or local government level”, (Anyato, 1996: 1O8).

Similarly, Udu and Agu (2001), define tax as a “compulsory payment made by each eligible citizen towards the expenditure of the State.” A tax is levied by the government without regard to the specific benefits that individual taxpayers may receive.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

MANAGEMENT OF VALUE ADDED TAX AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

RIGHTSIZING AS A TECHNIQUE FOR ACHIEVING EFFICIENCY IN THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR

RIGHTSIZING AS A TECHNIQUE FOR ACHIEVING EFFICIENCY IN THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

Rightsizing is the Human Resource Management function of manpower planning and staffing. Institutions are established to accomplish specific goals. To achieve these goals, the human resource is one of the crucial factors, without which the goals are unattainable. The human resource is the engine room of ideas and production. It is the human resource that organizes, plans, controls and directs other resources. For example, while other factors of production like technology, financial and material resources may be in abundant supply, they have to be coordinated by a human being, who because he has a will, personal desires and preferences, can direct them to accomplish desired objectives. Thus, the need to maintain the right quality and quantity of staff with the right knowledge, techniques and skills, as well as the right frame of mind and attitude to contribute optimally to organizational goals and objectives. (African Training and Research Centre in Administration for Development Workshop, October 2000). According to Olowo and Ademolekun (2005), it is becoming more essential to secure and manage competent human resource as the most valuable resource of any organization because of the need for effective and efficient service delivery.

In the past few decades, all over the world, organizations and environment have undergone rapid and tremendous changes largely due to globalization. Globalization has resulted in the huge advances in the area of technology. This has completely reshaped the landscape of formal organizations all over the world, the less sighted organizations operating in the same environment lost their fortunes and in some cases, were faced with virtual extinction as a result of the inability to anticipate and adapt their operations to changes brought about by the latent forces of globalization in the society (Onyeonoru, 2005). Change is a process that requires action and which ever way workers react to it, has implicit or explicit implications for realization or non realization of organizational goals and objectives. Nigerian work organizations are not insulated from changes emanating from globalization forces. And since globalization presently appears irreversible, every organization in both public and private sectors must prepare its workforce adequately to cope with the frequent changes associated with globalization.

Consequently, the Federal Government has since 2004, commence various reform programmes aimed at making its institutions work more efficiently and effectively. One of such programmes adopted in its on-going reform, is rightsizing. The underlying philosophy is transformation.  The overall vision is a Nigerian public sector that works efficiently and effectively for the people. Rightsizing may be defined as the process through which organizations determine and maintain a level of employment “right” for its requirements or the continuous and pro-active assessment of mission-critical work and its staffing requirements. It is an on-going planning process to determine the optimal number of employees in every area of the organization. Therefore, for an organization to realize its goals and objectives, appropriate rightsizing techniques such as, the maintenance of accurate personnel records and regular personnel audit, human resource planning, employee training and development, employee retention strategies and employee regular evaluation are sine-qua-non for enhancing efficiency.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

RIGHTSIZING AS A TECHNIQUE FOR ACHIEVING EFFICIENCY IN THE NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR

THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT IN INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN AYALA HOSPITALITY ORGANISATION, YENOGOA, BAYELSA STATE

THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT IN INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN AYALA HOSPITALITY ORGANISATION, YENOGOA, BAYELSA STATE

ABSTRACT

The study is on the role of Management in increasing productivity in Ayala Hospitality Organisation in Yenegoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study are: to ascertain the extent to which planning, organising, directing and controlling affect organisational productivity in Ayala Hospitality Organisation; to assess how training affect employees’ productivity; to determine the role of performance appraisal on organisational productivity in Ayala Hospitality Organisation and to identify how motivation affects employees productivity in Ayala Hospitality Organisation . The study used the random sampling technique to realize a sample size of 150. The instruments for data collection were structured questionnaire and interview. The questionnaire was structured on five -point Likert scale in line with the objectives of the study. The instrument was checked for reliability using Cronbach’s Alpha statistical tool. An Alpha of 0.98 and an inter-item (standardised) coefficient of 0.99 were obtained. The study employed survey research design. The questionnaire was administered to senior and junior staff of Ayala Hospitality Organisation. The total number of questionnaire distributed for the study was one hundred and fifty (150) copies while one hundred and twenty nine (129) representing 86% were completed and returned. The findings show that: planning, organising, directing and controlling enable organisations meet goals and objectives in the most effective and efficient manner; training removes performance deficiencies and improves employees’ skills and proficiency; performance appraisal identifies individual strengths to be built and areas of weaknesses to be overcome which will in turn lead to productivity improvement; productivity improves when an employee has responsibility, personal growth and achievement and also recognised. The study recommends that; management should make employee satisfaction a strategic corporate goal in order to make the organization have improved productivity; recognition as a motivational tool should be given enough attention in Ayala Hospitality Organisation; the employees should be communicated and clearly explained the purpose as well as the process of appraisal. Workers should be trained and retrained from time to time in order to update their knowledge for performance of their tasks.

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

Every organisation is judged by its performance. For more than a decade, organisational environments have experienced radical changes. As a result of greater competition in the global marketplace, the majority of organisations have greatly streamlined their operations (Collis and Montgomery, 1995).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT IN INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN AYALA HOSPITALITY ORGANISATION, YENOGOA, BAYELSA STATE

THE ROLE OF BANK IN SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY UBA, AKWA IBOM STATE)

THE ROLE OF BANK IN SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY UBA, AKWA IBOM STATE)

ABSTRACT

The research study examines the role of commercial bank in financing small scale enterprises in Uyo, AkwaIbom State. The primary purpose of the study is to examine how SMEs can be developed through the intervention of the banking sector. Descriptive research design was adopted. The population of the study is the entire SMEs in Akwa Ibom state and United Bank for Africa (UBA). Questionnaires were used as an instrument of primary data collection. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample; correlation analysis was employed using chi-square. Findings revealed that there is a positive correlation between loans grants by banks and the growth and development of SMEs in Akwa Ibom State also, that SMEs cannot be concentrated in Akwa Ibom State if they are not effectively financed due to the relationship that exists between the banks and SMEs. It was recommended that guidelines/schemes by commercial banks to finance SMEs needs to be flexible to accommodate the small and medium scale entrepreneurs.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     Background to the Study

The post-independence Nigerian government adopted the entrepreneurship government which constrained it to assume the role of entrepreneur and the urge to offset the economic neglect of the colonial government and that resulted in engaging in ambitious industrialization programmes. When the Nigerian industrial Development Bank Limited (NIDB) was established in 1964 for the purpose of speeding up the industrialization process, its mandate was to promote industrial projects which were large enough to make applicable contribution to the national economy. However, the collapse of the oil boom in the early 1980’s exposed the inherent weaknesses of this importation of inputs resulted in large idle capacities, thereby creeping many gross domestic product (GDP) declined in the face of the strong national aspiration for the restructuring of the economy and reduction of the dependence on petroleum. Small and medium scale enterprises have since become the focus of national industrial policy. In  pursuit  of  self-reliance  in  a  developing  country  particularly  in  Nigeria,  the  central government enacted a decree called “Enterprises promotion Decree” when there was need for small scale enterprises in the promotion of economic development. This has since been at the fore front of development strategies.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE ROLE OF BANK IN SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS ENTERPRISE IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY UBA, AKWA IBOM STATE)

THE IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION IN A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY PLC)

THE IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION IN A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY PLC)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to Study

Sales promotion had been adopted by business firms and marketing practitioners long before the coming of Europeans to Nigeria in 18th/19th centuries. As a matter of fact, many business firms had been using sales promotion in marketing their goods and services to Nigerian consumers before the coming of the Europeans to Nigeria, and before the sad Biafra – Nigeria war, of the sixties (1967 – 70).

Multinational firms, mainly of European background or origin had adopted sales promotion practices and strategies in selling products and services to their Nigerian Customers and or consumers, before and after 1914, (the year/period of the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern protectorates of Nigeria) to the present day civilized Nigerian society / consumer. (Nkem 1999). Before the arrival of the Europeans in Nigeria, Nigerian Entrepreneurs/business organizations had several unorthodox methods of carrying out sales promotional activities, such as going from hamlet to hamlet, village square to village square or from town to town with their products, bargaining and negotiating prices for their produce. Also during local market days, sales promotion was carried out or done by ringing bells in market squares, and through this means, consumers, were attracted to bargain for prices and will invariably wind up, buying a commodity or product of their choice at a reduced price, or bargained price, or price off. In Nigeria today, sales promotion is still common. Sales promotion is practiced during auction sales, Bazaar sales, Christmas period, Easter period and during other special events. Sales promotion is important for reaping immediate fruit achieving immediate returns or achieving success at the market place, as far as marketing of goods and services are concerned. Among, the business firms that had adopted or had been making use of sales promotion in the marketing of their goods and services in Nigeria are all blue chip companies, quoted in Nigerian Stock Exchange such as Nigerian Breweries PLC, Cadbury PLC, Nestle PLC, Christleb PLC, Lever Brothers, U.A.C. Group of Companies, Neimeth Pharmaceutical company, Guinness PLC, 7up bottling company and all seasoning companies etc.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION IN A BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY PLC)

MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND TEACHER’S JOB PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND TEACHER’S JOB PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT

The pace at which teachers are motivated for greater service is deteriorating in Nigeria is alarming. The fall in performance and productivity of the secondary school teachers is of a great concern to the stakeholders. These unfortunate situations are roped on poor management, undue political interference, poor remunerations, lack of prompt promotion, non-payment of staff entitlements and other fringe benefits due for the staff in the service and the delay in payment of staff salary. It is in light of the aforementioned scenario that the research was conducted to understand the motivational factors and teachers’ job performance in secondary schools in Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos State. However, the objectives of the research was to identify the factors that informed staff poor performance and productivity ,to understand the factors that sustain staff performance and productivity and also to examine the reasons behind the rate of labour turnover ,absenteeism and nonchalant attitudes of the staff in these local government councils. Data for the research were generated both from primary and secondary sources, and was analysed quantitatively and qualitatively ,with more focus on quantitative technique using inferential statistical tool of Chi –square, was used to test the hypotheses. The research findings revealed that managements of these schools had failed in meeting the staff welfare. Workers performance and productivity depends on the kind of motivational incentives provided to them; and that staff absenteeism and turnover is as results of lack of job satisfaction by majority of staff. The research concluded that the solutions is for the management of the local government and the State government to keep abreast with the dominant needs and the changing expectations of these teachers and equally be in constant survey of motivational incentives in relation to staff performance and productivity.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Secondary schools are established to educate students to enable them contribute to the economic, political and social cultural well, being of their country.  In Isu Local Government Area of Imo State, there appears to a hindrance in the realization of objectives of secondary school.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AND TEACHER’S JOB PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

IMPACT OF PACKAGING ON ORGANIZATIONAL SALES TURNOVER (A CASE STUDY OF PZ NIGERIA LIMITED)

IMPACT OF PACKAGING ON ORGANIZATIONAL SALES TURNOVER (A CASE STUDY OF PZ NIGERIA LIMITED)

Abstract

Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing information and sell. It is fully integrated into government business, institutional, industry, and personal use, it significantly impacts on the sales turnover of an organisation. This research project is thus a search for the impact of packaging on organisational sales turnover. Chapter one of the study lays an introduction for subsequent chapters. Following the background of the study, the problem statement and the objective of the study which provided basis for the significance of the study and the hypothesis were stated. The limitations of this study were also highlighted. In the literature review as contained in chapter two, works of various authors, international and local journals were reviewed to elicit views on the impact of packaging on organisational sales turnover. Chapter three, research methodology, description of population and sampling procedure for data collection were discussed. Methods of questionnaire design, determination of sampling size and questionnaire distribution were also highlighted. Chapter four was based on analysis of data collected. This chapter was sub-divided into data analysis, hypothesis testing and summary. Percentage table, figure and narration were carefully employed for proper understanding and testing of hypothesis. Finally, chapter five was divided into summary of findings, recommendation and conclusion.

 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Approval Page   –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Declaration        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Abstract    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

Table of Contents       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vii

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2    Statement of General Problem   –        –        –        –        5

1.3    Objective of the Study         –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.4    Research Questions   –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.5    Significance of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        7

1.6    Scope of the Study      –        –        –        –        –        –        8

1.7    Definition of Terms    –        –        –        –        –        –        8

 CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        10

2.2    Conceptual Review    –        –        –        –        –        –        11

2.3    The Strategic Importance of Packaging        –        –        14

2.4    Criticism of Packaging        –        –        –        –        –        16

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.2    Research Design         –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.3    Area of the Study       –        –        –        –        –        –        32

3.4    Population of Study   –        –        –        –        –        –        33

3.5    Sample size and Sampling Techniques        –        –        –        33

3.6    Instrument for Data Collection   –        –        –        –        33

3.7    Validity of the Instrument –        –        –        –        –        33

3.8    Reliability of the Instrument       –        –        –        –        34

3.9    Method of Data Collection  –        –        –        –        –        34

3.10  Method of Data Analysis    –        –        –        –        –        34

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.0    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        36

4.1    Data Presentation and Analysis –        –        –        –        36

4.2    Characteristics of the Respondents     –        –        –        36

4.3    Data Analysis    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        39

4.4    Testing Hypothesis    –        –        –        –        –        –        46

4.5    Summary of Findings          –        –        –        –        –        –        51

4.6    Discussion of Findings        –        –        –        –        –        52

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0    Introduction       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        54

5.1    Summary  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        54

5.2    Conclusion         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57

5.3    Recommendations      –        –        –        –        –        –        58

References –       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        61

Appendix  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        62

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

IMPACT OF PACKAGING ON ORGANIZATIONAL SALES TURNOVER (A CASE STUDY OF PZ NIGERIA LIMITED)

IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MAINLAND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, LAGOS STATE

IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MAINLAND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, LAGOS STATE

ABSTRACT

The pace at which teachers are motivated for greater service is deteriorating in Nigeria is alarming. The fall in performance and productivity of the secondary school teachers is of a great concern to the stakeholders. These unfortunate situations are roped on poor management, undue political interference, poor remunerations, lack of prompt promotion, non-payment of staff entitlements and other fringe benefits due for the staff in the service and the delay in payment of staff salary. It is in light of the aforementioned scenario that the research was conducted to understand the impacts of motivation on workers productivity with particular reference to Mainland local Government Area of Lagos state. However, the objectives of the research was to identify the factors that informed staff poor performance and productivity ,to understand the factors that sustain staff performance and productivity and also to examine the reasons behind the rate of labour turnover ,absenteeism and nonchalant attitudes of the staff in these local government councils. Data for the research were generated both from primary and secondary sources, and was analysed quantitatively and qualitatively ,with more focus on quantitative technique using inferential statistical tool of Chi –square, was used to test the hypotheses. The research findings revealed that managements of these schools had failed in meeting the staff welfare. Workers performance and productivity depends on the kind of motivational incentives provided to them; and that staff absenteeism and turnover is as results of lack of job satisfaction by majority of staff. The research concluded that the solutions is for the management of the local government and the State government to keep abreast with the dominant needs and the changing expectations of these teachers and equally be in constant survey of motivational incentives in relation to staff performance and productivity.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF TEACHERS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MAINLAND LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, LAGOS STATE

GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION AND CONTROL OF BUSINESS IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY

GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION AND CONTROL OF BUSINESS IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Before the independence of Nigeria, there was little or no manufacturing taking place. The role envisaged for the colonies by our colonial masters was that of producers of raw materials and consumers of finished products. Planned industrial development did not really commence until after Nigeria gained her sovereignty, there was change in economic activity due to the power shift from the colonial masters to the Nigerians (Indigenisation Policy of 1972). In order to consolidate her political positions, Nigeria government started to encourage individuals to establish industries mainly for import substitutions. Manufacturing firms were set –up by private individuals for production of goods and services such as food processing, agro-allied industry, chemical, pharmaceutical industry, based industry & petrochemical industry etc. Owing to the government encouragement on indigenization programmes in 1972 more business were established (as mentioned above). Also because of the vital roles business play in the economy, more manufacturing / multinational companies were established so as to stimulate economic activities and as a means to develop the economy as a whole. Although, ever before the independence, most manufacturing sector that were operating in Nigerian economy were largely owned by foreigners and due to the indigenization programme that encouraged private owned businesses, Nigeria took interest in the operation and establishment.Most of the business owners or manufacturers were profit conscious instead of the consumer protection. In fact, almost everybody wants to make it fast, and become a millionaire overnight. This ambition is what made most manufacturers to be producing low standard products which are detrimental to the health of the general public. Most products are below standard and do not at times achieving the objectives of their production. (Nnenna B. Ani, 1999: 9) Because of the values average Nigerians   attached to money (wealth), no matter how the wealth is a acquired, they don’t care to know.This is why people go into swindling (419) where they dupe unsuspected business men or innocent members of the public.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION AND CONTROL OF BUSINESS IN A DEVELOPING ECONOMY

EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE AS A CATALYST FOR ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH (A CASE STUDY OF AIRTEL NG)

EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE AS A CATALYST FOR ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH (A CASE STUDY OF AIRTEL NG)

ABSTRACT

This study assessed employee motivation and performance as a catalyst for organizational growth in Airtel Ng, Uyo Akwa Ibom State. The objectives of the study were To look at techniques used by organizations to motivate employees; To examine the effect of motivation on workers’ productivity; To identify the problems associated with motivation of workers in the organization and to suggest solutions to such problems, if any. The survey and case study research design was used as the methodology. The sample size of the study consisted of one hundred (100) respondents representing 64% of the population of the study. Data for the study were obtained with the aid of self designed questionnaires. Simple percentage was used in the analyses of data obtained. The hypotheses were tested with the aid of chi – square (x2) statistic. The results obtained revealed that there is a significant relationship between supervision and training and increased competence for staff of Airtel Ng, there is a significant relationship between fringe benefits and financial incentives and work habit for staff of Airtel Ng and fair apraisal policy as well as recognition of employee performance helps to induce greater performance. In line with these findings, it was recommended that Airtel Ng should expand its training programmes and career development opportunities to enable the workers acquire greater skills and perform more effectively, financial incentives should be provided to the staff of Airtel Ngon regular basis to enhance positive work behaviour and better performance and the management of the Airtel Ng should always ensure the recognition of good performance through praises, appreciation letters, merit awards and other means to boost the morale of staff and enhance performance.

CHAPTER ONE

  • Background of the study

Every organization and business wants to be successful and possesses the desire to  achieve constant progress. The current era is highly competitive and organizations regardless of the size, technology and market focus are facing employee retention challenges. To overcome these restraint a strong and positive relationship and bonding should be created and maintained between employees and their organizations.  Human resources or employees of any organization are the most central part so they need to be influenced and persuaded towards the fulfillment of tasks.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE AS A CATALYST FOR ORGANIZATIONAL GROWTH (A CASE STUDY OF AIRTEL NG)

EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF FIRST BANK)

EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF FIRST BANK)

ABSTRACT

This research work focuses on effects of organization structure on employeesperformance (a case study of First Bank Plc.).The objective of this study is todetermine whether there is appropriate organisational structure in First Bank Nigeria and the extent it has contributed to their employees’ performances.The investigation was carried out with the use of questionnaire to gather information from the members of First bank plc.A number of 150 (fifty) questionnaires were distributed and analysed. This study used descriptive type of survey design and structured questionnaire was used to generate data. Descriptive statistics, correlation and t-statistics, was adopted for analysis of data and hypotheses testing. The result revealed that there is a significant impact of effective organization structure on workers performance and effective organization structure affects the performance of workers.It is recommended that having an organizational structure in place is very important for any organization; better communication and transparency is recommended.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of Study

In modern society, most people spend their working lives in an organization of some sort; therefore have first-hand experience of the corporate life. This study considers some of the findings and work that help to provide a better understanding of the nature of organizations which also includes the examination of the structural aspects of an organization and how it impacts on the performance of employees in an organization. An organization is a collection of interacting and independent individuals who work towards common goals and whose relationship are determined according to a certain structure. Arnold et al. (1998), this definition provides a useful starting point for an examination of organizations. The organization design is the overall arrangement of the various roles, processes and their relationships in the organization. It is a means to accomplishing the overall goal. The structure is not an end itself. Performances of employees are based on the influence of some factors (motivations) which are as follows:

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF FIRST BANK)

EFFECT OF PARTNERSHIP AND JOINT VENTURE BUSINESS IN SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN NIGERIA

EFFECT OF PARTNERSHIP AND JOINT VENTURE BUSINESS IN SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), new or existing, often face certain challenges when they approach products providers for both enterprise fixed capital investment and market standards. The insufficient supply of microloans is a major issue, particularly where business creators are unemployed persons, women or form part of ethnic minorities with different cultural dependencies. Supporting the supply of microloans is therefore not only an issue of entrepreneurship and economic growth, but also of social inclusion.

Nigeria has been in the constant wheel of fighting for liberalization of market in the African’s sister countries. This gave to the country the political power but remaining behind economic development (NSGRP, 2017). Further, it was reported that there are more than 1.7 million SME projects in Nigeria that employed more than 3 million people, which represent 20% of labor force in Nigeria, where SMEs are vital engines for the economy growth and play a great role for gross domestic product of Nigeria (NSGRP, 2017).

Deakins (2009) agreed that there are quiet numbers of potential reasons why firms and organizations merge together to form a partnership or joint venture businesses.

A joint venture is a procedure used to respond to specific business phenomena such as access to new markets, specificgovernment policy, business capacity, technology transfer or economies of scale. An international joint venture is aseparate legal organisational entity representing the partial holdings of two or more parent firms, in which theheadquarters of at least one is located outside the country of operation of the joint venture. The feasibility and the desirability of a joint venture must be assembled by careful analysis of the economic, political, social and cultural environment within which the venture will be implemented and managed.

A joint venture (JV) is a business agreement in which the parties agree to develop, for a finite time, a new entity and new assets by contributing equity. They exercise control over the enterprise and consequently share revenues, expenses and assets. There are other types of companies such as JV limited by guarantee, joint ventures limited by guarantee with partners holding shares.

Companies typically pursue joint ventures for one of four reasons: to gain faster entry into a new market; to acquire expertise; to increase production scale, efficiencies, or coverage; or to expand business development by gaining access to distributor networks.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

EFFECT OF PARTNERSHIP AND JOINT VENTURE BUSINESS IN SMALL SCALE BUSINESS IN NIGERIA

THE IMPACT INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN BANKING INDUSTRY

   THE IMPACT INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN BANKING INDUSTRY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter one: Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

1.2  Statement of the Problem

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.4 Research Question

1.5 Significance    of the study

1.6 Delimitation

1.7 Limitation

1.8 The Definition of Terms

 Chapter two – Review of Related Literature

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Communication flows in an organization

2.3 Form of Communication

2.4 Components of Communication Process

2.5 Communication methods

2.6 Theoretical  Framework

 Chapter Three – Research  Methodology

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Design

3.3 Area of the study

3.4 Population of the Study

3.5 Sample and Sampling Technique

3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument

3.7 Method of Data Collection

3.8 Method of Data Analysis

 Chapter Four – Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation    

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Presentation   of Data

4.3 Discussion of Finding

Chapter Five –  Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

References

Appendices

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUTION

1.1     The Background of the Study

Ineffective communication detrimental is to managers and workers in organizations because it enables them not to perform their basic functions of management; planning, organizing, leading and controlling Elashmawi and Harris, (2000). Effective communication also helps workers and managers to perform their organizational goals and responsibilities. It serves as a function for planning Gamble and Gamble (2002). Essential information must be communicated to the workers and managers who in-turn must communicate the plans so as to implement them. Organizers also require effective communication about their organizational task. Similarly leaders must communicate effectively with their subordinates to achieve the team goals and controlling is not possible without written and oral communication Harris, (2002).

Ineffective communication according to May, Steve, Mumby and Dennis K., (2004) can be defined simply as the process where the message are not properly sent and therefore not properly acted upon as intended by the sender. Managers do not devote a great part of their time to communicate; they do not spend great time on face- to – face, telephonic and written communication with their superior, subordinates, colleagues, customers or suppliers. Managers do not promote the use of written communication form of letters, report or memos wherever oral communication is not feasible.

Thus, we can say that “ineffective communication destroys the  building block of successful organizations” May, Steve, Mumby and Dennis K. (2005), in other words ineffective communication acts as organizational performance barriers.

When communication is not effective, the end result is an increase in production time and a decrease in the bottom line. In order to avoid this outcome, effective communication must be in place (Joey, 2005). Consequently communication can be defined as the “exchange of information between the sender and a receiver and the inference (perception) of meaning between individuals involved “(Bowditch et al, 2006). Analysis of this exchange reveals that communication is a two way process consisting of consecutively linked elements. Managers who understand this process can analyze their own communication patterns as well as design communication programs that fit organizational needs (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2006).

Communication is rather complex to define in a single sentence. In a glimpse, however, it has many types which include; interpersonal, intrapersonal, group, public, mass and online or machine oriented communication (Gamble and Gamble, 2006). Communication remotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark.

Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps in identifying and assessing alternative causes of action. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitude i.e., a well informed individual will have better attitude than a less informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in moldings employee’s attitude.

As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps in controlling organizational members behavior in various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employee must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their organizational tasks effectively and communicate any work problem and grievances to their superiors. Thus communication helps in controlling function of management.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Ineffective communication system hinders managerial proficiency in delivering and receiving messages. The ineffectiveness in communication is the key Problem to organizational performance in any organization. This is because it barriers emotional expressions and decision making. In large organizations like Champion Breweries, miscommunication is inevitable.

Therefore, this study seeks to find out reasons for ineffective communication and causes for communication breakdown in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo and recommend possible solutions.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study are as follow;

  1. To determine the extent to which ineffective communications hinders good organizational performance in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo.
  2. To find out reasons for miscommunication in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo.
  3. To identify the causes for communication breakdown in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo.
  4. To find out the most suitable and result oriented pattern of communication in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo.

1.4     Research Questions

  1. To what extent does ineffective communication hinders good organizational performance in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo?
  2. What are the reasons for miscommunication in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo?
  3. What are the causes for communication breakdown in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo?
  4. Which communication pattern is the most suitable and result oriented in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo?

1.5     Significance of the Study

Communication skills are more important to all other field of human endeavors. Whether you are an engineer or business personal having a firm grasp of communication will undoubtedly be a key sole to your business.

Oftentimes, people with great technical skills reach a point in their careers where they are no longer promoted because of their inability to communicate effectively.

The study is then relevance to business and corporate organizations, government parastatals. It is very indispensable; therefore, it is researchable to updating old and existing knowledge. It is believed that mass communication and business administration students will find it useful.

The study is also significance because it provides suggestions to the existing problem of ineffective communication which mar the smooth process of organizational performance. It will serve as research material for further research on related topics.

1.6     Delimitation of the Study

The study will focus primarily on ineffective communication on organizational performance in Champion Breweries, Aka Road, Uyo.

1.7     Limitation of the Study

In the course of undertaking the study, the researcher was faced with lack of funds which delayed the realization of the study and lack of secondary sources like library researchable materials.

1.8     Definition of Terms
1.  Ineffective communication: communication is said to be ineffective when message sent is being received and acted upon is not as intended by the sender.

  1. Communication pattern: a means of transferring messages from one person to another e.g upward or downward communication flow.
  2. Miscommunication: failure to communicate adequately
  3. Communication breakdown: this can be referred to as failure in exchange of information. It may be as a result of language barrier.
  4. Communication barrier: These are obstacles in a work place that prevent effective exchange of ideas or thoughts.

6.  Performance: the accomplishment of a given task measured against presented known standards of accuracy and completeness.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE IMPACT OF INEFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN BANKING INDUSTRY

THE EFFECTS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM TRANSPORT COMPANY – AKTC)

THE EFFECTS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE
(A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM TRANSPORT COMPANY – AKTC)

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Introduction

1.2       Statement of the problem

1.3       Objective of the study

1.4       Research questions

1.5       Research hypothesis

1.6       Significant of the study

1.7       Scope of the study

1.8       Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Brief introduction

2.2 Conceptual framework of thereotical framework of the study

2.3 Ferdrick taylor (1856-1915) and scientific management

2.2.1 Theories or school of thought on management

2.3.2 Henrifaylos 1984 4926 contribution to management strategies

2.4 Factors that affect strategic management of Akwa Ibom Transport Company (AKTC)

2.4.2 Environmental opportunities and threats.

2.4.3   Some internal factors include

2.4.4    Shared value and culture of Akwa Ibom Transport Company (AKTC)

2.5 Causes of low productivity in Akwa Ibom Transport Company (AKTC).

2.6       The need for vision in Akwa  Ibom transport Company (AKTC)

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1       Brief introduction

3.2       Area of the study

3.3       Population, sample and sampling procedure

3.4       Types and location of data used (optional)

3.5       Instrument for data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Brief introduction

4.2       Data presentation and analysis

4.3       Test of hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation

References

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       INTRODUCTION

Nigerian business organization has experienced a number of changes in recent years. Fundamental economic, restructuring growth in size and complexity of business organization have classifically attend the ways in which business executives can effectually manage a business. To cope with these changes, modern management techniques are used in the contemporary organizations.

Reffort, E. A (1989) in differentiating strategic management considered the word “ strategy management that embodies two essential component, time span and strategic formulation. Strategic management as a long term management has a time horizon of at least three years.

Strategy implementation requires the practice of the chosen strategy. It entail series of sequential as well as parallel streams of activity and their result fits together into a pattern to produce the desired level of effective interaction. Strategy is implemented through. Although a implementation of strategy is situational (Thompson, and Strickland, AJ 2001) identified certain steps for it effective strategic implementation such as, Building an organization with the competence capabilities and resource strength, developing budget to achieve the financial and strategic objectives establishing strategy. Supportive policies and procedures trying rewards  and incentives to achievement of performance and good strategy execution and installing information communication e-commerce and operating system. (Karammer, A 1987).

It is worthy to note that strategic management has a valuable effect on organization performance. This can be achieved by means of strategic planning which help a company to capitalize on opportunities and cope with treats provide a basic for measuring performance leads a company to act rather than react, ensures setting and acceptance of common goals and also trains managers to thinks ahead. However, strategic management entail risks the process may expose underlying conflicts within the organization. It may disrupt the flow of information and the ways decisions are made and also post fear and suspicious by conservative managers that strategic management might expose their weakness. These factors may beset the effective strategy implementation in most Nigeria Business Organizations.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

            In formulating and implementing strategies in organization. There are problems faced as a result of these strategies. The major problem to be emphasized on here is poor policy and strategy formulation.

Lack of communication; the strategic plan is not communicated to front-line employees who are therefore working in the dark.

Also managers are so tied up with day to day operating problem that they lose sight of the long-term strategic goals.

Confusing terminology and language people do not understand what government want because it is not expressed clearly in the strategic plan.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

(1) To examine the effect strategic management on organization performance with particular reference to Akwa  Ibom Transport Company (AKTC).

(2) To examine if the business communication strategy is given clearly and regularly to employees.

(3) To examine how strategic management helps in improving organizational performance by setting new priorities for funds and personal.

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following Research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  • What way do strategic management contribute to an organizational performance with a particular reference to Akwa Ibom Transport Company (AKTC)?
  • What problems are faced by manager in the implementation of management strategies?
  • What are the effects of strategic management on Akwa Ibom Transport Company (AKTC)?

 

1.5       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

HO: The objectives of organization cannot be accomplished through strategic management.

HI: The objective of organization can be accomplished through strategic management.

HO: Proper implementation of strategic management does not result in the growth of the organization performance.

HI: Proper implementation of strategic management result in the growth of the organization performance.

1.6       SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

           Generally, the success and continuity of any organization is determined by its productivity and performance.

In this regards students and interested reader would find this work very useful for reference purposes.

Sincerely, this research will help the executive and who ever at management position of any organization to properly make and implement some decisions that will arrest in the improvement of the Akwa  Ibom Transport Company (AKTC) performance. Hence, any other individual(s) who wish to go into any further research on this topic will find this work very useful.

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study concentrates on the strategic management on organization performance with particular references to Akwa  Ibom Transport Company (AKTC).

1.8       DEFINITION OF TERMS

(1) STRATEGY: This is the process of management something or carrying out plan in skillful way.

(2) MANAGEMENT: Management is the process of working with and through others in order to achieve a goal.

(3) STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: This is the formulation and implementation of plans and carrying out of activities relating to the matters which arte the vital or continuing importance to the organization.

(4) POLICY:  This is defined as a plan of action or statement of ideas proposed or adopted by a business.

(5) GOAL:  something that you hope to achieve a given period of time.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

 

 THE EFFECTS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ON ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF AKWA IBOM TRANSPORT COMPANY – AKTC)

 

THE EFFECT OF A WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF MTN NIGERIA)

THE EFFECT OF A WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF MTN NIGERIA)

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Cover page

Certification

Dedication

Declaration

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                    

  • Background of the study

1.2 Statement of problems

1.3 Objectives of the study

1.4 Research questions

1.5 Research hypothesis

1.6 Significance of the study

1.7 Limitations of the study

1.8 Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  • Brief introduction

2.2 Conceptual framework

2.3 General Effects of a Working Environment

2.4 Factors that influence employee’s productivity in a working environment

2.5 Good relations increase employee’s productivity in a workplace

2.6 The benefit of positive working environment

2.7 Safety working environment and employees Productivity

2.8 Summary

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

  • Brief introduction

3.2 Research design

3.3 Area of study

3.4 Population of the study

3.5 Sample and sampling technique

3.6 Method of data collection

3.7 Description of instrument for data collection

3.8 Method of data analysis

3.10 Decision rule

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

  • Brief introduction

4.2 Analysis of Questionnaire Administered

4.3 Data Analysis and Interpretation

4.4 Test of hypothesis

4.5 Discussion of findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Brief introduction

5.2 Summary of the Study

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendations

References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The organizations today consider employees as their top most priority. A lot of effort is put in order to attain, retain and motivate them. The traditional role is an employee is no more effective and the organizations are finding new ways of working.       The key to organizational success is the competitive workforce. The organizations strive hard to align organizational strategies and objectives with employee’s behaviors in order to stay competitive. The way in which employee accomplish organizationally set goals and relate their interpersonal behaviors to the organizational norms can be termed as employee productivity.

Factors of workplace environment play an important role towards the employee’s productivity. The factors of workplace environment give an immense impact to the employee’s productivity either towards the negative outcomes or the positive outcomes (Chandrasekar, 2001). Over the last decades, the factors of work environment of the office workers had changed due to the changes in several factors such as the social environment, information technology and the flexible ways of organizing work processes (Hasun and Maklibug, 2005).

A lot of past research has been devoted towards the concept of employee productivity. Employee productivity was found to be related to a number of factors including conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness and emotional stability. Environment literally means surroundings and all those things that impact human being during the life time are collectively known as environment. A working environment is the environment where people work together for achieving organization objectives. It means, systems, processes, structures and tools and all those things which interact with employees and affect in positive or negative ways on employees productivity. It can also be defined as the location where a task is completed. When studying place of employment, the work environment involves the physical geographical location as well as the immediate surroundings of the workplace such as a construction size or office buildings.

According to boles et al (2004), which the employee’s are physically and emotionally have the desire to work. Then their productivity outcomes shall be increased. Moreover, they also stated that by having a proper workplace environment. It helps in reducing the number of absenteeism and thus can increase the employees productivity which will leads to the increasing number of productivity at the workplace. Referring to this matter, research need to be done in order to identify the main contributor to the employees productivity and investigate on how the workplace environment in term of the job aid, supervisor support or relationship and physical work environment affect employees productivity at the workplace.

The concepts of “workplace productivity” means the factors of workplace that is being provided by the employers to their employees that could support the employees productivity at work (Clements-Croome, 2006). By having a high level productivity of employees, it will increase the company’s profit.

The workplace environment in a majority of ministry is unsafe and unhealthy. These includes poorly designed workstations, unsuitable furniture, lack of ventilation, inappropriate lighting, excessive noise, insufficient safety measures in fire emergencies and lack of personal protective equipment. People working in such environment are prone to occupational disease and it impacts thus reflect on employee’s productivity. Hence, productivity is decreased due to the workplace environment.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The study was conducted to find out how employee’s productivity can be increased by developing a conducive working environment. The problems of inadequate working environment coupled with how productivity of workers in ministries is receiving increased serious attention in the state. Some of the reviewed studies done in MTN Nigeria have looked at workers productivity and working environment factors with limited information on the role of working environment and productivity of worker especially focusing on how working environment affect the availability, competence, productivity and responsiveness combine as they affect elements of productivity in the commission.

However, when there is a strong overturn of employee’s expectation on a workplace environment, the productivity of such workers are inadequate. Thus, they are not motivated to put in their best.

It is on this note; this research is being designed to address major issues confronting employees in their work environment. The study will also be interested in suggesting some solving measure on how to create and maintain a work environment that can bring out the best productivity from employees to boost organizational growth.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the effect of work environment on employee’s productivity. To be precise, the research paper would seek to fulfill the below listed objectives:

  • To establish the relationship between a working environment and employee’s productivity.
  • To analyze workplace factors affecting the employees productivity
  • To examine whether a good working environment can enhance excellent employee’s productivity
  • To suggest the measures to improve the working conditions for better productivity.
  • To recommend solution to situations where work environment affect employee’s productivity.

1.4  Research Questions

For a meaningful research to be conducted, the following questions related to the study were asked:

  • Do workers who work in a conductive working environment perform better than those who work in an hazardous working environment?
  • To what extent does workplace factors influenced employee’s productivity?
  • Can a good work environment bring out the best productivity from employees?
  • To what extent does an improved work environment affect employee’s productivity?

1.5  Research Hypotheses

To answer the question above in section 1.4 more accurately which satisfy the objective of the research work, the following statement of hypotheses are set up as a guide to this research work.

The null hypothesis is denoted as “Ho” while the alternative hypothesis is denoted as “H1”.

  • Hypothesis One:

Ho: A good working environment does not bring out the best productivity from employees.

H1: A good working environment brings out the best productivity from employees.

  • Hypothesis Two

Ho: These are no significant difference between improved work environment and employee’s productivity.

H1: These are significant difference between improved work environment and employee’s productivity.

1.6  Significance of the Study

            The work place environment in a majority of ministry is unsafe and unhealthy. These includes poorly designs workstations, unsuitable furniture, lack of ventilation, poor lighting system, excessive noise, insufficient safety measures in fire emergencies and lack of personal protective equipment. People working min such environment are prone to occupational disease and it impact often reflects and affects employee’s productivity. Thus, productivity is decreased due to the workplace environment. Therefore, the study will be relevance in the area of addressing some of the challenges confronted by employees in their workplace environment.

In general, it is hope that, this study will be of help to government, directors, employers and employees in the area of creating conducive environment/ motivation to employees for better productivities.

Lastly, it is believed that, this study will be of help to study of tertiary institution at various levels of learning, particularly, the department of business management as this study will be a useful reference material for further research in the related field.

 

1.7       Limitation of the Study

This research work would have been carried out in better way if not some challenges uncounted by the researcher.

  1. Lack of adequate fund for logistics and access to sufficient materials.
  2. Time constraint: owing to the fact that there would not be enough time to carryout adequate study on the topic because of lectures, assign other assignments, test in class etc; it became difficult for the researcher to concentrate mainly on the project study.

1.8       Definition of Terms:

  • Employees: Employee is a group of people working for an organization or company or ministry.
  • Physical Work Environment: Physical work environment is the environment where people are fit with their job. This physical work environment may include the lightings, ventilation and also the temperature. It is also the surroundings in which an employee’s operates.
  • Productivity: Productivity is an act of measuring how well a person does a piece of work. It is also the amount of effort input by a person to achieve set goals.
  • Employee’s Productivity: Employee’s productivity is theory in which employees accomplish organizationally set goals and relate their interpersonal behaviours to the organizational norms
  • Organization: Organization can be seen as a body of persons organizes to achieve a common goal in a work environment.
  • DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

  • THE EFFECT OF A WORKING ENVIRONMENT ON EMPLOYEE’S PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF MTN NIGERIA)