NIGERIAN NEWSPAPERS AND THE COVERAGE OF DEVELOPMENT ISSUES:  AN ANALYSIS OF THIS DAY AND DAILY TRUST NEWSPAPERS (JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 2011)

NIGERIAN NEWSPAPERS AND THE COVERAGE OF DEVELOPMENT ISSUES:  AN ANALYSIS OF THIS DAY AND DAILY TRUST NEWSPAPERS (JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 2011)

ABSTRACT 

The study with the title: “Nigerian Newspapers and the Coverage of Development Issues: An analysis of Thisday and Daily Trust Newspapers (January to December, 2011) has  an aim of  encouraging an adequate participation in the process of social change through the use of the newspaper as a medium of communication, which can be used to actualise the desired development objectives. This study has adopted a simple content analysis as its methodology, combining it with other techniques of research such as the interview technique, simple random sampling procedure and comparative analysis. In the study, which analysed a total of 104 editions has revealed, among others that Thisday, recorded 5% (5.41%) of development coverage and non-development matters constituted 95% (94.58%) i.e 5,154 and Daily Trust has 476 appearances represented by 8%(7.71%) of development, while  non-development issues recorded 5,690 represented by 92% (92.28%). The study recommended among others that development matters should be covered adequately.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Cover page ——————————————————————————————i

Title Page——————————————————————————————–ii Declaration —————————————————————————————–iii

Certification—————————————————————————————-iv

Dedication——————————————————————————————-v

Acknowledgement———————————————————————————vi

Abstract———————————————————————————————vii

Table of Content———————————————————————————-viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Background to  the Study——————————————————————-1

1.1    Statement of the Research Problem——————————————————-8

1.2    Aim of the Study—————————————————————————–9

  1. 3 Objectives of the Study———————————————————————9
  2. 4 Significance of the Study——————————————————————10
  3. 5 Scope of the Study ————————————————————————-10
    • Assumptions——————————————————————————–11
    • Terminologies——————————————————————————-12

 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

  • Introduction———————————————————————————-14
  • Development———————————————————————————14
  1. 3 Communication—————————————————————————–20
  2. 4 Development Communication————————————————————21
  3. 5 Development Journalism——————————————————————27
    • Other Research Findings and Reports————————————————— 29
    • The Agriculture, Education and Health Sectors in Nigeria—————————-38
  4. 8 Theoretical Framework——————————————————————–41

CHAPTER THREE  RESEARCH   METHODOLOGY 

  • Introduction———————————————————————————-45
  • Content Analysis—————————————————————————-46
  1. 3 Sampling ————————————————————————————46
  2. 4 Coding and Categorisation—————————————————————-49
  3. 5 Comparative Analysis———————————————————————50

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

  • Introduction————————————————————————————52
  • Analysis on Thisday————————————————————————-52
  1. 3 Thisday: Discussion on Research Assumptions —————————————–60
  2. 4 Interview Questions and Responses from Reporters———————————–60
  3. 5 Analysis on DailyTrust———————————————————————63

4.6  Daily Trust: Discussion on Research Assumptions————————————-69

  1. 7 Interview Questions and Responses from Reporters———————————–70

4.8  Comparative Analysis of Thisday and Daily Trust————————————–72

  1. 9 Analysis on the Units of Measurement—————————————————75
  2. 10 Findings————————————————————————————-76

CHAPTER FIVE  SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Summary ————————————————————————————–81
  • Conclusion ————————————————————————————81
  1. 3 Recommendations —————————————————————————82

References————————————————————————————84

Appendices

Coding Sheets

Interview Questions

CHAPTER ONE

1:0  BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Prior to the introduction of modern means of communication, man has fashioned himself with the appropriate communication approach suitable for his development, that is the traditional means of communication. Through this approach, people in different rural settings were mobilized to participate in the affairs of their locality.

However, as the society became large and complex, traditional communication systems could not adequately take care of the communication needs of the people and therefore, the modern  media was put in place to reach out to the relatively large, heterogeneous and anonymous audience simultaneously. That marked the era of the mass media.

It is worthy of mention that communication is an important social tool, without it, one could not have influenced the ideas, feelings or actions of others. Through written, verbal and non- verbal signs and symbols, man communicates his feelings and ideas to his fellows. Those who have cultivated the ability to communicate are better than those who cannot express themselves properly. For those who know how to communicate, learn to interact; can achieve leadership in the groups they involved.

It is also true that communication links the individual with himself, his environment and other men. The man of our time lives in a diversified media world, the profusion with which they are distributed and the assault of advertising, etc. There are few communities that still may be totally isolated and outside this communication circle. Through the media, man has become accustomed to receiving messages.

According to the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, communication which is the process of transferring thoughts, ideas, facts, feelings, etc from one person to another is very important in human existence. Without it, life will be meaningless and human interaction would be impossible .The importance of communication cannot be overemphasized.

Sybil (1989) observed that communication serves as an instrument of social interaction. It helps us to understand ourselves, to keep in touch with other people, to understand situations. It is a means by which power is acquired, exercised and sustained. It is the medium through which relationships are established, extended and maintained. The Mass media has helped in creating social awareness and also provided people with an easy way of living life. The print media played an important part in the historical events such as, The Renaissance, The American War of Independence, The French Revolution and many more.

Earlier on the development of the newspaper came around 1600 A.D., but it took this form of mass media more than a century to influence the masses directly. The first printed newspaper was The Relation. Later, in the year 1690, Benjamin Harris printed the first colonial newspaper in Boston. There was an increase in the circulation of newspaper in the nineteenth century. Then came the first African-American paper titled  Freedom’s Journal, published in the year 1827.

The 14th century Guttenberg’s invention of the printing press must have aided the revolution in the printing industry. This invention made it possible to transfer complex information, ideas and concepts from one individual to another, or to a group, faster than ever before due to amazing advances in technology in recent years. This breakthrough altered the way we perceive the universe and manner in which we communicate with one another. As early 1900, print media could be found in the form of newspapers. It provided all the necessary information about the world for the people at remote locations. Even today, newspapers remain an important global source of information.

The history of Print Journalism began in Nigeria with the installation of the printing press at Calabar by the Presbyterian Mission in 1846. As a result of this development, books, pamphlets, short essays and short stories that were produced had their contents focused primarily on religious matters and other cultural interests.

Although, this development did not last long and has often been left out in the chronicles of print development in Nigeria, other missionaries and religiously inclined business conscious men took a cue from the Calabar experience.

Subsequently, Rev. Henry Townsend, a missionary-journalist, established a printing press in Abeokuta in 1854.Five years afterwards i.e. in 1859, the “IWE IROHIN FUN A WONARA EGBA ATI YORUBA” was founded. The newspaper translated into English Language means “Newspaper in Yoruba for Egba and the Yoruba people”. It was published fortnightly but later became bilingual in 1860, when the English version was added to the Vernacular edition. “IweIrohin” published news about church activities, particularly, the establishment of new churches, the arrival and departure of missionaries and even the death of religious dignitaries and traditional rulers.

Its primary objective was to cultivate good and appreciable reading attitude among the people of the area and even beyond. As a result of this, the newspaper expanded its news coverage to cover non-religious events such as those about trade and commerce, exhibitions, sports, health, hygiene, moral educational and others. At last, the newspaper stopped publication in 1867.

It was responsible for the development of indigenous language in Nigeria and was able to carry the people alone. This has promoted cultural development among the yorubas. It was this realisation that prompted its resuscitation in year 2012 by  the Nigerian Union of Journalists(NUJ) Ogun Chapter in collaboration with Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta.

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NIGERIAN NEWSPAPERS AND THE COVERAGE OF DEVELOPMENT ISSUES:  AN ANALYSIS OF THIS DAY AND DAILY TRUST NEWSPAPERS (JANUARY TO DECEMBER, 2011)

 

THE INCIDENCE OF BRAND LOYALTY AMONG CONSUMERS’ OF CEREAL FOODS (A CASE STUDY OF PHINOMAR FOODS ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE INCIDENCE OF BRAND LOYALTY AMONG CONSUMERS’ OF CEREAL FOODS (A CASE STUDY OF PHINOMAR FOODS ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

This research was concerned with the incident of Brand loyalty among the consumer of cereal foods in Enugu metropolis, using Phinomar Foods in Enugu as case study. Given the background of the problems the study sought to know the existence and extent of brand loyalty among consumers of cereal foods, to determine the influence of prices of the products on brand loyalty, whether consumers perception of the attributes of the cereal foods influence brand loyalty for particular brands and such attributes includes thing as taste, Milk content sugar content dissolvability and nutritional value and finally to ascertain the extent company image and brand name influence brand loyalty. All the same, this study was restricted to six popular brands namely; Cornflakes, Golden morn Soy pops, Cocopops, White oat and Fruit Fiber.

Further, among the objectives and significance of study was to investigate the existence of brands loyalty among consumers of cereal foods and to find possible solutions to the problems identified.

This work was accomplished through the use of questionnaire oral interview, revision of previous work by different authors and the use of Top man’s formula to determine the sample size (288) and analyzed the findings by the use of Z-test method. At the end of the work it was discovered that consumers are to a reasonal extent loyal to particular brand, price, quality, products attributes, company’s brand name and image exert a significant influence on the loyalty of consumers. Also consumers have basic expectations in their favorite brands and are not naïve as advertisers would want us to believe. The orders of importance of the attributes to consumers are as follows: Nutritional value, Milk content, Taste Dissolvability and Sugar content. Based on the findings it was recommended that companies should focus on product quality and integrated marketing communication (IMC) on popular already existing brand names in the market. This will help sustainability of consumers’ loyalty.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Human behaviour is enormously varied and very complex and is predicted on attitude, learning and habit. Consumers learn from past experience and future behaviour is conditioned by such learning. Marketers, the world over differ considerably in their prediction of human behaviour.

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THE INCIDENCE OF BRAND LOYALTY AMONG CONSUMERS’ OF CEREAL FOODS (A CASE STUDY OF PHINOMAR FOODS ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE MARKETING STRATEGIES USED BY COMMERCIAL BANKS IN MANAGING SERVICE BREAKDOWN AMONG SME CUSTOMERS. SOME EXPERIENCES IN KENYA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE MARKETING STRATEGIES USED BY COMMERCIAL BANKS IN MANAGING SERVICE BREAKDOWN AMONG SME CUSTOMERS. SOME EXPERIENCES IN KENYA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

This study sought to establish the strategies used by ccommercial banks in Kenya in Managing Service Breakdown among SME Customers. The study focused on five commercial banks namely Barclays, Kenya Commercial Bank, Standard Chartered, Equity and Fina  bank which currently offer services to SME customers. A self-administered open and closed ended questionnaire was utilized in collecting primary data from the field. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study found that lack of clear communication with customers, long procedures; intrusive documentation and lack of flexibility are some of the causes resulting in service breakdown. It also established that the main strategies used by banks to deal with services breakdown include; designing services to fit the needs of customers; ensuring that services are always oh high quality without compromise; putting relevant systems in place; having competent employees in place; on time delivery of services and ensuring that services are driven by customers to increase acceptance and satisfaction.

 

Key words: Services Break down, strategies

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

This study sought to examine the strategies used by Commercial banks in Kenya to deal with Service brieakdown. The study had two objectives, namely To identify the causes of service breakdown in commercial banks in Kenya, and To establish the specific marketing strategies used by commercial banks in Kenya in managing service break down

A company’s strategy consists of the business approaches and initiatives it undertakes to attract customers and fulfill their expectations, to withstand competitive pressures and to strengthen its market position. These strategies provide opportunities for the organization to respond to the various challenges within its operating environment. Firms also develop strategies to enable them seize strategic initiatives and maintain a competitive edge in the market (Porter, 1985). The competitive aim is to do a significantly better job to its customers. The success of every organization is determined by its responsiveness to the customer needs.

The competitive aim is to do a significantly better job of providing what customers are looking for, thereby enabling the company to earn a competitive advantage and outsmart rivals in the market place. The core of a company’s marketing strategy consists of its internal initiatives to deliver satisfaction to customers but also includes offensive and defensive moves to counter the maneuvering of rivals, actions to shift resources around to improve the firm’s long term competitive capabilities and market position, and tactical efforts to respond to prevailing market conditions. Assuming that there are a number of providers, customers will choose which offering to accept on their perception of value-for-money.

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE MARKETING STRATEGIES USED BY COMMERCIAL BANKS IN MANAGING SERVICE BREAKDOWN AMONG SME CUSTOMERS. SOME EXPERIENCES IN KENYA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE IMPACT OF MARKETING RESEARCH AS AN AVENUE FOR PROFITABILITY: A CASE STUDY OF COCA-COLA NIGERIA PLC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE IMPACT OF MARKETING RESEARCH AS AN AVENUE FOR PROFITABILITY: A CASE STUDY OF COCA-COLA NIGERIA PLC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

The study reviews the need for marketing research in a business organization set to make profit. The company under study Coca-Cola Nigeria Plc do state, prove to be one that have imbibe the culture of the marketing research. The general statistics from data gathered indicated that the staffs of the company are aware of the benefit derivable from marketing research. The data also shows that the company presently embarks on research effort, not depending on government assistance. The strategies are steam from findings got from marketing research made. The various types of research were also rewarded in the study. The fact that marketing research may be disadvantageous under some situation was also considered. 

 

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Over the years, the field of marketing had proven to be a dynamic one. Its transformation from the simple act of buying and selling to a complex system which is regarded as the success of an organization word… is evident to that effect. Marketing is very important to any organization since its success would depend largely on the scale of product of service. Marketing research is of immense importance in the management of business enterprise for centuries.

Although, its development was accelerated by the industrial revolution, marketing research remained crude, minor over the centuries. It did not become common a significant part of a firms marketing strategy, until the advent of the technological revolution after World War II, which included a proliferation of new and more complex consumers and product, increased economic of scale, new markets and encouraged the geographical expansion of business operations. One result of this post war development has been an increase in the number of business failure and the cost of bad divisions.

The management of marketing resources has become far more complex. Marketing decisions have become more numerous and more risky, while the penalties for errors have become more greater. In an effort to increase the quality of marketing decisions and particularly to reduce the risk connected with them. Markets have increasingly turned to research fortunately, the same technological revolutions that created the great need for market information has also advanced the science of marketing research, proving powerful tools for data management and analysis like the computer.

 

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THE IMPACT OF MARKETING RESEARCH AS AN AVENUE FOR PROFITABILITY: A CASE STUDY OF COCA-COLA NIGERIA PLC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE IMPACT OF MARKETING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN ENUGU STATE . A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE IMPACT OF MARKETING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN ENUGU STATE . A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

   The study was on the impact of marketing in the development of tourism in Enugu state.

The researcher towards reviewing all the related literature necessary to up date the subjects and have a better understanding of the impact of marketing n the development of tourism. Research conducted revealed that for tourism to prosper in the future that is needed for recognition and implementation of all the marketing concepts.

The data for this study were collected both from the primary and secondary sources. A pilot survey of the population was conducted to determine the sample size, on the course of the analysis, may problems were discovered to have hampered the effective and efficient performance of tourism industry in Enugu state. These findings are such as.

  1. Non application of marketing concepts or marketing activities like sale promotion.
  2. There is also no marketing department for the majority of the tourism organization.
  3. There is also lack of government commitment in the implementation of tourism policies.
  4. The tourism organization themselves have not been able to understand the environment they operate before fixing their prices.
  5. Inadequacy of fund has also been the major constraints for effective tourism development. Equally tourism industry itself is managed by people who are professional incompetent in the field of tourism. The researcher based on these findings recommended that tourism association should participate in the marking of tourism policies.

The adequate publicity should be given to the industry through sales promotion and advertising to create tourism awareness. That tourism organization should establish and run their own marketing department which should be headed by marketing professions for enhancement of tourism development. That the pricing policies of the different tourist organizations.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Tourism is defined as the practice of traveling for pressure especially ones holidays tours, Hotel etc. for tourist.

  Also tourism is the sum of the phenomenon and relationship arising from the travel and study of non-residents in so far as they do not lead to permanent residence is not convicted with an earning activity.

Tourism is an industry, which is based on the visits made by people within and outside the country for the purpose of relaxation revisiting rest and participation in exciting non-routine activities. The destinations of tourist traffic are usually located outside where the tourists like and work.

Tourism, people travel outside the normal domicile to other areas within the country on the other hand when people travel to a country on the other that in which they normally like and which is a separated, national unit with its own political and economic system. They are involved in international tourism. In determining the impact of marketing on the development of tourism, Philips Kotler defers to marketing as a managerial process which identifies anticipates and supplies customer’s requirement efficiently and profitability in deed, marketing as one other management function has number contributions to make in tourism development.

Krippend off  defined market tourism as the systematic and coordinate execution business policy by tourist undertaking whether state owned at local regional national international level the needs if identifiable consumers groups and in doing so to achieve an appropriate return.

The first equipment for tourism planning therefore is knowledge of the market and this involves researching into people and their need that is to sky tourism facilities should be organized primarily to meet the needs of the guest or users.

 

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THE IMPACT OF MARKETING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN ENUGU STATE . A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ATTITUDE OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS PUBLIC UTILITIES (A CASE STUDY OF NEPA, ENUGU METROPOLIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ATTITUDE OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS PUBLIC UTILITIES (A CASE STUDY OF NEPA, ENUGU METROPOLIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

abstract

It has always been said that the consumer is the king and will remain the king in the market place-meaning that the success or failure of any product/service depends on the attitude of consumer towards it.             The consumer attitude may be positive in which case the product/service enjoys consumer’s acceptance or negative attitude, which will result in rejection of the service/product, and various factors could be responsible for each situation.

This means that public utilities have to be aware of the consumers’ ideas, opinions and interest towards the companies’ services, type of services and if possible, factors responsible for such attitude. Therefore, it is in the light of the above that the researcher went into to determine what attitude towards the public utilities that exist in the mind of the consumers. The study is aimed at determining the extent to which people regard NEPA as a corporate body and the confidence imposed on the provision of efficient and quality power supply. Chapter one, as the introductory segment, determines the attitude of consumer towards public utility especially NEPA. Chapter two deals with the concept of consumer behaviour. Chapter three looks at the methodologies used in carrying out the research work. Actual Data presentation and findings were presented in chapter four. While chapter five and the concluding segment looks at the implications, discussions of result and recommendations.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0              INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND:

This research work is aimed at determining the attitude of Consumers towards public utilities Nigeria Government’s policy on the development of Public Corporations was clearly defined in the 1970 /74 second National Development Plan document as follows

“Statutory Corporations and State owned companies have become important tools for public intervention in the development process.

Their primary purpose is to stimulate and accelerate National Economic Development under conditions of capital scarcity and structural defects in private Business organizations. There are also basic considerations arising from the dangers of leaving vital whims of the private sectors often under the direct and remote control of foreign large scale industrial companies, public corporations are these crucial in Nigeria’s quest for the National Economic Independence and self- reliance”.

 

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ATTITUDE OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS PUBLIC UTILITIES (A CASE STUDY OF NEPA, ENUGU METROPOLIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE EFFECT OF SEGMENTATION IN THE TARGET MARKETING OF NBL PLC IN ENUGU STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE EFFECT OF SEGMENTATION IN THE TARGET MARKETING OF NBL PLC IN ENUGU STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

This research project is very crucial study of the effect of segmentation in the target marketing of NBL plc Enugu.

To solve the research problem primary and secondary data were collected.  The research instrument used in collecting the data were questionnaire and personal oral interview.  The respondents compaesed the event staff/management and the customers of the company.

In the organizing and presenting data collected tables, frequencies and percentage were used.  The various hypothesis were tested.  OP the (S27) questionnaire was distributed, 400 to customer out of which 325 were refurned, representing 840, 87 to distributors out 012 80 were refurned representing 93%.

 

The objectives of this project are to find out the role of segmentation on the target marketing of NBL product.  To find out the major problem falling on segmentation their product services.

 

The conclusion of the study, CS that organization without an efficient segmentation of market for those product from heterogeneous to homogenous is like an organization without plans to achieve organizational objective.  This is because every Brewery product has whose reason for making them available and segmenting these will ensure that are purpose of the Brewery product with treaty every product separately, is the foundational basis for profitability of an organization.

To end this, various recommendation have been made to both organization to the Brewery industry, which is believe will helps to ensure and facolotate the educational level of NBL drink customer increase the profit of the patronge received from the customers, the educational level of the aspons marketer who are willing to enter the made for the first time.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In this modern and dynamic world, marketers look at the overall market as a body consisting of many smaller parts whose elements have some common characteristics.

They are mostly distinct from the entire market.  For marketers entering a market, the total market must be divided into segments or division being similar internal of wants and need or behaviours.  This therefore, results to designing its own programme which will be developed for its best satisfaction.

Adirika, Ebue, Nnolom (1997:40) noted that most marketers are too large for an organization market.  Some delimitation of the market is necessary for the sake of efficiency and because of limited resources.  This takes up to market segmentation.

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THE EFFECT OF SEGMENTATION IN THE TARGET MARKETING OF NBL PLC IN ENUGU STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE PUBLIC RELATIONS IN MARKETING EXPANSION OF BANKING SERVICES IN ENUGU METROPOLIS (A CASE STUDY OF ALL STATES TRUST BANK PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE PUBLIC RELATIONS IN MARKETING EXPANSION OF BANKING SERVICES IN ENUGU METROPOLIS (A CASE STUDY OF ALL STATES TRUST BANK PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

The study focuses on the impact of effective public relations practice in the marketing expansion of banking services in Enugu metropolis. a case study of All State Trust Bank Plc operating in Enugu state. It aims at identifying the areas of potential problems in order to enable corrective measures to be taken. Although All States Trust Bank plc maintains a corporate affairs department that performs public relation functions, yet the management is not happy because the bank does not have good image, in the opinion of it’s customers.

It was based on this that the research decided to embark on the present study, with the following objectives in mind;

i)                    To determine whether All State Trust Bank considers as important the public relations policy of the organisation as strategic.

ii)                  To determine whether All States Trust Bank plc communicates effectively major policy issues to its publics.

iii)                To ascertain and discuss whether public relations activities of the bank has any significant impact on the existence, growth, profitability and survival of the bank.

iv)                To make appropriate recommendations based on the findings.

Both primary and secondary data were used. Some high – ranking executives of the bank were interviewed. The information gathered from the were quite helpful in pursuing certain areas of inquiry and which later formed the basis for construction of the questionnaire and the formulation of hypothesis.

The questionnaires was meant for two categories of respondents as follows: the staff and management of All States Trust Bank, the customers of the bank. The questionnaire was structured to contain both the multiple choices and the open – ended questions.

Major findings of the study were:

a)                  The management of All States Trust Bank does not considers as strategic the impact of public relations on its customers.

b)                  There is no effective communication between All States Trust Bank and its customers.

c)                  The public relations department of All States Trust Bank is not adequately funded.

d)                 The company does not meet the expectation of its customers in services delivery.

Base on the findings the following recommendations were made

i)                    The management should consider the public relations practice of the bank as a strategic decision.

ii)                  The public relations departments should be adequately funded.

iii)                The bank should organized on regular basis customers forum/meeting so as to meet the expectation of the customers.

The study occludes that effective public relations is a necessary ingredient for the survival and continued relevance of an organisation.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY          

The success of an organisation can be derived from the efficiency and effectiveness of its resources use. Some organisation can do well with minimum resources, but thee are others which do not do well even with abundant resources – both human, financial and material resources. The difference between depends on the method of allocation of resources and the use to which they are put. As a result, the importance of resources management in achieving organizational success cannot be under estimated.

 

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IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE PUBLIC RELATIONS IN MARKETING EXPANSION OF BANKING SERVICES IN ENUGU METROPOLIS (A CASE STUDY OF ALL STATES TRUST BANK PLC). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE EFFICACY OF SALES PROMOTION IN THE MARKETING OF CONSUMER PRODUCT (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOLTING COMPANY PLC WARRI, DELTA STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE EFFICACY OF SALES PROMOTION IN THE MARKETING OF CONSUMER PRODUCT (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOLTING COMPANY PLC WARRI, DELTA STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

  Sales promotion is much more diverse than either personal selling or advertisement firms defines it in different ways depending on what they want to achieve.

Association of marketing, America defines it as those marketing activities other than persons Sal selling that stimulates consumers purchasing power and dealer effectiveness such as displays, shows, exhibition, demonstration and various non-recurrent selling effort not in the ordinary routine.

The essence of this project work is therefore to review in broad terms the different types of sales promotion campaign, and the efficacy and the efficacy and the effectiveness of sales promotion in the achievement of organizational goal.

In general, this study will be emphasizing on the efficiacy and effectiveness of sales promotion on consumers product like Nigeria bottling company product. for sales promotional programmes to be effective, the company should improve on their budget allocation to sales department as well introduces other sales promotional devices which they have not practiced like trade contest, collateral sales materials, advertising specialties and slotting allowances this will  go along way to make sales promotion much effective and as much increase turnover for the company.

In chapter two, related literature  which the view of other authors were reviewed whole chapter three which is research design and methodology, the sampling techniques used was probability sampling techniques. The source of data were primary and secondary source. The primary source include the use of questionnaire, personal interview while newspaper, journals,  textbooks and business magazine were the secondary source.

In chapter four, the presentation of data were made by percentage method and the hypothesis test used is chi- square (X2) .

Based on the findings, the result reveals that the efficacy of sales promotional campaign stimulates the consumers purchase  of Nigeria bottling company (NBC) product.

In addition, it is advised that adequate time planning and budget can be made and allocation should be made to sales department of the firm so as to carry out necessary arrangement for sales promotional programme in the right time.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  Promotion is synonymous with marketing communication. They are often used interchangeably, they are professioner terms used to describe the aspect of marketing function which deals with information, persuading and reminding the target audience about a firm’s product offering. Thus promotion, comprises advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity, public relation and direct marketing.

 

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THE EFFICACY OF SALES PROMOTION IN THE MARKETING OF CONSUMER PRODUCT (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOLTING COMPANY PLC WARRI, DELTA STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE MARKETING OF HOSPITAL SERVICES (A CASE STUDY OF PARK-LANE HOSPITAL ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE MARKETING OF HOSPITAL SERVICES (A CASE STUDY OF PARK-LANE HOSPITAL ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

PREFACE

Public relations as a marketing function is an extension of the societal marketing concept which focuses every marketing decision on customer satisfaction, and welfare of the firms larger public which is designed to enhances the image of the organization in the minds of its various public.

It is the aim of this research work of find out if hospitals do make use of public relations as one of their marketing strategy for customer satisfaction and enhancing the image of the organization in the minds of its public. This research work has five chapters.

Chapter one contains a general discussion of what public relation is all about as has been said by different authors. It went further to state the problems to be studied and why this study was carried out, the scope and limitation of the study, and finally, the proposition and the definition of terms.

For the literature review, a number of past related literature examined by other studies as it relates to the role of public relations in marketing of hospital services are highlighted also.

The third chapter, deals with the design of the study, the method used in collecting relevant data. It equally treat the way the questionnaires were distributed and the treatment of data.

In chapter four, the data got from the research survey were analyzed and interpreted. Also, similar questions on both questionnaires were compared.

Finally, chapter five contains the summary of finding conclusion on the research and recommendations made by the researcher.

For hospitals to enhance the image of their organization in the minds of its public, hospitals should put the recommendation made in this study into use for it will not only satisfy services offered to their customers but a continuous increase in the number of patients that do patronize their hospital and an increase in profit.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF HE STUDY

Before now, hike in 1960’s public relation practice was not popular, only a few Nigerians knew what public relation was, until the recent past when public relations practice and public relations programmes and activities were considered as the powerful tools for co-ordinating human and business image. The knowledge of public relation diffused fast in Nigerian society because of the economic, social and political programmes of activities were in a state of constant change.

Public relations as marketing function is an extension of the societal marketing concept which focuses every marketing decision on customer satisfaction, and welfare of the firm’s larger public. A relationship between a firm and its numerous public such as customers, employees, and the community at large, which is designed to enhance the image of the organization in the minds of its various public (Engle, Warshow and Kinnear P. 568).

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THE ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN THE MARKETING OF HOSPITAL SERVICES (A CASE STUDY OF PARK-LANE HOSPITAL ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE PROBLEMS FACING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF BANKS IN RURAL AREAS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF ENUGU STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE PROBLEMS FACING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF BANKS IN RURAL AREAS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF ENUGU STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

            Banking transactions in some selected local government in Enugu such as Udi, Ezeagu Udoji is not new to us as we have been practicing this system for over thirty years after independence. However it is on this background that two systems of operations were adopted for effectiveness and efficiency of the product management in various banks. In the past we use to have an orthodox banking process whereby the banker relaxes on this sit waiting for customers to bring business. This type of banker is looked at as somebody with rigid ideas about bankable projects and which in turn retards the smooth flow of banking operations. Another type of banking process adopted as conventional is the unorthodox system whereby the banker is evolved in looking for customers.

   Because they want to maximize profit, the banks employ all possible marketing promotional strategies in order to survive, hence competitors has come into play and thereby creating innovation and business acumen. Knight Lester B. (1970: 7) status of banking marketing Washington D. C. American Bankers Association states that banks primarily especially commercial banks are engage in business of collection, payment and depository functions as well as credit management.

According to Kotler (1980: 4) stated that the survival of any bank depends on the manner it functions and therefore it has to depend on the market place for its profitability and environments of the economy which it serves. It is worthy to mention that the ability of any business to serve and retain its customers depends mostly on the quality and the effectiveness of the product management it offers. The quality of services provided by the any organisation is better judged in terms of it’s ability to bestow the customer’s with the desired satisfaction. In this regard characteristics such as reliability, standardization, availability and other desired attributes associated with service combine to determine the effectiveness of the product management in the marketing of banks services in the three local government areas.

Martins (1979: 12) confirmed that the image commercial bank has is important because it determines the customers patronage of bank.

 

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THE PROBLEMS FACING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF BANKS IN RURAL AREAS (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF ENUGU STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING IN ENUGU METROPOLIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING IN ENUGU METROPOLIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

This study was carried at analyzing the effectiveness and problems of classified advertising in Enugu. The study appraised the use of classified advertising in Enugu metropolis its perception by the Enugu audience, its advantages and major set backs. The study also examined the extent to which classified advertising achieves advertisement objectives in Enugu and the various opportunities and benefit of classified advert which media organisation and advertisers in Enugu can exploit. Finally, the study tried to find out the ethical level of classified advertising in Enugu metropolis.

To generate answers to the study two sets of questionnaires were administered. One to the print media organisations and the other to advertisers and consumers of classified columns. It was discovered after a detailed analysis. The hypotheses formulated where tested using chi- square (X2). The sample size were determining using Topman formular fo advertiser. (Customers) why senses survey was used for management and relevant staff.

Tompan formula.                     Z2pq

e2

where

n          =          sample

z          =          standard deviation (or the desired 1.96)

and estimated standard error of 5%

Z          =          1.96

e          =          0.05

p          =          0.9

q          =          0.9

  The sample size (N) was calculated as

n          =          (2)e (P) (1 – P)

e

n          =          (1 – 96)2 (0.9 )(1 – 0.9)

0.05

n          =          (1 – 96)2 (0.9 )( 0.1)

0.05

n          =          3.8416

3.0025

n          =          138.292

The data generated through the two sets of questionnaires that classified advertising is not frequently used by advertisers in Enugu metropolis, at the same time many users in Enugu metropolis are skeptical about its operation. The cost of classified advertising was considered by many advertisers to be moderated when related to other advertisement modes in Enugu. Also classified advertising was seen to have two major advantages in the sense that advertisers see it as being relatively cheap and easy to use.   Other findings made in this study are that classified advertising in Enugu is mainly used by lower class advertisers who normally advertise change of name, general goods, employment, real estate activities and others.

 

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING IN ENUGU METROPOLIS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE IMPACT OF PROMOTION ON CONSUMER PATRONAGE OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES (A CASE STUDY OF GABBEY PHARMACY LIMITED ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE IMPACT OF PROMOTION ON CONSUMER PATRONAGE OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES (A CASE STUDY OF GABBEY PHARMACY LIMITED ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

   This research project is aimed at determining the impact of promotional strategies of pharmaceutical firms on consumer patronage. The study was expected to reveal at the end of the day the degree of these promotional messages on consumer patronage, and it will equally help the producers of pharmaceutical to understand the consumers’ attitude towards the use of their products.

The objective of the study were to find out the following:-

1.                  To determine the extent, to which Gabbey pharmacy is aware of promo – tools.

2.                  To determine the impact of direct marketing on consumer patronage at Gabbey pharmacy in Enugu Metropolis.

3.                  To appraise the promotional strategies adopted by Gabbey Pharmacy product in increase profitability.

Secondly, information was collected through the use of structured question are administered to consumers. Oral interview were conducted among the producers of pharmaceuticals, consumers and patent medicine dealers.

Secondary data were collected from journals, publications and other related works.

Chi- square (X2)  statistical tool was used in the analysis of primary data at 95% confidence level. It was found out that almost all the consumer respondent have at time or the other bought a brand of pharmaceutical products.

Also substantial number of the consumer respondents got to know of  Gabbey brands through the company representatives.

On the basis of the above findings it was concluded that consumers seek constantly pharmaceutical product with desired attributes to solve their health problems.

However, the population of the study was made up of the resident of Enugu metropolis. The researcher used a census survey for the staff strength of the company of (10) persons, and the sample size  was 246.

Finally, it was recommended that thee is need for NAFDAC and other regulatory bodies to shed off their current conservative and restrictive approach in promotion of pharmaceutical. Manufactures should be encouraged to interact to exchange information directly with their customer using interactive media like internet, e-mal etc.

Current Global trends where drugs are promoted as fact moving consumers goods like putting a lot of pressure on marketing/promotion approaches of pharmaceutical firm. These firms should therefore invest more regularly on researches that track the dynamic consumer behaviour in order to articulate promotional programmes base on current anticipated needs of the consumers.

The researcher believe that if these recommendations are religiously carried out, pharmaceutical firms will laugh loudly well as they will witness a stupendous and astronomical increase in their sales turnover and even on return on investment.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Consumers have diverse motivation, taste and preference. They constantly seek solutions to the various state of deprivation (needs) through product offerings and bombardment of promotional messages.

Consumer’s perception of his needs and desired solutions sharpened by his socio – economic and cultural background of the study will determine how he reacts to an element or a mix of the promotional variables.

 

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THE IMPACT OF PROMOTION ON CONSUMER PATRONAGE OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES (A CASE STUDY OF GABBEY PHARMACY LIMITED ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE IMPACT OF SELF SERVICE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUPERMARKETS (A CASE STUDY OF CYRIL SUPERMARKET ABAKALIKI, EBONYI STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE IMPACT OF SELF SERVICE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUPERMARKETS (A CASE STUDY OF CYRIL SUPERMARKET ABAKALIKI, EBONYI STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this project is to examine the impacts of self service on the performance of supermarkets.

The study is divided into five chapters. In chapter one the impacts was introduced and a narrative meaning of self service and other key elements included in the topic were discussed. It went further to state the problem to be studies and why this study was being carried out, that is the purpose, the significance of the study, scope of the study, the hypothesis to be tested and the Definition of terms.

Chapter two examined all other studies carried out on similar topic and their relevance to this study. There were mostly references, quotes adequate statements made by other authors who had handled similar topics.

Chapter three dealt with the major part of the project which involves the method used in collecting relevant data, research instrument used, the population and the sample size. It also dealt on how the questionnaire were distributed and treatment of data.

Chapter four dealt with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data collected in chapter three, it also went further to test the hypothesis in chapter one.

 

Finally, in chapter five, a conclusion of the whole findings was drawn and appropriate recommendations made for possible implementation. However, this study was not done without lapses and on this very platform, suggestions and further studies were sort.

 

       It as found that consumer have positive perception of self service; many of them prefer it because they use it as opportunity to select goods without interference. The study revealed that supermarkets that adopt self-services strategy perform better than their counterparts that do not adopt self service strategy.

 

I also made some recommendations in chapter five. Such recommendations. Were that supermarket operators should train their employees on areas like customer service and public relations. Supermarket operations should also improve on the ways they display their goods since attractive display attract consumers to make purchase.

Finally, I recommend that supermarket should be mare self service orientated since the advantages of this strategy has been shown.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Before the contact with the colonial master, marketing especially in the Nigeria region was based on barter system. But today as society and business have become more dynamic and complex, the need for advanced marketing procedure has developed, supermarket inclusive.

The most popular orientation or philosophy that has pervaded thought and motivated decision and action among marketing people is the marketing concepts, simply put, according to the concept, the satisfaction of the consumer is the overriding goal of business. This put the consumer on a new pedestal that of a king, the center piece of all marketing activities. Most supermarkets use this concept  in carrying out a research their supermarkets.

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THE IMPACT OF SELF SERVICE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SUPERMARKETS (A CASE STUDY OF CYRIL SUPERMARKET ABAKALIKI, EBONYI STATE). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE EFFECT OF PRICING STRATEGIES ON THE MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN ENUGU STATE (A CASE STUDY OF UDI L. GOVT. COUNCIL). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE EFFECT OF PRICING STRATEGIES ON THE MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN ENUGU STATE (A CASE STUDY OF UDI L. GOVT. COUNCIL). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

These study on the effect of pricing strategies on the marketing of agricultural products in Enugu State.  With particular attention to Udi L. G. A Council was carried out with the some for the following objectives.

To evaluate the possible means of reducing or removing entirely the activities of middlemen to remove the problem of heading.

To appreciate the channel of information flow which will help bridge the communication gab which exist in the rice market in the State.

To evaluate the best possible means or best strategy to be used in making the product (Rice) available in the Urban town and Cities thereby eliminating the problem of price variations.

To  recommend based on the findings possible ways of activating the problem effecting rice marketing (pricing and strategies in Enugu State).

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Today, the mentioning of the word marketing has a lot of things and meanings to send to a lay man.  The word marketing has to be understood and interpreted by any lay man as meaning the same things as trading.  But to a professional, marketing is starts before production and ends after consumption.  We also talk about societal marketing concept which puts the entire  society into consideration when doing any thing unlike trading which emphasizes  on selling.

In an attempt to define the term marketing, it is good to look at some definition given by some authorities  and professionals in the field.  It should also be noted that there is no generally accepted definition of marketing rather each person tries to took at marketing to reflect the functions performed by him therefore we would not make mistakes if we say that there  are as many  definitions of marketing as there are many marketer.

According to Philip Kotler (1980), marketing is “Human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange  process.”  This definition has some key words as the operative words, such as needs,  wants and exchange,  Needs, this defined  as a  state felt deprivation in person. Wants are the expression of human needs as they are sharped by a person,  culture and individual development.  And want must be backed with money for it to be meaningful to the marketer Exchange is obtaining  a desired object from some one offering in return something of value.

 

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THE EFFECT OF PRICING STRATEGIES ON THE MARKETING OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN ENUGU STATE (A CASE STUDY OF UDI L. GOVT. COUNCIL). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT IN BREWERY INDUSTRIES (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT IN BREWERY INDUSTRIES (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

If a company has a good product, well branded and priced, required and proper promotion done but could not get to the users as and when required, the company has succeeded in achieving nothing.

Therefore, the objective of this study is to ascertain whether the company has sufficient number of functional distributors, dependable source of raw materials and good distribution network.

Chapter one contained a general discussion on distribution.  It went further to find out if the company have dependable source of raw materials and from the objectives of the study four hypothesis were formulated.

Literature review tried to examine both the empirical and non-empirical works available on the subject of the study.

Chapter three dealt with the design of the study.  The methods of  relevant data collection, distribution and treatment of data were also discussed.

The data collected from the survey were analyzed and interpreted in chapter four,

    Finally, the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations were contained in chapter five.  It is the belief of the researcher that if Nigerian Brewery and other brewery industries would put the recommendation given in the study to use that there would be a drastic charge in the services offered and continuous increase of profitability on the side of the company.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Production is the creation of goods and services, the goods and services can be produced in factories, industries, firms or companies.  Production is not complete until the products / services get to end user or consumer.  This can be obtained through the distribution process and that complete the production cycle.  The distribution activity is equally referred to as physical distribution management (PDM), Marketing logistics and material management.  Physical distribution system includes; transportation, material handling, order processing, inventory control, warehousing and packing into a complete distribution strategy.

Mccarthy, described the place component of marketing mix (distribution) as “the situation and use of marketing specialist middlemen, transportation and storage agencies to provide target customers with place and possession utilities.  Distribution channel is regarded as a bridge that spans various gaps between producers and customers.

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PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT IN BREWERY INDUSTRIES (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

AUDIENCE PERCEPTION OF THE CREDIBILITY OF FOREIGN AND LOCAL NEWS ORGANIZATIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

AUDIENCE PERCEPTION OF THE CREDIBILITY OF FOREIGN AND LOCAL NEWS ORGANIZATIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

The thrust of thrust of this study was to ascertain how the credibility of our local news organization are being perceived by Nigerian audience, especially when they are compared with foreign news organization.

In general, I looked at those factors that militate against the news organizations to be perceived as being credible.

I raised a proposal in which I stated my interest and objective.  I used survey research method in conducting this study.

My major objective is to ascertain if there is any significant differences between the audience perception of the credibility of foreign and local news organizations.  And if there is, the factors that contribute to that, the implication and recommendations.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Credibility, according to the “Living Webster Encyclopedia Dictionary of English Language”, is the capability of being believed, relied on, or trusted.

To effectively ascertain audience perception of the credibility of the foreign and Local News organizations, one needs to bring to mind how our local stations are viewed in terms of credibility, especially when compared with their foreign counterparts.

Most Nigerians believe that foreign stations like CNN, VOA and BBC get clearer visuals, more instant, objective, balanced, truthful and less distorted news reports.  While our local stations are used by the government as propaganda tools, that the news items are filled with biased and opinionated information; that even the so called private electronic media industries are not operating in a free environment that they can face the real societal issues and leave praise singing that has been epitomized with government owned media, among others.

Nigerian communication climate is besieged with stringent regulations and journalists are forced to become government praise singers instead of watchdogs.  And since the government is constantly churning out repressive laws, harassment and intimidation against journalists, through extra – judicial measures and powers to make them sycophantic and boo ducking tools, what implications do these have on the listening and viewing audience?

Outside this scenario, there exists a very big “competitor” that toy to “snatch” the highest number of audience members, from the local media organization and that is the foreign news organization.  Some of these organizations unlike the local ones, operate in a freer environment where there is high respect for the freedom of press.

 

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AUDIENCE PERCEPTION OF THE CREDIBILITY OF FOREIGN AND LOCAL NEWS ORGANIZATIONS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

CREDIBILITY OF NIGERIA BROADCAST MEDIA (A CASE STUDY OF NTA ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

CREDIBILITY OF NIGERIA BROADCAST MEDIA (A CASE STUDY OF NTA ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

This will be research credibility of Nigeria take a look at credibility of Nigeria Broadcast media with special emphasis on NTA Enugu in Enugu State. This study is attempts of evaluate the position of Nigeria towards the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) its is intended to prove empirical data on NTA, and how media play a vital role in the life of people.      Reviews of related literature clearly examine in great detail the factors surrounding the credibility of broadcast media.        Several data gathering techniques were employed.  These included a survey of opinion of television viewer’s questionnaire and direct personal observation.    The finding indicates that broadcast organizations and its programmed use to be trust and accepted to the people for their truth objectivity and elimination of boas they met. It also indicates that although Nigerians accepts other media as an organs of information dissemination, people in Uwani prefer and rely more on NTA television network for reliable and dependable news.        Based on these finding, this study recommends broadcasting objectives which other media will follow to redeem its image enhance acceptability.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

For the purpose of this study, the researches considered UWANI metropolis, Enugu, because of its strategies location.

Television newer ship has fallen off in recent years, credibility ratings for the major TV news outlets have remained relatively stable. As was case in 1998 and 1996, NTA is related the most credibility TV news source. Roughly four in ten people in Uwani who are able to rate it (39%) say they can believe all or most of what they see and hear on NTA.

Since the mid-1980’s, Nigeria have become increasingly skeptical of what they see, hear and read in the media and almost no major news outlet has escaped this trend. For many media outlets there has been little change in public evaluations in the last four years but ratings for some continue to inch downward.

Different studies in different countries have found that developing countries need the media for evolution of new psychological personality, learners study of the middle East, pools study of the media, Rogers diffusion of innovation, all bear clear and eloquent testimony to the crucial role of the mass media to national development.

Leading credence to this assertion, Wilbur Schramm in his graphic message concludes “Communication is always at the very center of existence, for any society, developing or not that countries in a hurry cannot afford the luxury of an inert mass”.

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CREDIBILITY OF NIGERIA BROADCAST MEDIA (A CASE STUDY OF NTA ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

AUDIENCE PERCEPTION OF COMMERCIAL TELECAST DURING NTA NETWORK NEWS PROGRAMME (A CASE STUDY OF ONITSHA METROPOLIS). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

AUDIENCE PERCEPTION OF COMMERCIAL TELECAST DURING NTA NETWORK NEWS PROGRAMME (A CASE STUDY OF ONITSHA METROPOLIS). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

Advertising is known as the process of making things known to people and it is considered as non-personal communication of information usually through most persuasive media of Radio, Television. Advertising Sports are broadcast during regular programmes at moments specified by the advertiser or left to the broadcast.

Therefore, advertising agencies serve to carryout complete research into consumers behaviour and demographic analysis of the market area.

Having realized the importance of commercials in human existence, this study acquaints you with the reasons breaks during News programmes in NTA had to be allowed to the detriment of News substance and its presentation.

It will further survey the motive of advertisers in buying a fixed time during such an important programme of the NTA and the audience perception of it, whether favourable or not, having been argued that advertisers exercise and undue influence over the regular contents of the media they employ.

In terms of the subject of a television show or programme.

LIST OF TABLE

(1)      Table 1 – The respondents watch News at 9.00 p.m.

(2)      Table II – The majority of the respondents watch the network News often

(3)      Table III – The number of times the respondents watch the NTA   News in a week

(4)      Table IV – The majority of the respondents do not watch commercial telecast during the News.

(5)      Table V – Majority of the respondents don’t like to watch commercial telecast during the network News programme.

(6)      Table VI – Majority of the respondents walk away during commercial break.

(7)      Table VII – The feelings of the respondents on commercial telecast during NTA Network News programme.

(8)      Table VIII – The commercial telecast during NTA Network News programme are not in order.

(9)      Table IX – NTA Network service should not show commercial during the network News at 9.00 p.m.

(10)    Table X – The age of the respondents.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Without any shred of doubt, I will say that is very important and wise to set a good example and produce good things than set or produce bad one.

Thus it is very vital t note that one important function in business to thrive and succeed is getting and keeping customers.  This extends in making the business to be aware that it should not base itself merely as a producer of goods and service, but also as a buyer of customers and as a dear of those key ad important things which makes people want to involve interact and deal with it.  In this kind of free enterprise economy such as Nigeria where business and commerce are run or conducted with less involvement or minimum of government involvement, inference or intervention anybody who have the means or resources, be it small scale business or a big capitalist can set up business.  This is as a result of many product and services organization of various kinds.

 

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AUDIENCE PERCEPTION OF COMMERCIAL TELECAST DURING NTA NETWORK NEWS PROGRAMME (A CASE STUDY OF ONITSHA METROPOLIS). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE EFFECT OF ELECTRONIC FILM VIOLENCE ON THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUTHS IN ENUGU STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

THE EFFECT OF ELECTRONIC FILM VIOLENCE ON THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUTHS IN ENUGU STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

The main thrust of this study is to find out the impact of TV film violence on the behavior pattern of youths, using Enugu state as a case study. In the course of this study, public opinion survey method was used which required the distribution of 398 copies of questionnaire to selected youths resident in Enugu state. The population of Enugu was 1,561,000, while the sample size for the study was 398, calculated. Using Taro Tamene formula. The two research hypothesis were tested and accepted. The analyzed data showed that protracted exposure to violence oriented film on TV has negative impact on the behavioral recommended that government should muster enough political will ban the importation of foreign films that are at variance without cultural values. It is further recommended that the Nigerian government should encourage Nigerians film makers to emphasize high standard in local films to replace the banned violence oriented foreign films.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The mass media system is a device for delivering thought, information, knowledge, ideas and attitudes to a diversified audience. It has grown from the primitive signals and verbal communication to the present complex facilities. The mass media include printed words and pictures which can appeal to the sense of sight, radio which uses sound to transmit messages and television which uses both sound and pictures to communicate massages.

In our present complex society there is great dependence on the mass media for the transaction of business. However, the potential influence of mass media is shaping individual attitudes and behavior has become a subject of debate. Nevertheless, it is an irresponsible fact that media massage influence attitude shift both for good and bad depending on the content of the message.

In the same way, it has been established that the image used by mass media in communicating information to a mass audience, depending of course on the rate of exposure to a particular message.

Mass media are part of our environment therefore, their influence on the society have multiplied effect on the audience, depending of course on the rate of exposure to a particular massage. From childhood to adult life, mass media from part of our activities.

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THE EFFECT OF ELECTRONIC FILM VIOLENCE ON THE BEHAVIOR OF YOUTHS IN ENUGU STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MASS COMMUNICATION