ADDITIVES AND PRESERVATIVES USED IN FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, AND THEIR HEALTH IMPLICATION

ADDITIVES AND PRESERVATIVES USED IN FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, AND THEIR HEALTH IMPLICATION

TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 What are Food Additives and Preservatives

2.1 classifications of food additives and preservatives

2.2 important of food additives and preservatives

2.3 Additives, preservatives and their uses

2.4 Why do we use additives in food and general principles governing their uses

2.5 Role of some common additives in food

2.6 Choice and economic consideration of additives

2.7 Processing and preservation methods

2.8 Nutritive value of processed food and nutritional losses in food processing

2.9 Reason for processing food and effect of processing on the food product

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Why do we preserve food and factors affecting the choice of a preservation process

3.1 Ways of preserving food

3.2 Purpose of preservation

3.3 Needs and benefits of food additives and preservatives; used in food processing and preservations.

CHAPTER FOUR Recommendation
Conclusion

References

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Additives is “any substance the intended use of which result or may reasonably be expected to result directly or indirectly in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food”

(United States Government 1981).

Additives is any substance not commonly regarded or used as a food, which is added to or used in or on food at any stage to affect its keeping qualities, odaur, alkalinity or acidity or to serve any other technological function in relation to food (food labeling Regulations 1984).

Additives are a substance or mixture of substances, other than a basic foodstuff, which is present in a food as a result of any aspect of production, processing, storage or packaging (nutrition Board 1959).

Additives is non-nutritive substances added intentionally to food, generally in small quantities, to improved it’s appearance, flavour, texture or storage properties (A report of a joint FAO and WHO Expect committee 156).

Additives are any substance used in or around food that may become a component of the food.

Some are introduced specifically for the purpose of improving the nutritive value, taste, texture, or shelf life of the product; these are intentional additives other enters food as residues after some stage of production or manufacture and are known as incidental additives (introductory Nutrition 1989).

Additives are chemicals that are added to food to improve it in some way. Additives are used to modify colour, flavour and texture; to improve the keeping qualities of food and to make processing easier.

It is used to control moisture and acidity. They are used to improve nutritional value. Thousands of different substances are now used as additives, to some people. The increasing number of additives being used is a cause for concern, if not alarm, and if is important to emphasize that the use f additives is most carefully controlled ( Allan G. Cameron 1975).

Need for food additives.

Food additives play or important role in today’s complex food supply.

Never before has the range and choice of foods been so wide either in supermarkets, specialist food shops or when eating out. Whilst a shrinking purporting of the population is engaged in primary food production, consumer are demanding more variety choice and convenience alongside higher.

Standards of safety and wholesomeness at affordable prices.

Meeting these consumer expectations can only be achieved using modern food processing technologies which include the use of a variety of food additives proven effective and safe through long use and rigorous testing (Flowerdew, D. 1999).

How is the safety of food additive evaluated in Europe; All food additive must have a demonstration useful purpose and undergo a rigorous scientific safety evaluation before they can be approved for use.

Until the creation of the European food safety Authority mo (EFSA) 177, the safety evaluation of additives in Europe was done by the scientific committee on food (scf).

At present, it is the EFSA panel on food additives, flavouring, processing, Aids and material in contest with food (AFC panel) who is in charge of this task.

Assessments are based in reviews of all available toxicological date in the humans and animals models. From the available date, the maximum level of additive that has no demonstrable toxic effect is determined. This is called “ no-observed-adverse-effect level” (NOAEL) and is used to determined the “Acceptable Daily intake” (ADI) for each food additive. The ADI provides a large safety margin and is the amount of a food additive that can be consumed daily over a life time without any adverse effect on health (European parliament and council Directive 1988).TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 What are Food Additives and Preservatives

2.1 classifications of food additives and preservatives

2.2 important of food additives and preservatives

2.3 Additives, preservatives and their uses

2.4 Why do we use additives in food and general principles governing their uses

2.5 Role of some common additives in food

2.6 Choice and economic consideration of additives

2.7 Processing and preservation methods

2.8 Nutritive value of processed food and nutritional losses in food processing

2.9 Reason for processing food and effect of processing on the food product

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Why do we preserve food and factors affecting the choice of a preservation process

3.1 Ways of preserving food

3.2 Purpose of preservation

3.3 Needs and benefits of food additives and preservatives; used in food processing and preservations.

CHAPTER FOUR Recommendation
Conclusion

References

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Additives is “any substance the intended use of which result or may reasonably be expected to result directly or indirectly in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food”

(United States Government 1981).

Additives is any substance not commonly regarded or used as a food, which is added to or used in or on food at any stage to affect its keeping qualities, odaur, alkalinity or acidity or to serve any other technological function in relation to food (food labeling Regulations 1984).

Additives are a substance or mixture of substances, other than a basic foodstuff, which is present in a food as a result of any aspect of production, processing, storage or packaging (nutrition Board 1959).

Additives is non-nutritive substances added intentionally to food, generally in small quantities, to improved it’s appearance, flavour, texture or storage properties (A report of a joint FAO and WHO Expect committee 156).

Additives are any substance used in or around food that may become a component of the food.

Some are introduced specifically for the purpose of improving the nutritive value, taste, texture, or shelf life of the product; these are intentional additives other enters food as residues after some stage of production or manufacture and are known as incidental additives (introductory Nutrition 1989).

Additives are chemicals that are added to food to improve it in some way. Additives are used to modify colour, flavour and texture; to improve the keeping qualities of food and to make processing easier.

 

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ADDITIVES AND PRESERVATIVES USED IN FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, AND THEIR HEALTH IMPLICATION

ISOLATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE FROM ON PALM WINE (ELAELS GUINNEENSIS) AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE OF PROOFING DURING BREAD

ISOLATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE FROM ON PALM WINE (ELAELS GUINNEENSIS) AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE OF PROOFING DURING BREAD

ABSTRACT

Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated from the fermenting sap of flaeis guinneensis. The yeast isolate was used in dough proofing at different temperatures. The samples B, C, D, E, and F, (containing the same ingredients) were leavened at 200 c, 250 c, 300 c and 40 c respectively. Similarly, sample A which served as the contol was leavened at 30c. the following proof heights were recorded 3.3cm, 1.9 cm, 23cm, 3.5cm, 3.6cm and 2.5cm respectively for the proofing period, samples D and E compared favourably with the control which has a proof height of 3.3cm. The bread height, weight , volume and the specific volume was recorded sensory evaluation was carried on the samples for taste, appearance, texture flavour and overall acceptability. Turkeys test was in the samples. Result of the sensory evaluation showed that samples D ranked favourably with the control in all quality attributes tested at (D < 0.05). The other samples were different from the control in all the sensory attributed tested for A proofing temperature of 300c using the isolate was recommended for bread making in other to achieve the desired bread quality.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.01 Palm wine

1.02 Composition of palm wine

1.03 Yeast

1.04 Bread

1.41 Aims and objective

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

2.1 Bread Production

2.2 Functions of the Ingredients In Bread Production

2.3 Type of bread

2.4 The procedures involved in bread production

2.5 Bread quality

2.6 Palm wine (elaeis quinn eensis)

2.7 General characteristcs of saccharomyces cerevisiae

2.8 Characteristics of bakers yeast

2.9 Pure culture isolation and cultivation

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and methods

3.1 Equipments

3.2 Raw materials

3.3 Sources of material

34 Preparation of medium

3.5 Isolation of yeast species

3.6 Characterization and test for viability of yeast

3.7 Production of starter culture

3.8 Preparation of yeast paste

3.9 Bread production

3.10 Quality test

CHAPTER FOUR

Results and discussion

4.1 Characteristics of yeast on malt extract nutrient medium

4.2 Identification of yeast isolate

4.3 Dough leavening ability

4. 4 The volume, weight, height and specific volume of the samples

4.5 Sensory evaluation

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

5.2 Recommendations

Reference

Appendix 1

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 PALM WINE

Palm wine is a milky alcoholic beverage produced from the inflorescence of palm tree it is the most widely used and cherished natural traditional alcoholic beverage especial in the southern part of Nigeria, and is the juice of the oil paolm ( Elacis guinneensis) and raffia palm ( Rapia hooker) ( Ihekoronye and Ngoddy 1985).

 

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ISOLATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE FROM ON PALM WINE (ELAELS GUINNEENSIS) AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE OF PROOFING DURING BREAD

THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING METHODS ON THE PROTEIN AND CYANIDE CONTENT OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa)

THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING METHODS ON THE PROTEIN AND CYANIDE CONTENT OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa)

ABSTRACT
Raw African Yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) was subjected to various processing methods Viz: steeping in water for 6 hr and then boiling for 10, 20, 30, minutes respectively (samples B); steeping in water for 12 hours and then boiling for 10, 20, 30, minutes respectively (sample C) and finally sample A was raw yam bean which served as control. The entire sample was dry – milled into fine flours. The glycosidic cyanide, crude protein, ash, moisture, some functional properties and bulk density of the flours were analyzed from the results, protein and cyanide content of sample A (raw sample) are 25.20% and 72.23ml. results showed that the toasting, process gave the highest protein (24.12) with no trace of cyanide and it negatively affected the protein content of the samples reducing it from 25.20 to 17.57, 17.51(%) respectively. 12 hours soaking and few minutes boiling process negatively affected the protein content of the samples reducing it from 25.20% to 13.12, 12.78, 12.09 (%) respectively but have the strongest impact in covering the cyanide level from 72.23ml to zero respectively. Moisture content ranges from 400% – 14%, Ash ranges from 2.50% to 5.00%, water absorption ranges from 105g/ml to 290g/ml, oil absorption ranges form 0.98 – 1.95g/m. The bulk density showed 0.74g/ml – 0.88g/ml.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Legumes

2.2 Nutritive Value Of Legumes

2.3 African Yam Bean

2.4 Utilization Of African Yam Bean

2.5.0 Limitations In The Utilization Of African Yam Bean

2.5.1 Unacceptable Flavour

2.5.2 Hard – To – Cook Phenomenon

2.5.3 The Presence Of Anti – Nutritional Factors

2.4.1 Pre – Conditioning Treatment Used In African Yam Bean Processing

2.7.0 Functionality of Legume Protein/Flour

2.7.1 Nitrogen Solubility

2.7.2 Water And Oil Absorption

2.7.3 Emulsion Capacity

2.7.4 Foam Capacity

2.7.5 Gelation

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Materials And Source

3.1 Sample Preparation

3.2 Flow Charts For The Production Of The Different flour samples

3.2.1 Flow Chart For The Production Of Sample A (Raw Sample)

3.2.2 Flow Chart For The Production Of Samples B

3.2.3 Flow Chart For The Production Of Samples C

3.2.4 Flow Chart For The Production Of Toasted Sample (D Sample)

3.3.0 Determination Of Functional Properties Of African Yambean Flour

3.3.1 Water Absorption Capacity

3.3.2 Oil Absorption Capacity

3.4.0 Chemical Composition Of African Yam Bean

3.4.1 Determination Of Moisture Content

3.4.2 Determination Of Ash Content

3.4.3 Determination Of Crude Protein Content

3.5 Determination Of Glycosidic Cyanide

3.6 Determination Of Bulk Density

CHAPTER FOUR
Results / Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE
Conclusion and recommendation

References

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) belongs to the genera papilliona sec which is in the class known as Leguminousae (Okigbo, 1973). It is one of the neglected indigenous grain legumes in Nigeria. It is produced mostly in the eastern part of the country where it is consumed in different forms such as snacks, delicacy, man meal etc. It can be used for the fortification of other foods (Eke, 1997)

In Nigeria, it has as many names as there are communities cultivating it. Some of the names are Okpdudu, Azam, Uzuaku, Ijiriji, Azara, Ahaja, Nzamiri, Odudu, Girigiri (Hausa), sese (Yoruba) and Nsana (Ibibio) (Ogbo, 2002).

 

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THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING METHODS ON THE PROTEIN AND CYANIDE CONTENT OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa)

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOME METHODS ADOPTED IN YOGHOURT PRODUCTION

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOME METHODS ADOPTED IN YOGHURT’S PRODUCTION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Yoghourt is a fermented milk product, produced with a yoghurt starter culture which is a mixed culture of streptococcus thermophilus and lactobacillus bulgaricus in a 1:1 ratio. S thermophilus enjoys a faster growth than L hulgricus.  It adds flavours and aroma to the yoghurt, though both organisms in association produces lactic acid but acetaldehyde and dimethyl propanol, the chief favour component of yoghurt is produced by L bulgaricus.

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Every producer be it private or public more especially profit making has objectives in mind to achieve, some of which are to sue a process/method that is convenient and hygienic for himself, workers and to the final consumer of his product (yoghourt).

Lack of research has landed many producers of yoghourt into confusion on the method and process of producing yoghourt, thereby producing a substandard yoghourt which may not meet the taste of the consumers like “mouth feel and appearance”.  They need to know the various methods and different materials that are used in yoghourt which will improve its general quality.

Moreover whichever method that is chosen must be economical in all aspect, so that the producers will have some profit after calculating the cost and the products retail price will not be too much for the average consumer to afford.

1.2   AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Many producers of yoghourt are confused on the methods and process of producing yoghourt, consequently, producing substandard yoghourt which may not meet the taste of the consumer.

However, this research work is aimed at developing appropriate process of producing yoghourts.

The research work is also aimed at solving the problems of different methods of processing yoghourt.

Also, it is aimed at assessing the economic aspect of the different methods of producing yoghourt which are economical in terms of the cost.

1.3     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This project is important to all producers, students and researchers in food based discipline as it studies and assess different methods adopted in yoghourt production.  It will help students and researchers to know the various materials used in the production of yoghourt which will improve its general quality.

This research work will also provide suitable methods for the production of yoghurt, which will be economical (to cover the cost of materials used for production).

1.4     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Yoghourt production is very expensive and most of its methods are tedious.

Most yoghourt produced, cannot keep for a long time due to the inability of the producers to get the right materials fro the production of yoghourt.

The PH at which yoghourt is produced is also another problem, because if the right PH is not gotten and controlled and if it exceeds that PH level the taste will be too acidic and will not give that sour taste peculiar to yoghurt.  Also PH above four (4) favours the growth of some microorganism such as coliforms, staphylococci, pseudomonas etc.  These microorganisms can contaminate the milk, thereby making unfit for the consumers.  In food processing we have garbage in garbage out which means that if you starts with a pour raw material you are equally coming out with pour finished product.

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ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF SOME METHODS ADOPTED IN YOGHURT’S PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION OF “OGIRI” FROM SOYABEAN USING MICRO ORGANISM RESPONSIBLE FOR FERMENTATION OF CASTOR BEANS SEED “OGIRI” (COMMERCIAL “OGIRI”)

PRODUCTION OF “OGIRI” FROM SOYABEAN USING MICRO ORGANISM RESPONSIBLE FOR FERMENTATION OF CASTOR BEANS SEED “OGIRI” (COMMERCIAL “OGIRI”)

ABSTRACT
Micro organisms associated in fermentation of castor bean seeds “ogiri” (COSO) were investigated. Organisms islated include micrococcus, Bacillus and proteus. Soyabean paste was produced and divided into three portions, one portion was inoculated with the pureculture from caster beanseed “ogiri” the second portion was inoculated with caster bean seed “ogiri” (COSO) the rd part, the control was left without inoculation. Each of the three portions was subdivided into two to produce salted and non salted samples, and coded as SPCS (say pure culture salted) and SPCUS (Soy pure culture unsalted), SCOS (saywild fermented salted salted) and SWFUS (say wild fermented unsalted). Using Hedonic scale, a 9 ” man untrained panelists, were used to conduct sensory evaluation on the raw “ogiri”and “ogiri” with 7.5 point followed by the SCOUS with 7 points.
There was no significant difference at 1% and 5% level for the sensory evaluation carried out.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE
APPROVAL PAGE
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ABSTRACT
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE SURVEY
ORIGIN AND BRIEF AGROMIC HISTORY OF CASTOR BEAN SEED
2.1 INDUSTRIAL UTILIZATION OF CASTOR OIL BEAN SEED
2.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS IN CASTOR BEAN SEEDS.
2.3 IMPORTANCE OF MICROORGANISMS IN CASTOR BEAN SEEDS
2.4 ORIGIN OF SOYABEN
2.6 STORAGE / PROSESSING F SOYABEN INTO VARIOUS TRADITIONAL PRODUCTS.
2.7 VALUES OF SOYABEAN PRODUCT
2.8 TYPICAL ISOFLAVONES CONTENT OF SOYAFOOD (PER 100g).
2.9 NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION OF SOYAMILK (PER 100g)
2.10 AMIND ACID IN SOYAPROTIEN
2.11 UNDESIRABLE COMPOSITIONS OF
2.12 FERMENTATION TRADITIONAL
2.13 FERMENTATION
2.14 FACTORS AFFECTING FERMENTATION
2.15 FERMENTE VEGETABLE PROTEIN
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS
3.2 SAMPLX PREPARATION METHODS
3.3 MEDIA USED
3.5 BIOCHEMICAL TESTS
3.6 SUGAR FERMENTATION TESTS
3.7 CHARACTERISTICE OF ISOLATES
3.8 SENSORY EVALUATION OF THE SAMPLES
3.9 PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF THE PROCED SOYAOGIRI AND CASTOR BEAN JEED OGIRI.
3.10 PROTEIN CONTENT DETERMINATION
3.11 FAT CONTENT DETERMINATION
3.12 TOTAL ASH DETERMINATION
3.13 CRUDE FIBRE DETERMINATION
3.14 MOISTURE CONTENT DETERMINATION
CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 MENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA ISOLATE FROM ANALYSED CASTOR BEAN SEED OGIRI
4.2 TABLE FOR GENERAL ACCEPTABILITY OF THE THREE MAIN SAMPLES
4.3 TABLE IN.
4.4 DISCUSSION
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 CONCLUSION
5.2 RECOMMENTATION
REFERENCES

PRODUCTION OF “OGIRI” FROM SOYABEAN USING MICRO ORGANISM RESPONSIBLE FOR FERMENTATION OF CASTOR BEANS SEED “OGIRI” (COMMERCIAL “OGIRI”)

MARGARINE” PRODUCTION USING OIL BLENDS FROM PALM KERNEL, COCONUT AND MELON

MARGARINE” PRODUCTION USING OIL BLENDS FROM PALM KERNEL, COCONUT AND MELON

ABSTRACT

Palm kernel, coconut and melon oils were extracted and refined. Their physical and chemical characteristics were examined. The refined oils were blended to produce three samples of margarine: palm kernel oil margarine (PKO), palm kernel and coconut oils margarine were tested for free fatty acid and Iodine value with the  following results 0.27,0.84, 1.68 Free Fatty Acid, 17.77, 20.30, 21.57 Iodine value for PKO, PCO and PCM margarine respectively. These products were assessed organoleptically using 9 – point hedoic scale o both samples and the standard were found to be significantly different at 5% level of probability.

There was however no significant difference in taste and colour at the same level of significance. Production of margarine using these three blends of oils should be encouraged to add to the varieties of margarine in the market.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.         INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER TWO

2.         LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1              Fats and Oils

2.1.2        Importance of Fats and Oils

2.1.3        Fats as Food

2.1.4        Essential Fatty Acids

2.1.5        Classification of Fats and Oils

2.1.6        Composition of Seed Oils

2.1.7        Tropical Oil Seeds

2.2.0        Palm Kernel, Coconut and Melon

2.2.1        Coconut

2.2.2        Melon

2.2.3        General Methods of Extracting Seed Oils

2.2.4        Refining and Processing of Seed Oils

2.2.5        Hydrogenation

2.2.6        Storage of Processed Oil

2.2.7        Rancidity

2.2.8        Functions of Additives Used

2.2.9        Components Contributing Flavour and Colour

2.3.0        Margarine

CHAPTER THREE

3.         MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1              Source of Material

3.2.1        Refining Procedure

3.3              Determination of the Specific Gravity

3.3.1        Determination of Yield

3.3.2        Determination of Moisture Content

3.4              Method of Chemical Analysis on the Oils

3.4.1        Provide Value Determination

3.4.2        Free Fatty Determination

3.4.3        Determination of Iodine Value

3.5.0        Recipe for the Product

3.6.0        Production of Margarine

3.7.0        Methods of Analysis of Margarine

3.8.0        Sensory Evaluation

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0              RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Conclusion

4.2              Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0              CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Conclusion

5.2              Recommendation

References

Appendices

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 1:       Classification of Vegetable Oils.

TABLE 2:       Chemical Composition of Palm Kernel Oil

TABLE 3

TABLE 4:       Formulation of Samples

TABLE 5:       Shows the Physical Analysis of the Oils

TABLE 6:       Chemical Analysis of the Oils

TABLE 7:       Chemical Analysis of the Margarine Samples

Production

TABLE 8:       L.S.D. Sensory Evaluation on the Margarine

Samples.

LIST OF FLOW CHART

FLOW CHART 1:                  Refining Process of Oil

FLOW CHART 2:                  Production Chart

FLOW CHART 3:                  Refining of Crude Oil

FLOW CHART 4:                  Production of Margarine

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Margarine, a butter substitute made originally from other animal fats, but nowadays exclusively from vegetable oils, like homogenization and pasteurization is a reach innovation. Margarine is made from water in oilemulsion because margarine is oilemulsion. Today it is a manufactured imitation of butter made by mixing a variety of fats that may include whale oil or vegetable oils, hydrogenated to an appropriates degree. Stabilize, an oil soluble dye and a proportion of soured skimmed milk to supply flavour.

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MARGARINE” PRODUCTION USING OIL BLENDS FROM PALM KERNEL, COCONUT AND MELON

NUTRITIONAL DISORDER COMMONLY FOUND IN NIGERIA

NUTRITIONAL DISORDER COMMONLY FOUND IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

Nutritional disorder can be defined as the disease caused by nutritional imbalance, either over nutrition or under nutrition.  Nutritional disorder may result from eating too much of little of foods of a particular nutrients such as vitamins or minerals.  (www.studenttechnology.com.). When food lack one or more of the common nutrients in food, one disease condition or another may result.  These diseases are called “deficiency  disease”.  (Akinjayeju,  1999).

Under nutrition as nutritional deficiency, refers to any change in the structure or function of body cells and tissues as a results of lack of one or more nutrients and or calories in the body.   Nutritional deficiencies are of two main types namely:- Primary and Secondary deficiency.  The nature and types of deficiency diseases that may occur depends on the type of nutrient the body lacks.  (Akinjayeju, 1999).

The most common deficiency disease is that relating to inadequate protein in diet and general shortage or lack of food thereby resulting in the inability to meet body’s energy requirements.  Such, diseases is referred to as protein calorie – malnutrition (PCM).  This diseases is common in infant and children, especially those below age six where it manifests as either Kwashiorkor (as a result of low intake of protein or deficiency of certain essential amino acid) or marasmus caused by energy and protein shortage. (Akinjayeju, 1999).

Nutritional disorder can affect any system in the body and the sense of sight, taste and smell.  Malnutrition begins with changes in nutrient level in blood and tissues (www.studenttechnology.com.).

In addition to the deficiency diseases, there are certain specific nutritional disorders, which are of great concern in developing countries including Nigeria.  The World Health Organisation has identified three of such nutritional diseases, which she said deserves special attention and highest priority on a global referred to as “hidden hunger” include -: Iron deficiency anaemia, vitamin A deficiency, vitamin c deficiency, vitamin D deficiency and iodine deficiency disorder. (Akinjayeju, 1999).

Nutritional disorder are caused by various means or ways which may include the Lack of food and poverty.  There are different symptoms of malnutrition depending on what nutrients are deficiency in the body and they include:- Fatigue, Dizziness, Anaemia, Diarrhea, Goiter etc. (www.studenttechnologycom.).

The importance of nutritional assessment cannot be overstressed since it serves some useful purposes.  When nutritional assessment is properly made, it enables the identification of the nutrient(s) whose supply is adequate or inadequate and makes appropriate decision in relation to the scope of the nutritional supports that is necessary.  In addition, when such nutritional supports is finally given further assessment allows for proper evaluation of its effectiveness and success. (Akinjayeju, 1999).

Thus, the aims of this project includes:-

(1)        To identify some nutritional disorders prevalent in Nigeria in a bid to assess their effects.

(2)        To recognize the causes of such disorders

(3)        To outline the possible prevention of such nutritional disorders.

 

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NUTRITIONAL DISORDER COMMONLY FOUND IN NIGERIA

THE EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME ON THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF BAMBARA GROUNDNUT AND WHEAT BLEND FOR CAKE PRIOR

THE EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME ON THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF BAMBARA GROUNDNUT AND WHEAT BLEND FOR CAKE PRIOR

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM)

1.1.1  ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

Despite many years of investigation, it has not been possible to determine accurately when and where the first cultivated wheat originated. At the beginning of recorded history, wheat was already an established crop whose origin was unknown (Anon 1953). There is however some evidence that cultivation of wheat started about 6,000 years ago in the 5yria – Palestine area and spread to Egypt, (ran, India, China, Russia, Turkey and Central Europe from where it spread to other countries and continents. Countries that produce wheat today include Russia, Switzer land United State of America, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, England, Poland, Netherlands, Norway, Swedan, South Africa, Peru, Australia, Argentina, Chile, Newzealand and Nigeria. 9Shellenberger, 1969, Olugbemi etal 1992).

In addition, wheat flour has uniques properties that differs it from other flours in containing a considerable proportion of gluten which makes wheat flour suitable for bread making and other bake products. This composition of gluten present has a bearing on the “strength” and water holding properties of the flour. The two protein that form the greater part of the guten are gluternin and gliadin while the latter appear to be identical in strong and weak wheat, the former exists in different varieties.

1.1.2  STRUCTURE OF WHEAT KERNEL

The main feature of the wheat kernel can be best described in terms of the rounded or dorsal side and a vertical or crease side (Shellenberger, 1969). A deep groove a crease extends the entire length of the wheat kernel. At the apex or the small end of the grain there are many short fine hairs called brush hairs. The outer bran or seed coat consist of three layers known as epidermis.

Wheat grain has the following average percentage composition. Endosperm 85% of the whole grain from which the flour is derived bran 12.5%, germ 2.5%.  the composition of wheat flour however varies considerably according to the class of wheat, its country of origin, proportion of the outer part removed by the particular milling process (Ehias, 1972, Nelson 1985). The outer partcontain more protein, fat fibre and ash then the starchy endosperm. The proportion of each of these constituents decreases as the extraction percentage gets less.

CULTIVATION OF BAMBARA GROUNDNUT

It is mostly monocropping in a selected plot of land with suitable sandy soil 82% of households in North central are 67% in kavango planted Bambara groundnut in 1993. Estimating an average  of 1400m2 per farm cropped with Bambara groundnut, the total production areas sums up to  around 3000ha. Production figure are very variable, depending on the rainy season. Due to wide spacing 10 – 12 plants/m2 and lack of improved varieties yield rarely exceed 500kg/ha. Taking 250kg/ha as an overall average of the total production to 750t/year.

 

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THE EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME ON THE FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF BAMBARA GROUNDNUT AND WHEAT BLEND FOR CAKE PRIOR

USE OF COMPOSITE BLENDS FOR BISCUIT MAKING

USE OF COMPOSITE BLENDS FOR BISCUIT MAKING

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Biscuits are the major products produced by the biscuit and crackers industries. Flour confectionery describes a large range of flour based goods other than bread manufactured from batter sponge or dough by mixing, kneading and may be created by fermentation, chemical or other means resulting in puff/flaky short or sweet product. Those that have their moisture content reduced to make them exceptionally brittle or crops are generally regarded as biscuits. (Okaka, 1997)

The word biscuit come from the Latin word Biscuit meaning twice cooked, baking at high temperature followed by drying at lower temperature (Okaka, 1997). The term biscuit and cookie are synonymous. The American Encyclopedia described biscuit as a form of bread baking soda as a raising agent rather than yeast.

Biscuit are a common feature of southern us cousine which can be served as a side dish with meal or as a breakfast item. Biscuit is also said to be essentially bakery confectionery dried down to low moisture content name derived from Latin word for twice cooked, made from soft flour, mostly rich in fat and sugar and consequently of high energy content of 420 to 510kcal per 100g they are cherished by people of all ages and used at different meals and occasions as part of breakfast, snacks etc. they are eaten with butter and jam or jelly or as a part of a dish called “Biscuit and gravy”. Biscuits are also eaten covered in pizza sauce and cheese. Many varieties exist, both sweet and savoulry often produced in industrial quantities by large food companies. Sweet biscuit are commonly eaten as snack and may contain chocolate fruit, jam or nuts (peanuts). Savoury biscuits are plainer and commonly eaten with cheese following a meal

The simplest form of biscuit is a mixture of flour and water but may contain fat sugar and other ingredients mixed together into a dough which is rested for a period, passed between rollers to make a sheet. The sheet is then stamped out baked, cooled and packaged. Biscuits are generally made from wheat flour but according to the topic of this project, “use of composite blends for biscuit making”. Some raw materials other than wheat have to be used in producing the flour for the biscuits. In order to get a superior product especially for crackers, the following factors are of importance – choice of flour for sponge and dough, selection of fermentation environment and the baking conditions. It is therefore necessary to search for raw materials that give flour of light quality.

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USE OF COMPOSITE BLENDS FOR BISCUIT MAKING

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

ABSTRACT

Complementary foods were formulated using sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish. The nutrient composition, functional properties and organoleptic attributes of the formulated complementary foods were investigated. The different flours were combined in the ratios of; 70:20:5, 80:15:5, 75:20:5, of sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish respectively. Cerelac, a commercial sample served as control. Porridges were prepared from the composite blends for organoleptic evaluation. Standard methods were used to analyze the composite flours. The protein content of African yam bean and crayfish flours complemented the sorghum protein and improved the nutritional quality of the formulated food. The result of the functional properties showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in both bulk density and viscosity. Sensory evaluation revealed that the porridge from the control was preferred over the others. Among the blends, the porridge made from 70:20:5 sorghum / African yam bean / crayfish was preferred over the others. The study showed that composite blends from sorghum, African yam bean and crayfish are nutritionally adequate and possess good functional properties which are required for the preparation of complementary foods for infants.

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and Methods

CHAPTER FOUR

Results and Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion

Recommendations

References

Appendix

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In developing countries like Nigeria, complementary foods are mainly based on starch tubers like cocoyam, sweet potato or on cereals like maize, millet and sorghum. Children are normally given these staples in the form of gruels that is either mixed with boiled water (Igyor et al., 2011).

Sorghum is an important food crop grown on a subsistence level by farmers in the semi arid tropics of Africa and Asia. It is the principal food crop grown in Northern Nigeria (Zakari and Inyang, 2008). Sorghum like other cereals is predominantly starchy and remains a principal source of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals. Sorghum grows in harsh environments where other crops do not grow well, just like other staple foods, such as cassava, that are common in impoverished regions of the world. It is usually grown without application of any fertilizers or other inputs by a multitude of small _holder farmers in many countries FAO (1999).

African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is an underutilized legume crop that is predominantly cultivated in Western Africa. It produces nutritious pods, highly portentous seeds and capable of growth in marginal areas where other pulses fail to thrive (Enwere, 1998). It has the potential to meet the ever increasing protein demands of the people in this region.

Crayfish, also known as crawfish, freshwater lobsters, to which they are related; taxonomically, they are members of the super families Astacoidea and parastacoidea (Hart 1994). The greatest diversity of crayfish species is found in Southeastern North America, with over 330 species in nine genera, all in the family Cambraridae (Tennessee Aquatic Nuisance 2007). A further genus of astacid crayfish is found in the Pacific Northwest and the headwaters of some rivers east of the continental Divide. Many crayfish are found in lowland areas where the water is abundant in calcium, and oxygen rises from underground springs (Thompson et al., 2007).

 

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NUTRIENT COMPOSITION FUNCTIONAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM SORGHUM ROASTED AFRICAN YAM BEAN AND CRAYFISH

PRODUCING AND SENSORY EXAMINATION OF BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR (ABACHA FLOOR) AND AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR

PRODUCING AND SENSORY EXAMINATION OF BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR (ABACHA FLOOR) AND AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR

Abstract

Production of biscuit using composite wheat / Abacha / African yam bean flour was investigated. Cassava root from one year old was used for the production of Abacha flour. Thin slices of boiled peeled tubers were soaked in water for 12 hours before drying and milling into Abacha flour. African Yam Bean was sorted and soaked in water 12 hours and milled into flour. Biscuit was baked with quantities of wheat, Abacha and African Yam Bean flours blended into the ratio of 100%, 90%:5%:5%, 80%: 10%:10%, 70%:15%:15% respectively. The biscuit samples were evaluated for sensory evaluation attributes. Sensory evaluation shows that the composite biscuit of 90%:5%:5%, & 80%:10%:10% were mostly preferred than that of 70%:15%:15% substitution in terms of taste, colour, texture & general acceptability.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Urbanization is charging the food habits and preferences of the populace towards convenient foods, which influence their nutritional intake. Most of the snacks consumed are high in carbohydrate. The use of composite flour has been encouraged since it reduces the importation of wheat.

Biscuits, which are usually produced from cereal flours (mainly wheat) are consumed extensively all over the world, including the developing counties, where protein and caloric malnutrition is prevalent particularly among women and children. The increasing phenomenon of urbanization coupled with the growing number of working mothers, have contributed greatly to the popularity and increased consumption of snack foods (Singh et al; 1989). However, this increasing importance of snack foods such as biscuit in today’s eating habits has not been fully exploited in the developing countries. This is probably as a result of the prohibitive cost of baked products (Tsen et al; 1973). Since this crops is not currently cultivated in the tropics, there is need to look inwards for local raw materials with optimum nutritive value and good processing characteristics, to substitute wheat in baked products.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta L) is the staple food of the poorer section of the population of many tropical counties rich in carbohydrate and has minute quantities of protein, vitamins and minerals (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985) which can result in malnutrition in some areas where it is the main item of diet (Kay, 1987). Although supplementation is necessary, it is not the solution of the elimination of micro nutrient deficiency disorder but rather the simple and most sustainable approach is fortification of staple food with limiting micronutrient (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985). Therefore the nutritional value of cassava root and its products such as cassava flour can be improved through food composites and fortification with other protein-rich crops with a reasonable amount of fats, vitamins and minerals (Enwere, 1998). One of such crops is the African yam bean.

 

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PRODUCING AND SENSORY EXAMINATION OF BISCUIT USING WHEAT FLOUR, CASSAVA FLOUR (ABACHA FLOOR) AND AFRICAN YAM BEAN FLOUR

CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF HAZARDS IN THE FOOD PREPARATION AREA

CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF HAZARDS IN THE FOOD PREPARATION AREA

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Occupation hazards constitute a major threat to an active workforce. Fricidences such as back pain, contact dermatis, fracture shoulder and wrist problem, cuts and burns and some of the ill-health and injuries suffered by people at work. Valueable man hours are lost from affected staff and in some severe cases, it may lead to permanent disability or death. People from all endeavours suffer or have experienced one form of hazard or another.

The case is no different in the hospitality industry where most of the function require human efforts the kitchen in particular is required as the most dangerous section to work in, strenuous work condition and prolonged hours of work with inadequate rest periods all add up to present an uncomfortable and insecure work environment.

There are various sizes and categories of catering operation most establishments have equipments unskilled to produce as much in order to meet consumer demand the drive in quite service operations in most system has further compounded the hazardous nature of duties considering that employees have to use these equipment in high customer turnover knives, choppers, mixers, mincers, food processors, ovens, strainers and cooking ranges all have inherent harzards from use.

Hazards do not just occur, but are influenced by other factors such as physical environment, poor lighting, ventilation, poor kitchen layout and workflow to happen. In the study of hazards, it has been observed as well that human factors such as loss of concentration haste, chimsy working procedure and not following user instruction all contribution to the incidence of hazards occurring. There is also the issue of poor hygiene which is capable of triggering food safety problem and an endangered work population.

Establishment under the health and safety at work Act of 1974 are mandated to provide safety and welfare facilities that would make the workplace a say and healthy place for its employees. Assessments of hazardous areas of operations should be taken to eliminate or reduce and control the degree and incidence of these hazards. Other appropriate regulation specifying safety requirements in specific areas such as price and first aid have further been improve and commanded.

Within the scope of this study, attempts shall be made to examine critically the causes and prevention of these hazards. Discussion shall feature areas of health and safety, kitchen planning and layout, work flow and other safety measures that can reduce hazards.

1.1FOOD PREPARATION AREA

The food preparation area can be defined as where raw food partly or wholly processed food and hygienically preserved for customers consumption.

 

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CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF HAZARDS IN THE FOOD PREPARATION AREA

EFFECT OF NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL (NAFDAC) ON FOOD INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

EFFECT OF NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL (NAFDAC) ON FOOD INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

Concern about the wholesomeness and safety of our foods has increased dramatically, particularly in those countries where food shortage is not a problem.   Increasing understanding of, and interest in technological matters on the part of the consumer and organized consumer groups, coupled with a recognition that neither government nor industry can guarantee the safety of food, have lent support to this concern.  Our food present dilemma is that technology has opened our eyes of possible dangers of which were once blissfully ignorant.  It has done so on two fronts.  First, it has enabled us to measure in trace quantities, substances that previously went undetected, and we have begun to recognize that many of these substances form the natural background of our food supply.  But perhaps more important, it has increase our awareness of the universe of possible affliction and their apparent causes.  No longer do we focus our fear on acute, lethal effects.  We now worry about the insidious chronic effects which rub us our health and diminish the quality of our lives.

Various forms of adulteration exists in food trade.  For example, textured vegetable protein may be substituted for meat, or bean flour may be adulterated with other cheaper flour.  In certain instances more costly vegetable oils have been diluted with cheaper ones or with non – edible oils resulting in cases of food poisoning with lethal consequences.  Such practices must be curbed and any control measures on food should prohibit and penalize any such acts.  Hence, the need for a food regulatory body.

Regulatory aspect of food is, in the main, an attempt to protect the health and pocket of the consumer, and to simplify trade at both the domestic and international levels.  The policy designed for a food, invariably is derived from the various quality control measures which are exercised in the production, sale or importation of food.  In other to achieve this, food laws must be enacted that will make provision for the legislating on the presence of poisonous materials in food, prohibit adulteration in any form and disallow the advertisement of misleading claims.  It must also permit compositional, hygienic and labeling requirements to be stipulated, and the presence and amount of additives to be controlled.  Provision must also be made to check dumping and for relevant regulation to he made.  The penalties for infringement must be spelt out and these should be sufficiently stringent so as to be an effective deterrent.

 

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EFFECT OF NATIONAL AGENCY FOR FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION AND CONTROL (NAFDAC) ON FOOD INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA

INVESTIGATION ON THE OCCURENCE OF HEAVY METALS IN YOGHURT SOLD

INVESTIGATION ON THE OCCURRENCE OF HEAVY METALS IN YOGHURT’S SOLD

ABSTRACT

24 samples of different brands of yoghurt were collected from 2 popular Lagos market and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer was used for the determination of heavy metals i.e. Lead, Cadmium and Chromium. 100% of the samples were found to have the concentration of heavy metals below the safe limit recommended by world health Organization (WHO). The concentration of Lead, Cadmium and Chromium fall between 0.52ppm – 0.92ppm, 0.14ppm – 0.49ppm and 0.26ppm – 0.75ppm respectively. The group mean of concentration of each elements (Lead, Cadmium and Chromium) in all brands are 0.70ppm, 0.27ppm and 0.41ppm respectively. This findings suggest that the concentration of all the heavy metals in yoghurt falls within the safe limits. The recommended Lead (pb), Cadmium and Chromium are 0.2 – 2.0ppm, 0.5ppm and 1.0ppm respectively according to World Health Organisation, but the relatively increase of Lead (pb) in yoghurt could be attributed to the industrialized status of Lagos State which if not checked might lead to greater value eventually.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Increasing industrialization has been accompanied throughout the world by the extraction and distribution of mineral substances from their natural deposits.

Following concentration, many of these undergone chemical changes through technical processes and finally pass by way of effluent, sewage dumps and dust into the water, the earth and the air and thus into the food chain.

The term heavy metal refers to any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and is toxic or poisonous at high concentrations. Examples of heavy metals include Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Thallium (Ti). Heavy metals are natural components of the earth’s crust. They cannot be degraded or destroyed. To a small extent they enter bodies via food, drinking water and air. For food analyst they are termed contaminants which are undesirable materials, which have been added to advertently before, during or after processing of foods. Heavy metals are dangerous because they tend to bioaccumulate. Bioaccumulation means an increase in the concentration of the chemical in biological organism overtime compared to the chemical concentration in the environment, compounds accumulate in living things anytime they are take up and stored faster than they are broken down or excreted.

 

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INVESTIGATION ON THE OCCURRENCE OF HEAVY METALS IN YOGHURT’S SOLD

IRRADIATION AS A MEANS OF PRESERVATION IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

IRRADIATION AS A MEANS OF PRESERVATION IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

CHAPTER ONE

1.1INTRODUCTION

Food Irradiation is the process of exposing food to ionizing radiation to disinfect, sanitize, sterilize, preserve food or to provide insect dis-infestation. (wikipedia.org)

Food irradiation is sometimes referred to as cold pasteurization or electronic pasteurization to emphasize its similarity to the process of pasteurization. Like pasteurization of milk and pressure cooking of canned foods, treating food with ionizing radiation can kill bacteria and parasites that would otherwise cause food borne diseases. (wikipedia.org; www.cdc.gov)

By irradiating food, depending on the dose, some or all of the microbes, fungi, viruses or insects present are killed. This prolongs the life of the food in cases where microbial spoilage is the limiting factor in shelf life. Some foods (e.g. herbs and spices) are irradiated at such high doses (5kGy or more) that they show microbial counts reduced by several orders of magnitude. It has also been shown that irradiation can delay the ripening or sprouting of fruits and vegetables and replace the need for pesticides.

Studies have shown that when Irradiation is used as approved on foods:

· Disease-causing germs are reduced or eliminated.

· The food does not become radioactive

· Dangerous substances do not appear in foods

· The nutritional value of the food is essentially unchanged. (www.cdc.gov)

In the food industries, specific types of radiation treatments are used, they are Radurization, Radicidation, and Radappertization. However, in the actual process of irradiation, three different irradiation technologies are used namely; gamma irradiation, electron-beam irradiation and x-ray radiation. (www.cdc.gov)

The dose of irradiation is usually measured in a unit called the Gray, abbreviated (Gy). This is a measure of the amount of energy transferred to food, microbes or other substances being irradiated. To measure the amount of irradiation something is exposed to, photographic film is exposed to irradiation at the same time.

The killing effect of irradiation on microbes is measured in D-values. One D-value is the amount of irradiation to kill 90% of that organism. For example, it takes 0.3kGy to kill 90% of Escherichia Coli, so the D-value of E.coli is 0.3 kGy. (www.cdc.gov).

A distinctive logo has been developed for use on food packaging, in order to identify a product as irradiated. This symbol is called the “radura” and is used internationally to mean that the food in the package has been irradiated. (www.cdc.gov)

 

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IRRADIATION AS A MEANS OF PRESERVATION IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

PRODUCTION AND USES OF PROTEIN HYDROLYSATES AN REMOVAL OF BITTERING PRINCIPLES

PRODUCTION AND USES OF PROTEIN HYDROLYZES AN REMOVAL OF BITTERING PRINCIPLES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Definition:  Protein hydrolysis could be defined as the end product of protein hydrolysis using chemical and enzymic methods.

Protein hydrolysate have many uses in specialty foods such as non allergenic infant formular, diets foods and other special nutritional foods.

The drawback of many hydrolysates such as Soya or Casein hydrolysates is the bitter taste that develops when they are hydrolysated into small peptides with protease enzymes.

Protein maldigestion which is often associated with cystic fibrosis and allergy to milk protein may be overcome by replacing intact in the diet with synthetic amino acid mixture, or with enzymic protein hydrolysates. Hydrolysates may be the treatment of choice for two reasons. The amino acids and small peptides constituents of protein hydrolysates have been shown to be more readily ascribed from the small intestine than their equivelent pure amino acid mixture, more over, protein hydrolysates are considerably less expensive than synthetic amino acid mixtures. Nonetheless, protein hydrolysates suffer from a serious drawback, namely, the occurrence of a bitter taste which develops during the course of the enzymic hydrolysis.

Murray r (1952) demonstrated that a treatment of enzymic casein hydrolysates with activated carbon resulted in a substantial improvement in the taste of preparations. However, authors regarded this method of improving the taste as impractical due to the simultaneous loss of a large proportion of the hyptophan during treatment. A different approach was presented in move recent studies in which a casein hydrolysate relatively free of bitter taste was obtained by the sequential employment of papa in and of pig’s kidney homogenate – the latter serving as a source of exopeptidases. However, extended time periods of hydrolysis were required, which necessitated the use of dolor form to control bacterial growth.

There is a variety of food and biomedical applications for protein which have been solubilized by enzymatic hydrolysis. Their enhanced solubility, heat stability, and resistance to precipitation in acidic environs, where many proteins are insoluble, offer attractive features to biochemists and nutritionists involve the research and development of high protein food formulations.

 

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PRODUCTION AND USES OF PROTEIN HYDROLYZES AN REMOVAL OF BITTERING PRINCIPLES

PRODUCING MIXED FRUIT DRINK WITH LOCALLY SOURCE CITRUS FRUIT

PRODUCING MIXED FRUIT DRINK WITH LOCALLY SOURCE CITRUS FRUIT

CHAPTER ONE

  INTRODUCTION

Fruits are part of a plant that houses  seeds or flesh covering of nuts or succulent they are pulpy in character often juice and since they develop from flowers of plants they consist of the ripened seed or seeds with some edible tissue attached    ( Iheoronye and Ngoddy 1985). Fruits are also plant parts which have aromatic  and fragrant characteristics and are usually sweet or sweetened before eating. They may also be processed into other fruits beverage marmalades, fruit butters, vinegar, nectars wine pastes price and preserves (Ihekoronye 1999). Processing method used for any fruit depends on the fruit type (janick et- al 1981)

There are also different kinds of tropical fruits available for the production of fruit juices and they are pineapple, grape lime lemon shaddock oranges paw- paw tangerine all these are used for the different purpose depending on the type of drink that is desired, one mature and fully ripe. The chief nutritional contribution of citrus juices other than the calorific energy supply by their natural sugar content is vitamin C which is the anti scurvy vitamin. These facts proves that the possibility that fruit drinks might be substituted  for break fast serving. All the ready to serve canned juice and a few of the other in contrast contained substantial    amount of vitamin C.

Various authorities have estimate that 25- 80 % fresh fruit and vegetable produced are lost at harvest in tropical regions which include a large proportion of developing countries, losses can be of  considerable  economic and social importance. (unpublished hand out 1.

Fruit due to their composition and  physiology are highly perishable and  therefore  needed to undergo  some treatment which will aid  in improving and increasing the sholf life of the fruit. It is also important to process fruit so as to maintain consistency and to ease shipping  and also necessary to process those fruits so  as  to manufacture  for  both home grown and imported product for exports so as  to aid imposing the wealth of the country.

Tropical fruits include pineapples, orange grape, lime guava, shaddock, lemon and we have them grouped into various classification. Example fig fruits and citrus fruit etc.

A wide variety of products are available form produce fruit   which include jams, soft drink carbonated beverages, alcoholic drink fermented products (tression and joslyn 1971)

The major steps of producing fruits juice include selection of fruits, all selected fruits should be of the best quality and of the required level of  maturity (Ihekoronye 19991). It should be washed with potable water, sort, peel destorng and slicing should take place under most hygienic conditions. Use of  cleared  surfaces  such  as plastic  covered  wooden table or strong surface  are  desired.  Fruit can be extracted by fruit press fruit will or hand pulpier sieve and stainless steel had to be used for the extraction process.

 

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PRODUCING MIXED FRUIT DRINK WITH LOCALLY SOURCE CITRUS FRUIT

EXTRACTION OF OLEORESIN AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN HERBS AND SPICES THAT IMPART FLAVOURS AND FRAGRANCES

EXTRACTION OF OLEO RESIN AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN HERBS AND SPICES THAT IMPART FLAVORS AND FRAGRANCES

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

Herbs and spices have long been used by ancient civilsations for culinary, medicinal and cosmetic uses. With modernization and the development of patent medicines, the use of natural cures and elixirs decrease in popularity.

Nowadays, disillusionment with synthetic drugs, artificial additives and their possible sides effects has given great rise in popularity to many natural products, be it for culinary, medical or cosmetics purposes. In line with the world wide trend for eco-consciousness, the popularity of natural cosmetic purposes. In line with the world wide trend for eco-consciousness, the popularity of natural cosmetic products, such as those sold in red earth and the body shop, attests to the current trend (Broadhurt CL, 2000).

Spices are defined as those aromatic plants and their parts, fresh or dried, whole or ground, that are primarily used to impart flavour and fragrances to foods and drink (Prosea 1986). The term is used in a wide sense and includes the culinary herbs. Spices are indispensable in the culinary art, used to create dishes that reflect the history, the culture and the geography of a country. Well-known examples are  curry powder, housing live five spices powder) Pizza herbs and fines herbs (Polansky mm, 2000) spices oils and spice oleoresins are also indispensable in the food and beverages manufacturing industry, the perfumery and cosmetic industry and the pharmaceutical industry. Some spices and derivative possess antioxidant and antibiotic properties, which has increased interest in the commercial exploitation of aromatic plants for food preservation and crop protection with the growing demand natural and organic products and the increasing clamour to dispense with synthetic flavours and artificial food colouring, the future for spices seems bright.

According to Pearson 1976 herbs and spices consist of the dried leaves, flowers, buds fruits, seeds, bark or rhizomes of various plants. They are incorporated in foods only in small amounts but they make important contributions towards the odour and flavour due to the presence of the volatile oil 9essentail oil) and fixed oil, local examples include Piper guineense (Uzuza), Xylopia gethiopica  (uda), Mondora myristica (Ehuru, Tretaphleura tetraptra  (Oshsho) and capsicum frutescens (Ose Nsukka).

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EXTRACTION OF OLEO RESIN AND ESSENTIAL OILS IN HERBS AND SPICES THAT IMPART FLAVORS AND FRAGRANCES

EFFECT OF AVAILABILITY OF EQUIPMENT ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN FOODS AND NUTRITION

EFFECT OF AVAILABILITY OF EQUIPMENT ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN FOODS AND NUTRITION

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study was to identify the effect of availability of equipment on students’ performance in Foods and Nutrition. The research is imperative in that the findings of the study will assist government and other key stakeholders in education to provide support towards the implementation of Foods and Nutrition curriculum focused on the identified critical challenges.

The study adopted the descriptive survey research design in which 8 schools selected through purposive sampling technique. The population for this study comprised of students in all the secondary schools in Lagos State that are offering Foods and Nutrition as a subject at ordinary level. Eight secondary schools in Surulere Local government comprising 120 students were selected by a simple random sampling and this also comprised of 8 Foods and Nutrition teachers. A structured questionnaire, interviews and observations were used as data collection instruments.

The findings reveal the following challenges as militating against the effective implementation of the Foods and Nutrition curriculum in Lagos State: negative attitude by parents and students towards the subject; inadequate professional and qualified teachers for the teaching of Foods and Nutrition; inadequate infrastructure and equipment in schools and where the equipment is available it being underutilized due to lack of expertise and inconsistent electrical power supply ; insufficient instructional materials and books in schools ; and that schools are generally poorly financed.

Four key recommendations arising from the study are that quarterly awareness campaigns should be carried out in society to educate the public about the importance of Foods and Nutrition as well as technical and vocational subjects in the curriculum; training programs in form of seminars, conferences, workshops and in servicing, should be organized at regular intervals to equip teachers with the requisite skills for the teaching of Foods and Nutrition; school should form partnerships with the industries and corporate bodies aimed at financing the implementation of Foods and Nutrition curriculum and vocational subjects in secondary schools and that adequate infrastructure, resource materials and facilities should be provided in schools for effective teaching and learning.

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1Background to the Study

Nutrition is fundamental to developing a sense of well-being and to meeting the growth, development, and activity needs of healthy, confident children and young people. Readiness to learn is enhanced when the learners are well nourished. There is considerable evidence linking children’s nutrition to educational outcomes. If children are malnourished, have nutritional deficiencies or are obese, then their learning is likely to be affected.

Adesina (2009) comments that education at all level is a delicate issue, which serves as a way forward to every society – especially in a developing nation like Nigeria. Advanced countries have improved their standard of living by education, which is considered to stimulate economic and technological development; thus, education can be regarded as an investment that yields dividends in terms of overall development of a country (Adesina, 2009). Formal education started in Nigeria during the colonial period. It developed from the early forms of reading, writing and arithmetic (i.e. the three ‘r’s) to a stage where the London Genera Certificate of Education, Ordinary Level Syllabus (the so-called O-Level) was used to guide instruction in secondary schools (Fafunwa, 1974). These secondary ‘grammar schools’ were fashioned in such a way that did not accommodate the vocational technical subjects, and as a consequence trade centers and colleges were established. Here, the City and Guild (Intermediate) syllabus was used to guide instruction and upon completion, successful students were awarded the City and Guild (Intermediate) Certificate of London. The Federal Craft Certificate or the Ministry of Labour Trade Test Certificate also was awarded to successful candidates. The Federal Craft and Trade Test Programs were put in place by the Federal Government of Nigeria mainly to improve the understanding and competencies of artisans and technicians.

 

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EFFECT OF AVAILABILITY OF EQUIPMENT ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN FOODS AND NUTRITION

PHYSICO CHEMICAL AND ORGANOLEPTICPROPERTIES OF FLOUR AND FUFU PROCESSE FROM CASSAVE VERIETIES

PHYSIO CHEMICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF FLOUR AND FUFU PROCESS FROM CASSAVA VARIETIES

CHAPTER ONE

Fufu is a dough – like consistency prepared from predominantly starchy material by pounding the boiled material or by cooking a non-gelatinized powder or paste icold o hot water (krama and maz 1972)
This is usually eaten with soup or (ownueme, 1978) Ngoddy and Ihekoronye 1985)
Fufu is important in Nigerian food utilization patterns. It is regarded as “perfect” food all over.
Africa (Desikacha, 1975) is thus regarded real in companion to other dishes like garri.
Fufu could be made from yam, retted cassava flour, yam flour by pounding boiled tuber or stirring the flour into boiling water (Ihekoeronge and Ngoddy 1985)
Another type of fufu (tuwu) is also made from maize, millet or sorghum flour only or mixed with the starch material example cassava flour which will serve as binding agent.
Cassava constitute very important high energy food crops because of the starchy content. It is often coveted into other products (Okechukwu et al, 1990) some of the conversion involve moisture uptake steeping or moisture loss drying.
Many households and industrial products that can be made from cassava include meal, chips, flour, pellets and starch is produced in large factories where the sequence of operation can be summarized as follows.
Washing of the roots, peeling, grating, extracting the starch setting / washing the starch, refining the starch are generally based on filtration and centrifugation.
In recent years a considerable mechanize means of manufacturing garri, fufu, lafun etc. the roots are peeled, greed, pressed, sieved, roasted and sieve without the involvement of manual operation or different ways of preparing it and other products.
(IITA, 1994, FURO, 1976)

THE FUTURE OF CASSAVA IN NIGERIA.
In Nigeria, other countries of the world’s future, modified starches that are specially formulated for individual application will continue to find new uses.
Whenever you cassava. In your product, you will be assisting the diversifying the economy and improving the livelihood of millions of poor farmers and rural processors. Nigeria the would largest producer of cassava has to take urgent step to develop the utilization of cassava and to sustainable commercialize the crop.
In the industries listed below are cassava bye – products which the industries use in the production.

(1) TEXTILES: Cassava starch is used in the stages of textile processing, sizing the yarn stiffen and protect it during weaving, improving colour consistency during, printing, and making the fabric durable and shining at finishing.
(2) PAPER INDUSTRIES:- Modified starch from cassava is used in wet stage of paper making to flocculate the pulp. In order to improve the rate and the reducing the pulp loss. Native and modified cassava ink consumption to improve print quality.

PLYWOOD: Glue made from cassava starch is a key material in plywood manufacturing. the quality of plywood depends having on the glue that is used.

PHARMACEUTICALS:- Native and modified starches are used as bounders, filers and disintegrating agents for tablet production.

SWEETNERS:- Glucose and fructose made from cassava starch are used as substrates for sucrose in jams and canned fruits cassava based sweeteners are preferred formulators for their improved processing characteristics and product enhancing properties.

BIODEGRADEABLE PRODUCTS:- Cassava starch can be used as a biodegradable polymer to replace plastics in packaging materials.

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PHYSIO CHEMICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF FLOUR AND FUFU PROCESS FROM CASSAVA VARIETIES