The rapid increase in crime rate in Nigeria has become a thorn in the flesh and the talk of the day. There is no day that pass in the country that we do not here of one crime or the other been committed by different set of people in the country, this is alarming. In Nigerian the most common issue we are facing is the terrorists’ attacks in tangible parts of the Northern region, Achumba 2013. For this reason, national crime threat has become a key issue for the Nigerian government and has moved huge allocation of the national budget to crime. The high rate of violent crimes like terrorism, kidnapping, armed robbery and banditry, suicide bombing, religious killing, ethnic clashes, politically-motivated killing and a host of other forms of criminal activities in the country is rapidly becominga conventional and naturalevent that characterized life in the nation. Gradually, Nigeria has ranked low in the Global Peace Index (GPI, 2012), which shows or defines a state that cannot be amended in terms of crime, insecurity, etc. In the same light, fellow researchers stressed that the issues of crime has taking a very powerful depthand coaxing the country’s political and economic managers and also the nation at large to a regretful situation, the loss of their loved ones, investment and absence of security in most facets of the state. Innocent bloods are being wasted as the day goes by and the show off of endured frustration by the citizens has remained a good reason to call for help.The terrorists attacks and killings is gradually becoming like it was during the Nigerian civil war. This big issue is gradually becoming out of hand and going beyond the strengths of the government of Nigerian state, while we Nigerians also see it as the government been incompetent and not able to produce positive result. Looking at the causes of this abnormality, Onifade opined that there is link between increasing ethnic hate, religious bigotry, political rivalry, and an increasing population of discontented citizens in the country who feet short-changed and having limited or no access to the common inheritance. This expresses the point that the primordial abilities of diversemanifestations of different ethnic militias and the pre-ponderant religious fundamentalism in places, given expression to by some areas of the dominant religious establishments in Nigeria have unavoidably increased or maximized the level and tendency various scholars pointed out same factors that are accountable for the sudden burst of crime in the country. They debated that the feedback of the Nigerian state to the crisis of the mass unemployment and fuel crisis has led to the worsening of the crime situation in Nigeria. Also, poverty, unemployment rejectedrevenue and low savings, which has subjected many retrenched people into an aggressive struggle for survival, high rate of inflation, political intolerance on the part of the ruling party as pointed out have contributed not in a small measure to the rate of crime in the country. Another major reason of government of any nation is the provision of anti-corruption agencies. The role is stressed in the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria that “the crime and welfare of the people shall be the majorreason of existence of the government. In carrying out this duty, the government assigned the task of maintenance of internal crime to the Nigeria police. The Nigeria police are by law burdened with the role of hindering, stopping and detecting crime, preserving the peace of the nation and order and inflicting all laws and regulations. They are also looked on to perform these roles efficiently and productively. With the high rate of crime in the country today, a good number of the citizens are now of the opinion that the Nigeria police falls below their required standards of performance. They are seen as a toothless dog that can only bark but not bite. Researchers debated on the fact that there is no need to prove the non-performance of the Nigeria police in the present situation. Rather, the only thing that is needed is the identification of the major incompetence’s, challenges and constraints that are responsible for the situation. The Nigeria police are part and parcel of the civil society. For this reason, putting the challenges which have made their work incapable in resent times, they have human problems that not only encourage its material inadequacies, but are also of tremendous adverse import on its general performance from one day to the next. Poor funding for key growth of the force such as training, logistics, arms and ammunitions etc. and under-utilization of funds are tooth on the rim of gear of competent and productive police performance. Morality among the police is not a virtue. It was discussed that corruption and the crime of getting money from people among the police is a serious problem because they are expected to be moral and of good value as law enforcement agents. In the desire of officers to meet up with mate in the society they landed in slaughtering efficient and productive performance of duty on the edge of corruptions.


The inability of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) to make sure crime rate is reduced, safety of life and property is assured and the continuous crime issues in the country is alarming. The sources of crime issues in the country are too numerous to mention and cannot be blamed on just one arm of the system. They change from the government to the police down to the people in the society. On the side of the police, there are numerous issues which stand as constraints responsible for its extremely poor performance. A good number of Nigerians have described the police as a crowd composed of lazy, incompetent, corrupt, uniformed men and women contributing to the perpetrating of crimes such as mass killing, intimidation, rape, extrajudicial killings/summary execution and other hateful and evil crimes against citizens they are paid to protect. The rapid and wide spread of violence in the northern part of Nigeria which was introduced by Boko Haram today is related with the police extra-judicial killing of the leader of the group. It is also common with the police to falsely label innocent people as armed robbers, while the real criminals are working freely in the society doing what they know to do best. They falsified post mortem result and to worsen the matter, people either criminals or none criminal disappear from there custody without good explanations and families of the innocent victims are faced with extortion. The Nigeria police Force (2008) in there annual report noted that the police is handicapped because of combination of factors that plagued them, among which are; lack of resources, poor government support, poor condition of service, lack of appropriate and adequate training and ill-equipped workforce. Coped with this are the issue of police extortion and corruption and other vices common among the police system which contributes to their lack of efficiency. Alemika (1999) posit that police corruption is a serious issue because they are expected to be moral as law-enforcement agents. If the police that were employed and taken care of with the people’s money to protect them and detect crimes for them are on their own corrupt and also a party to crimes, then the entire society is at the mercy and grace of the criminals. The above among numerous others contribute to the Police and the challenges of crime in the Nigerian state.


The major aim of the study is to examine the Nigerian police and crime management in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To examine the level of crime in Nigeria.
  2. To determine the impact of effective crime amagement on economic development.
  3. To determine the major challenges to effective crime management by the police.
  4. To assess the role of the government in crime management in Nigeria.
  5. To recommend better ways of effective crime management by the police in Nigeria.


  1. What is the level of crime in Nigeria?
  2. What is the impact of effective crime management on economic development?
  3. What are the major challenges to effective crime management by the police?
  4. What is the role of the government in crime management in Nigeria?
  5. What are the other ways of effective crime management by the police in Nigeria?


H0: The police as not been effective in the management of crime in Nigeria.

H1: The police have been effective in the management of crime in Nigeria.


The study would be of immense importance to the general public and the Nigeria police as it would highlight the role of the police in crime management. The study would also be of benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter.


The study is restricted to the police and the management of crime in Nigeria using mararaba in Karu LGA of Nassarawa state as a case study.


Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.




The research is organized into five chapters. The objective of research is to assess the impacts of high freight rates to prices of imported goods in Nigeria. Chapters one, two and three dealt with introduction, literature review and methodology respectively. Chapter four dealt with data analysis and discussion of findings while chapter five Dealt with conclusions and recommendations.


1.0                                    INTRODUCTION


According to Ndikom (2006), The Word freight rate connotes the reward usually payable to the carrier for the carriage and arrival of the goods in a mercantile condition ready to be delivered to the merchant. Maritime z shipping services are usually priced conjunction with land mode of transport and are dependent on the forces of demand and supply. Moreover, the demand and supply of International sea- 
transport services are basically derived the demand and supply of commodities (Goods) carried by sea and 15 therefore affected by the elasticity (changes in prices and demand cum supply) for those commodities. Basically normal times, an important factor affecting the exact elasticity of demand for shipping service, is the cost of transport in relation to the market prices of the goods carried.

Although, it may be small, the cost of sea transport is often a significant element of components in the final market prices of many important commodities. Ekwerina (2003) posits that in developing countries, particularly those of the sub-saharan African region, transport cost(Freight rate) consist about Fifteen (15%) to twenty (20%) percent of the costs of imported and exported commodities. Thus, a commodity that may have attracted a low price to purchase in the international market tends to cost 150/0, to 200/0 higher than the actual cost of purchase after it must have entered the sub-saharan African 
market. The impact of this is that inflation tends to be the order of the day for imported commodities in Nigeria causing a continuous high rise in the prices of imported goods. Experts thus assert that there exist a direct correlation between market prices of imported goods and the shipping (transport cost) freight rate such that a positive change (upward increase) in liner freight rate brings about an upward increase 
in the costs of imported goods while a negative change (downward decrease) in liner freight rate brings about a downward (decrease) change in prices of imported products in Nigeria. Over the years however, the frequency of positive changes (increases) in liner freight rate with attendant Increase in market prices of imported products has been so high that it becomes customary for prices of imported 
products to continue to go high without room for decline in market prices.

Ndikom (2006) posit that the continued increase in liner freight rate in sub-saharan African countries can be traced to  n umber of factors among which are: high port tariffs and dues charged to ship owners by Government Agencies and terminal operators in ports, high ship turn-round time (STRT) in sub-  African ports necessitating the payment of demurrage by ships; delay in cargo clearing processes b::V customs and other government agencies in ports, lack of national shipping lines to carry the countries share of water-borne trade and 
insecurity in the waters of the region causing panic to ship- owners that trade in the sub-saharan sea-routes. The effect of this is that, even in the face of port reforms that sort to address majority of the problems of the shipping industry, freight rate in Nigeria has continued to be negatively affected as a result of high cost of doing business in Nigeria ports which has invariably impacted negatively the market prices 
of imported goods in Nigeria and turning the economy into an 
inflation ridden economy,

In the View of Okon (2006), freight rate, insurance, import duty and handling costs constitutes an important element in the determination of the value of many export and import commodities and also influence the demand for such commodities in the import market. This in essence means that shipping freight rate is an element that increases the cost of products, and thus, the prices of export and import goods in  the market as well as exportation and importation is the 
main vector of our commercial exchange, since the largest 
percentage of Nigerian international trade is carried by sea Hampton,1989). The research will however seek to evaluate 
the correlation between liner freight rate and market prices of 
imported products in Nigeria.


Most market products and commodities in use In public 
places, private homes and industrial places in Nigeria today 
are virtually imported. Okon (2006) stated clearly that Nigeria 
is an import dependent economy (IDE) with 900/0 of its imports 
carried by sea. It is however a common knowledge that the 
ability of a nation to sustain its populace with an average 
living standard depends to a great extent on the market prices 
of commodities, products and services and its affordability by 
majority of the citizens. World Bank record on poverty among 
countries of the world list Nigeria as one of the countries 
whose seventy percent (70%) of its citizens lives on less than 
two Dollars ($2), that is, about three hundred and twenty naira (N320) per day. This is directly connected to the high prices of market products and services in Nigeria making it an inflation ridden economy where citizen no longer afford to pay at ease the cost of running their living in an economy where virtually all household items are imported by sea.

Since the argument persist that the major reason for the high cost of market product in Nigeria is the high freight rate paid by importers in importing them. The research identified the following problems which it seeks solution to:

(a)            There is the problem of higher liner freight rates involved in bringing goods to Nigeria compared to other neighboring African countries.

(b)            There is the problem of inefficiency of stevedoring companies occasioned by the use of aging cargo handling equipment and poor handling skills which has led to increase in the time of vessel stay at berth and increase in ship-turn-round time which the ship owners in turn use as excuse to increase freight rate on goods coming to Nigeria.

(c)            High port tariffs, dues and charges cum demurrage cost occasioned by port congestions also increase freight rates charged by liners in bringing goods into Nigeria.

(d)            There is the problem of high time of doing business with the ports due to delay in cargo clearing processes with customs and other government agencies responsible for clearing of goods.

(e)            Lack of a national shipping line responsible for carriage of Nigerian seaborne trade constitute a part of the reason why liner freight rate has continued to go high Nigeria.

(f)              There is the problem of galloping prices for imported goods and services in Nigeria.

These are the problems which the research attempts to find solution to.


The researcher identified some goals and objectives which the research aims to actualize. Some of these objectives are tied to the problems statement in 1.2 above and the realization of the research objectives will mean that, solutions has been identified for the numerous problems mentioned in 1.2 above. The general objective of the research is to assess the correlation between liner freight rate and the high prices of imported market commodities in Nigeria.

Some specific objectives of the research include the following:

1.               To determine how much time it takes on the average to do business (clear goods) in Nigeria ports and the relationship between this time and Iiner sea freight rate.

2.             To determine the time it takes to handle a ship in Nigeria port terminals on the average and determine the relationship between the ship- turn round time and freight rates charged by liners.

3.          To determine the effects of high port dues rates and 
charges as well as port congestion on shipping freight rates and market prices of imported products.

4.          To assess the effects of lack of a national shipping line 
of Nigeria in the carriage of Nigeria sea born trade on liner freight rate charged by foreign ships involved in the carriage of Nigerian imports

5.             To determine the effects of galloping prices of imported market commodities on the economy Nigeria and its citizens.






All over the world, different regions have experienced serious financial crises. For instance, regional financial crises such as the Asian financial crisis, APANS’ banking crisis, or the Latin American debt crisis have occurred without seriously infecting the rest of the global financial system. However, the global financial crisis of 2008 was a major one due to its devastating and contagious effects and implications on all economies of the world. It has brought home an important point that the United States is still a major center of the financial world.’ This is discernible in the way the crumble in U.S. financial system has brought major parts of the rest of the world down with it (George and Zeihan, 2008).

The reason is that the United States is the main guarantor of the international financial system, the provider of dollars widely used as currency reserves and as an international medium of exchange, and a contributor to much of the financial capital that sloshes around the world seeking higher yields (George and Zeihan, 2008).

The crisis started with failures of large financial institutions in the United States, it rapidly evolved into a global crisis resulting in a number of European bank failures and declines III various stock indexes, and large reductions in the market value of equities (stock) (Pan, 2009) and commodities worldwide (Ambrose, 2007).

The crisis has led to a liquidity problem and the deleveraging of financial institutions especially in the United States and Europe, which further accelerated the liquidity crisis. Thus, it became worst of its kind since the great depression (Torbat, 2008).

Prior to consolidation of Deposit money banks (DMBs) in Nigeria on July, 6, 2004, the Nigerian banking industry witnessed higher level of uncertainty in its operation. This eroded the confidence of the general public which is the main asset of the industry in the past. In addition, investors and depositors funds were not guaranteed, thereby making many of the banks to come under stress due to capital inadequacy. These problems greatly impaired the quality of the bank’s assets as non-performing assets became unbearable and became huge burdens on many of the banks (Peter, 2009).

It was against this background that the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) initiated the bank consolidation in 2004 and was concluded on the set deadline date of December 3l, 2005, to provide a strong and reliable banking sector that would guarantee the safety of depositor’s money (Adeyemi, 2005). There is no. doubt that the consolidation exercise was remarkable and had some positive impacts on the banking sector. The banking system was transformed from 89 banks to 25 through regulatory merger and acquisition and latter to 24 through market-induced merger and acquisition, also, the recapitalization requirement of N25 billion by banks (Sanusi, 2010).

Unfortunately, the global financial crisis, which has its roots in the United States of America and Europe in 2007, and later spread to other part of the world including Nigeria, affects this effort. This also eroded the confidence of depositors and investors despite the consolidation exercise.

Even the Nigerian stock Market, which is supposed to function as fund buffer, was not left out of the crisis. This research study therefore examines the impact of the global financial crisis’ on the performance of deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigerian.

1.2     Problem Statement

The global economic crisis started as a financial crisis in the United State of America in 2007. It has it root in credit contraction in the banking sector due to certain laxities in the United State financial system. The crisis later spread to Europe and now has become a global phenomenon. The financial crisis started with sub-prime mortgages as households faced difficulties in making higher payments on adjustable mortgages. By the first quarter of 2008, there was widespread credit contraction, as financial institutions in the united. 

State tightened their credit standards in” the high of their deteriorating balance sheets. Since the use of credit contraction by foreign banks began, the deposit Money banks and the banking system of Nigeria has seriously been entangled in a financial crisis. This makes the banks unable to carry out their statutory function in the Nigerian economy. In addition, the crisis eroded the confidence of the general public in the entire Nigerian banking industry.

Therefore, problem of this work’ is to examine the impact of the global financial crisis on the performance of some selected deposit money banks in the banking industry.

1.3     Research Question

In the course of this study, the following research questions were raised with the aim of finding answers to them.

Does global financial crisis affect performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria?

What made the Global Financial Crisis spread to Nigerian Banking Industry?

HI. How can Nigerian banks be protected from impact of future occurrence of the global financial crisis?


The consolidation of deposit money banks was initiated by central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) to provide a strong and reliable banking sector that would guarantee the safety of depositors’ money. Within the short period of consolidation there were positive changes in the entire banking system, as interest and lending rates became stabilized. In addition, the banks went into project financing in the real sector of the Nigerian economy. Therefore, they were able to support the process of economic growth and development of Nigeria. But with the global financial crisis, which affected the Nigerian banking industry, the public has lost confidence on the deposit money banks in the Nigerian banking industry.

Thus, the main objective of this research project therefore is to examine the impact of the global financial crisis on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria other objectives are:

To identify relationship, if any that exist between global financial crisis on lending rate of Deposit Money Banks.

To assess relationship, if any between market structure of Deposit Money Banks and Global Financial Crisis.

To determine relationship, if any between Corporate Governance of

Deposit Money Banks and Global Financial Crisis.

IV. To identify the major causes of the financial crisis in Nigeria as it related to Banking Industry.

v. To determine various options that could cushion the impact of the financial crisis as well as avoid future occurrence by banks.


This study will taste the validity or otherwise of the following three (3) hypotheses which are formulated to guide the study.

Hol: There is no significant relationship between lending rate of deposit money banks and the global financial crisis.

H02: There is significant relationship between lending rate of deposit money banks and the global financial crisis.

H11: There is no significant relationship between market structure of deposit money banks and the global financial crisis.

H12: there is significant relationship between market structure of deposit money banks and the global financial crisis.

H21: There is no significant relationship between poor corporate governance of deposit money banks and the global financial crisis.

H22: There is significant relationship between poor corporate governance of deposit money banks and the global financial crisis. 

1.6     Significance of the study

The outcome of this research study is expected to assist Nigerian policy makers, banks management teams and banks regulatory bodies in Nigeria to know the extent of the impact of the’ global financial crisis on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria.

1. 7    Scope of the Study

The Nigerian banking system consists of twenty one banks as at December 2011 (NSE, 2011). For the purpose of this study, five deposit money banks were selected as sample for the study. These banks include: First Bank of Nigeria Plc, Zenith Bank Plc, Guaranty Trust Bank Plc, Union Bank Plc and United Bank for Africa Plc. The choice of these banks is because of the strategic position the banks hold in the banking industry, and banks were also listed and quoted on the Nigeria Stock Exchange. The study covers the periods of 2006-20 11.


The research work is organized into five chapters and the highlight of each chapter is as follows.

Chapter one of the project consists of background to the study of the impact of global financial crisis on the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. It highlights the problem state, research questions and hypotheses, objectives and significance of the study, definition of key terms used in the study, scope and plan of how the study will be conducted.

Chapter two consists of conceptualization. It also gives comprehensive review of related literature, determinants of bank performance as well as causes of financial crisis, theoretical review and summary of the chapter.

Chapter three of the study gives adequate in-depth knowledge on the sources of data used, techniques or data analysis. population. sample and sample size of the study, research design and justification of the techniques used for the analysis in the research work.

Chapter four of the study deals with the presentation and analysis of data collected. It gives the result of the analysis and reveals the findings of the research work by testing the validity of the hypotheses formulated in chapter one. It also gi yes the performance appraisal of the selected banks, and finally the policy implications of the results.

Finally, chapter five of this research work contains the summary of the entire project work, the conclusions reached by the researcher, limitations of the study and the researcher’s recommendations. 

1.9     Definition of Key Terms

Consolidation: This is defined as a fusion of assets and liabilities, in whole or in part, of two or more business establishments to form an entirely new establishment.

Credit Crunch:- This is a situation in which the amount of available credit in an economy is restricted and so slows down economic activity.

Crisis.- Eichengreen and Porters, (1987) defined crisis “as a sharp change in asset prices that leads to distress among financial markets participants.”

Financial Crisis: Financial crisis is applied broadly to a variety of situations in which some financial institutions or assets suddenly lose a large part of their value.

Globalization: – Globalization is defined as the integration of independent countries, with respect to economy, culture and knowledge through modern technology (Allen and Thomas, 2000).






The persistence and rise of crime continues to damage the social fabric of the society especially in the country’s’ urban areas. Crime is not a new phenomenon both locally and internationally but the intensity and nature of crime is different within different borders. Crime also does not distinguish between the developed and developing countries such as Kenya which continue to grapple with the effects of increased incidences of criminal activities in its urban areas.

An emerging trend of crime in the urban areas reflects an increase in youth participation in violent criminal activities which has been associated with the rising unemployment rates among the youth which is far more explicit in urban areas. Onoge (1988) in Adebayo (2013) perceives crime as dysfunctional as it threatens the stability of society and it is therefore, a social problem that requires a concerted effort towards finding a lasting solution to it. It undermines the social fabric by eroding the sense of safety and security

Discourse for crime has taken various dimensions according to different theorists and scholars. Some blame it on defective family structure or arrested personality adjustment. Others emphasize factors such as inequality, environmental influence, poor socialization process (Henslin,2006). In this regards, criminal acts may be induced by many unforeseen factors and circumstances.

Crime, according to Taylor (2006) could be seen as a fault of the social system whose institutions do not work equally for all its members. Sociologists look at the social in which individuals find themselves. Could it be that the problem lay not with the individual but in the social condition under which the individual live? The concern here is why people should exhibit behavior that is in violation of established norms, violations that may ultimately result in their being labeled as criminal behavior in terms of social processes.

Mostly, persons known to commit street crimes as reported in the crime index are poor, uneducated, often unemployed and residents of low income neighborhoods (Anasi, 2010). Would a socially and economically sound person turn out to be criminal? In this research work, there is need for the assessment of criminal activities in Akure, Ondo state.


A criminal activity amongst the youths is really pathetic this could be triggered as a result of lack of good job opportunities, could also be lack of empowerment for the youths, and creation of awareness for those ones that claim to be ignorant about their actions in the states. This activity could also lead to conflicts, hatred and division in the minds of people. Finally, several researches has been carried out on the criminal activities and its effects on Nigerian youths but not even a single research has been carried out on the assessment of criminal activities “among” youths in Akure, Ondo state.


The main aim of the study is to assess criminal activities “among” youth’s. Other specific objectives of the study include;

1.          to determine the impact of criminal activities on youths in Akure, Ondo state.

2.          to determine the factors influencing youth involvement in criminal activities in Akure, Ondo state.

3.          to determine the strategies adopted for the reduction of criminal activities among youths in Akure, Ondo state.

4.          to proffer possible solutions to the problems.


1.          What is the impact of criminal activities on youths in Akure, Ondo state?

2.          What are the factors influencing youth involvement in criminal activities in Akure, Ondo state?

3.          What are the strategies adopted for the reduction of criminal activities among youths in Akure, Ondo state?

4.          What are the possible solutions to the problems?


H0    Criminal activities have no significant effect on Youths in Akure, Ondo state.

H1:      Criminal activities have a significant effect on Youths in Akure, Ondo state.


The study on criminal activities among the youthswill be of immense benefit to the entire government in the sense that it will enable them to involve in more job creation, entrepreneurial empowerment for the youths, and creation of awareness to the youths so as to educate them on the adverse effect of criminal activities among them. In other for them to be impactful to the society which they live, the afore mentioned needs to be put in place for this to be achieved. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.


Study on the assessment of criminal activities among youths is limited to Akure, Ondo state.


Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


AssessmentThe action of assessing someone or something.

CrimeAn action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law.

YouthRefers to any individual between the ages of 18 – 35



This chapter gives an insight into various studies conducted by outstanding researchers, as well as explained terminologies with regards to an assessment of criminal activities “among” youths.





1.1 Background of the study

High rate of unemployment, poverty and uncontrollable informal sector among others have led to more than proportionate increase in deviant careers, criminal activities, loss of lives and properties in most airports in Nigeria. As submitted by Fayeye (2007), poor economic growth coupled with high rate of corruption and mismanagement are some of the fundamental factors accounting for high rate of unemployment in Nigeria. This unemployment rate as further argued by Fayeye (2007) encouraged early morning gathering of unemployed youths around major urban roads, street and junctions discussing football and headings of newspaper to waste away their time. Salawu, (2009) maintained that the pull created by unemployment has pushed many individuals into forming gangs usually referred to as touts, whose activities revolve round the streets, bus stops, market, motor parks, and especially, the transport corridors. These touts hang around motor parks and most times claimed they are working for government especially the local government authorities. Realistically, most of these tout work for their Godfathers, Union Chairman and Garrison politicians (Lana, 2011).

Touts can be defined as workers at railway stations, airports, ferry points, and especially motor parks, who undertake the self-imposed responsibility of recruiting and organizing passengers who wish to travel by road and for this work they received a fee or more appropriately a ‘commission’ that is gradually paid by the drivers of the vehicles just before their departure (Okpara, 2005; 1998). Ikumola (2011) submitted that most of the touts are private entrepreneurs, who both compete and collaborate with one another to provide road transport for the public which most times generate unhealthy rivalry.

Obviously, these self-appointed passenger procurers are not public employees, although all the motor parks in which they operate are built and owned by the appropriate local government authorities. As opined by Lana (2011) most touts do not consider collection of Dues/ticket only economically viable, thus they help drivers/commercial car owners to get the necessary passengers, in order to boost their income per day.

Usually, as identified by (Momoh 2000 ; Ikumola, 2011) activities of touts are characterized by incessant fights over loading rights in the street, bus stops, motor parks (transportation corridors) and business districts. Similarly, the malevolent character of touts, relative groups and the destructive goals of their members, as revealed by the atrocity in the urban areas are noted for destruction of public peace. These atrocities are not only increasing in proportion but are lethally more devastating and sophisticated in organization. Reports of dastardly acts such as looting, killing, raping, acid bathing, thugery, exhortation, property destruction and stealing have become more rampant among touts in the metropolis. Till date, available police statistics report as revealed in the Nigerian (Tribune, August, 12, 2012) shows that there is a strong association between these so called touts and violence associated with criminal activities and lawful disorderliness in most urban cities.

The demand for transportation is inevitably higher per unit of time in the urban centres of any regional communications network than anywhere else. Land use planners’ creation for transport at certain nodes by designating relevant space as motor parks (Oni, 2007) which are supposed to constitute the official station of departure and arrival for most journeys, undertaker or by non-car owing residents of the community. Hence, for those living outside urban centres where such parks are located, these act by the touts caused them to be panic

and make them to be vulnerable to miscreant activities.

Thus, the motor parks constitute the major operational bases for touts and can be used to evaluate the relative importance of certain towns and villages as transportation nodes. The challenge of touts is also experienced in airports. Since there seems to be a direct relationship between urbanization and enhanced demand for travel on the one hand, and the incidence of touting on the other, (Okpara, 2007), it is hardly surprising that the latter is not a traditional enterprise. In other words, the unique brokerage services offered to both willing and unwilling passengers have evolved in response to fairly recent urban and related transport development (Mensah, 2008)

Earlier research on touting extensively focused on mode of operation see (Okpara, 2005: Lana, 2011) other focused on attitude and activities of touts along traffic corridors (Ikuomola et al, 2011; Iginla, 2007). Many other scholars review the relevance of theory of planned behaviour in explaining the development of touts (Agnew, 1992). Many other scholars examined how different cultural groups such as Oodua people’s congress, Agaba boys and Egbesi boys have metamorphosed into area boys and nuisance in major metropolis mostly in the public places See (Ikoh, 2010: Ekpenyong, 1999: Oloko, 2007).

1.2 Statement of the problem

A look at this research will show that several lacunas exist in the study of touting as airport menaces. While many researchers focus extensively on some of the activities of touts, little or no study has examined socio-economic background of these boys (Touts). Also many studies were silent on the formulation of touts in most airports

1.3 Objectives of the study

1. To understand the challenges of touting and pilfering on Nigeria airports

2. To understand the impact of touting and pilfering on the socio-economic development of airports in Nigeria

3. To recommend ways to curb the menace of touting and pilfering on Nigeria airports

1.4 Research

1. What are the challenges of touting and pilfering on Nigeria airports?

2. What is the impact of touting and pilfering on the socio-economic development of airports in Nigeria?

1.5 Research hypothesis

H0: Touting and pilfering does not have an impact on the socio-economic development of airports in Nigeria

H1: Touting and pilfering have an impact on the socio-economic development of airports in Nigeria.





1.1       Background To The Study

All societies throughout the world are confronted with the problems of crime that range from mild to the most severe that pose a serious danger to the safety of her citizens. Criminals after convicted of being guilty of committing a crime are incarcerated in prisons for the purpose of rehabilitation, correction, retribution, deterrence and incapacitation. Crimes as well as recidivism pervades all the societies of the world. Recidivism remains a considerable problem which faces societies and governments throughout the world (Rakis 2005; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2012). In the recently published review of recidivism among released prisoners in 30 American states, over 67.8% of the 404,638 prisoners released in 2005 were re-arrested within 3 years while 76. 6% were arrested within five years (Durose et al. 2014).

 Recidivism has not only been on the increase in Sub-Saharan Africa, but has become a major social problem affecting the society, governments, multinationals, humanitarian organizations the world over (Osayi 2013). Recidivism is not limited to adult criminals, but also to the young ones. A major concern in the area of juvenile delinquency is the repeated arrests and incarceration of young offenders. Thompson and Morris (2013) reports that recidivism rate amongst juvenile offenders has remained high and stable with estimates of reoffending ranging from 30-90%. Mendel (2011) reported that 81% of male and 45% of female children were re-arrested within 36 months after release from the South Africa Division for youth.

After serving jail terms, prisoners and jail inmates are released back to their communities, and policies designed to increase the chances that released offenders will successfully reintegrate them into society have become critical issues in criminal justice over the last couple of years. More recently, in the last year or two the issues have gained renewed attention because of budget concerns at all levels of government. The hope of society that inmates released from correctional institutions or penitentiaries will not return to crime is based majorly on deterrence and rehabilitation.

 Imprisonment as a disposition method has created a lot of problems not only in Nigeria criminal justice system but also, in most countries. It is now believed that imprisonment no longer serves the purpose for which it was meant to serve- deterrence. The offenders wrong the state yet the state is responsible for their welfare while in prison. In 2012, over N50 billion (about $312,500,000) was budgeted for prison and yet the prison sub-culture makes inmates come out more hardened (Appropriation Act 2012).

There are challenges and problems facing all societies when it comes to the incarceration and rehabilitation of offenders. For example, scientific methodological and structural problems and corruption which are inherent in deterrence, rehabilitation, and reformation institutions, program and processes. These bottlenecks undermine the desired and expected results of removing criminals or socially dangerous individuals from the society and keeping them in penitentiaries for treatment and cleansing before they are returned or released back into society (Gross, 1992). Deterrence implies that it is of utmost importance that punishment should prevent crime. Therefore, punishment is expected not only to be severe but also to be served swiftly. Incapacitation, on the other hand, underlines the fact that if an offender’s liberty or freedom of movement is curtailed temporarily or permanently and he/she is permanently supervised and kept under constant watch, such an offender will no longer be in a position to commit crime (Bohn and Haley, 1999, Obioha 2002, Danbazau, 2011). The credibility of the criminal justice system has been jeopardized that it does not longer serve the philosophy behind imprisonment (Odekunle, 2000).  

1.2       Statement Of The Problem

Recidivism is now a common phenomenon among inmates in the Nigerian prisons. The Nigerian prison system is witnessing an enormous increase in people relapsing into crime and criminality, recidivists. This development has challenged the practicality and feasibility of rehabilitation program in Nigerian prisons. These include both the male and female offenders/inmates in the Nigerian prison custody. Soyombo (2009) reported that the prevalence rate of criminal recidivism in Nigeria in 2005 was 37.3%. Also, Abrifor (2010) estimated the prevalence of recidivism in Nigeria prisons at 52.4% in 2010.

This trend in the high prevalence of recidivism shows that in Nigeria and in many other countries globally, prison consensus results have shown high rate of inmates’ release and high rate of inmates’ recidivism. As a result of this, crime by former inmates alone account for a substantial share of current and future crimes. From this background, peace, safety of lives and property are threatened thereby affecting the rate of investment in social and economic growth and developmental processes. Thus, it becomes imperative to examine gender perception on the prevalence rate, causes and determinants of recidivism among inmates in Nigeria prisons and the accompanying challenges on both social and economic developments in Nigeria. This makes the study of recidivism experience in Nigeria prisons service to be dynamic and interesting.

The high prevalence of recidivism has both consequences and implications for social and economic growth and development in Nigeria. Recidivism contributes to high crime rates which have resulted in loss of lives and property thereby threatening peace, safety of lives and national cohesion. Also, criminal activities by such recidivists have made the country unsafe for economic and commercial activities for both local and foreign investors, sometimes forcing them to relocate to safer countries. With such development, the country has lost billions of Naira which would have been invested for developmental projects that could benefit the Nigerian citizenry.

Studies on recidivism have linked its high prevalence to some observable factors such as gender (Renauer and Henning 2005; McELfresh, Yan and Janku, 2009;), lack of funds immediately following release from prison (Ross, Beck, and Len, 2000), poor employability and low wage earning capacity (Hins, 2002; Meyers, 2004), poor education and unstable work history (Buikhuisen and Meijs, 1983; Eisenberg, 2005), and quality of post-release neighbourhood environment (Gottfredson and Taylor, 1995), age at first arrest and type of offence (Ritchard, 2009) and age at release from confinement (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1984; Goffman and Beck, 2005). Subsequently, studies have equally indicated that the prevalence rate of recidivism appears to be positively influenced by availability of post-release job training programmes (Jengeleski, 1981), community treatment center placement (Beck, 2005), and availability of pre and post-release educational program (Black, 2001; Rossy, 1999). The rate at which criminals and other offenders who are re-arrested are becoming so alarming that it leaves all and sundry with a serious doubt in the prison system. This therefore has raised vital questions which will guide this study for further investigation.

1.3       Research Questions

This study will strive to address or answer the following question:

(i)              What are the roles of the prisons in the rehabilitation of convicted criminals?

(ii)            What are the causes of criminal recidivism among inmates?

(iii)          How early release of inmates has led to criminal recidivism? 

1.4       Objectives Of The Study

The general aim of this study is to examine the nexus between early release of inmates and criminal recidivism among inmates of Kaduna prison of Kaduna State. The following are the specific objectives of the study.

(i)              To identify the roles of the prisons in the rehabilitation of convicted criminals

(ii)            To examine the causes of criminal recidivism among inmates

(iii)          To determine how early release of inmates leads to criminal recidivism

1.5       Significance Of The Study

The study examines the nexus between the early release of inmates and criminal recidivism among inmates in Kaduna convict prison. The significance of the study can be seen from the theoretical and practical angle. It also has great significance for policy makers.

At the theoretical level, this study will investigate the nexus between early release of inmates and criminal recidivism in Kaduna convict prison of Kaduna state. Existing works and literature on criminal recidivism seems to be scanty, as this will contribute to existing knowledge. Early release of inmates and criminal recidivism are dealt with as separate topics in most researches relating to the Nigerian criminal justice system.

Although the knowledge of criminal recidivism among inmates appears to be widespread, reports of increase release of inmates as a strategy for decongesting the prisons would tend to give a false view about the problem. While government is putting effort in tackling the problem of criminal recidivism through legislation, law enforcements and the Nigerian Prisons Service, the problem appears to be on the increase. This study is particularly important because it examines the concomitant criminal dimensions of those involved in criminal offences that return to their communities and commit more severe crimes after being released from prison. It will also contribute to knowledge by providing facts that will show the relationship or nexus between early release of inmates and criminal recidivism among inmates. The study also has the potentials to fill in the gap in knowledge, particularly in Nigeria and in Kaduna State in this area. This is because the bulk literatures showing the relationship between early release of inmates and criminal recidivism are mostly foreign (Agaba, et al.., 2004; UN, 1993).

At the practical level, the study will reveal some of the pitfalls existing in the practical operation of the prisons service, social workers and law enforcement agencies as to how they process criminals and criminologists. Areas that need improvement would be identified and suggestions for addressing them offered. Also, the study is significant to policy makers. It will assist them in formulating well informed policies that will help in addressing the problems recidivism among criminals and delinquency. Although the knowledge of issues surrounding the problem of recidivism and crime appears widespread, reports of increasing rates of societal and government efforts at tackling the problem appears to be centred on legislation. This approach is inadequate at tackling issues such as re-visitation of crime. There is a definite need to develop strategies and policies that involve integrated approach that include aspects of legislation, family social work and poverty alleviation through rehabilitation of affected inmates and convicts.

1.6       Scope Of The Study             

Out of the four prisons located in Kaduna state i.e Zaria, Kafanchan, Kaduna Open prison and Kaduna convict prison (Central), the latter was the main focus of this study due to its proximity and convenience for the researcher. The respondents will include male and female inmates found within the age range of 18 to 50 years in Kaduna convict prison. This study is supposed to cover all the Prisons in Kaduna State, but due to time and financial constrain, the work is limited to Kaduna convict prison of Kaduna State.

The choice of this prison is due to its location and its centrality between the three senatorial representations within the state. Also, Kaduna State being the erstwhile administrative headquarters of Northern Nigeria is a melting pot of persons of diverse backgrounds.

Also, from NDLEA (2014), statistics of arrest and substance abuse shows that people who venture into these or are involved are mostly ex-convicts. Therefore, the choice of Kaduna State prison could stand as a representation of the whole North. Also, in 1917 Kaduna was made the Administrative Centre of the protectorate of Northern Nigeria by the colonial statue of Lord Lugard (Ideh, 1993; Ikhuoria, 1993; Adewuyi, 2008).

The administrative headquarters of Northern Nigeria was formerly in Lokoja, then Zungeru and later Kaduna. Lord Lugard decided to relocate the administrative headquarters to Kaduna for strategic reasons: Kaduna has less political complication because it has no strong tradition of indigenous political authority due to the heterogeneous nature of its dwellers. After the independence of Nigeria in October 1960, Kaduna continued as the capital of the Northern Region until 1967. From 1967 it became the capital of North Central up to 1974. It became Kaduna State in 1975 as a result of creation of more states. The old Kaduna State comprised the Katsina and Zaria provinces until again on the 23rd September 1987 when Katsina province was carved out to form Katsina State.

The economic activities of Kaduna State is largely related to its central geographical location and being the capital to the then Northern Nigeria. These have made it to have enjoyed the highest concentration of industries in the entire northern states apart from Kano. It has host of industries, educational and health institutions that have attracted many people within and outside the country constituting the cosmopolitan nature of the state. The constitution of people within the state has influenced the abuse of substances and crime, as a strategy to coping with the socio-economic challenges that will emerge. Hence, the need to find out the relationship or nexus between early release of inmates and criminal recidivism among inmates by taking a research in Kaduna convict prison.

1.7       Rationale For The Study

Without any doubt the rate of recidivism is on the increase all over the world and Nigeria is not an exceptionThis study has become needful taking into cognizance the various negative consequences of recidivism. Recidivism is a threat to peace and security; in some instances it results in the loss of lives, the loss of property and physical harm. It also impacts negatively on the socio-economic development and growth of the country. Recidivism is also a drain on the dwindling resources of the nation. The study of male recidivists is further needful because it has been established that male offenders have greater odds to reoffend because of association with criminal peers, possession of weapons, alcohol abuse and aggressive feelings (Benda 2005).

A study of this nature will, therefore, provide methods of understanding recidivists; broaden the explanation of predisposing factors of recidivism; and form a fulcrum that is needed for effective intervention strategies to find a lasting solution to the problem of recidivism.

1.8       Definitions And Operationalization Of Concepts

Criminal recidivism- According to Payne (2007) recidivism refers to repetitious criminal activity and is synonymous with terms such as “repeat offending” and “re-offending”. Oxford Dictionary of Sociology(2005) outlined that recidivism is usually measured in relation to the type of last sentence or last offence, as percentage re-offending, or re-convicted, within one, two, five or ten years.

Early release- J.U Godswill and M.K. Salawu (2015) asserts that inmate’s early release from custody is as a result of them been chronically ill and will pose a serious danger to other inmates.




Nigeria is blessed with abundant natural resources of which petroleum products are important factors in her domestic economy. According to Odularu (2008), Nigeria is the eight among the world’s oil producing countries. The Nigerian economy is heavily dependent on petroleum products, which account for over 95 percent of export earnings and about 85 percent of government revenues (World Bank Report, 2010). Petrol or Premium Motor Spirit (PMS), Diesel and Kerosene are the basic products used in road transport services, manufacturing industries, power generation, household cooking and private vehicles.

The frequent and incessant price changes (price hike) of petroleum products in Nigeria have been a source of worry, contention and many a times controversy. Olorunfemi (2010) stated that various Nigerian governments increased fuel prices more-than ten (10) times, between the year 2000 and 2012 period when prices were adjusted sometimes twice a year.

In spite of the four refineries situated in Port Harcourt, Warri and Kaduna, and storage depots located strategically at different parts of the country, yet on various occasions, many Nigerians still experienced fuel shortages. It is a fact that during the fuel shortages, the economic and administrative life of the nation becomes disturbed and almost disrupted. The prices of food stuff skyrocketed as transportation fare rose, farmers had to pay more for transporting their goods and services to the market. Most Nigerians found it difficult to obtain fuel at the filling stations, if they open at all. Others resorted to purchasing fuel at exorbitant “Black Market” prices. Many Nigerians have advanced different reasons for fuel shortages in the country. Some suggested that the constant and incessant price hike by successive governments was the problem. Other people believe that the pipelines and product marketing company (PPMC) was not doing well in products distribution. Another reason given for the problem was that some oil companies, independent marketers and other petroleum dealers, fuel haulage contractors, filling station owners and tanker drivers were too greedy and allegedly capitalized on the period of scarcity of fuel to sell at higher prices.

The adverse effect of pipeline vandalization according to PPMC induce shortages of petroleum products, because of the damage inflicted on the pipeline system which made it was unsafe to pump petroleum product through the lines. As a result, more products were moved by trucks. Distribution by trucks was very costly and also much slower. For example, a large volume of products could easily be pumped within hours from Lagos to Maiduguri, but many trucks will take some days carrying less volume to reach the same destination. This slow movement coupled with the limited quantity transportable through tankers, PPMC argued, create shortages, which breeds black marketing forcing consumers to pay exorbitant prices.

The federal government on its own part claimed that the existence of subsidy is the major course of price instability and problems of distribution of petroleum in Nigeria. That the selling price of petrol (PMS) per litre is below the cost of production, distribution and the allowable profit margins. Therefore the subsidy element is the difference which the government bears.

The marketing aspect of petroleum products goes beyond production and refining, because pricing policy and effective distribution play a key role in products availability, market stabilization and consumer satisfaction in general. However, some authors like Soylas and Sari (2006) argue that a casual relationship existed between the two marketing mix elements: price and distribution; since they are both factors of demand and supply and one of them on the supply side distribution is influenced by price elasticity. Previous researchers on related topics like Henry and Orhenwere (2006), Ogunbodede, Ilesanmi and Olurankinsa (2010) and Arenze (2011), have focused on different combination of such variables like price changes and its effect on inflation, unemployment or Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It has therefore become imperative for the researcher to find out the effect of constant price changes of petroleum products on distribution in Gwagwalada.

On various occasions in the period under review: (2000 to 2012), Gwagwalada Area Council have experienced frequent scarcity and acute shortages of fuel. The major problem was that some of the petroleum products, especially the premium motor spirit (PMS) were very limited in the market it hardly reach the final consumers. Therefore, motorists spent hours, sometimes days queuing at the filling stations. Most motor parks were empty; offices were closed as people moved out in search of fuel. Travellers’ and inhabitants of towns and cities found it difficult to get transport services to different destinations. Therefore, there is need to explain why Nigeria, which is one of the world major producers of oil and which has four (4) refineries and 17 main oil deports strategically located across the country for easy distribution should frequently experience shortages throughout the country. 

1.1 Statement of the Problem

On various occasions in the period under review: (2000 to 2012), Gwagwalada Area Council have experienced frequent scarcity and acute shortages of fuel. The major problem was that some of the petroleum products, especially the premium motor spirit (PMS) were very limited in the market it hardly reach the final consumers. Therefore, motorists spent hours, sometimes days queuing at the filling stations. Most motor parks were empty; offices were closed as people moved out in search of fuel. Travellers’ and inhabitants of towns and cities found it difficult to get transport services to different destinations. Therefore, there is need to explain why Nigeria, which is one of the world major producers of oil and which has four (4) refineries and 17 main oil deports strategically located across the country for easy distribution should frequently experience shortages throughout the country. Nigeria seems to be a society that is constantly in petroleum scarcity crises. It is regrettable that in the nation nothing follows the normal pattern; petroleum products prices are arbitrarily increased several times in a short period and each time government has given flimsy reasons for the upward adjustment (Dike, 2011). However, the leaders do not seem to realize some of the distributive consequences of the constant petroleum price hikes in the nation that has for sometimes now been experiencing decay of infrastructure, high crime rate, poverty and weak economy. Many studies like Raymond (2010), Ehinomeri and Adeleke (2012) and others were carried out to investigate the implication of the effect of petroleum price changes on different variables such as the effect of price hike on poverty, on economic development, on inflation and many other variables. This study focused on investigation of the effect of price changes of premium motor spirit (PMS) on supply and distribution of petroleum products in Nigeria, the effect on the cost of distribution of other commodities including agricultural products, the emergence of ‘’black market prices’’ and long queues at filling stations.

1.2 Objectives of the Study

i.         To examine whether the constant increase of fuel prices causes a fluctuation to supply and distribution of petroleum products in Nigeria;

ii.        To find out if the price hike of PMS leads to increase in cost of distribution of other commodities including agricultural products;

iii.      To identify the relationship between price increase of PMS and the development of “Black Market Prices” and ,long queues at filling stations across Nigeria; and

iv. To examine the effects of petroleum products price hike on some macroeconomic variables such as inflation, unemployment, poverty and social unrest.

1.3 Research Questions

i.         What is the constant increase of fuel prices causes a fluctuation to supply and distribution of petroleum products in Nigeria?

ii.        What is the price hike of PMS leads to increase in cost of distribution of other commodities including agricultural products?

iii.      What is the relationship between price increase of PMS and the development of “Black Market Prices” and, long queues at filling stations across Nigeria?

iv.                   What are the effects of petroleum products price hike on some macroeconomic variables such as inflation, unemployment, poverty and social unrest?

    1.4 Hypothesis Testing

Four hypotheses are formulated and tested in this study:

            : Price changes do not cause fluctuation to supply and distribution of petroleum products in Gwagwalada.

: Price increase of PMS does not lead to increase in cost of distribution of other commodities including agricultural products 

: There is no relationship between price increase and the emergence of “Black Market” and long queues at filling stations across Nigeria.

   : There is no significant effect of changes in prices of petroleum products in Nigeria on macroeconomic variables like unemployment, poverty, inflation and social unrest. 

1.5 Significance of Study

  The study will be important to different sectors of Nigeria especially the petroleum sector and government energy parastatal in decision making and strategic equitable distribution of petroleum in the Nigeria economy.

The study will also help eradicate the hike in the price of petrol  by the informal sector( black market)

The study will also contribute to existing knowledge since no much work has been done on this topic.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study will be to assess the impact of fuel hoarding on informal marketing sector (black marketing) of Nigeria with reference to fuel sellers in Gwagwalada, FCT, Abuja. The study includes some major filling stations in Gwagwalada and motorist in the study area.




Though the various effects of crime constitute its nature, these have suffered great research neglect in Nigeria. This study examined the influence of the nature of crime case on reporting among victims in Lagos, Nigeria. It used quantitative and qualitative methods. Covering the three senatorial districts in Lagos, it obtained data from 948 respondents selected through a multistage sampling procedure. Quantitative data were analysed at three levels and qualitative data were content analysed. Findings showed more crime (52.2%) was unreported than reported (47.8%). The nature of crime is not significantly related to reporting (ᵡ2 p value > 0.05). The nature of crime drives reporting and urges government to include reporting education in school curriculum for a more inclusive reporting regime.



1.1     Background to Study

Nature of crime is the form which any criminal activity that has the potential to cause significant physical, financial and material losses to victim takes. Thus, the impact of the nature of crime is probably best determined by the perceived seriousness or intensity of its effects in addition to the duration of its pains essentially from the victim’s own perspective. Almost always, the nature of a crime assumes a meaning only in the context of a manifestly subjective assessment by the victim of the consequences of his/her victimisation. In other words, the extent of victims’ losses determines the seriousness of crime. In Nigeria, as it is everywhere else, crime is not a new phenomenon, its form, rhythm, technique and effects are prone to rapid changes. If Omisakin (1998) found in Lagos, more than other parts of Nigeria, that crime particularly armed robbery, kidnapping, drug trafficking, fraud, traffic offence, rape, murder and theft have become more serious to tackle as they have manifested with new methods and techniques, the new methods and techniques have the capacity to change the nature of crimes in Lagos.

As it is in contemporary times, delinquency and criminal behaviours are common phenomena in Nigeria. The high rate of occurrence in recent time is of greater concern to the citizens and their governments than it ever had been. Crime statistics spread sheet on offences against persons, property and lawful authority and local acts, 2009 in all state commands show that in 2008, there were 35,109 offences against persons while in 2009 it was 38, 955 (an increase of 3,846 cases), offences against property in 2008 was 47,626 and in 2009 it was 64, 286 (an increase of 16,660 cases), offences against authority in 2008 was 5,938 and in 2009 it was 7,878 (an increase of 1,940 cases), offences against local acts in 2008 was 90,156 and in 2009 it was 1,378 (a decrease of 88,778 cases) (Nigeria Police Watch, nd). The actual experience of crime in Nigeria revealed by the report of 2013 National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by CLEEN Foundation confirmed that as much as a quarter of respondents (25.0%) said that they had been victims of crime during 2012. The survey also indicated that the number of victims of crime was highest in Enugu state with 70.0%, followed by Ekiti and Ebonyi States (both 65.0%). The national average was 25.0%. Katsina State had 9.0%, while Ogun State had the lowest score of 5.0%. Analysing experience of crime by regions in Nigeria, the south east recorded highest with 44.0% while the North West recorded lowest score of 18.0%. Lagos state also recorded 18.0%.

In this context, Lagos was second state most vulnerable site to kidnapping (4.0%), twentieth to robbery, seventh in physical assault (35.0%), fourth in theft of mobile phones (55.0%), third in car theft (5.0%) in Nigeria (CLEEN Foundation, 2013). Besides, the Lagos police command foiled 462 and 418 cases of robbery in 2012 and 2013 respectively. Out of the 1448 and 1263 vehicles stolen in Lagos in 2012 and 2013 respectively, 1187 vehicles were recovered in 2012 and only 954 vehicles have been recovered in 2013. In all, the police recovered 371 arms and 26,058 ammunitions in 2013 while 328 arms and 3553 ammunition were recovered in 2012. The police arrested 569 robbery suspects between November 2011 and October 2012 as against 522 recorded in the previous year. Moreover, 270 people were murdered in different parts of Lagos while a total of 32 policemen died in gun exchanges with armed robbers leading to the police killing 140 robbers (Manko, 2012).

Despite a Lagos law that has led to the disappearance of commercial motorcycle operators from the major streets of the city following claims that they are responsible for most criminal activities, the state of Lagos still ranks high as one of the states with the highest crime rates in Nigeria according to a new survey released by the CLEEN Foundation. In the survey, 67% of Lagos residents have fear of becoming victims of crimes; the general public believe that crime rate in Lagos actually increased from 12% to 21% between 2011 and 2012 making robbery (28%) and theft of property (17%) the more prevalent crimes in the state. The survey also shows that unlike its counterparts in the southwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria, which have seen reduction in assault-related crimes, assault cases in Lagos state skyrocketed from 27% to 38% in 2012 from 11% in 2011 (Ogundipe, 2013). The increase in crime, judging by available statistics appears to continue every year. Frightening as the data seem, they do not make the nature of the crime that produced them manifest. If 67.0% of Lagos residents have fear of becoming victims of crimes, 23.0% claimed to have experienced crime, the public believed that crime rate in Lagos increased from 12.0% to 21.0% between 2011 and 2012 with robbery at 28.0% and theft of property at 17.0% as the more prevalent offences in the state (CLEEN Foundation, 2013), then crime rate in Lagos is high enough to justify this inquiry. The influence of nature of crime on the crime reporting practices of victims in the study site has not been well studied. It is against this background that this study provided answers to the following questions: (i) What is the nature of crime that predicts victims’ crime reporting practices? (ii) How does the nature of crime influence victims’ crime reporting practices? (iii) How can the influences of nature of crime on victims’ crime reporting practices be minimised in the study site?

1.2     Statement of the Problem.

Many societies all over the world have had to contend with the consequences of criminal activities, which include lives and properties fear of the unknown, political instability, victimization by conventional criminals, amongst others.(Fayeye, 2010.)

Even though a member of the society reports a crime to a law enforcement officer, it would not be counted unless it is recorded in a way that allows it to be incorporated into the crime statistics, as a consequence, offending particularly minor offending, may be significantly under counted in situations where law enforcement officers are overloaded with work or do not perceive the offending as worth recording. Some crimes reported are not done in a way that the actual event of things is made known. These crimes lack uniformity, which produce obvious difficulties in actually investigating and solving the crimes that are reported. Another causal factor may include the time frame of the crime. A firsthand account is relatively low. For example by the time a robbery case is being reported, the robbers will probably have fled the victims in the hospital, answering police questions if any is around or even in the mortuary.

Certain behaviour are labelled deviant which in actual fact may not be, according to the criminal code of that particular society. Members of the society (victims and witnesses), are most times ignorant of criminal laws. When such behaviours are reported, they are more or less unimportant. Crimes known to police (CKP), already certified as reported may not be analyzed as desired by victims of such immoral acts. Charges may be dropped, even when the perpetrator is arrested. Such is the situation when there is lack of evidence. Another popular incidence is the arrest of innocent persons in place of those that actually committed the crimes. This maybe as a result of being in the wrong place, at the wrong time. Pleading guilty to a crime, lower than that which an offender commits is another major problem. In most cases, it reduces the levity of punishment and sentence becomes disproportionate to the actual crime committed. Also among the problems associated with crime reporting, is the dependency of skills on both the prosecuting counsel and defense counsel, with convictions and acquaintances actually depending on the professional skills of both counsels.

Another problem associated with the procedure of reporting crimes is the inconsistencies involved in information given out by the so-called witnesses, when crimes are being investigated. The illiterate nature of most citizens about the legal and criminal code of its society poses a greater threat. Some just give information about a crime thinking that by doing so; they will be popular, given money for coming forth with’ vital information’. With this, they say or do anything to act as if they were present when the crime occurred. This scenario drastically slows down the process of justice.

1.3   Aims and Objectives.

The motive behind carrying out this research work is to properly and carefully scrutinize the effect of behaviour  contrary to the formal law in the society, on its victims and to achieve the following aims;

– To assess the actual level of crime as against reported crimes.

– To highlight the effect or impact of such reported crimes on their victims.

– To make practical suggestions on how to reduce the negative effects of crimes.

– To suggest ways in which criminals are to be punished, for correction.

– To ascertain who exactly can be held responsible for widespread of criminal activities.

1.4     Scope of Study.

This research work is basically concerned with the major effect of crime reporting on the victims and the impact of proper investigation of criminal activities amongst members of the Ilorin metropolitan areas.

For the purpose of accurate and effective research work, the study is restricted to a selected sample, from the entire metropolis, a representative of a fair proportion as a whole.

1.5   Significance of the Study.

Most importantly, this research work is to contribute to the knowledge of the criminal activities and how they may be reduced or at most eradicated.

It shall also act as a basis for further investigation or scrutinization on crime reporting and the various psychological social effects on its victims.

Lastly, it is an attempt to bring into limelight; some of the errors involved in the process of crime reporting and suggest likely solutions on how to improve these services.





The persistence and rise of crime continues to damage the social fabric of the society especially in the country’s’ urban areas. Crime is not a new phenomenon both locally and internationally but the intensity and nature of crime is different within different borders. Crime also does not distinguish between the developed and developing countries such as Kenya which continue to grapple with the effects of increased incidences of criminal activities in its urban areas. An emerging trend of crime in the urban areas reflects an increase in youth participation in violent criminal activities which has been associated with the rising unemployment rates among the youth which is far more explicit in urban areas. Onoge (1988) in Adebayo (2013) perceives crime as dysfunctional as it threatens the stability of society and it is therefore, a social problem that requires a concerted effort towards finding a lasting solution to it. It undermines the social fabric by eroding the sense of safety and security    

Urbanization, especially in the developing world, has been accompanied by increased levels of crime, violence and lawlessness. The growing violence and feeling of insecurity that city dwellers are facing daily is one of the major challenges around the world. The world’s population is becoming increasingly urban, and three-quarters of the urban population growth occurs in developing countries. Global studies show that 60% of all urban residents in developing countries have been victims of crime, at least once over the past five years, 70% of them in Latin America and Africa. Majority of these crimes are committed by the youth as Salagaev (2003) reports that the number of young people who committed crimes rose from 80 million in 1992 to 150 million in 2000. In 2005, individuals under the age of 25 accounted for nearly 45% of all arrests for violent crimes and 50% of arrests for murder (Watson-Thompson, Fawcett & Schultz, 2008).

There are various reasons that have been identified as influencing youth involvement in criminal activities. Prior and Paris (2005) find that most of the youth are in crime because of poverty, which drove them into criminal acts for survival; Maseko (2009) points to youth peer pressure and rebellion against parental authority; Erickson (2001) observes that drugs also lead the youth to crime; Ojo (2012) lists broken homes and low education attainment as leading to criminal activities. Agbor, Taiwo and Smith (2012) contend that youth in Africa hold great potential as drivers for economic growth through participation in labor markets and also as consumers. However, a large youth population that is not gainfully employed can also be a liability, further undermining growth prospects. Salagaev (2003) and Muhammad (2008) agree it is primarily the outcome of multiple adverse social, economic and family conditions.

Awoundo (1993) in Ndikaru (2011) distinguishes between crime which is of deviant behaviour that is considered not to be a serious threat to group life and therefore tolerated; and deviance involving behaviour that is perceived to threaten the group life and needs to be punished. In modern society such behaviour is in contraventions of the penal code of the state and is referred to as crimes. According to Oculi and Mwaguri (2006), crime is a violation of criminal law from which formal penalties are applied by some government authority. In East Africa, the crime scenario is slightly different and has a spatial differentiation component. In Tanzania, for example, it has been noted that Dar-es-Salaam has a slightly different crime typology compared to the South and West African cities. 

According to Gimode (2001) there has been an increase in violent crime in Africa. This crime is mainly related to the increased intensity and complexity of urbanization. Obviously, specific features of urbanization have particularly contributed to the growth of criminal violence. Cairo, Lagos and Johannesburg are the cities that feature most prominently in literature on violent crime in Africa (Albert, 1998 in Gimode, 2001). There are other cities, however, whose violent crime rate is equally or relatively high or is fast becoming so. Nairobi, the capital of Kenya, is one of those cities.

According to the Institute of Security Studies (2004), crime is not different from the other parts of Africa and according to Starvrou (2002), crime levels in Nigeris are similar to those in Johannesburg and Dar-es-Salaam. Ndikaru (2011) found that the common type of crimes committed included robbery (90%), burglary (85%) mugging (84%), drug abuse (82%) assault (79%) and murder (65%), robbery with violence (62%), pickpocketing (54%), sexual offences (37%), arson attacks (26%), kidnapping (11%) and carjacking (9%). high levels of youth unemployment, poverty and indulgence in drugs were singled out as the main causes. A report by the Security Research and Information Centre (2011) found the most common type of crime among Nairobi residents were theft (31.5%) robbery (30.6%) break-ins (28.8%) assault (3.6%) and domestic violence (3.6%). The report further mentions that it is significant to note that the three most common crime types are property crimes. For example, a total of 13 out of 30 cases reported in the newspapers in the months of November and December 2011 were robbery cases.

A report by The National Crime Research Centre (NCRC) shows that Niger State is controlled by up to 14 organized criminal gangs, which terrorize residents for ransom. Most of these gangs operate in informal settlement areas where policing is poor. These gangs earn their funding through extortion from the public, stealing, robbery, politicians, and selling of stolen goods, a government report shows (Ombati, 2013). Majority of the gangs are involved in armed robbery, drug trafficking, vehicle theft and trafficking, kidnapping for ransom, money laundering, theft of antiques, livestock theft and loan sharking in order of merit. The report also identifies business people who need protection, illegal levies, group member’s contributions, drug trafficking, hijacking and piracy, terrorism, rent collection, government officials and family members as part of the sources of their funds (Ombati, 2013). 

The majority of the population in the informal settlements is under 22 years of age (Kabiru et al., 2013). Despite their numbers, young people have been marginalized and excluded from the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of socioeconomic initiatives in Kenya. Since empowering young people calls for a consideration of the forces that entice them into crime and violence, a significant number of studies have been conducted in numerous African cities to explore the plight of young people in urban settings, the extent and nature of those problems, and the urgency for widespread and concerted action (Ansell, 2005). The high rate of urbanization in Kenya has reduced the government’s ability to adequately provide for the urban population in terms of schooling facilities as well as other infrastructure (Mugisha, 2006).

According to the UN-Habitat (2004) increasing youth crime has serious implications, particularly in Africa where over two thirds of many cities’ populations are between the ages of 12 and 25. Most of these young people live in informal settlements without basic facilities, services and security. Crime statistics reveal that as of 2005 crime rates in Kenya were going down. However, reports indicate that the Kenyan people still have a general feeling of insecurity (United Nations, 2004). In Kenya, as in many other countries, young people are viewed as being – and are frequently among – the main perpetrators of crime. Over 50 percent of all convicted criminals in Kenya are young males aged between 16 and 25. As is the case in other African countries, most crimes committed by young people in Kenya is financially motivated (United Nations, 2004).

The phenomenon of crime in Niger State has been in existence since the post-independence era and has been gradually increasing as the urban area population continues to grow at a quicker pace than rural areas as a consequence of rural to urban migration. The past and present governments have continued to adopt different approaches and strategies to counter the ever-rising incidences of crime in major urban centers. Despite such measures as community policing, rehabilitation and employment creation the problem of crime and criminal activities continue to fester in the social fabric of the urban areas. According to

IEA’s Youth Research Compendium, a person aged between 16 and 25 years commits one crime in every two crimes reported to police. In 2007/2008 Fiscal Year, some 89,770 crimes were reported. Out of these, 48,710 (54 %) were committed by youth in that age bracket. Police reports also show involvement in violent crime by youth just entering their teens. According to the National Bureau of Statistics (2012) there was an increase in crime reported from 61,826 to 73,786 in the period 2008-2011.  

The involvement of youth in criminal activities also reflects the change in dynamics of crime that are committed in urban areas. There is also evidence of research on youth crime which include Omboto, Ondiek, Odera and Ayugi (2012) qualitative study on factors influencing youth crime and juvenile delinquency and Tume (2010) study on factors influencing urban crime focus on Lagos. Makokha (2008) found that incarcerated criminals were based in urban areas where there were more opportunities for participating in criminal activities. There has been increased use of weapons in the commission of crimes among the youth in the recent past which has been associated with violent tendencies towards victims. For instance, between the November and December 2011, 11 incidences involved use of firearms mainly pistols and rifles. Similarly a total of 5 pistols, 1 toy pistol, 2 rifles and 96 ammunition were recovered in those firearms-related incidents within the two months covered by the newspaper reports compared to 28 pistols, 1 toy pistol, 8 rifles and 287 ammunitions recovered from January – October 2010 as reported in the police report (Kenya Police, 2010). 

The study hopes to report on the participation of youth which include gender differences in armed crime as specified as robbery with violence in urban areas as they represent the highest incidences of criminal activities in Suleja. The study shed light on the perceptions of urban youth on the intentions to participate in armed robbery, the types of crime that youth today are involved in given the dynamic nature of the society and technology and also provide a synopsis of the approaches and strategies adopted ton mitigate youth indulgence in armed robbery and to what impact they have had on society. The study also seeks to establish the reasons why urban youths especially in slum areas are more likely to be involved in robbery with violence as compared to those in affluent or rural areas. 

1.3.1 Main Objective 

The main objective of the study was to identify the factors influencing gender differential involvement in robbery with violence in urban areas.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives

I.                  To determine the types of criminal activities that different gender is involved in Suleja, Niger State 

II.               To determine the influence of socio-demographic (Gender)  factors on participation in crime in Suleja, Niger State 

III.            To identify approaches and strategies adopted to reduce youth participation in crime in Suleja, Niger State

The study sought to answer the following questions;

I.                  What types of criminal activities are youth involved in?

II.               What is the influence of socio-demographic (Gender) involvement in crime?

III.            What approaches and strategies are adopted to reduce youth crime?

Despite efforts by the government, civil society and the international community to address runaway crime, available (police-sourced) statistical evidence point to a growing spike in crime commission across the country. The offenders are relatively younger individuals who participate in armed criminal activities exacerbated by the proliferation of small arms and weapons. The youth are the most important resource for the nation in order to achieve the Vison 2030, therefore involvement in crime diminishes the number of productive youth in the economy thereby endangering the achievement of the nations’ development plan. 

The nation depends greatly on tourism as a significant contributor to the gross domestic product. The increase in crime in the metropolitan areas where majority of the large hotels are puts the tourism and hospitality sector at risk as more and more tourists avoid the urban centers due to increased cases of armed robbery. This has a negative impact on tourism rates thereby affecting employment opportunities for those employed in the sector both directly and indirectly. There is need therefore to explore the factors contributing youth involvement in violent crime in the low urban setting environment in order to mitigate the increasing cases of violent crime in Suleja, Niger State. 

Suleja was identified as the research site for the study as it has a high number of youth and also exhibits high incidences of criminal activities among its youth population. The study investigated the demographic factors of age, gender, level of education and employment status. The study also focused on responses from the youth in Suleja and the administration officers in the Ward who work in the security sector and who work with the youth. 

Crime – Refers to illegal activities that cause harm to others and other peoples’ property. 

Robbery with violence – This is the commission of crime which often involves use of weapons to inflict injury or fatality to victims.

Urban – Refers to areas that have a higher population of 2,000 or more which also has access to most basic services such as schools, medical facilities and recreation facilities.  




This study sought to identify the the impact of community policing in crime control in plateau state.. The study was carried out in Jos. The study used to collect data. The quantitative data was processed and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) while the collected qualitative data was analyzed through content analysis. The study found that levels of adoption of community policing as a style of policing had a positive impact on crime rates. Police partnered in sharing information, investigating crimes, arresting and prosecuting criminals, gathering intelligence and acting on it, partnering with the society and making patrols which address and deter criminals from committing crimes.. Key factors that obstruct effective implementation of community policing in Jos were found to include low levels of basic mutual trust, lack of an enabling legislative and administrative environment, poor public image of police and declining police resources. The study recommends that the government strengthen the adoption of community policing as a style of policing through budgetary allocations, ensure an enabling legislative and administrative environment, increase police resources and foster sensitization on community policing.



Background to study

The Civil Society Panel on Police Reforms in Nigeria report (2012) reflects a range of concern about the divisions in communication between police officers and the public in Nigeria. The report suggests that this division in the police/community relationship has been identified as an inherent hurdle in the system of policing in Nigeria. This is in terms of the ability of the police to really position itself as the constitutionally recognised and trusted security agent to which citizens of all categories could take their security concerns in Nigeria. The public perception in relation to lack of public confidence and the corresponding cultural gap has assumed a level whereby members of community are not willing to give useful information to the police in the task of preventing and controlling crime in Nigeria. This situation has been identified as one of the main problems in the implementation of various policing policies and programmes and this actually led to the call for the introduction of community policing in Nigeria (Civil Society Panel on Police Reform in Nigeria Report, 2012).

Community policing or neighborhood-oriented policing can be defined as a philosophy or way of life and a proactive, decentralized approach designed to reduce crime, disorder and the fear of crime. Community policing emphasizes full partnership between the community and its police in identifying and ameliorating local crime and disorder problems. The philosophy of community policing is built on the belief that people deserve and have a right to say on how their communities are policed in exchange for their involvement and support (Liou & Savage, 1996: 165). The police cannot effectively prevent and investigate crime without the willing participation of the public. Community policing therefore transforms the police from being an emergency squad in fighting crime into a proactive organization with ready solutions (Thacher, 2001: 158).

The concept of community policing, largely popularized in the United States of America and the United Kingdom from the 1980s onwards is based on the principle of coordination and consultation between the police and the policed, on the definition of security needs and on the implementation of ways of preventing and curbing crimes and of enhancing safety. The concept is often said to have its origins in an article by two American scholars named James Wilson and George Kelling. They argued that decaying neighbourhoods bred crime and disorder hence to prevent crime, disorder had to be contained (Ruteere & Pommerolle, 2003:588).

In Sub-Saharan Africa, South Africa pioneered in implementation of community policing (Ruteere & Pommerolle, 2003:588). It follows from a long experience in the townships of fear and hatred of the police during apartheid together with the dependence of private security initiatives. After the period of apartheid, South Africa embraced the democratic aspect of community policing including its principles in the 1992 constitution.

Hills (2014) argued that the promotion of police and community partnership in Nigeria had been carried out by a range of politicians, practitioners, and criminal justice scholars who firmly believe in facilitating effective policing through partnership strategy. This kind of partnership strategy tends to serve as a means to build trust between the local people and the police. As part of demonstration of the tendency to ensure robust relationship between the police and community, various regimes of the federal government of Nigeria have stated the readiness to promote ideals of community policing in the country.

Statement of the problem

Following the trend of recent news, there is an increase in the perceptions of crime and insecurity such as insurgency, kidnapping, armed robbery, youth restiveness and cultism in the country (Adedeji, 2001). This is a clear indication that the police-community partnership strategy introduced for relatively over a decade as argued by Dickson (2007), has not really achieved its original aims and objectives in Nigeria. To buttress this point further, even in recent times, there was an official policy statement credited to the President, Federal Government of Nigeria Muhammadu Buhari reiterating the concern of the government of Nigeria to give priority to community policing on the nation’s security agenda (Sun Newspaper, 2015).

The much attention channeled at insecurity in the country is a pointer to the urgent need to foster collaboration between the police and the public so to reduce the risk of crime in Nigeria. However, as promising as his Presidential remark, this event was not the first of its kind to give prioritise to police/community partnership option in the country. Rather, successive administrative regimes from the time of former President Ibrahim Babangida, had also taken similar policy directions. The bane in this regard is the lack of fundamental knowledge of the nature, dynamics and risk factors associated with community policing in Nigeria as well as how effective this strategy was in reducing crime in other sister countries of Africa. This lack of substantial knowledge about the culture that supports community policing has basically made its implementation absolutely difficult, not to talk of finding the suggestions to solve the problem of crime in Nigeria. Meanwhile, as noted by Hills (2014), to foster partnership between the police and community is also a function of trust, but that trust as a common denominator for this kind of relationship is problematic in Nigeria.

Despite the immediacy and enormity of the challenges associated with crime and insecurity in Nigeria at the moment, there has been surprisingly lack of adequate studies conducted on community policing involving community members in Nigeria, and how its culture might be better improved, in terms of policy and practice. However, this research would not cover entire population in Nigeria area due to size, time and financial constraints. The study therefore focuses on the police and community in Jos, Plateau State.

Objective of the study

The general objective of the study was to identify the impact of  community policing in crime control in Jos, Plateau state. Specifically the study seeks to;

1.                 Establish the extent to which community policing has succeeded in reducing crime rates in Jos of Plateau state.

2.                 Examine the perceptions of residents in Jos of Plateau state on the implementation of community policing programme.

3.                Investigate how community policing is implemented in Jos of Plateau state.

4.                 Identify the factors that obstruct effective implementation of community policing in Jos of Plateau state

Research Questions

The research questions for this study were:

1.     To what extent to has community policing succeeded in reducing crime rates in Jos of Plateau state?

2.     What is the perception of residents in Jos of Plateau state on the implementation of community policing programme??

3.    How has community policing is implemented in Jos of Plateau state?

4.     What are the factors that obstruct effective implementation of community policing in Jos of Plateau state?



The study upon completion would reveal the impact of community policing in crime reduction. Reduction of crime will lead to improvement in social and economic development hence benefiting the economy and the quality of life for citizens. The rapidly changing trends of crime require the adoption of new approaches to law enforcement. Through community policing therefore, the police and citizens have a central role to play to improve safety and security.

It was therefore important to conduct an academic study for deeper understanding of broad dynamics for crime reduction in the country. This study would to generate baseline data which can be used to evaluate the success of community policing and make decisions to expand the programme

The study will also proide Deeper understanding of community policing which  is likely to provide essential information for policy makers in the government and other stakeholders for concerted efforts to reduce crime in the society. This includes improving the level of mutual trust between the community and the police to improve cooperation, adequate involvement of community members in security initiatives and access to justice, and allocating adequate resources to community policing programmes.

1.6 Scope and Limitations

This study explored the impact of community policing in crime control in plateau state. The study would analysed the perceptions of residents in jos and how community policing is implemented in jos. The study however did not focus on the relationship between community policing and traditional policing or law enforcement. The research could have covered the entire jos plateau state to achieve better results. However, due to the area being expansive, a representative sample was chosen from the entire population which was residents of the Laranto Market which harbors the divisional headquarters of the Nigerian police force state common

Definition of Key Terms

Community policing: Is an initiative where security agencies work in an accountable and proactive partnership with the community towards mobilizing resources to promote long term community safety and support of security initiatives.

Community: A small well defined geographical area consisting of residents involved in community policing programs.

Implementation: Means the execution of the community policing programs by the police and community as per the strategic plan of the government.

Implementation Approach: Ideas or actions intended to deal with the problem of executing the community policing programs initiative.

Perception: Is a way of conceiving the community policing programs that is, whether they have been implemented effectively or not.

Factors affecting implementation: Are legal and administrative drawbacks that exist between the police and community in implementation of the community policing programs.

Reduction of crime rates: Means the difference between the initial and final crime rates after introduction of community policing programs.




This study was carried out to examine the roles of social media on national security from Nigerian perspective. The result of the study showed that the common forms of social media that Nigerians are exposed to are Facebook, Whatsapp, 2go and Twitter.

From the study, it was observed that the social media is a principal player in the area of national security in Nigeria. It can also be as an effective surveillance of the environment, conveying information on security issues in Nigeria, Creating a highly interactive platform for discussing security challenges and unveiling areas of individuals and entities that may likely constitute a breach to national security.

The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Using the purposive and simple random sampling, one hundred occupations relating to media and security, around Nigeria were selected for the study. Questionnaire, as primary instrument for data collection were randomly distributed among the respondents. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively and presented in percentage frequency distribution tables.

Conversely, the findings of this study showed that social media can have negative impact on national security. Since social media can be used to disseminate false information about the security issues in Nigeria and can be used to propagate internal conflicts and violence. It can also be used as an interactive forum against national security.

Finally, this study suggested ways of improving social media for effective management of national security in Nigeria to include that government should always checkmate the activities in all the social networking sites in Nigeria. Intelligence agencies and all the armed forces should endeavor to check the social media regularly for any updates that may affect national security and there should be a level of privacy and restrictions of activities in social media interactions in Nigeria.





1.1       Background of the Study

Prisons are often referred to as correctional and/or reformatory center. They are places/facilities where offenders are kept for either punishments or as they await trials at the courts of law. A prison according to Mc-Corkle and Korn (1954) quoted in Obioha (2011) is a physical structure in a geographical location where a number of people live under highly specialized conditions, utilize the resources and adjust to the alternatives presented to them by a unique kind of social environment that is different from the larger society in so many ways.

Recidivism means chronic repetition of crime. In Enugu prisons, recidivists are usually referred to as “Ana-Abia.” That is an Igbo expression that means “Go and come back” Recidivism has been on the increase. In fact, it is becoming common in the prisons in Enugu. Prisons are established for the punishment, treatment, training, and social rehabilitation of offenders. In Nigeria, prisons alongside the Police and Courts play dominant roles in the criminal justice system which is fundamental to the maintenance of law and order in the society. However, Wale (2010) wrote that whereas a large segment of the public seems to be familiar with the functions of the police and courts in the prevention and control of crimes, a considerable number of them are ignorant of the important role of prisons in this regard and that is largely attributable to the methods of operation of the prison institutions as their activities are carried out in an enclosed environment away from public view as well as inadequate public enlightenment. In many countries of the world and in many occasions, prisons get the attention of the public, especially the media when something goes wrong such as jail break, riots by inmates or escapes.

A prison is neither expected to be exactly a bed of roses as the inmates are there for penal purposes nor supposed to be a bed of thorns and thistles meant to snuff life out of the occupants. As Eva (2015) noted, the Nigeria prison institutions, among others in Nigerian Justice System perform three basic functions of; keeping safe custody of convicted persons and suspects as well as execute sentences passed on individuals by the courts, ensuring the reformation and rehabilitation of inmates through moral training, education and offering them opportunities to develop other potentials and skills for effective reintegration into the society on discharge and ensuring the welfare of inmates through the provision of good health care, feeding, clothing and recreational facilities in order to create the enabling environment for reformation and rehabilitation programmes. Jack (2006) recollects that the Nigerian prison system was established not just to reduce crime in the society, but also to reform criminals to better persons. As Ojo (2007) opines, the prison community with its distinct culture and way of life epitomizes a complete design capable of changing the attitudes of individual members for good or bad depending on the personal experience and the social network action.

However, there are strong accusations by critics that for the thousands of inmates in various Nigerian prisons, hell cannot be worse. This set of people believe that the sanitary situation is not only repulsive but frighteningly demeaning and exposes the inmates to health hazards as inmates are forced to excrete in buckets and stay with their excreta for days. Feeding is a luxury, bathing a rarity, recreation zilch, reformation non-existent and privacy a privilege. Hence, most inmates leave the reformatory frail, fragile and with one debilitating disease or the other (New Nigeria, 2006).

But that runs contrary to what the prison experience is meant to accomplish in the lives of those who transit through them. Prisons are essentially correctional and reformatory; they are not institutions for the dehumanization of the incarcerated. According to the Nigerian Prison Act 1972, which spells out the goals and orientation of the Nigerian Prisons Service, prisons are charged with taking custody of those legally detained, identifying causes of their behaviour and retraining them to become useful citizens in the society. Apart from keeping inmates in custody, the prison officials hardly do any other thing as they are apparently not interested in the rationale behind the actions that got the inmates into prisons or bothered about retraining them.

Davids (2011) states that in other climes, there is a difference between a jail and a prison; a jail is a transitional facility for those undergoing legal proceedings, those awaiting judgment on their trial. A prison, on the other hand, is for those whose judicial fate has been decided; those who have been convicted. Therefore, those whose trials are in progress and those whose trials have been decided should not ordinarily cohabit in the same facilities. However, Nigerian Tribune (2011) revealed that in Nigeria, the same correctional facilities are used both as jails and prisons in the country.

There is no categorization as those undergoing trial (called awaiting trial in local parlance), convicts and those already condemned to death are treated equally. They are all lumped together in various cells and stripped of their dignity. This is really because like all facilities in the country, the prisons amenities have been stretched beyond their original capacities. So, those undergoing trial are not treated any differently from those already convicted despite the fact that they might end up being left off the hook. Thus, the prisons are brimming with inmates as there are more inmates than the original capacity of the prisons. For instance, the total inmates in the prisons in Lagos State are by far more than the number the prisons are meant to accommodate. As of Tuesday 18th of October 2011, there were 5,370 inmates at the Badagry Prison, Kirikiri Maximum, Kirikiri Medium, Kirikiri Female and Ikoyi prisons instead of the 2,945 they were built to rehabilitate (Davids, 2011).

A further breakdown of the inmates in Lagos prisons by the Nigerian Tribune shows that 4,440 of all the total inmates are awaiting trial and are, therefore, not part of the plans of prison officials. The only thing that they get from the prison officials is food. They are not trained or allowed to undergo any vocational work. Just 936 inmates had been convicted and are facing jail terms, with about 70 of them condemned to death.

Quite different from the physical conception, there are other schools of thought that are based on function, framework and label. From the functional perspective, a prison is perceived as a place to punish offenders, where criminals that are removed from the society are dumped to protect the society from further criminal activities of the offenders; and a place to rehabilitate, and teach offenders to be law abiding and productive after their release. Prisons are also perceived as a total institution, from the perspective of framework. (Okunola, 1986 and Goffman, 1961; quoted in Davids 2011).

Prison as an institution is a place unlike free environment or community, houses those who are socially rejected, insane or mentally retarded. It is also said to be an institution where there is a basic split between a large class of individuals who are restricted contact with outside world and stereotypical behavioural pattern where social mobility is restricted. Yet from the labeling point of view, the prison is a place for vagrants, who may pose actual danger to social life in the larger society, which pre-supposes that every person in the prison is a vagrant and irresponsible person (Ojo, 2007).However, in the past few decades, the conception about the Prisons seem to be changing at least in the minds of some people, especially with reference to the erroneous idea that people in the prisons are dregs of the society. This means that it is not only the guilty that are found in the prisons, only some prisoners actually committed offences they are alleged to have committed. This is true of the Nigerian situation where it has become “acceptable” to have most of the prison yards overflowing with awaiting trial inmate population (Nnamdi, 2013). Onyekachi (2010) records that Prison institutions in Nigeria among others in the criminal justice system perform the following basic functions of; keeping safe custody of convicted persons and suspects as well as execute sentences passed on individuals by the courts, ensuring the reformation and rehabilitation of inmates through moral training, education and offering them opportunities to develop other potentials and skills for effective reintegration into the society on discharge, ensuring the welfare of inmates through the provision of good health care, feeding, clothing and recreational facilities in order to create the enabling environment for reformation and rehabilitation programmes.

The History of Nigerian Prisons

Contrary to the assumption of many, the Prisons System has been around long before the amalgamation of 1914. From mere detention Centers to Native Authority prisons and to the current Federal system we have today, the Prisons in Nigeria have come a long way. The origin of modern Prisons Service in Nigeria is 1861. That was the year when conceptually, Western-type prison was established in Nigeria. The declaration of Lagos as a colony in 1861 marked the beginning of the institution of formal machinery of governance. At this stage the preoccupation of the colonial government was to protect legitimate trade, guarantee the profit of British merchants as well as guarantee the activities of the missionaries (Oluwakuyide, 2011).

The prisons in Nigeria are run solely by the federal government. This means that Nigerian prisons are governed by federal laws. In pursuance of the powers conferred on the position of the Controller-General of Prisons by Section 16 (1) (a) and (b), Cap. P.29 LFN 2004, the Nigerian Prisons Standing Order is brought into law. The Nigerian prison laws otherwise known as Nigerian Prisons Standing Order are divided into the following parts:

·         Staff;

·         Administration of Prison; and

·         Organization and Control.

The Prison regulation was published in 1917 to prescribe admission, custody, treatment and classification procedures as well as staffing, dieting and clothing regimes for the prisons. These processes were limited in one very general sense. They were not geared towards any particular type of treatment of inmates. Instead they represent just policies of containment of those who were already in prison. Besides, they were limited in application to those who were convicted or remanded in custody by criminal courts of the British-inspired supreme or provincial types. It was not until 1934 that any meaningful attempt was made to introduce relative modernization into the Prison Service.

There have been massive transformations in the Service since 1972. It has undergone some reorganization from its modest three Directorates in 1980 to six Directorates in 1993. There was the 1986 reorganization of the Prisons consequent upon the creation of the Customs, Immigrations and Prisons Board and centralization of the administrations of these paramilitary Services in the Board. There was also the removal of the Services from the Civil Service in 1992. It now has a command structure that boast of 8 Zonal commands, 36 State Commands, 1 FCT Command, 144 Prisons including farm centers and 83 Satellite Prisons. It also has four Training Schools, one Staff College and 2 Borstal Institutions. The big question is whether or not the Nigerian Prison system has lived up to its billings as a reformatory Institution and its attendant issues, recidivism, challenges, threats if any, in line with her objectives.

The Enugu Prisons

The Enugu Prison was established in 1915 and its capacity originally was built for 638 inmates however, the current population of the inmates stands at 2375. It is imperative to note that out of this figures, about 1618 are awaiting trials inmates that is those not yet convicted. This, to my mind is overpopulated.

The researcher also found out that the Enugu Prison had a Bolster home which was more like a youth detention camp and an adult correction facility situated at Enugu Ngwo. It is considered a place for first offenders for the purposes of reforming and integrating them into the society. The Bolster home was created in 1933 and by the end of the civil war in 1970, it was scrapped off.

Nigerian criminal Justice is given its legal foundation through the constitution, most especially the portion of the constitution which relates to the powers of the court, or jurisdictional mandate of the courts. Sections of the constitution such as fundamental human rights particularly the provisions on right to liberty, right to fair hearing which deals with criminal justice. The state, in using its power to convict a person who has committed a crime must at the same time comply or respect the constitutional provisions on human rights (Wale, 2006).There have been a lot of changes/reforms in the Nigerian Prison Services. Emeka (2011) details the Nigerian Prisons Reform processes when he noted that in the recent times, the intention to reform Nigerian prison system can be traced back to June 2001 by the government of the then President, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, when they proposed to review prison laws and prison reforms, train personnel, rehabilitate inmates and revitalize the prison system with the Prison Reforms Program. This was against the realization of the conditions in the Nigerian prisons, especially those of the awaiting trial which president Olusegun Obasanjo described as inhuman. Since 2000, in order to actualize the mission to reform the prisons, the preliminary steps taken include the establishment of several working groups and committees on prison reforms.

Although Fred (2015) and Amaduh (2013) as quoted in Eva (2015) praise the Nigerian prisons for being able to improve significantly in the last few years which according to them has made the Nigerian prisons institutions to become ones that can actually transform inmates if well managed, other authors think otherwise! For instance, Nnamdi (2015) and Ted (2015) found that, an observation of the population of persons that goes back into the prisons facilities after their initial release shows that there may be some problems in the system, hence the prisons may not have been able to live up to its expected role in Nigeria.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

One of the major objectives of the establishment of Prison facilities in all parts of the world including Nigeria is to not only punish those who have broken the law but also to provide a centre for the rehabilitation and/or reformation for these persons so that they can be useful both to themselves and society at large after their jail terms. As Charles (2009), Ben (2010) and Davids (2011) stated, prisons are established for the purpose of reforming the prisoners to be better than what they were before they were imprisoned, rehabilitate the prisoners in order to equip them with new skills or improve on their old ones, and seclude criminals from the rest of the society, pending when they have atoned for their crimes.

In line with this objective, successive administrations in Nigeria, in one way or the other have delved into the provision of necessary infrastructure/facilities and other logistics including transportation services and general skills acquisition programmes in order to make the prisons very functional.  

However, the extent to which the objectives of government for establishing the prison reform activities have been achieved in Nigeria is not clear. There have been increasing cases of new recidivists in the last few years. For instance, in 2013, there were 5 new recidivists. The number of new recidivists increased to 8 in 2014 and 10 in 2015. In fact, out of 2,375 Prison inmates in Enugu Prisons as at 2015, as many as 203 (7.4%) were Recidivists. This growing trend is indicative of the fact that perhaps, the Prison reformatory efforts may not have been very effective in Enugu Prisons.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study therefore is to evaluate the effect of Prison reformatory capacity on recidivism in Nigeria.          

The specific objectives of this study are;

1.      To ascertain the effects of Prison reformatory activities on Recidivism in Enugu Prison.

2.      To determine the most important factors that contributes to recidivism.

1.4   Research Questions

1.      What effect does prisons human capacity building programme have on recidivism in Enugu state?

2.      What are the most important factors that contribute to recidivism?

1.5  Hypotheses of the Study (Alternative)

H01:     Prisons reformatory activities have no significant reducing effect on recidivism in Enugu state, Nigeria.

H02:     There are no significant factors contributing to recidivism in Enugu state.

1.6  Significance of the Study

The study will be of great benefit to Nigerian Prison Services as they will come to know the reformatory effects they have on the prisoners. This study will help them to restructure their strategies if need be. This research report will also benefit researchers, who will use it for reference purposes in future studies. In the same vein, the study will help policy makers, both in the respective government departments and/or parastatals do a better job by making them realize and/or understand some of the best strategies and directives to employ in their job of policy-making.

1.7       Scope of the Study

This work is only concerned with the task of identifying the reformatory effects of Nigerian prison facilities on the prisoners with particular reference to Enugu Prisons. It also sought to find the positivity of the educational/enlightenment programmes of Nigerian prisons.




The prison is a custodial and correctional institution, functioning within the ambit of penal sociology. The core value of the prisons is to keep custody of both convicted and unconvicted persons. It is expected of the prisons to give back to the society changed persons who longer pursue criminal life style, using the correctional instruments available to the and finally rehabilitation cum reintegration. Imprisonment is a remedial therapy. The government should be proactive in crime control by attacking the roots of crime rather than the branches. Poverty must be fought in sincerity and honesty by the government. Our value system must be revived and entrenched into the polity rather than using the prison as a cooler and dumping ground for her citizens. Prisons department should be adequately funded.

       Both the maxist conflict, structural functionalist, symbolic interationist model are considered akin to explain the phenomena of crime and rehabilitation as a treatment strategy of crime. Instruments used to analyse this phenomena are sampling, interviews and other literature relevant to the topic under probe.



The focal point of this study is on penology and correctional sociology. The strength lies more on correction rather than punishment as a deterrent, retributive measure in the control of crime. Changes in punishment; according to Foucault (1991):

Foucault argues that these changes involve a fundamental shift in the nature of punishment. In the early 18th century, punishment focused on the body. It involves direct infliction of pain to suffer the offender, toward the late 18th – 19th century, this had changed to the punishment of the soul. The punishment consisted of a loss of rights – particularly the right to liberty. Furthermore the intention was to reform the offender rather than simply to make him suffer.

       The Prison is defined as a place, grounds, buildings, declared by the minister of internal affair now interior affairs under prison Decree No 9 of 1972 as prison, (2008) Nkwocha, Daniel Ibeabuchi, page 50.

       Crime is an aspect of human retrogression, it has primitive roots. In the views of Radzinowlez and King, 1977. “A crime is a conduct that is forbidden by law and for which punishment is prescribed”.

       Rehabilitation, the process of returning a criminal to pursue a non-criminal life upon discharge. It ensures that inmates are not just dischargedinto the streets of society. It does this by providing therapy or vocational and educational training.

       One disturbing trend is that inspite of the rehabilition programme, the number of discharge inmates that return to the prison, is on the increase. Criminologist like Lan Taylor, Paul Walton and Jock Young (1973), their views were similar to those of the Marxist theorist, they accepted that the key to understanding crime lay in the material basis of society. A close monitoring of discharge convicts reveal that most times, the discharge inmates suffer stigmatization, which leads to recividism.

       In lending credence to this fact, William Chambliss (1972) argues that the greed, self interest and hostility generation by the society motivate individual into crimes.


The high rate of criminal activities in Imo state is causing the government and inhabitance of the state sleepless night. These crime range from, armed robbery targeted more at financial, institutions, child trafficking, and kidnapping, rigual killings. It is appalling that the group much more involved in heinous crimes comes from the active Labour force of the state, which spells out a bad omen for the state in terms of economic growth and development. This is because indigenous and foreign investments can hardly thrife in any state where the prevalence of crime is acute. It is therefore important to investigate, into such a social malice as to find ways to ameliorate it. One wonders who some active youths take to crime, when there are better avenues of making wealth such as education and skills acquisitions centres scattered all over the state.

1.          Could it be traced to the fact that people are ignorant of the fact that education and skills acquisition is a veritable means of sustainable livelihood and gainful employment.

2.          Could it be that the high crime rate may be attributed to the absence of industries and large market in Imo State.

3.          Could it be as a result of the fact that the prisons lack the needed infrastructure for effective rehabilitation of discharged inmates considering the fact that recidivism is still on the increase.


The main objective will dwell on the relationship between crime and rehabilitation as a tool in controlling crime by the prisons service, in Imo state.

The specific objectives are:

1.          To examine the various reasons that account for high crime rate in Imo state.

2.          To find out the problems confronting the prisons service in the effective delivery of the aims and objectives of the rehabilitation strategy.

3.          To find out possible ways of assisting the prisons services to solicit assistance from bodies that have interest in human welfare.

4.          On the strength of the finding by advocating remedies and make recommendations.


Attempt will be made to stress on the relationship of the prison and other allied agencies in the control of crime particularly the criminal justice particularly the criminal justice system. Secondly, how this relationship affect rehabilitation of inmates in the prison is of interest.

       Also to be considered are the gains and pit falls of rehabilitation.

       Life after imprisonment remains the cardinal point of rehabilitation as a panacea to crime but there are still some negative social elements or forces that militate against the gains of rehabilitation, they are Recividism and stigmatization of discharged inmates, it will also interest the study to highlight on them.


This study will without doubt be beneficial to allied crime control agencies such as police, the state and security service. It is a significant outlet to usher in welfare organization who albinitio thought the prison to be a closed system.

Criminologist, policy makers, will also benefit immensely.

       Reduction in crime rate through rehabilitation will incorporate inmates into the main stream of national economy and make them responsible citizens.


As suggested in the primary objective of study, the following hypothesis could be tested.

1.          That there is a significant relationship between crime and rehabilitation.

2.          That there is no significant relationship between crime and rehabilitation.

3.          There is relationship between skills acquisition and crime

4.          This is no relationship between skills acquisition and crime.


1.          CRIME: An act or omission prohibited by law for the protection of the public and punishable by the state in a judicial proceeding in its own name.

2.          CRIMINALITY: This is the state of being criminal.

3.          DEVIAT BEHAVIOUR: This is a behaviour that is not acceptable by a particular society.

4.          PUNISHMENT: This is a penalty received by an offender to serve as deterent and retributive consequence.

5.          PRISONS: Legally authorized agency that takes custody of both convicted and unconvicted persons.

6.          PRISON: A place delimited and declared as such by the law of the state and created to ensure restraint and custody of person’s accused or convicted of crimes.

7.          IMPRISONMENT: The act of keeping somebody under incarceration.

8.          REFORMATION: Ability to make of criminal to change from deviant behaviour or refrain from criminal behaviour.

9.          RE INTEGRATION: The act of helping or creating the enabling environment for discharged person to adapt into the society.

10.      REHABILITATION: Turning a criminal into a self-sustaining self-actualized, socially aware and socially involved in individual.

11.      RECIVIDIST: Habitual crime commuter or jail bird in Prison parlance.

12.      RECIVIDISM: Irresistible tendency towards committing crime.

13.      STIGMATIZATION: The act of Isolating, avoiding individuals or groups due to perceived phobias attached to such persons.






 The Nigerian petroleum industry has been confronted by two sapping challenges over the years. The challenges relates to the prevalence of militancy and oil pipeline Vandalisation in the Niger Delta.

While the former has significantly attenuated in the aftermath of the Amnesty deal in 2009 (Okoli, 2013), the latter appears to have escalated both in incidence and impact. According to Ogbeni:

A total of 16,083 pipeline breaks were recorded within the last 10 years adding that while 398 pipeline breaks representing 2.4 percent were due to ruptures, the activities of unpatriotic vandals accounted for 15, 685 breaks which translated to about 97.5 percent of the total number of cases (Ogbeni, 2012, para 8).

Indeed, the incidence of oil pipeline Vandalisation has been on the rise in Nigeria. According to the 2013 annual report of the Nigerian Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (NEITI), Nigeria lost a total of 10.9 billion US Dollars to oil theft between 2009 and 2011 (NEITI, 2013; Onoja, 2013). This loss adumbrates the significance of Vandalisation as a veritable problem in the Nigerian oil industry. The implication of oil pipeline Vandalisation vis-a-vis Nigeria’s security has been vividly demonstrated by its nexus with economic, environmental, and humanitarian losses and consequences (Onuoha, 2009). In effect, oil pipeline Vandalisation has been associated with consequences which hold negative implications for national issue of oil pipeline Vandalisation, in spite of its topical relevance, has not received adequate emphasis in the existing literature. Again, the bulk of the extant works in the area of inquiry has tended to be merely journalistic, bereft of analytical rigours and systematization. This has necessitated a systematic investigation into the problematique. This paper, therefore, an attempt is made to establish the relationship between oil pipeline Vandalisation and national security in Nigeria. The paper posits that oil pipeline Vandalisation results in untoward outcomes which threaten Nigeria’s national security.

The discovery of crude oil in commercial quantity in Oloibiri in 1956 marked the birth of the petroleum industry in Niger. Since then, the Nigeria economy has been more or less dependent on petroleum. To facilitate the distribution of crude oil product from the oil rich Nigeria Delta to other parts of the country, a network of oil pipelines was constructed to inter-link some states at strategic locations (Onuorah, 2007).

Nigeria has a total pipeline grid of 5001 kilometers. This consists of 4315 kilometers of multiproduct pipelines and 666 kilometers of crude oil pipelines. These pipelines transverse the country, forming a network that inter-connects the 22 petroleum storage depots, the four refineries at Port-Harcourt (I and II), Kaduna and Warri, the off-shore terminals at Bonny and, Escravos, and the jelties at Alas Cove,

Calabar, Okirika and Warri (Onuoha, 2007, p.6). This system of oil pipelines are used to transport crude oil to the refineries in Port-Harcourt (I and II), Warri and Kaduna, covering a total distance of 719 kilometres. The multi-product pipelines are used to transport products from the refineries/import receiving jetties to the 22 petroleum storage depots at various places in the country. The storage infrastructure consisting of 22 loading depots linked by pipeline of various diameters has aggregate installed capacities of 1,266890 (PMS), 676 400 (DPK), 1007 900 (AGO), and 74 000 (ATK) m3tonnes (Special Committee on the Review of Petroleum Product s Supply Distribution- SCRPPSD, 2000, p.10).

The Nigerian oil Pipeline infrastructure has been subjected to incessant attacks by vandals over the years. The frequency of such attacks has been rather disturbing in the recent times. For instance, in 1999 alone, there were a total of 477 recorded cases of pipeline vandalization in Nigeria (see Tables 2 below).

The incessant occurrence of oil pipeline Vandalisation in Nigeria has raised the question as to whether the pipeline networks were laid in such a manner that forecloses easy vandalization. This is in addition to the question as to whether the pipelines are policed and protected at all. Indeed, some safety valves were considered while laying the pipelines. For instance, the government acquired 3.5 metres wide right of way (ROW) on each side of the pipelines; also the pipes were buried a miter deep to avoid accidental contacts, or vandalization. Despite these safety valves, recent experience in Nigeria has shown that the integrity and safety of these pipelines have been incessantly compromised because of the activities of vandals and saboteurs. The vandals fracture the oil pipelines with the criminal intent of obtaining and appropriating petroleum products for commercial purposes or personal use. The table below (Table 2) highlights the incidence of oil pipeline vandalization in Nigeria in 1990s.

Year Number of Incidents Remarks

1995 7 cases Reported cases only

1996 33 cases Reported cases only

1997 34 cases Reported cases only

1998 57 cases Reported cases only

1999 497 cases Reported cases only

If the figures on table 2 are anything to go by, the implication is that the incidence of pipeline vandalization has been on geometrical increase. This trend has got even worse since 2000. Available statistics show that Port Harcourt, which recorded about 600 pipeline breaks in 2003, had about 1,650 breaks from January to September, 2006. Similarly Warri axis moved from only 100 pipeline breaks to 600 during the same period (Amanze–Nwachukwu and Ogbu, 2007, p.14).

Cases of pipeline breaks have also been recorded in the northern parts of Nigeria, particularly in Kaduna and Gombe State (Onuoha, 2007).

In effect available records clearly indicate that incidence of oil pipeline Vandalisation has been on the spiral increase in Nigeria. The vandals appear to have acquired more criminal discipline, sophistication and efficiency in perpetrating oil pipeline Vandalisation with apparent ease and impunity. So, the incidence has been escalating. A media report by Ogbeni (2012, para 5) succinctly situates the rising incidence of oil pipeline Vandalisation in Nigeria in recent times thus:

Between 2010 and 2012, total of 2,787 lines breaks were reported on pipelines belonging to the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), resulting in a loss of 157.81mt of petroleum products worth about ₦12.53bilion. Pipeline along the Gombe axis recorded 850 cases and Kaduna system recorded 571 cases of pipeline Vandalisation. The pipeline along Warri axis recorded 548 cases Vandalisation while Mosimi system pipelines in Lagos recorded 463 cases and Port Harcourt recorded lesser cases of Vandalisation while mosimi system pipelines in Lagos recorded 463 cases and porthacort recorded lesser cases with 336 point vandalized.


The level at which the Nigerian pipe line are been vandalized and oils are made away in large quantity, the loose security strength of the country and the attitude of the country leaders toward this issue. The story of vandalized pipe lines in Nigeria is becoming concurrent, property are vandalized by the leaders and no one says nor do anything about it. Is has been the main issues in the research work, pipe line vandalization.

Overall, oil pipeline Vandalisation constitutes a veritable threat to Nigeria’s national security. As it has been observed in the preceding sections of this writing, the impact and implications of pipeline Vandalisation have been critically detrimental to the concerns of public safety and development in Nigeria. To say the least, therefore, the prevalence of oil pipeline Vandalisation in Nigeria over the years has presented the country with crucial national security challenge.


 Due to the concurrent issues of vandalization in the country, which the leaders of this country does nothing about it, the researcher seek to bring to the notice of the country, the citizen of this great country the implication of this incidence to the economic development of our nation.

Also, the objectives of the researcher in this study is that at the end of this research work it will help and bring an end to this issues, as it will educate the masses the importance of securing their property because this assess are part of the nation’s own which every one of this nation is part of.


The outcome of this research work will be of beneficial help to the nation as it will highlight the effect of vandalizing the country property, in this case the vandalization of pipe line, to the economic development of this country, a highlight of its set back to the country.


This research work covers the country Nigeria, o the vandalization of pipe line and its effects and implication to the country economic development. This work basically focus on pipe line vandalization.


The researcher formed some research question that will guide her to carry out this work so as to have a focal point in the study. Which the question are:

1.     What are the reason to oil pipeline Vandalisation in the country?

2.     The implication of pipe line vandalization is drastic to the country economy, what are the possible measure to take so as to keep secure and guide of this pipe line?


          During the course of performing/researching this project work, the researcher encountered a lot of challenges as well as opposition which ranges from financial constraints, time factor. This factors in their own ways, slowed down the speedy progress of this work that resulted to the researcher not being able to finish the research work on time as is required

Also,  within the area of study the researcher was faced with some other forms of constrains that contributed to the limitation of this researcher work, like accessibility to data, information and facts concerning the present study due to some reasons or the other, some not willing to give out information that it is to be within the workers.


1. Alkali, A.R. (2003). International relations and Nigeria foreign policy (2nd edition). Kaduna: NorthpointPublishers.

2. Google search (2013). “Oil spills in Nigeria”.… (retrieved, June 6, 2013).

3. Ilagha,c.(2007).’’Resource control and the Niger Delta Crisis “M.Sc. Thesis submitted to the Department of Political Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (January)

4. Lyman, P.M.G (2007). Organized crime (fourth edition). Prentice-Hall. Person Education, Inc.

5. Mallory’s. (2007). Theories on the continued existence of organized crime. Sudbury,Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlet Publishers.

6. NEITI (2013). Annual Report of the Nigerian Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative, NEITI, Nigeria.

7. NNPC (2000).Report of the Special Committee on the Review of Petroleum Product Supply and Distribution, Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.




Security concerns have existed since time immemorial. But, the challenges have never been as readily manifested as they are presently. This is rather disconcerting. Moreso, because some of the security challenges and problems we encounter daily in the contemporary society are almost entirely unpredictable. Indeed, rapid growth and use of mechanical arts, applied science, and revolutionary dynamics of society apparently blend well with the desperate nature of the criminally minded to increase the spate of threats to life and property, a state which has assumed omnipresent and digital dimensions of crime in our society. The aim of this study is to examine Government and the Management of Security Challenges in Nigeria: a case of Akwa Ibom State (1999-2011). Governments, all over the world are accountable for the provision of security and well-being of their citizens through the use of instruments of state power, including defense and security agencies, backed-up by enabling laws. For instance, the 1999 Nigerian constitution outlines the role of government and relationship among levels of government in security management. During the period, Akwa Ibom State had suffered myriad of internal security challenges namely; kidnappings and hostage takings for monetary gains, murder and political assassinations, armed robberies, cult-related criminal activities and subversion. Others include illegal possession of fire arms, insurgency, economic sabotage, oil pipelines and NEPA installations vandalization, arson and fire outbreaks and boundary disputes. This work used descriptive statistics (including charts and tabular analysis) to analyze the role of government in security management. The study however, focused on security challenges arising from dereliction of statutory duties by police personnel due to poor salary, insufficient funding and equipping of security agencies with consequent high crime rates. This work adopted structural functionalist and levels 1, 2, 3 models as theoretical frameworks. The study recommends that government at all levels should motivate, approve good remuneration to security and law enforcement agents, properly fund and equip security agencies to boost their operational capabilities for effective protection of lives and property of the citizens.



       1.1          Background to the Study

From time immemorial, man has been pre-occupied with the problems of self-preservation and survival. In recent time, emphasis had shifted from the narrow individual security to collective security perspective provided under the constitution. All over the world, provision of security to guarantee welfare and rights of the citizenry have always been the statutory function of any responsible government which is achieved through the use of instruments and mechanism of state power which, include the use of defense forces and security agencies backed-up by enabling laws and the constitution.

In the same vein, Nigerian state and its component units have the primary duty to guarantee the welfare of their citizens. In carrying out this mandate, government usually evolve policies and programmes that are security-oriented for the enhancement of the protection of lives and property of citizens through which a peaceful and tranquil atmosphere for human activities can thrive.

Consequently, government receives demands from citizens of the state concerning a great variety of services related to, for example, law and order, defense and security (Agi, 2003:29). Nnoli (2006:7) postulates that security has become a big issue in Africa today because of the forms of carnage, brutality, pogrom and even genocide associated with incessant civil wars and other forms of violent conflicts on the continent.

            Security is a robust term used to describe all measures taken to discover, assess and contain threats from hostile intruders. It thus involves the protection of lives and property and the provision of a peaceful and tranquil atmosphere in which individuals can go about their lawful businesses (SSS Training Journal, 2005:28). In a narrow common sense and usage, security as a concept is similar to safety. Security means that something is not only secured, but has become secured (Eselbor, 2007: 102). This definition makes security a condition of protection against danger or loss.

Security in a more general sense, include activities involved in the protection of a country, property or persons against attack, danger, etc. There are internal and national levels of security. Internal security is concerned with issues of security interest occurring within a particular geographical location involving state and local governments whereas; National security on the other hand, is simply immunity from external threat to a country. National Security as a concept has undergone various perspectives from early times.

Me Namara (1968: 149) – former president of World Bank, also perceived National Security as:

In a modernized society, security means development; security is not military force, though it may involve it; security is not traditional military activity, though it encompasses it, security is not military hardware, though it may include it, security is development and without development there can be no security.

Oduneye (2008:1), perceived security as the establishment and maintenance of protective measures which are intended to ensure a state of inviolable from hostile acts or influences. It is also seen as a whole set of actions by which the government guarantees the safety of lives and property of its citizens from internal and external influences. National Security involves the protection of lives and property and the provision of a peaceful and tranquil atmosphere in which individuals and groups in an entity can pursue their lawful activities.

A number of areas that are posing security threats to our nation according to Shinkaiye (2004:5-16) include:

I.                  Communal clashes.

II.                  Lack of democratic culture.

III.                  Financial crimes.

IV.                  Poverty.

V.                  Ethnicity.

VI.                  Religious Extremism.

In Akwa Ibom State, there are similar such crimes that have posed threats to internal security which this work is to examine.

Security threats are challenges that are confronting Nigeria and its states, including Akwa Ibom state. The concept of national security on the other hand has been closely associated with military ‘might’ that can be used to ward-off the power of other states and consequently safeguard the state, its population and their other cherished values (Nnole, 2006:23).

The concern that states and their populations should have for their collective national security stems from the anarchic nature of international political environment in which states exist. Supporting the above standpoints Art (2007) avers that in such an anarchic system, states must be concerned first and foremost with their security, the extent which they feel not threatened by the actions of other states. A concern for survival thus breeds a pre-occupation with security (Art, 2001:757-758). One of the basic responsibilities of a state is to work to sustain security against external and internal threats and the components of state security include, safety, autonomy, development and rule (Collins, 2007:15).

Government on the other hand, is a body of men and agencies of the state involved in defined responsibility of ensuring the protection of lives, property and well-being of the citizenry. This, of course is the primary purpose of government which this study is designed to examine the roles of Akwa Ibom state government in the management of security challenges in Nigeria, focusing on Akwa Ibom state during 1999-2011 period.

In the words of Ekpe (2007), “it is in an attempt to reduce to the barest minimum threats that the government comes in to provide the shield. The government does this, not only by maintaining law and order, but also through its constitution and the criminal codes which elaborately spell out penalties for those who break the law”.

In spite of government efforts in harnessing human, material, technical, financial resources and spiritual interventions through prayers for ensuring effective protection of lives and property, the people of the state are still in serious dilemma of insecurity, threats and trepidation. At any time of the day, fears of insecurity rule the hearts of the inhabitants while going about their daily duties. It is not the natural fears of the unknown, but the fears of being shot down and getting eliminated or kidnapped by criminals in the state.

Ekpenyong (2004: 4) asserts that:

Those behind these unholy and dirty acts see the business of policing behind others as a lucrative one forgetting that no one can claim to be free when others are not free. Whatever is the reason for acting aggressively and violently involving the use of deadly weapons to hurt one another should be condemned since it is not for the progress and development of the state.

Insecurity for sometimes now has been a major problem confronting the state as banks and other public institutions were frequently robbed by criminals in broad daylight with sophisticated weapons and gadgets compared to the poorly-equipped state-owned security outfits, including the police. Security was absolutely porous during 1999-2011 periods, resulting in the infiltration of criminals and militants into the state from other parts of the Niger Delta region. The State became a safe heaven for criminals while the lawful citizens were forced by increasing criminal activities to shut down their businesses and went into hiding for the safety of their lives and businesses. This eventually necessitated collective effort of the police, State Security Service, the military and local security groups in tackling security challenges in the state. This notwithstanding, the precarious situation has continued as the state still cannot adequately guarantee the security of its citizens and their property till date.

        1.2          Statement of the Research Problem:

Akwa Ibom State has suffered security challenges of various dimensions since its creation in 1987. There have been re-occurrences of security challenges which have outlived solutions as no day passes without the emergence of one security challenge or the other. Presently, security situation still remains worse as the phenomenon of violence of late seems to have gone deep-rooted into the state and it is increasing faster with each passing day (Niger Delta University, 2010:1). Akwa Ibom state being one of the thirty-six (36) states that make up the Nigerian federation, has the constitutional mandate to manage security challenges in its domain towards guaranteeing the protection of lives and property of its citizens.

The precarious security situation in Akwa Ibom state during the period coincided with the return to civilian democratic government from 1999 with its attendant security challenges after long military rule that militarized the psyche of Nigerian populace and politicians in the state in particular. The state had witnessed the intensification of Niger-Delta resource control struggle that was spear-headed by the then Akwa Ibom State Governor, Obong Victor Attah which also motivated the youths of Akwa Ibom State and Niger Delta region to register their long agitations for development of the region. The mounted protests and agitations were aimed at drawing the attention of the federal government to the long neglect and environmental damages being foisted on the oil-rich, but deprived Niger Delta Communities (NDC) by oil companies operating in the region.

The subsequent youth-restiveness further worsened the security problems experienced during the review period. There were cases of kidnappings and hostage-takings of foreign oil companies workers by aggrieved and long-neglected youths of the Niger- Delta Region (NDR) who saw kidnappings as a means of economic survival, having been long neglected and lacked job opportunities, despite the oil wealth drawn from their own lands.

Other security challenges faced by the state during the period were those of violent crimes as the state experienced spates of armed robberies almost on daily basis with the poorly-equipped and ill-motivated security agencies who acted on behalf of the government in the state, looking helpless in the face of superior fire-power of the robbers who had field days.

The threat of kidnapping and other dangerous crimes have rendered Akwa Ibom State generally restive, with pockets of insurrection and armed rebellion which manifested in form of damages, destructions, espionage, sabotage, vandalism, subversion and other miscellaneous risks. The state has also witnessed proliferation of fire-arms and violence, hostage takings for ransom, insurgency, sporadic communal and tribal unrests, youth’s restiveness, militancy, cultism, and so forth.

In the area of politics, the state has had its fair share of political violence characterized by politically-motivated assassinations by political thugs who after being used and abandoned by politicians, resort to using those fire arms and ammunitions supplied to them by politicians to engage in violent crimes and kidnappings with attendant security consequences and deaths.  Suspected members of deadly cult-groups have had field days in some parts of the state, killing and maiming innocent people at will. Such criminal activities were believed to be politically-motivated to scare political opponents for taking part in elections. Instances abound where some political opponents were forced out of their homes by gangs of gunmen and shot dead in full view of the public. Investigations showed that such killings have spread across the 31 Local Government Areas in the state (Global Concord, 1st June, 2012:2).

The lack of training of old and un-educated security agents in the state coupled with poor salaries paid them by government created low morale amongst the security agents operating in the state during the review period (1999-2011). Another source of insecurity in the state is the discovery and exploitation of crude oil in the Niger Delta Region vis-à-vis in Akwa Ibom State which has always generated in conflicts between the oil producing communities on the one hand, the federal government and multi-national oil companies (MNCS) whose operations have caused serious damages to the oil-rich, but, poor and neglected Niger-Delta communities. This brought about youth’s restiveness and subsequent arm-struggles for economic emancipation of the long-neglected Niger-Delta oil producing region.

The attempted suppression of the genuine agitations of the people of the oil producing communities of the Niger-Delta by the federal government’s vindictive security forces were met with stiff resistance by Niger Delta youths in which Akwa Ibom youths played greater roles in the resistance. 

Socio-economically, the state has suffered seriously due to re-occurring kidnaps of well meaning indigenes, foreign oil workers and investors, who out of fear of being kidnapped for ransom have relocated their businesses to states where they feel safer other than Akwa Ibom state.

Eduongo (2008:5), maintains that, “the spate of kidnappings and related crimes are fast gaining grounds in the state. At the last count, there have been over 100 incidents of these obnoxious and in-human crimes. In the last few days, there have been about five cases of alleged kidnaps within Uyo, Eket and Etinan axis which have made screaming headlines in most of the indigenous Newspapers and Magazines. One may be forced to ask, are these cases of kidnapping in the state connected with the Niger-Delta struggle for justice or sheer greed? You may further probe if our society is returning to Hobbes’s state of nature described as the survival of the fittest. The problem needs appropriate response from our leaders in authority. There is another dimension or twist to the issue of kidnapping in the state and perhaps in our country. A lot of evidences abound in some of these cases of kidnap where family members were directly involved. Sometimes, children, relatives, house-helps, drivers, name them, are involved in these kidnap cases”. Kidnappings and other criminal activities have become lucrative businesses which many people in government have shown little concern because of their shares from criminal gains (Ekong, 2010:5).

            The traditional inclinations of some indigenes of the state to customs and Ekpo Masquerade Justice Systems and some traditional rites created room for proliferation of cults and cultists who played inglorious roles in political assassinations and as they were used by politicians to murder actual and perceived political rivals which worsened the security situations in the state during the review period.

Similarly, the proliferation of cult groups in institutions of higher learning and even at secondary school levels in Akwa Ibom State also posed serious security problems during the review period.

The various cult-related murders by rival cult groups in tertiary institutions in the state during the period gave the citizens grave concern as young students at the prime of their youth were inexplicably murdered in most tertiary institutions in the state by warring and rival cult-groups fighting over supremacy and sheer demonic urge to take human lives. These un-guided student cultists operated with abandon in most of the tertiary institutions during the review period, particularly in the University of Uyo, the Akwa Ibom state Polytechnic, Ikot Osurua in Ikot Ekpene local government area and College of Education, Afaha Nsit, Nsit Ibom Local Government Area, where series of cult-related deaths of rival student-cultists were recorded almost on daily basis.




This study attempts to discern the palpable causes of anti-oil protests in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. The study is necessitated by the need to situate the crisis in the Niger-Delta region in historical perspective. In line with this, what appears to be the federal government response to the crisis are isolated and discussed. It is found that one of the issues causing disaffection in the region is breach of promises and dashed hopes from the government and the oil companies operating there.  Our conclusion emphasizes the need for consensus building as well as participatory approach to conflict resolution in the region. In the last three decades, the Niger Delta region, the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, sometimes violent, against the repressive tendencies of the Nigerian state on the one hand and against the recklessness, exploitative and environmentally unfriendly activities of oil Multinationals on the other hand. The violence has taken terror dimensions. Such violent agitations have claimed thousands of lives, other thousands displaced and inestimable properties have been destroyed rendering the region one of the most dangerous zones to live in Nigeria today. The research looked at the genesis of the crisis, the threats it poses to human and national security and the policies that have been adopted by the Nigerian state to curtail and control the crisis. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed among the respondents identified for the study within the FCT. The study shows that the genesis of the terrorism, kidnapping and hostage taking going on in the Niger Delta region was caused by poverty, unemployment and long years of economic deprivation.  Also respondent believe the government has the political will and ability to resolve the issue and that the establishment of the NDDC, Niger Delta development Master Plan and the Amnesty programme offered the militant will help tackle the insecurity in the Niger Delta. Respondents are also of the opinion that JTF has performed very well in tackling the terrorism going on there. We then concluded that government should continue to pursue the development and reclamation of degraded land in the Niger Delta region due to oil exploration and address the grievances of the region.

                             CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the study

Nigeria is a state under perpetual internal security threat from various ethno-religious militias or political insurgents. At a more general level the threat has social, economic, political and environmental dimensions. Each of these dimensions, singly and conjointly, greatly affects the nation’s stability and well-being. Threats to human and national security ranges from the menace of separatist demands, illegal militia armies, ethnic and religious conflicts, terrorism, armed robbery, corruption and poverty to sabotage of public properties, economic sabotage and environmental degradation. (Praeger; Newyork, 1990.)

While it is conceded that oil has generated massive revenue for the country, it must be noted that, the negative effects from the exploration and production of oil and gas from the region, have continued to affect the people adversely .The deleterious impact has resulted in an extensive pollution, ecological fragmentation and alteration, as well as socio-economic and political marginalization. So much has been written on the environmental crisis in the region that it should not delay us here.( Praeger; Newyork, 1990.)

Suffice it to say that, what the people of this region get by way of compensation from the federal Government does not seem to correlate with the stupendous revenue that is garnered from it. Revenue from this region has fueled socio-economic and political transformation of other geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Expectedly, in time perspective, the people of this region realized that to remain mute in the face of such huge ecological destruction was unwise. It would appear that it is the realization of the need to protect themselves from activities of oil firms and, a government so keen on extracting surplus from their region without considering their interest that series of anti-oil protests have occurred in the region which has resulted to taking arms against the federal government and the multinational oil firms. Thus, this study is necessitated by need to situate the protest in the region in historical perspective. In doing this, an analysis of the causes of the protests is undertaken. In line with this, what appears to be Federal Government’s response to these protests are highlighted and discussed.

Among these, ethno-religious fighting and violent attacks in the oil-rich Niger Delta forms the major security dilemma. The predominant threats and security challenges in the area are emanating from un-abating attacks on oil installations, arm proliferation, sea piracy, youth restiveness, bunkering, kidnap and hostage taking In the last three decades, the Niger Delta region, the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, sometimes violent, against the repressive tendencies of the Nigerian state on the one hand and against the recklessness, exploitative and environmentally unfriendly activities of oil Multinationals on the other hand. Such violent agitations have claimed thousands

of lives, other thousands displaced and inestimable properties have been destroyed. In economic term, millions of dollars have been lost to youth restiveness, disruption of production, pipeline vandalization, hostage-taking, assault and bombing of oil installations to mention a few. The use of terror strategies by the agitated groups to end the real and perceived injustices has attracted global attentions and a rethink on resource distribution policies of the Federal government. However, the persistence of the problem suggests the failure of such policies. This paper examines the menace of domestic terrorism, kidnapping and hostage-taking in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and its security implications.

1.2  Statement of problem

The terrorism, kidnapping and hostage-taking witnessed in the Niger delta  is an offspring of frustration and aggression due to repressive government policies, exploitative tendencies and insensitivity  of the multinational oil companies operating in the region. The discovery of crude oil and gas brought joy and hope to the people of the Niger Deltans. This was because the people believed that the discovery would lead the region to sustainable development.

The Niger Deltans were confident that oil discovery in their region would mean access to basic amenities, such as potable water, steady electricity supply, functional healthcare facilities, good roads, good schools and employment opportunities. In their innocence, they believed that the Nigerian government and the multinational oil companies were interested in bringing development to their rural communities to fight against the negative consequences associated with the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas. After 50 year of operation, all of these dreams seem to be a nightmare.

Their demands are simple: “give us a fair share from the revenue accruing from our resources and care for our environment”.  But a deaf hear was turned by both Government and the multinational operating companies and all they did was to pay lip services. These cumulated to the immediate past and present crisis in the Niger Delta Region and thus encouraged the emergence of armed groups and insurgents who terrorized the region for decades. Some armed group shifted the genuine fight for socio-economic justice for their communities to mere selfish desires through criminal activity such as piracy, kidnapping, hostage-taking and oil theft or bunkering.

These terrorist activities had grave implication for the economy stability and peace of the country. As fallout from the activities if the militants, the Federal government put the economic loss incurred by Nigeria while the Niger Delta crisis lasted at over N308.7 billion with a whopping N3 billion lost in 2008 alone to the conflict. This translates to the production loss of one million barrels of oil per day. 

During this period, the nation’s exports were hampered as a result of the conflicts in which pipelines were vandalized and oil workers either kidnapped or maimed. The human impact during the crisis was unquantifiable given the magnitude of the criminality against human beings in the area.

Available record, he stated indicated that no fewer than 1000 lives were lost to the carnage in the region in addition to the spate of kidnappings during which local and expatriate workers were taken hostage including aged and young ones belonging to families of prominent individuals in the country.

It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the situation and if possible proffer solution to prevent the re-occurrence of the crisis. 

1.3  Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to diagnose the incidence of terrorism, kidnapping and hostage-taking activities of the Niger Delta Militants that is tearing at the economic heart of the nations. The study will be carried out with particular reference to the history, cause, effect and recommend probable options for effective government responses to curtail the violent sect. In order to achieve this objective, the study seeks to among other things:

1.      Identify and discusses the major factors responsible for the violent activities of the militants in Niger Delta region

2.      Discuss the effects of their activities on the socio-economic and political life of Nigeria

3.      Examine the major actors involved in this terrorist activities and their mode of operations

4.      Review efforts of government and by security agencies aimed at curtailing the activities of the Niger Delta Militants

5.      Analyse the role of stakeholders by looking at levels of collaboration between them in tackling the menace of Niger Delta Militants.

6.      Recommend effective options to the government and security agencies for addressing the issue

1.4  Research questions /Hypothesis

Research Questions

The following questions give a better insight into the problems that this research project attempts to resolve:

a)      What is the genesis of Niger Delta Militants Terrorist activities?

b)      Is Niger Delta Militants a terrorist group or freedom fighter? 

c)      Is the emergence of Niger Delta Militants due to poverty, unemployment and long years of economic deprivation?

d)     What are the perceptions of Nigerians regarding the causes of Niger Delta Militants terrorist activities in Nigeria?

e)      What are the effects of Niger Delta Militants activities on the socio-economic and political life of Nigeria?

f)       What is the role of the government and security agencies in checking the menace?

g)      Do the security agencies have adequate personnel and gadgets to track and prosecute Niger Delta Militants insurgent?

h)      What is/are the socio-economic and political implications of Niger Delta Militants activities on the Nigerian economy, reputation and integrity to investors?

1.4.1        Hypothesis Formulation

The following hypotheses are to be tested in this research work as stated bellow:

 Hypothesis One

H0:       Niger Delta Militants did not emerge as a freedom fighter but as a terrorist group.

H1:       Niger Delta Militants did emerge as a freedom fighter but as a terrorist group.

Hypothesis Two

H0:       The emergence of Niger Delta Militants activities in Nigeria is not due to the high level of poverty, unemployment and economic deprivation

H1­:       The emergence of Niger Delta Militants activities in Nigeria is due to the high level of poverty, unemployment and economic deprivation

Hypothesis Three

H0:   The establishment of NDDC, Niger Delta Development Master Plan and the Amnesty programme are the only ways to address the terrorism, kidnapping and hostage-taking going on in the Niger Delta region

H1:       The establishment of NDDC, Niger Delta Development Master Plan and the Amnesty programme are the only ways to address the terrorism, kidnapping and hostage-taking going on in the Niger Delta region

1.5 Significance of the study

This research work represents a worthy and timely contribution to knowledge, information and developments in combating the Niger Delta Militants group in Nigeria particularly in the South-South part of the country. It focuses on history, causes, implication and suggests remedy. It also looks into the role of security agencies, policy makers, stakeholders and the enabling laws in tackling the violent activities, particularly the spate of killings, kidnappings, hostage taking, bunkering, bombings of oil facilities etc. It suggests a range of measures respective authorities, stakeholders (religious, community and political) and security agencies can adopt better to address the wanton destruction of life and properties which is due to grievances and repression by the government and the oil companies over the years.

 The unchecked activities of Niger Delta Militants is took a great toll on Nigeria where investors in the oil and gas sector are divesting by leaving the country and new ones are not coming because of the level of insecurity in the Niger Delta region, that is fast eroding Nigeria’s investment potential, integrity and reputation among the comity of nations.

The research work would also be of benefit to students wishing to pursue and eventually take a career in understudying terrorism; kidnapping, hostage taking, detection, and prevention and security management.

This project work also provides an insight into which further research work on this topic could be successfully carried out by both students of Humanities and Social Sciences.

To the Nigerian public and security agencies, this work provides an assessment handbook on the problem: Terrorism, Kidnapping and Hostage-taking: A case study of Niger Delta.

1.6  Scope  and Limitation of the study

1.6.1        Scope of the study

The subject matter (Terrorism, Kidnapping and Hostage-taking: A case study of Niger Delta) is a wide area of study, and therefore the researcher has decided to work within a limited scope by focusing only on respondents within the Federal Capital Territory. Due to time constraint within which to submit this project work, coupled with other academic work, the researcher has to restrict himself to only few stakeholders in the terrorism, kidnapping, and security management and individuals within the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. This study covers the period of 1997 to 2011 on activities of Niger Delta Militants in Nigeria and the resultant effect.

1.6.2        Limitations of the study

In the course of carrying out this research work so many constraints were encountered. One of such limitations was the difficulty in accessing the necessary documents for proper references, dearth of data on the victims of Niger Delta Militants violent activities to date, paucity of funds for logistics as well as retrieval of questionnaire from respondents. Information was largely gathered through various documents, questionnaire, interviews, internet, blogs and newspaper publications in the national library.   

Also, one would not be right to rely wholly on the validity of the study conducted since some respondents tend to respond due to the level of their knowledge.

Economic hardship is a principal constraint of this project. Cost of research materials has increased astronomically with higher transportation cost and other miscellaneous expenses like photocopying etc., which became a serious problem.

1.7  Definition of Terms

IED: Improvised explosive device

VBIED: Vehicle Born Improvised explosive devices.






The truism that corruption is a surest route that hinders development in any society does not need contention. Though, in some quarters, it is argued that corruption could trigger development (Otite, 1986). However, despite this assertion, there is a widespread held opinion condemning corruption in all ramifications and hence, worldwide outcry and call for eradicating the scourge. Evidence may abound that corruption could aid development; no such evidence could be claimed to any root most especially developing state (Nigeria inclusive). Compelling evidences across the globe demonstrate that corruption is an anathema to development (khan, a). Furthermore, evidences in Nigeria have shown that corruption does more harm than good. This is evident in the fact that despite Nigeria‟s abundant natural resources the country is classified among poor countries in the world. Added to this is the fact that about 54% of the population earns less than $1 per day. It needs to be stated that the incidence of extreme paradoxes of widespread and endemic poverty and hunger in the midst of plenty is a manifestation of corruption enmeshed in deteriorating condition of living (Ali, 2008). Statistics had also shown that “Nigeria is among the four largest economies in Africa” with a real GDP of 58.4 billion dollar and a population of about 140m” (Ibid).

Similarly, the enormous revenue generation capacity from oil and non-oil sectors, woefully contrasts with the decaying public infrastructures and extent of institutional development recorded. As it was rightly asserted by Salawu (2007), the phenomenon of corruption in Nigeria has made it impossible for Nigerians to enjoy the dividends of democracy and indeed the gifts of nature with which the country is greatly and abundantly endowed. This scenario is an acknowledgement that the state of affair in the country today is a reflection of pervasive corruption which has eaten deep into every facets of Nigeria life. Without gain saying, it is a wide held belief that corruption is a way of life in Nigeria and that it is responsible for broken promises and dashed hopes which has characterized the lives of most Nigerians. It is not surprising to hear people saying that Nigerians are corrupt. Making it a fait accompli. More so, Nigeria is a country where corruption is rife and where greed for material acquisition and quest for political power had relegated to the background morals preached by various religions. This is because despite our claim to be religious, our quest for relevance had made nonsense of our self acclaimed religiousity and nothing can be left undone by our elites and non-elites for the realization their self desire. The end, it is believed, justifies the means. To this end, there is now the increasing realisation about the ill effects of corruption on the nation‟s social, political and economic fabrics. Though, it is evident that there is no country that is totally free from corruption, the incidences of corruption is on the increase especially in poor and underdeveloped states. The Anti corruption efforts of the Nigerian government have proved ineffective, hence, large scale corrupt related cases, accusations and counter-accusations. There were cases of missing funds, police pensions scam, missing oil revenue or non-remittance into the federation account, contract scam, oil theft, administrative inefficiency or dereliction of duty, illegal sale or allotment of government land and property, bribery, extortion and other forms of corruption, economic and financial crimes. In view of the above, it is imperative to undertake a review of the causes, effects and probable solutions to this menace. Following the introduction, are the other seven subsections, thence, this discourse, is organized as follows; the definition of corruption in Nigeria, perspectives, causes and effects of corruption. Others are the probable solutions and conclusion which forms the least nucleus of the work

Corruption is Nigeria’s biggest challenge. It is clear to every citizen that the level of corruption in the country is high. It’s found in every sector of society. Be it a small or big sector, there is every possibility of observing corrupt practices when critically examined.

What is corruption? It’s the dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery. It is the illegitimate use of power to benefit a private interest (Morris 1991). Corruption is the giving of a bribe to an official so that the truth will not be told. It involves the embezzlement of public fund for personal use and any act which is considered to be criminal act according to the law of a particular society.

Corruption is potent cancer that has mercilessly eaten Nigeria to a state of stupor-Professor Peter U. Nwangwu.


The utility of corruption both as a concept and as a phenomenon is in contest. That is, it is a contested concept that takes varied forms. What is universal is that at least two (2) elements will be involved and the intent is to satisfy pecuniary or selfish interests either directly or indirectly. Corruption is a global phenomenon, and has been with all kinds of societies; be it Advanced, Primitive, Modern or Traditional, as a global scourge. It is a universal phenomenon which presents itself in different colourations and dimensions and, wide spread in terms of coverage. The concept attracts different meanings from different people particularly the social scientists. Thence, its implications for different geo-political zones of the international community constitute a moot point. Corruption like most concepts in social sciences is classified into the group of concept described by Gallie as highly contestable concepts. Thus, the definition that may be attached can be dissected and restricted. Onigu Otite defined corruption as “the perversion of integrity or affairs through bribery, favour, or moral depravity… societal impurity” (cited in Okafor, 2009). Lipset and Lenz (2000) define corruption as an “effort to secure wealth or power through illegal means for private gain at public expense” (Fagbadebo, 2007). Corruption, according to Nkom (1982) is the perversion of public affairs for private advantage. Nkom was also of the view that corruption includes bribery or the use of unauthorized rewards to influence people in position of authority either to act or refuse to act in ways beneficial to the private advantage of the giver and then that of the receiver. It includes the misappropriation of public funds and resources for private gains, nepotism etc. In a similar vein, Doig (1996) described corruption as, the use of official position, resources or facilities for personal advantage, or possible conflict of interest between public position and private benefit. This involves misconduct by public officials and usually covered by a variety of internal regulations (Public Service Rules and Extant Rules). From the above, it is common to find people referring to corruption as the perversion of public affairs for private advancement. Therefore, corruption in this sense includes bribery, kickback, misappropriation, misapplication or the use of ones position to gain an undue advantage. Thus, any transaction which violates the duty of a public office holder and aimed at acquiring or amassing resources illegally for personal advancement and self gratification is seen as an act of corruption. Put differently, any intentional deviant behaviour for personal foredeal is a corrupt act. Gibbons (1976) sees corruption in terms of politics and believes that political corruption has to do with the way public office forsakes public interest measured in terms of mass opinion in order to ensure that some form of political advantage are achieved at the expense of public interest. A more encompassing description of corruption was given by Akindele (1995) who opined that corruption is a socio-political, economic and moral malaise that is usually holistically permeates all the nerves of any society. The concept of corruption, as observed by Akindele (1995), has ideological, moral, cultural and intellectual discourse. Another simple, uncomplicated and encompassing definition of corruption that is found to be useful is the one that sees the phenomenon as the acquisition of that personal benefits which one (as a member of society not public official alone) is not entitled to (Salawu, 2007). Corruption, seen from this perspective therefore represents a departure from what the society considers as correct procedures in exchange of goods and services on the part of everybody that makes up the society. The implication is that corruption is seen in various societies from the perspective of the prescribed social life of the people. The proposition is that, while some societies speak of corruption mainly in terms of illegal acquisition of material resources or benefits, others tend to broaden it by attaching social and moral values to it (Metiboba, 1996). The deduction from above is that what someone regards as a corrupt act is seen differently by another person. The 1999 and other previous constitutions established a code of conduct for public officers and made it a political objective for the state to abolish all corrupt practices associated with abuse of power. However, it does not define corruption or give a list of acts that will amount to corruption. It has also been observed that the statutory criminal laws, the criminal and penal codes, do not define corruption. The Independent Corrupt Practices (and other related offences) Commission (ICPC) Act 2000, and the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) Act 2004 have now broadened the definition of corruption. The EFCC act empowers the commission to investigate, prevent and prosecute offenders who engage in: Money laundering, embezzlement, bribery, looting and any form of corrupt practices, illegal arms deal, smuggling, human trafficking, and child labour, illegal oil bunkering, illegal mining, tax evasion, foreign exchange malpractices including counterfeiting to currency, theft of intellectual property and piracy, open market abuse, dumping of toxic, wastes, and prohibited goods (EFCC Act, 2004) This paper agrees with Lipset (1995) that corruption involves a deviation from the laws and regulations with intent to abuse ones public office and obtain private benefits. Second, the resources exchanged in corruption result in material advantages, as when a favourable public decision is paid for with money. Corruption is therefore one form of influence of money on politics. Third, that corruption always involves clandestine transactions as it is an unacceptable form of transaction.


Corruption has a dynamic impact, which is felt more by poorer households and smaller firms with a long run negative impact on growth, primarily through reduction in human capital and investment. And the damage that corruption does is widely felt across the economy. It is associated with poor public finance management and provision of public goods, an increase in barriers to doing business and consequent lower levels of investment, especially foreign direct investment. Government effectiveness is also damaged as talent in public institutions is eroded. Finally, corruption is associated with lower average standards of living, education levels and greater income inequality.

Our results show that corruption in Nigeria could cost up to 37% of GDP by 2030 if it’s not dealt with immediately. This equates to around US$1,000 per person in 2014 and nearly $2,000 per person by 2030. But if Nigeria can tackle corruption to bring it down to levels seen in similar resource-rich countries, it could increase its GDP by $534bn in 2030. The boost in average income that we estimate, given the current per capita income, could significantly improve the lives of many in Nigeria, should efforts to tackle corruption succeed.


1.To find out the cause and effect of corruption in the Nigeria society

2.To analysis corruption in different sectors in the Nigeria society both in public and private sector

3.To find out possible solution to end the menance called ’’corruption’’

4.To find out corruption has contributed to most economic problems\


1. What is  the cause and effect of corruption in the Nigeria society?

2. How  is  corruption seen in different sectors in the Nigeria society both in public and private sector?

3. What are the  possible solution to end the menance called ’’corruption’’?

4.How has corruption has contributed to most economic problems?


The study will enlighten the public on the dangerous effect of corruption to the Nigeria economy and possible way out. Since there is no much work done on this, it will contribute to existing knowledge. The study will also be useful to government of Nigeria on how to  curb the menance and restore hope to the Nigeria society.


This  study  aim at evaluating the effect of corruption in an economy and using the Federal Republic of Nigeria as a case study. The need to study corruption and economic growth in Nigeria has continued to generate passionate commentaries and academic interest due to the level of corruption in the country and its effect on economic growth. In Nigeria corruption is one of the reasons for many unresolved problems that have critically hobbled and reduce development (Ayobolu, 2006). It also remains a long-term major political and economic growth challenge for Nigeria (Sachs, 2007). International centre for economic growth (1999) states that corruption is a canker worm that has eaten deep in the fabric of the nation which ranges from petty corruption to political or systematic corruption. Abiodem (2007) in World Bank studies put corruption at over $1 trillion per year accounting for up to 15% of the Gross Domestic Product of nation like Nigeria. Corruption is a canker worm that has reduced development in all sectors of the economy (EFCC, 2005). Corruption has been the primary reason behind the country difficulties in developing fast (ICPC, 2006). Ribadu, (2003) states that this is the reason why transparency   international  has consisted rating of Nigeria as one of the top three most corrupt countries in the world.





1.1            Background to the Study

The nation Nigeria has witnessed brutal confrontation and massive assault from terrorist group which is undoubtedly the most blood-thirsty and destructive, both in term of demonic brutality, mindless savagery and flagrant disobedience to the principles of peace and stability (Yakubu, 2012:16). Nigeria has witnessed insurgency from this terrorist group called Boko Haram from 2009. They unleash terror and fear in the minds of every Nigeria. There is wanton destruction of government properties, bombing of churches, Mosques and other public places, assassination of prominent individuals, burning of schools occasioned by sporadic shooting of innocent citizens (Adamu, 2009:31-32). Religious violence has been responsible for the collapse of many nations in many parts of the world. Religion has also been found to be behind the rapid growth and might of some powerful nations today. In Nigeria, experience shows that the incidence of religious violence due to activities of some religious sects has become a yearly ritual, often leading to the destruction of lives and property, the loss of precious time, money and energy.

According to Cook (2012:1), Boko Haram’s onslaught on Christians began with a series of attacks in Yobe state late 2011, where about 100 people died. On 25 December 2011, Boko Haram carried out a suicide bomb attack on St Theresa Catholic Church in Madalla (near Abuja), in which 44 Christians were killed. The sect also claimed responsibility for bomb attacks that killed about 80 people around Jos on 24 December 2011 (Christmas Eve). On 26 February 2012, Boko Haram claimed responsibility for another attack on Christians at Christ Church (COCIN) in Jos, which killed three and injured about 38. On 11 March 2012, it attacked St Finbarr’s Catholic Church also in Jos, killing 19 people. In addition, about 20 Christian students (and a professor) were attacked and killed by Boko Haram at Ado Bayero University, Kano, on 2 May 2012. In another assault that demonstrates a direct focus on Christians, Boko Haram stormed into a church service in Maiduguri and killed five Christians including the priest. Still in Maiduguri, an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) was found at St. Michael Church in the Railway Quarters. It was detonated with no casualty before the worshippers congregated for their weekend services. But on 3 June 2012, a Boko Haram suicide bomber drove a car into Harvest Field Church of Christ in Bauchi, killing nine people and injuring 35 others. There were also thematic attacks on Christians on 5, 6, 10, 11, and 24 January and 17th June 2012 in Maiduguri, Adamawa, Plateau, and Kaduna states. Together, those targeted bombing acts have created not only a tense national environment in which Christians feel and believe that they have come under Islamist siege but also a growing sense of many observers that Nigeria is poised precariously at the precipice of political and social catastrophe.

Maier (2014:53) asserts that despite attacks on churches, Christians are not the only targets of Boko Haram assaults. Boko Haram adherents privilege a version of Islam that regards as transgressors those who do not abide strictly to the teachings of Allah. The net effect is that faithful Muslims are often targets of its wrath. For instance, it assassinated Sheikh Ibrahim Ahmed, a critic of the sect at Gomari Mosque in Maiduguri. According to Hussein Solomon, Senior Professor in Department of Political Science at the University of the Free State in South Africa, Sheikh Ibrahim’s assassination was a clear message to other Imams that the only credible interpretation of the Qur’an is the Islamist one. Also, on 13 July 2012, a Boko Haram suicide bomber attempted to kill two prominent Muslims the Shehu of Borno and the state’s deputy governor as they completed their Friday prayer. Both men escaped but ten of Muslims lost their lives. For Boko Haram, Nigeria’s national and state governments are run by non-believers. As such, Muslim political elites stand condemned for their cooperation with their Christian counterparts. Both groups are targets because they do not subscribe to Boko Haram’s ideological commitment to implementing shari’ah law in Nigeria.




The study examined the role of Human Rights institutions in the country in addressing the problem of child abuse.The objective of this study is causes, types and effects of child abuse on the child, the family and the nation. The work is meant to draw closer attention on this increasing scourge and access measures of addressing to preserve the fundamental human rights of the child as entrenched under the Nigeria Child Right Act.In the study, the researcher defined what child abuse is; the various forms of child abuse, and also identified some of the causes and consequences of child abuse as a reflection of the societal problem and its impact on the life of the child. The study also evaluated the extent of damages it does to the abused child and the Nigerian society. In order to gather relevant data and information on the subjec tmatter, the researcher used the questionnaire as data collection instrument, which was administered on 200 respondents within the FCT which is the limit of the scope of the study. A self constructed questionnaire titled Child Abuse Questionnaire (CAQ) was administered on the students after validation. The instrument has construct validity co-efficient of 0.756 and reliability co-efficient of0.95. The statistical technique that was used to analyse the data collected was Chi-Square distributiontest. The result of the analysis showed that there was a significant relationship between poverty andeconomic deprivation and child abuse in Nigeria. Also the study revealed that child abuse is still very prevalent in Nigeria and also that religious and cultural influences contribute to child abuse in Nigeria.The result revealed that the Rights institutions are not doing enough to arrest the problem of childabuse and that the child right act is not working in Nigeria.CHAPTER ONE1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDYThe Collins concise dictionary defines juvenile as pertaining to the young or immature of youth orchildhood. This comprises the child and the adolescent. According to World Health Organization(WHO), a child falls within the age group of 0 –  19 years. Some countries further include any oneless than or up to 21 years. The Nigerian labour act defines a child as those who are 16 years of ageand below but the International Labour Organization (ILO) has brought it down to individuals below15years of age. Child abuse can be defined as ‘an intentional or neglectful physical or emotional injury imposed on achild, including sexual molestation.’ (Garner 1999:10) Child abuse violates the United NationDeclaration of Human Rights, the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted in1989 and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the African Child. Child abuse can be seen as situation whereby the fundamental human right of a child is temperedwith. That is, the child is not given adequate care and protection as it’s the responsibility of every parent to take good care of their children. This rights are right to education, religion, freedom,movement, shelter etc. The child on most occasion is exposed to unnecessary hardship and odds inlife.Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to theemphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family systemalways provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment ofseverely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of thechild, parents/ guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried orvery poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas inurban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by child-minders . Preventivemeasures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the ruralareas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportiverole of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded.




The aim of this article is consider the current constitution, and likely future prospects, of the field of criminology, and to examine in particular how it might be becoming more global in nature. The term ‘criminology’ will be used broadly, referring to the academic field as a whole, and hence including the study of the causes of crime, responses to crime including criminal justice, as well as to the field’s many sub-disciplines. The article begins by considering international and comparative criminology, before reviewing previous work that has raised the prospect of a ‘global criminology.’ The focus then shifts to consideration of the question, ‘what is criminology?’, prompted in particular by the various essays in Bosworth and Hoyle (eds) (2011). It is argued that this question usefully draws attention to certain problems currently facing Anglo-American criminology, and contends moreover that these issues are related in certain respects to issues that will face criminology as it globalises. Drawing from work by Wenger (1999) and others, a novel way of conceptualising the field of criminology is proposed, namely as a group of ‘communities of practice.’ The article shows how not only does this approach help model some of the challenges facing Anglo- American criminology both domestically and globally, but that it also suggests some practical measures that could be undertaken to help overcome these problems.



Background to study

The context and history of comparative criminology Comparative criminology is as old as criminology itself. Beccaria, Bentham, Voltaire, Helvetius, Quetelet, and many others of the 18th-century Enlightenment compared and contrasted their own systems of justice with those of other nations. Their recommendations and findings were often influential in bringing about change in countries other than their own. Indeed, the U.S. Constitution owes some of its language and ideas to the writings of these thinkers (see Granucci 1969; Schwartz 1971). Yet, for most of the 19th century and much of the 20th century, comparative criminology was neglected as nations looked inward for solutions to their specific crime problems. It was not until the middle and late decades of the 20th century that interest again emerged in comparing and contrasting the problems of crime across nations. There are many reasons for this renewed interest. The most obvious is that the latter half of the 20th century saw the world become a smaller place, a transformation initiated by revolutions in communication, transportation, and information technology. At the close of the 20th century, nations are increasingly pressured to account for their actions, and the activities of nations are transparent as never before.

One can reasonably argue that transparency began in economic institutions, where trade and commerce demanded it. But the availability of information about various facets of national social life has flourished as well, some have argued, because of an abiding concern with the health of democracy. Kenneth Prewitt, current Director of the U.S. Census Bureau, has suggested, “A healthy democracy needs a healthy number system, and anything that erodes that number system undermines democracy” (American Sociological Association 1999, 3). Gradually, countries have collected and made available to the international community statistics on a wide range of subjects relevant to the interests of comparative criminologists (see, for example, United Nations Development Programme 1998). Among these data are statistics on crime and criminal justice, which have only recently become widely accessible at the international level (Newman 1999). Although nations formerly guarded information on crime and criminal justice zealously, many nations now provide these data on the Internet, where they are available to anyone with adequate technological resources. The transparency and availability of such information have created a climate in which the promises of comparative criminological research may be realistically pursued.

Although many theoretical, methodological, and philosophical problems certainly have dogged comparative criminology since its inception, there is little doubt that this field of investigation is currently in a state of rapid expansion. While this chapter outlines some of the main problems that confront comparative criminology, the discussion also focuses on what cross-national research has accomplished and what it can do for the field of criminology in the future. We begin with two questions often asked of comparative criminology: What is the comparative perspective, and why employ it? Following this discussion, we move to a consideration of the substantive and theoretical issues that lie at the root of comparative criminological inquiry. We must begin with theory, because the plethora of databases and other information now available from many countries provides an environment that tempts rash comparisons and sometimes unsubstantiated conclusions based on what may be incomparable data. Faced with such a challenge, theoretically informed research supported by sound methodology is the wisest defense. Consequently, we look at the theoretical perspectives that have been brought to bear in understanding crime from a comparative perspective. Following this, we consider crime as a dependent variable in comparative work, then stake out the methodological approaches that are often used in this type of investigation. We then consider the data available to researchers interested in pursuing comparative studies and conclude with some observations about the future of comparative research in criminology.

The impact of globalization on crime and criminal justice is an important consideration from the perspective of comparative research. One reason for this is the link between globalisation and punitiveness, the main point of interest of comparative criminology. Baker and Roberts (2005) point to the various reasons why ‘new punitiveness’ is associated with globalisation. They argue, however, that globalisation does not necessarily cause punitiveness, as it is not a universal trend. Globalisation is a complex phenomenon, which has definitely affected penal policies, privileging punitive responses and facilitating ‘policy transfer’, but it can as well ‘spark diverse, jurisdiction‐specific responses’ (Baker and Roberts 2005: 122).

A further reason is the fact that globalisation, of itself, presents specific challenges to the credibility of nation states: as crime increasingly displays international dimensions, it is becoming more and more difficult for nation states to deal with it. Globalists claim that a global criminology instead of comparative criminology is needed to understand what is happening in this field (Larsen and Smandych in Nelken 2011).