ABSTRACT Starch from tigernut was isolated by wet milling process and physico-chemical properties of native and modified tigernut starches (cyperus esculetus) were analyzed. The carboxymethylated modified starch had highest amount of protein (0.45%) fibre (0.25%) and moisture content (14.96%) while natives had highest amount of fat (0.60%) ash (0.17%) starch (77.90%) and amylose 17.71%. the physicochemical analysis showed that native tigernut starch had the highest valve of total solid (86.60%) and PH (6.63) while hydrogen modified starch had highest amount of TTA (0.495%). The study therefore had an effect proximate and physicochemical.
Tigernut (cyperus esculentus) is an underutilized crop which belongs to the division magnolophyta, classliliosida, order – cyperales and family cyperaceae (family) and was found to be a cosmopholitan, perennial crop of the same genus as the papyrus plant of her names of the plant are earth almond as well as yellow nut grass. (Codoemelan, 2003; Belewu and Belweu 2007). Tigernut has been cultivated since early times for the its small tuberous rhizornes which are eaten raw or roasted used as hogfeed or pressed for its juice to make a severage. Non – drying oil (usually called chufa) is equally obtained from the rhizome. (umerie and emebli 1998). The nut was found to be rich in myristic acid, oleic acid, lin oleic acid. In Egypt, it is used as a source of food, medicine and perfumes (De varies, 1991). Tigernut is commonly known as earth almond, chufa and chew–fa and Zulu nuts.
It is known in Nigeria as Aya in Hausa, Ofio, Imumu in Yoruba and Akiausa in Igbo where three varieties (black, brown and yellow) are cultivated. Among these only two varieties because of its inherent properties like its bigger size, attractive colour and flesher. The yellow variety also yields more milk upon extraction, contains lower fat and more protein and possess less anti – nutritional factors especially polyphenols (Oladele and Aina, 2007). Tiger-nut can be eaten raw, roasted, dried, baked or be made into refreshing beverage called Horchata De Chufa or tiger-nuts. Tiger-nut milk is a very nutritive and an energetic drink both for young and old. It is a tremendous high in starch, glucose and proteins. Also rich in minerals like potassium, phosphorus, vitamin E and C. Tiger-nut milk contain a large amount of oleic acid and is cardiac preventive. (Okezie and Bello, 1998). It defend the internal mechanisms and prevents both constipation and diarrhea. Tigers have long been recognized for their health benefits on the account of their high fibre and sugar contents. Cyperus esculentus (Tigernuts) is a perennial growing to 0.9m (3) at a fast rate. It is hardly to zone B. the flowers are harmaphrodise (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by wind (Perera and Hoover 1998). Suitable for light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil suitable PH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in shade. It prefers moist or wet soil.