TORTURE AS A MEANS OF OBTAINING RELIABLE INFORMATION FROM CRIME SUSPECT

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

Governments sometimes characterize torture as an indispensable interrogation tool for gathering strategic intelligence. In this article, we review the relevant social scientific research on the effectiveness, impact, and causes of torture. First, we summarize research on false confessions and examine the relevance of that research for torture-based interrogations. Next, we review research on the mental health consequences of torture for survivors and perpetrators. Finally, we explore thesocial-psychologicalconditionsthatpromoteactsofcruelty(suchasthoseseen at Abu Ghraib) and examine the arguments typically offered to justify the use of torture. We argue that any hypothesized benefits from the use of torture must be weighed against the substantial proven costs of torture. These costs include the unreliable information extracted through interrogations using torture, the mental and emotional toll on victims and torturers, loss of international stature and credibility, and the risk of retaliation against soldiers and civilians.

Torture is one of the most extreme forms of human violence, resulting in both physical and psychological consequences. Torture has been used for thousands of years, and is still widespread, occurring throughout much of the world (Amnesty International, 2009). Research has shown that torture can have enduring negative effects on both survivors and perpetrators, and is ineffective for obtaining reliable information in interrogation. Although many international laws and codes have been established to prohibit torture, its widespread use continues as part of internal

conflicts within nations, as well as in international conflicts. The issue of torture has most recently stirred debate with respect to interrogation practices used by the United States. In 2003, the world was stunned by a series of photographs of prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq. These photos, taken by U.S. soldiers on cell phones and digital cameras, depicted prisoners subjected to cruel and humiliating treatment at the hands of U.S. troops. In one photo, a handcuffed, terrified prisoner is shown cornered by a snarling military dog straining against its leash. In many photos, naked prisoners had been forced to lie on top of one another in a pile or to simulate sexual acts. Several pictures show naked, hooded inmates handcuffed in painful positions to beds and cell bars. Some inmates have bleeding wounds; others appear to have wires attached to their bodies (Hersh, 2004). Some photos were especially disturbing because they show soldiers (both men and women) posing next to the abused prisoners, grinning or giving “thumbs up” signs, appearing to take sadistic pleasure in the abuse.
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TORTURE AS A MEANS OF OBTAINING RELIABLE INFORMATION FROM CRIME SUSPECT

THE CHALLENGES OF PEACE AND SECURITY AND THE ROLE OF DRUG PEDDLERS AND CULTISM IN OBOSI TOWN IN ANAMBRA STATE

THE CHALLENGES OF PEACE AND SECURITY AND THE ROLE OF DRUG PEDDLERS AND CULTISM IN OBOSI TOWN IN ANAMBRA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to Study

The explosion of drug peddling and cultism in the higher institutions of learning in Anambra State is a glaring reality. The situation becomes more worrisome when one realizes that Anambra society is now replete with cultic activities.

There is always a spill-over of tension and crises from the various campuses to the towns. Tranquility which had been the heritage of the Anambra people, for years now has become an illusion.

The various higher institutions of learning in the state had within a decade experienced one form of disruption or the other as a result of the activities of cultists. These crises reached their climax in 1990 and have resisted decline seriously. As a result, academic activities in the schools are being strangulated. The religious, political, economic and social lives of the people are adversely affected. The atmosphere is tense as there is a feeling of uneasiness both within and outside the campuses. It is against this background that this research work is set.

Our duty here is to bring to the fore the devastating effects of drug peddling and cultism in Anambra State by tracing its origin and operations in the various higher institutions of learning. From historical perspective, the project work will expose the types of cults found in the various schools and the reasons behind the difficulties experienced over the years in the effort to expunge them from these institutions. Along this line, efforts will be made to trace the attempts made so far by individuals, the various religious groups, the government and non-governmental bodies in the fight against the menace of drug peddling and cultism.

Although it has been conjectured that enough efforts have already been put in by Nigerians as far as the fight against drug peddling and cultism is concerned (Enejo 2002: 237), the present researcher believes that this research work will contribute in no small measure to finding further solutions to the challenges of peace and security and the role of drug peddlers and drug peddling and cultism in Obosi town in Anambra state.

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THE CHALLENGES OF PEACE AND SECURITY AND THE ROLE OF DRUG PEDDLERS AND CULTISM IN OBOSI TOWN IN ANAMBRA STATE

THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE MANAGEMENT OF CRISIS AND CONFLICT IN POLICING IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE MANAGEMENT OF CRISIS AND CONFLICT IN POLICING IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

The police force is regarded as the most visible governmental agency through which the character of a government and political system may be assessed. This is so because the police are the guardian or vanguard of the status quo. The role of the police in any human society cannot be over-emphasized. The police force is not only central to individual self-actualization, but also to social cohesion, economic development and democratic consolidation (Wabara, 2004). To a large extent, the actions and behaviours of the police reflect the political and economic character of society as well as what those in power are willing or able to tolerate or condone. Elemika (1999) seems to agree with the foregoing statement where he states that the goals, performance, problems and challenges of policing are determined by the social, economic and political structures of society. According to Elemika (1999), the police are subject to the dictates and interests of those who control the political and economic resources of society. Hence, the ability of the police to respond to popular demands of citizens as opposed to their subservience to the interests of political and economic power-holders is determined by the extent to which political and economic resources are equitably distributed and the citizens afforded opportunity for participation in the determination and implementation of public policies.

Before Nigeria’s independence in 1960, the number of enlightened and educated Nigerians was very minimal and the few privileged elementary school graduates had dreams that were much larger than being a policeman or women. Consequently, officers were recruited from among illiterate natives who saw themselves as white man’s tool for the oppression of their fellow citizens. Elemika (1999) further lends credence to the foregoing where he states that the history of the police forces in the country indicates that the various forces were established, organized and maintained by colonial and post-colonial governments primarily for order maintenance that engenders repression, a culture of impunity: corruption, incivility, brutality, lack of transparency and accountability. After Nigerian independence, concerted efforts were made by the first set of the country’s indigenous leadership to correct the perception of the police by the public. The efforts were however short-lived as frequent military regimes that started in 3966 only furthered the mentality of oppression.

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THE NIGERIA POLICE FORCE MANAGEMENT OF CRISIS AND CONFLICT IN POLICING IJEBU-ODE LOCAL GOVERNMENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

EXAMINATION OF PRISON ADMINISTRATION AND CRIME PREVENTION IN NIGERIA

EXAMINATION OF PRISON ADMINISTRATION AND CRIME PREVENTION IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the study are as follows: To ascertain the extent to which prison congestion in Nigeria poses a serious constraints on prison administration, to find out the extent funding has affected on the administration of Nigeria prison and to verify the extent to which lack of rehabilitation and correctional equipment in Nigeria Prisons constitutes a constraint to rehabilitation of inmates, and also the prevention of crime in Nigeria. The researcher adopted a survey design using Nigerian Prison Service, Agodi Gate Ibadan as a case study. The data used were mainly from primary sources which supported secondary sources. Data generated were analysed using tools like simple tables, and percentage. The findings showed that inadequate funding of prisons by federal government of Nigeria constitutes an impediment to effective administration of Nigeria Prisons, lack of correlation facilities for the rehabilitation of offenders in Nigeria prisons is positively related to the increase of recidivism among prison inmates, the Nigeria extant laws on prisons have impacted negatively on the administration of her Prisons. The study recommended among other things that federal government should increase the funding of Nigeria Prison, and the need for government to amend the extant laws on prison to emphasize punishment and grant the rehabilitation of both Awaiting Trial Men (ATM) and the convicted.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction

Crime is any act or behaviour which violates the norms (normative behaving) of a society. This would mean that a criminal should be seen as any person who breaks any of the rules or norm of behaviour by which society is governed and has the possibility of affecting the wellbeing of other members of the society.(Roth 2006) Therefore, the importance of crime prevention and control, maintenance of law and order to the development and growth of a society,both in the physical and economic sense, cannot be over emphasized.

Roth (2006) is of the opinion that ‘it is only a mind that is secured and at peace that can rationally address the issues of procreation,economic development and societal growth. A disturbed mind is a restless and distraught personality. It is therefore imperative to have peace and order in the society to assure its growth and development.The role of law enforcement in the maintenance of peace and order as well as crime prevention in the society is a foregone conclusion.

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EXAMINATION OF PRISON ADMINISTRATION AND CRIME PREVENTION IN NIGERIA