This work focuses on the coverage of foreign news by Nigerian Newspapers using Vanguard and Daily Sun as case studies. The researcher made use of content analysis, while simple random sampling was used to select 24 editions of the two newspapers which amounted to 48 editions as the sample size, for the period of six months of this study.  The findings show that Nigerian newspapers report foreign news frequently but do not give it prominence, that is, most foreign news reported were buried in the inside pages of the newspapers. Also, the Nigerian newspapers report more of negative foreign news which does not have any bearing on development purposes. This work concludes that the concept of imbalance in news flow should be given less attention and be accepted as a characteristic of media system.



Communication is so vital in our lives that it could be regarded as one of the characteristics of living organisms. It is a necessary condition for education, socialization, understanding, co-operation and even confrontation. (Ekeanyanwu, 2007: 13)

       When there is a controversy in information flow among countries of the world, it degenerates to an imbalance in communication, thus, the concept of imbalance in news flow.

       The concept of news, journalism and freedom of the press have for many years been a major source of disagreement between developing countries in Africa and the developed countries in the world. Developing countries often feel ill served by the western media claiming that foreign writers distort the story about African growth and development or at times, fail to report it at all. The developed countries on the other hand, see the developing nations as hindering the report of news. Members of the news media in industrialized nations, that is, free press as it exists in the United States of America and Great Britain virtually unknown in Africa and other parts of developing nations.

       In the mid ‘70s, there was a cry over the poor coverage of events in the industrialized world by the African Press while the African press also lamented about the industrialized world over the same issue. MacBride (1980: 36) reacted by saying that “the gap between the fully informed and the under informed continues to widen as the imbalance between those imparting and those receiving information becomes accentuated”. As a result, the maintenance of an open flow of information has become a necessity to nations of the world.

       A free flow of information across national boundaries helps to create and maintain sense of nationhood, performs developmental task such as improving education, health care delivery, science and technology, political stability and offers intercultural information. It also helps in formation of public opinion as well as act as a form of entertainment. It also acts as a watchdog on government in a country where such is permitted.

       The nature of news is always changing because national interest and standard are always changing and as a result, the structure of news for developing nation’s especially African countries must be re-defined to reflect efforts being made by different government in Africa to transform their societies.

       The Western definition of news on the other hand, emphasizes on events that are out of the ordinary, exceptional, exciting and sensational like “man bites dog”. This concept of news has influenced western reporters in what they gather and write as news about Africa. To these reporters, news is made in the third world countries only when there are scandals, coup, civil war and uprising.

       The developing nations are still battling to challenge this western definition of news by stretching the definition of news to include and emphasize constructive news, embracing stories on social change, economic development, social, cultural, agricultural, technological and industrial progress, news that highlights the cultural side of life and promotes trade and commerce.

       The developing nations have also complained about the imbalance in order of global news flow which ensures that 80% of world news comes from the industrialized countries of the world with 10% to 20% concerned about the third world.

       One of the results of this dissatisfaction with the situation was the advocation for a New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO), an order with a broader base value necessary for the preservation of world peace. According to Ekeanyanwu (2007: 16) “one of the starting points in the demand for NWICO was the right of nations to participate in a multi-directional flow of information on the basis of equality”

       According to Okunna (1993: 93-4) “the demand for NWICO is a demand for the establishment of a free and balanced flow of communication and a rejection of any attempt at cultural domination”.

       In 1976 at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) general conference in Nairobi, Kenya, the issue of New World Information and Communication Order was first raised. In 1978, UNESCO accorded recognition to the issue by granting it a compromised consensus.

Sequel to the 1977 meeting, a new international commission on communication problem headed by Sean MacBride, former foreign minister was set up. The commission submitted its reports in 1990. Apart from the commission’s recognition, the committee was surprised that the content of the third world newspapers, radio and television have same biased reportage of foreign events. The developed nations also argued that the bulk of information sent to the developing nations was slanted to suit the powers that be.

       In addition, the commission pointed out that there is the tendency for journalists from developing nations to write in a manner in which facts are distorted to perpetuate evil either to divide or to insult.

       This study therefore, analyses the coverage of foreign news in Vanguard and Daily Sun newspapers to see whether these two national dailies have the same reportorial bias as was discovered by the international commission on communication problems.


       There has been a great battle between developed countries and developing nations of the world on the issue of poor coverage of news in the area of information explosion. Thus, the need to study communication and the flow of information at the international level has become as expedient as never before.

Therefore, the problem of this study is to ascertain how Nigerian newspapers report foreign news. It is hoped that the outcome of this research will guide the Nigerian newspapers in the coverage of foreign news.


       The principal aim of this research is to find out the extent at which Vanguard and Daily Sun newspapers report foreign news.

       The specific purpose of this study is:

  1. To critically examine the extent at which Vanguard and Daily Sun report foreign countries.
  2. To determine the type of news (hard or soft) about foreign countries that are reported by Vanguard and Daily Sun newspapers.

iii.         To determine if the public and national interests of Nigeria affect reportage of foreign news.

  1. To find out if Vanguard and Daily Sun Newspapers report foreign news negatively or positively.
  2. To find out the degree at which Vanguard and Daily Sun report development news of foreign countries.





This work is a study of the effect of public relations on the consumer. It users premier breweries Plc as a case of study.

The research has employed oral interview for the collection of data this millennium. The work establishes the effect of public relations on the consumer.

The work also offers a useful suggestion on how to transform the effects of public  relations on the consumer  into the contemporary  use.

Finally, the are useful summary, recommendations and conclusion in the study which will be of help to scholars who could undertake studies relating to the topic.



Today, in the estimation of those who claim to be experts in the areas of communication management, nearly 500 companies worldwide have created executive post for communication managers. These position usually, if not always, are part of the public relations efforts.

The task of these managers basically is to assist their organizations define and deal with that effect them. Business, have had to increase their public policy roles in recent years, they have come to realize  that it is crucial  to scan, monitor, track and analyze the many  external forces surrounding the business world, consumers  and the environment.

In Nigeria, the public relations (PR) manager or any manager in charge of public relation will have to work very hard to meet the challenges of public relation communication in modern complex business, and also meet the challenges of public relation communication in rural areas where the business are increasing as a result of the current government policy on rural development. The brewery industry, for instance, is one areas that cannot be neglected.

The capacity to mobilize, coordinate, and direct all strategic policy planning skills, towards achievement of objective are meaningful participation.


A renowned practitioner, Dr. rex Harlow says that: public relation is a destructive management function which helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communication understanding, acceptance and cooperation between an organization and its publics, it involves the management of problems or issues, helps management to keep informed and responsive to public opinion, uses research and sound ethical communication technique as its principles tools.

Public relation is at the heart of modern management and communication is an indispensable tool, thus we find one existing in premier Breweries Plc. The aim here is to expand ones knowledge of public relation in management, examine in detail the role of public relation department and the use of  communication in effectively carrying out its duties in terms of the organization the product (s) and the consumer.

A major concern of this study is to highlight as well as expose the manner in which the organizations public relations has been executed and adopted more effective plans and strategies  to replace the previous one (s).

Essentially, it is a proactive any systematic research to identify issues and concerns that currently plague the organization or that may emerge in the next one to three years.



The followings have stimulated this study, with the anticipation of finding solutions to not just problem but all of them:

  1. The role and use of  communication as it adversely affects sales, the organization and the consumer,
  2. The ineffective performance if the public relation department to halt shrinking consumer purchases,
  3. The economic difficulties contained in the depreciation of the naira exchange rate in the parallel market, as it hinders the organization as a whole and the public relation communication efforts in specific.


Public relation complain or organizing special events is basically corporate image promotions. It is the image of the organization that is being marketed and, as such could promote or destroy the market  ability of the product or service, otherwise, advertising and other sales activities will fail. In other word public relation is institutional advertising.

For marketing and advertising to succeed, public relation must have created a veritable ground for the product or service through adequate information supported with aggressive and builds from. It is  pursuit of better communication strategies  that will yield long term positive results that shows basically that public relation is necessary in any organization.





Photographs in news stories can stimulate opinion change, either making a reader love the good advertised, or making the reader hate it.  In view of the foregoing, this study sought to ascertain an “Assessment of Readers Perception on the use of photographs in Nigerian Newspapers.  The population of this study in Enugu metropolis was about 123 but 119 readers participated in the study. The objectives of the study were: To ascertain if the use of photographs in Nigerian newspapers contribute to attracting attention of newspaper readers in Enugu Metropolis; To determine if newspaper readers view photographs in newspaper as space fillers or as aid to readers’ understanding, To ascertain if newspaper readers view photographs in newspaper as aiding credibility to stories or they are used for aesthetic appeal. The survey research design was adopted for the study; data for the study was sourced from primary sources, while data was analyzed using simple tables, frequency percentage.  Source Credibility Theory was used as a model of analysis.  The study found out that readers have different reactions to written words and pictures that are displayed on Nigerian newspapers.  It was subsequently recommended that proper training be given to journalist to enhance their competence in the field of practice, placement of photograph should represent the idea contained in the text and the Nigerian Press Council (NPC) should investigate obstacles to the flow of information on print media, ethical and professional standards in the media must be upheld.




1.1 Background of the study

For many years, photography has played an increasingly important role in the various media of mass communication that use visual messages to disseminate information (i.e. books, newspapers, magazine, film, television; and the internet – based media) (Ijeh, 2015).  Photographs have been known to greatly stimulate public interest in current events and human angle stories presented by the visual media of mass communication, and have also made tremendous contributions to the civilization and advancement of mankind (Ezekiel & Ezekiel, 2007).

The power of photographs in mass communication stems from the common knowledge that photographs are more powerful than words in message dissemination hence the dictum; “A picture can speak more than a thousand words”.  This is because photographs speak a universal language and are better able to elicit the same emotions from people on different sides of languages and educational divides (Ezekiel & Ezikiel, 2007; Fasheke 2004).

In addition to creating a greater emotional response, photographs are used to capture a reader’s attention to an article. Visual images are the gateway to a news story. Communication professor at the University of Oklahoma, Michael Pfau, claims that people do not merely pick up newspapers and magazines and start reading.  Rather, they look at them, check the headlines and photographs to determine which stories they would like to read (Pfau, 2006). In previous research, eye-tracking software has been used to determine which articles are read first, proving that a reader begins their perusal of a newspaper drawn to the most striking features – typically the headlines and photographs. According to (Pfau, 2006), readers are more likely to view a photograph, first before reading a text.  However, he noted that combining both text and photograph makes it three times more likely that at least some of the text will be read. He also noted that previous research with an eye-tracking device has also proven that readers are drawn to larger photos over smaller ones, and color images over black and white versions.

To the general public, photographs are deemed as credible sources of information. Viewers are more susceptible to believe images that they visually see, rather than what they hear or read (Pfau, 2006). Photographs tend to be taken at face value, exactly for what they represent, while a photograph and text seems to be less credible because “readers sense that the words are authored, but the image is a true representation” (Kepplinger, 1976).

Conversely to  Anderson 1989 cited in (Kepplinger, 1976) argues that, “though the photographic image may have powerful visual impact, it does not have the ability to give any in-depth explanation of the event it presents to a world eager to be informed. It cannot tell what happened before or after an event; it cannot give political or social context, much less an analysis. The camera does not know which of the events it captures are historically significant and which are not. As John et al. (1989) have noted, a photograph is time frozen, a moment yanked out of its before and after” and therefore requires an added textual analysis to accompany an image (Andersen, 1989).

According to Eunson (2008), a “stand alone” picture refers to a single photograph, with a caption that describes its content, published on a newspaper or magazine page whose other text or picture content are not related to the photograph in question.  Here the photograph with its caption tells a story alone and not in any way related to other news stories on the same newspaper or magazine page.  A picture is said to be accompanying a news story, its images and captions are directly related to a contiguous text of a newspaper or magazine news report.  In this case, the photograph is used to support the story text. “Picture – based” news stories sometimes refers to panorama of photographs on newspaper or magazine pages.  Here, sets of pictures that present different aspects of a particular subject, event or phenomenon are printed on dedicated newspaper/magazine pages with no textual report.  The set of photographs, with the aid of their captions tell the story.

The newspaper is one of the largest users of still pictures.  In this contemporary digital media space where all the media of mass ,communication (both offline and online) compete for audience and readership; pictures have become a veritable asset for these media outlets.  This competition has necessitated and propelled newspaper to become more innovative in their use of photographs to attract and sustain readership.  While some schools of thought argue that pictures aid readership of newspapers, others argue that they are irrelevant and make little or no impact on readers. It is therefore imperative against the already established background to ascertain reader’s perception of the use of photographs, specifically in the Nigerian Newspapers.

1.2       Statement of the Problems

Visuals can have a dramatic impact on a reader’s involvement and feelings towards an event or issue.  Images on newspapers have a powerful impact on readers’ attitude and understanding, and this impact and understanding cannot be created by text alone.  In a news context, the presence of a photograph can significantly affect the consumer’s attitude towards the framed issue.  While some readers might perceive pictures in newspapers as a support for the texts, others perceive it as something used in filling up the newspaper and making the pages numerous. To some also, it is just an act which serves to draw attention to a big story and to further illustrate statements made in the story and give the readers’ more details about the information presented.

This study was conceived to ascertain the perception of newspaper readers in Enugu metropolis of the use of photographs in Nigerian newspapers.





The study seeks to assess the social media perception and usage among students of Nigerian universities. Three research questions guided the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study is 1816. The sample size of the study was drawn using Wilmer and Dominic to get 451. 451 copies of questionnaire were distributed and 317 copies of the questionnaire were returned. Data was gotten from both the primary source and secondary source. The primary source was gotten from a structured questionnaire while the secondary sources were gotten from text books, library, and journals. The method of data analysis was frequency distribution tables and analyzed using simple percentage approach, from the analysis; it was discovered that students spends time longer than necessary on social media, students prefer chatting on social media than talking with their friends, students uses social media to source information happening around the world. Also from the study it was gathered that social media enhances quality education, students can learn from social media because they have access to educational materials online. It was recommended that Students should spend more time on their academic studies than they spend time on social media. Government should take charge of monitoring what goes on in the internet and awareness should be created on the proper use of social media.



1.1 Background of the study

Social media are fast becoming very popular means of both interpersonal and public communication in Nigeria and the world at large. Social media are modern interactive communication channels through which people connect to one another, share ideas, experiences, pictures, messages and information of common interest. What distinguishes the social media from the conventional means of communication is their interactive nature which allows the audience to participate in it from any part of the world they reside. McQuail (2010) differentiates the social media from the traditional mass media when he noted that “traditional mass communication was essentially one-directional, while the new forms of communication are essentially interactive. This interactive feature of the new media confers an unprecedented popularity on them. Social Media are media that allow users to meet online via the Internet, communicate in social forum like Facebook, Twitter, etc., and other chat sites, where users generally socialize by sharing news, photo or ideas and thoughts, or respond to issues and other contents with other people. Common examples of social media are the popular social networking sites like Facebook, Myspace, Youtube, Flicker, etc. Social Media is an interactive media format that allows users to interact with each other as well as send and receive content from and to each other generally by means of the Internet.

Social media are technologies that facilitate social interaction, make possible collaboration, and enable deliberation by stakeholders across boundaries, time and space. These technologies include: blogs, wikis, media (audio, photo, video, text) sharing tools, networking platforms (including Facebook), and virtual worlds (Bryer and Zavatarro, 2011).  The rise of social media sites as another platform on the internet has gained popularity over the last decade. The sites have attracted millions of users worldwide (Boyd, & Ellison, 2007) due to this fact many people are changing the outlets where they search for news, information, business and entertainment. These social media sites let those who use them create personal profiles, while connecting with other users of the sites. Users can upload photographs and post what they are doing at any given time. (Pempek, Yermolayeva, and Calvert, 2008). The social media by their nature have the capabilities of educating, informing, entertaining and inflaming the audience. Above all, they possess a contagious and outreaching influence which the conventional media lack.  This potential is most likely what Osahenye (2012) refers to as “unstoppable power of the social media.

Now just like radio or television stations, social media sites spread everywhere in Nigeria and are bound to be sprouting as technologies continue to improve; however, the problem lies in the point that the purposes which the users apply the new media for are still obscure. This is what Folorunso, Vincent, Adekoya and Adewale (2010: 326), perceived when they argue generally that, “in Africa, social media networking site is becoming widely spread than it has ever been before and it tends to be majorly accepted by the youths. Yet the widespread adoption by users of these sites is not clear, as it appears that people’s perception of this technology is diverse. By and large, this study among other things is set to methodically examine why the students in universities within South-East Nigeria make use of the social media. The reason for such academic inquiry is to unravel some of the fundamental purposes which students use the new media to achieve.  The rapid development of both technology and the skills and knowledge of social media users means that what makes up ‘social media’ continues to change at a rapid rate, as new websites and online content appear each day. As Jacka and Scott (2011:5) argue, ‘there is no single recognized definition of social media.’ For many people, well-known social network sites such as Facebook and Twitter typify social media. The sites have become enormously popular across demographics of race, age and gender, and have hundreds of millions of users. Jacka and Scott (2011:5) contend that it ‘can be said that social media is the set of Web based broadcast technologies that enable the democratization of content, giving people the ability to emerge from consumers of content to publishers’. The ABC (2011) has produced a Technology Explained website, where definitions and explanations are provided for modern technical and online terms. The website comments that: ‘Social media encapsulates digital tools and activities that enable communication and sharing across the net … Social media is used prolifically by all areas of society; business, politics, media, advertising, police and emergency services. It has also become a key tool for provoking thought, dialogue and action around particular social issues’. The Social Media Guide website (2011) has listed some 50 definitions that it says it has collected from various other websites. In its terms, ‘social media is user generated content that is shared over the internet via technologies that promote engagement, sharing and collaboration.’ Kaplan and Haenlein contend that social media as we know it today can probably be traced back more than two decades. While it was unsophisticated by today’s standards, users could post public messages on sites such as Usenet. Not surprisingly, the advent and availability of high-speed internet access has led to a proliferation of sites and an explosion in their popularity (Kaplan and Haenlein 2010:60). Kaplan and Haenlein (2010:61) developed their own technical definition of social media: ‘Social Media is a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content.’

1.2 Statement of the problem

The use of the social media as channels of communication is a growing trend in Nigeria now, and in virtually all parts of the globe. In the country, almost everyone including university students make use of social media. Social media is a double-edged sword. Its power – for good and for bad – resides in us.” That is to say; people (users) determine what they do with social media. The rate at which social media is used is very high especially among university students which often leads to reduction of time the students devote to their studies. To ascertain if social media have any positive input on the students’ studies is a major concern. .The life of a student is consumed with studying, assignments and projects. However in this modern technology era, the life of a student is also consumed with countless social media sites like Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and other countless sites and this makes it difficult for students to focus on studying. It is observed that some of the students use the social media to engage in cybercrimes which could cause harm to the victims. For some students, they easily get addicted with social media that it begins to interfere with their lives (Wilson, 2015).

These constitute the core problems this study seeks to systematically unravel how the Social media perception and usage among university students.

 1.3     Objectives of the Study

As a central objective, this study seeks to assess the social media perception and usage among students of Nigerian universities.  Specifically, the study is meant to;

  1. To find out the extent to which social media has influenced GO University students
  2. To ascertain if frequent social media is linked to poor academic performances
  3. To determine if social media contents are relevant to academic curriculum in Nigeria





Crises between herders and farmers have been a recurring issue in Nigeria most especially in the North Central states of Taraba, Nasarawa, Plateau, and Benue and recently, in the south east sate Nigeria. This bloodlust has resulted in displacement of families, loss of lives and destruction of families. As broadcast media consumption patterns continue to evolve, surveillance still remains one of the cardinal functions of this channel of communication, especially in the matters of security.  This study examined how rural broadcasting can help intercede in conflict resolution between farming communities and herdsmen in Nimbo community, Enugu state. It adopted survey research method with the questionnaire and interview as its instrument of data collection. The population was made up of residents of Uzo-Uwani local government area of Enugu state. The findings revealed that community broadcasting has done nothing in the dissemination of safety guidelines to tackle the challenges of rural dwellers and they have failed to intercede in conflict resolution between farming communities and herdsmen in Nimbo community through their programs.



1.1       Background of the Study

Broadcasting have played many roles in the Nigerian society since its evolution in the 1950s, the broadcast media of radio and television are very familiar to most people(Okunna, 2012),and they are distinct from other media because they make use of transmission technology through which their signals are scattered far and wide. Through broadcasting, the lives of Nigerians in the cities and rural areas are directly or indirectly affected through programs, information dissemination, commercials and so on. Every day of our lives we witness the incredible power of broadcast media to provide all sorts of information. There is need for exchange of information to ensure completion of task; such exchange is even more pertinent especially on sensitive areas such as security and crisis management. Inefficiency will be the result were exchange of information is low or there could be a breakdown of law and order, destruction of lives and property as is seen in some parts of Nigeria in recent times. It is no surprise Stappard, cited in Okunna (2012) said information is light and Odogwu (1998), further emphasizes this when he says that information is light, information on anything is light. Information is a vital resource that needs to be properly developed and managed because it can have a negative boomerang effect on society if ignored. Broadcasting constitutes an increasingly important source of citizens’ knowledge about public affairs and contributes significantly to the social construction of reality (Ross, 2003).  Broadcast media are recognised as agents for framing constructive forces that contribute to the production of social reality in general and the understanding of the nature of specific social problems in particular. Schneider et al., (2010) agree that media content does not only provide the unknown to readers, but also confirms or disconfirms reality about which they already know and of some event they have witnessed. Sundin (2010) opines that while information or news reflects what goes on in a community, it also shape social phenomena in important ways; it projects a collective knowledge and perceptions of reality about politics and conflicts and subsequently affects opinions and behaviour.

Community broadcasting forms an important third pillar of broadcast media, alongside commercial and public broadcasters, and are a crucial part of a healthy, pluralistic media sector. The advocacy for the community radio came with the realization that commercial radio may be excluding so many people in access and participation (Okunna, 2012).Community broadcast programs are often built around the concepts of access and participation. Vigil (1997) cited in Opubor (2007, p.7) elucidates the philosophy of community broadcasting thus:“When radio fosters the participation of citizens and defends their interests; when it reflects the tastes of the majority…. when it truly informs; when it helps resolve the thousand and one problems of daily life; when all ideas are respected; when cultural diversity is stimulated over commercial homogeneity; when they are main players in communication and not simply a pretty voice or a publicity gimmick; when no type of dictatorship is tolerated, not even the musical dictatorship of the big recording studio; when everyone’s word fly without discrimination or censorship, that is community radio broadcasting. Radio stations that bear this name do not fit the logic of money or advertising. Their purpose is different; their best efforts are put at the disposal of the civil society”.

Attacks by herdsmen are understood to have taken more sophisticated dimensions with the use of new types of weapons and communication devices. North Central region of the country appears to be the hotbed of these conflicts (Ciboh, 2017),although the problem remains spread across other parts of the country like in Nimbo community, a border town in Uzo-Uwani LGA, Enugu state, where seven villages Ekwuru, Nimbo-Ngwoko, Ugwuijoro, Ebor, Enugu-Nimbo, Umuome and Ugwuachara were invaded and their inhabitants massacred by several armed herdsmen. All the communities attacked are rural communities with a likelihood of lack information on safety or preventive measures against such attacks. Nwosu et al, (2005 p. 38) cited in Edegoh et al, (2013), opined that there is high rate of ignorance in the rural areas beyond poor physical development of such areas. Rural broadcasting must present itself as the direct mirror image of the rural dwellers particularly during crises and conflict by giving them necessary information especially guidelines to handle herdsmen which is one of the major roles broadcasting play in the society.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Conflicts between herders and farmers have been a recurring issue in Nigeria most especially in the North Central states of Taraba, Nasarawa, Plateau, and Benue (McGregor, 2014), and recently, in the south east sates. In 2004, herder-farmer conflicts resulted in ‘near-genocide’ of Christians and Muslims in Plateau State, with more than 20,000 refugees fleeing to neighbouring Cameroon (Moritz, 2010). Conflicts resulting from cattle grazing actually accounted for 35% of all reported crisis between 1991 and 2005 in Nigeria (Fasona and Omojola, 2005).Between June 2006 and May 2014, about one hundred and eleven violent attacks by Fulani herdsmen were reported by the press across the 36 states of Nigeria with seven incidents in 2006, nine in 2007, six in 2008, thirteen in 2009, nine in 2010, fifteen in 2011, seventeen in 2012, twenty seven in 2013, and eight as at May 2014 (Olayoku, 2014 p.7). According to a report published by SMB Intelligence over 2,000 people have been killed in conflicts between the herdsmen and different host communities in 2015 alone, (Amzat et al, (2016) cited in Ciboh (2017). These attacks are continuing and spreading across Nigeria with more sophisticated dimensions, adopting new types of weapons and communication devices (Olayoku, 2014).

Conflict is of major news value to media and as such remains foremost fodder for broadcast media. This study examines if rural broadcasting has interceded in conflict resolution between farming communities and herdsmen in Nimbo, Uzo-Uwani LGA through disseminating relevant information on security and safety guidelines.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The following are the objective of the study:

  1. To ascertain the level of exposure to community broadcasting in Nimbo.
  2. To find out how residents of Nimbo perceive community broadcasting.
  3. To find out how residents of Nimbo respond to security and crisis information concerning their communities.
  4. To ascertain whether security and safety information are disseminated through rural broadcasting channels in Nimbo.

1.4       Research Questions

  1. To what extent are residents of Nimbo exposed to community broadcasting?
  2. How do residents of Nimbo perceive community broadcasting?
  3. How responsive are residents of Nimbo to security and crisis information concerning their communities?
  4. Are security and safety information disseminated through rural broadcasting channels/programs in Nimbo?

1.5       Scope of the Study

The study is limited in scope and content as it focuses specifically on efforts made by media through community broadcasting or community programs to provide safety guidelines for Nimbo community during the herdsmen-farmer crisis. The study focuses on Nimbo community in Uzo-uwani LGA, Enugu state.

1.6       Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will show whether community broadcasting has helped in disseminating safety guidelines in tackling farmers and herdsmen clashes through their program contents. Also, it will contribute to already existing literature in this area, thus serving as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, and if applied will provide new explanation to the topic.





The study examined the Image of Godfrey Okoye University by the graduating students of 2017/2018 session of the university. Quantitative design and survey methodology was adopted for this work. The population for the study consisted of 471 graduating students of 2017/2018 session with a sample size of 261. The study was anchored on two theories. Stake holders theory and excellent theory. The study found out that the learning facilities in Godfrey Okoye University are of a high quality and it satisfied the students of the university and also that Godfrey Okoye University has good quality of academic staff. It also found out that the students of the university view the regulations on the social life of the student while on campus as unnecessary and that the attitudes of non-academic staff of the university are not satisfied by the students of the university. And it recommends among others that  Public and private Institutions should as a matter of priority make use of good quality learning facilities in their different institutions and also employ good quality staff that will boost the knowledge of the students through good teachings as such will encourage more students into their institutions .  Universities should take part in interval research to know the needs, wants and challenges of the students as this will help them draw a concrete and efficient program for the students.



1.1 Background of the study

Corporate image communicates the institution`s mission, the professionalism of its leadership, the caliber of its staff and students to their entire publics. It is the impressions, knowledge, feelings that people have about an institution. Since the inception of Godfrey Okoye University Enugu, they have experienced growth variously in everything they do. Godfrey Okoye university the catholic university of Enugu diocese in Enugu state since 2009 had been in forefront of other university that were established with them and even before them in Nigeria. Anieke .C, (2015). The good image of Godfrey Okoye University had earned them collaboration with influential people and organizations both within and outside the country like Birmingham University, Portsmouth, Coventry University United Kingdom, Johannes Kepler Universitat Linz, Austria and Bowen University United States. Aneke. C,(2016).Corporate image has become a prominent paradigm and has begun to be link to strategic management decision of an organization including institutions. The concept is based on recognition that students assess institutions image to know the level of their academic qualification because every good parents and guidance will like their children to attain a reputable school with good image and qualification that will equip their children with good knowledge that will make him or her a better person and also employable for job after school.

Herstein (2009), state that in order to reinforce corporate image, an effective integrated marketing communication (IMC) strategy must be developed and successfully implemented. In an attempt to maintain an atmosphere to foster trust and confidence of the students and parents, Godfrey Okoye University are linked to their vision and mission in establishing the institution which is to be the best private University in Nigeria and knowing that they can only achieve it through the positive impression of the public had employed many qualified staff comprising of prominent professors in the institution that will prepare their students to compete with other students from other continents like Europe, North America and so on. Njoku .G,(2016). Abratt and Mofokeng (2001) stipulated that vision and mission guide any organization in its daily interaction with external   actors. Through their collaboration with American and Australian Universities, they laid the foundation of their mission with their students as their students attained programs with students from the above Universities; they interact and compete with them as well as measure their knowledge and these had indeed equipped them to be ahead of other Universities in Nigeria.

Organizations rely on various cues in their quest to project an image to its stakeholders. According to Fill (2006), corporate image is the out word projection of who and what the organization is to its various audience. Godfrey Okoye University Enugu is known by its publics as an institution where students graduate with distinction in both character and learning because this university does not only prepare its students academically but also morally. As a catholic university, they celebrate masses every morning for the catholic students and staff and as well allow the non- Catholics to worship God in their own program before the beginning of lectures every morning to prepare them that putting God first in everything they do is very important. Macmillan (2002) opines that reputation has been identified as playing a significant role in improving firm value. Godfrey Okoye University in their effort to ensure the safety of her students and staff had employed many security personnel that guard her environment against armed robber or kidnappers of any kind. The 2017/2018 graduating students of the University perceives that the University has a better corporate Image to other Universities. Good image promote good reputation of an institution, the concept of image has gone deeper and broader, it has universally acknowledge that image can be shaped by both tangible and intangible characteristics, formal and informal factors. Therefore seeking sustainable image should start with the identity representing the values and performance standards clearly.

Reputation management should be based on holistic approach, one’s reputation is being driven by behavior, communication, visual appearance, result, their interpretation among various publics, as well as by exogenous factors media messages, gossips, other stakeholders review and appreciations. Developing comprehensive image and reputation in an institution should be based on determining identity and profile of desirable image band reputation, analyzing internal and external environment, identifying stakeholders and their importance, measuring and evaluating present image.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Assessing her corporate image is necessary for any organization, institution, because their success or survival depends on the quality of their relationship with the publics. Quality relationship and sustained goodwill with various publics depends largely on the image the various publics hold about such organization or institution. Just as individual cannot survive in this competitive world without others, also an organization cannot sell without its publics. Godfrey Okoye University like every other institution,need the goodwill of her respective publics to survive. Students are very important group that the university relates with. Students are the main reason why educational institutions exist. The students of Godfrey Okoye University came from various families and from different part of the country. They have relationships with relatives and other young people who may be in search of a good university to attend. The impressions that students have about the university will determine what they will be telling people out there about the university.

Graduatings students having spent about four years or more in the institution and ready to spread into the larger society are expected to be positive ambassadors of the university. If they have great, positive impressions about the university, they will naturally become positive campaigners, spreading the good news about the university to others. This will increase the traffic of prospective students seeking to be admitted into various programs of the university.

Similarly, if students hold negative impressions about the university, their comments about the university will scare other prospective students from the university. This will rubbish to a great extent every other efforts of the university to become more acceptable and attractive to prospective university students and their parents.

This work sought to ascertain the corporate image of Godfrey Okoye University as it is in the minds of the 2017/2018 graduating students.





The Aim of this study was to determine the influence of journalism practice in Enugu. The objective of the study is to find out the influence of freedom of information law and high rate of curriculum in Government Business in Nigeria e.t.c. survey method is used as instrument for data collection (questionnaire) sources of data (primary and secondary data of population size total 110 sample size  = 86 finding and recommendation).



1.1 Background of Study

Freedom of information (Press freedom) could be traced to that age of enlightenment and development of democracy in America. It is a product of libertarianism which derived unarguably from the libertarian theory of the press. It is one of the ingredients of libertarian approach to the theory of media (Goke, 2003). Freedom of information, specifically access to information held by public authorities is a fundamental element of the right to freedom of expression and vital to the proper functioning of a democracy. It is a law that makes provision for the disclosure of information held by public authorities and allowing democracy becomes the order of the day. There has been increasing acceptance of the importance of human rights and in particular of freedom of expression. For a country like Nigeria that has witnessed decades of military rule where press freedom was restricted, it came as a relief when the freedom of information bill was signed into law. Virtually all government information in Nigerian is classified as top secret. Longe Ayodu of Media Rights Agenda (MRA), a Logos based non-governmental organization (NGO), say this veil of secrecy makes\\\ it difficult to get information from any state agency (Ayode, 2011). Plethora of laws prevents civil servants from divulging official facts and figures, notably the official secrets act which makes it an offence not only for civil servants to give out government information but also for anyone to receive or reproduce such information. Further restrictions are contained in the Evidence Act; the pubic complaints commission Act, the Statistics Act and the criminal code amongst others.

Adeleke, (2011), says that idea behind these laws is to protect vital government information, but the level of secrecy is so ridiculous that some classified government files contain ordinary information like newspaper cuttings which are already in the public domain, so impenetrable is the veil of secrecy that government departments withhold information from each other under the guise of official secrets legislation. There are also instances where civil servants refuse to give the National Assembly documentation after being asked to do so.

The result of this is that journalists are denied access to information that is critical for accurate reporting, and unraveling the web of corruption in Nigeria. These issues motivated Edetaen Ojo  along with other relevant NGOs to initiate the bill that has become freedom of information act. Historically, the freedom of information bill in Nigeria could be traced back to 1993 during the administration of General Sani Abacha in which transparent government was not the order of the day. EdetaenOjo, head media rights Agenda (MRA) a young organization for the defense of free expression rights. Civil liberties organization (CLO) and the Nigerian Union of Journalist (NUJ) Lagos branch spearheaded the drafting of freedom of information bill.

The draft went through several reviews before it was presented to former president Olusegun Obasanjo in early June 1999, with the hope that the bill would be forwarded to the National Assembly as an executive measure. He declined, advising MRA instead to do so if they wished. The bill was then submitted to the National Assembly in 1999, as advised by Olusegun Obasanjo but the legislature’s four year term passed without the bill being voted on. The bill was re-submitted after the present National Assembly was inaugurated a few years ago, it scaled through both the lower and upper chamber of the National Assembly and the harmonized version was passed by both chambers on May 26, 2011, it was conveyed to Goodluck Jonathan on May 27, and he singed it on May 28, 2011. so far two states in Nigeria namely (Ekiti and Lagos states) have adopted the freedom of information acts at state level but they have extended the response date of level from 7 days to 14 days (Ogbuokiri, 2011). Prior to signing this bill to law access to information especially of hybrid public authorities was no go areas for the journalists. People view some information as being sacred with the belief that it was not meant for public consumption.

Inspire of the law on freedom of expression, several institutions still find it difficult to implement this law fully. It is against this backdrop that the researcher decided to undertake the study in order to ascertain the influence of freedom of information law on journalism practice in Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Inspire of the fact the freedom of information law have been seen as a potent instrument towards political, economic, social-economic development of Nigeria and closing the gap created by virtue of long military rule which led to lack of information on how government business is run within the country, several organizations are yet to fully adopt this instrument and put in into practice. The spate of high rate of corruption noticed in every sectors of the economy, the spate of massive ignorance on government daily business, tIe spate of information gap between the government and citizens, the spate of massive unemployment of youth in the country, fallout of secret deals by government which is not exposed, the spate of inequitable resonance sharing within the country are eloquent testimonies that there is dire need for the practice of freedom of information law in Nigeria.





This research exercise is on the influence of new media in social life of Nigeria youth; in Godfrey Okoye University students. The research study adopted the media systems dependency theory as the theoretical framework for this study. The method used for this study was survey research method, with the population of 1640 students and a sample size of 311 students. The study revealed that over 68% of Nigerian youth log in on social media at least four to six times in a week and that over 80% of the youth believed that there is influence of social media on youths’ use of traditional mass media in Nigeria and that over 48% of the respondents agreed that to some extent social media has enhanced youths* interaction on social media. The study conclude that social media have provided an open arena where the.




The history of human communication began with the oral or spoken tradition. Through the course of history, the dissemination of messages progressed from simply the oral tradition, to script, print, wired electronics, wireless electronics and finally digital communication. The greatest change in message dissemination in recent history occurred with the introduction of computers and the Internet in the early 1990s. Since then, this drastic change of communication medium has significantly affected humans’ perception of the media, the usage of time and space, and the reachability and control of the media (Guo-Ming, 2012).

In the present age of digital communication, time has been compressed by reducing the distance between different points in space, and the sense of space has led people to feel that local, national, and global space becomes obsolete (Harvey, 2010). In addition, the reachability of digital media can now extend to all people, instead of a limited audience. This is significant because without the confinement of time and space, the control of message production and dissemination is no longer a privilege possessed only by church, state, and government, but instead, equally shared by all individuals (Guo-Ming, 2012).

The new media, that resulted from the invention, encapsulated the characteristics of the old or traditional media, and extended the potentials arid possibilities into which both the “old” and “new” media could be put into use. Tokunbo and Felix (2013) noted that the new media, promoted by Internet technology, exhibit an integration and convergence of the existing media to extend the frontiers of the possibilities of the media of communication, The new media, which hallmarked the integration and convergence of computer and telecommunication technologies, revolutionized the face of human communication especially in the 21st century7. The new information Technology “provides near limitless possibilities of increasing the quantity and enhancing the quality, speed, and availability of information in a complex but increasingly interdependent world (Soola, 2010).

According to Tokunbo and Felix (2013), the new media, propelled and driven by the internet, provide platforms for social interactions between and among users in such a manner that no older platforms/media can boast of. Ignatius, Alice and Lucky (2014) opined that by their nature the social media have peculiar characteristics that make them probably more appealing to the audience than the conventional media. The veracity of this assertion could be perceived in the pace of the growth of the social media sites over the few years of their emergence. He gave the example of Facebook, which is the acclaimed most popular channel among the social media reached over one billion users within ten years of its existence as a medium of communication in the world. The medium attained a “total of 1.23 billion users” in just a decade of its birth (Ignatius, Alice and Lucky, 2014). Other social media sites have similar significant number of users within their short span. This level of wider spread of the media among the people has never been seen in any other earlier means of communication.

The invention of the new media in modern communication is rapidly changing the whole mass media landscape and communication enterprise in the universe presently. This very development brought by technologies is affecting the means of assembling, delivery or dissemination and reception of mediated messages today (Ignatius, Alice and Lucky, 2014). These new means of interactions have greatly changed the media uses by the audience, the journalists and the mainstream media’s relation with the audience. The social media have altered the basic processes involved in news gathering and dissemination in the world. With that, the audience pattern of news consumption especially with regard to the contents of the traditional mass media is envisaged to be affected.

However, the positive impact of the new media is greatly among youth as its allowed youth to make friends beyond the borders of their country. According to Chimela, Ovute and Obochi (2015), social media have provided an open arena where the youths are free to exchange ideas on various trending issues. In support of this fact, Chinwe and Uche (2014) noted that as social media is quickly becoming prime political battlegrounds for several political contenders, it has changed young people’s political outlooks and participatory behavior in Nigeria, This is because it has a democratic potential that opens for new forms of political participation and conversations. Socially, the new media have contributed in making an average Nigerian youth to know more about the different tribes in Nigeria (Ignatius, Alice, and Lucky, 2014). Therefore, the focus of this study is on the impact of new media in social life of Nigeria youth; looking into the credibility of News on social media amongst Godfrey Okoye University students.


With the prevalence of the new media technologies, there is a change in the media choice of the youths globally, Nigeria inclusive. A researcher like Broddason (2016) gives credence to the above view by noting that, “there is general agreement among media and communication scholars that a monumental shift is occurring in the media and communication habits of young people.” The rate at which they cling to the use of social media is quite alarming, this leaves people in doubt whether the new channels of communication would utterly displace or at least reduce the youths’ patronage of the mainstream media.

Presently, the youths’ much reliance and choice of the social media is not hidden at all. Invariably, these new media’s ability to exert influence on the use of the conventional media is an unarguable reality. According to Aja (2011) “traditional media organizations such as radio, television, newspapers and magazines seem to have lost prominence and their audience…” Their news and information, as the European Society of Professional Journalists (2014) observes, are being increasingly circumvented by users who use alternative media sources.





This study was set to examine the role of formal journalism education on journalist’s professional practice in Enugu state. The population for the study is the entire registered journalists practicing in Enugu. Multi-stage sampling procedure which involved cluster and simple random sampling techniques was used to draw a sample size of 137 journalists from the population of 210 registered journalists in Enugu state. Survey methodology was adopted for the study, while two theories were found relevant for the study. They are: social responsibility theory and development media theory. The study found that majority of journalists practicing in Enugu state do not have a degree in Journalism/ Mass Communication but have in other disciplines. Many of them hold a degree in English language. The study also made a shocking finding that some people practice journalism as SSCE or OND holders. This could account for low level of professionalism recorded in the practice. The study recommends among others that: The Nigerian union of journalists should review the criteria for deciding who is qualified to practice journalism. The basic requirement should include possessing a degree in Mass Communication/ Journalism. Beyond possessing a degree in mass communication, fresh graduates should gain from the experience of others by undergoing internship programs before being certified to practice journalism as a first step towards attaining professionalism in the field.



1.1 Background of the Study

Education as a critical component of a country’s human capital increases the efficiency of an individual worker (WEF, 2016).

Huang and Liu (2005) believe that intellectual capital (knowledge) is a critical force that is responsible for economic growth. There is a common perception that educated people can do certain tasks easily and efficiently compared to the uneducated or those who are less educated. Vugt (2006) asserts that lack of education and knowledge makes a person crippled and inefficient. He reveals that previous studies have found that education increases job satisfaction. Wright and Davis (2003) believes that education will foster an increase in professionalism and further exploitation of management, whereas a lack of it will cause lack of job satisfaction. Priti (1999) believes that educated individuals know the scope, expectations and depth of their jobs and will be able to add building blocks to their professionalism as they progress through their careers.  Education also promotes core task performance by providing individuals with more declarative and procedural knowledge with which they can complete their task successfully. It is generally believed that good education helps in preparing individuals for more effectiveness in their profession.

(WJEC, 2007) established that journalism education provides the foundation as theory, research and training for effective and responsible practice of journalism. In 2013, the census of journalism education programs kept by the World Journalism Education Council (WJEC) listed almost 2,400 programs globally. In 2007 and in 2013, UNESCO released model curricula for journalism education (Beate, 2016).UNESCO’s support for journalism education is underpinned by a strong conviction that professional journalistic standards are essential to bring out the potential of media systems to foster democracy, dialogue and development. With respect to this, so many efforts has been made to ensure quality education in journalism that will have an impact on the practice.

In Nigeria, several professions have boundaries. They have regulated educational programs that individuals must undergo before being inducted and given license to practice such profession. Such professions like Law, Engineering, Accounting, Medicine, Nursing, etc enjoy a high sense of respect because the processes that one must go through before being admitted into such professions are clearly identified and strictly followed.

Ironically, journalism, which is widely seen as the conscience of society does not have such clearly set out regulations on who should be allowed to practice journalism. It is believed that some people who practice journalism did not have to obtain a formal education in journalism. The practice of journalism in Nigeria has courted great controversies especially in relation to educational qualifications, ethical regulation and adherence to professional precepts.Talabi and Ogundeji(2012) note that journalism is an esteemed profession that has a lot to offer in the reformation of the society; unfortunately in Nigeria, it has become an all-comers affair as individuals with no media qualifications dive into the mass media for livelihood. They also observed that it has now become a truism that low literacy rate contributes to a low degree of journalism training and also to a low standard of journalistic performance. Journalism profession has suffered serious setbacks in its developmental processes in Nigeria because; the nation has not given priority to degree programmes in journalism. Instead graduates from other disciplines such as Political Science, Economics, Sociology, English and others are given on-the-job training in journalism.

Akinfeleye (1990) quoted an American critic, Dean Rosco Pound who once wrote that every profession is governed by certain rules, educational qualifications and the absence of such rules makes it a vocation. For a very long time Nigerian scholars, professionals and practitioners have argued as to whether journalism is a profession or not in Nigeria. Some scholars and practitioners of journalism in Nigeria say journalism is a trade, others say it is a craft or an occupation while the rest simply say it is a vocation. .

Talabi and Ogundeji(2012) says that colonial rulers in Nigeria and their succeeding “Nigerian-Europeans” regarded journalism education as unnecessary undertaking. This view partly accounts for the reason why for many years all Nigerian universities did not offer any formal journalism training. Fortunately, the situation is different now. Many universities and polytechnics now offer courses in Mass Communication or Journalism. These institutions train students to become professional communicators. However, many still get into journalism practice without formal higher education that prepares them specifically for the job. The former Abuja bureau chief of The Tide newspaper, Alloys Nweke, during the January 2008 Nigerian union of journalists (NUJ) summit in Port Harcourt frowned at the numerous untrained journalists bestriding the streets with pen and paper claiming to be journalists. Nweke revealed that the number of untrained and fake journalists in Nigeria is higher than the trained journalists.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

From the background of the study, it is evident that scholars believe that formal education is very important for effectiveness and efficiency of professionals in every field of endeavor. However, in most media organizations in Nigeria, it is observed that people are employed to work as journalists without necessarily possessing formal education in journalism or mass communication obtained from institutions of higher learning. Some attend some weeks ‘certification courses and parade themselves as professional journalists. It is like an all-comer affairs unlike what obtains in such professions as medicine, nursing, law, engineering, medical laboratory science and others, which require one to be specifically trained in such field in an institution of higher learning accredited for that purpose.

This study seeks to ascertain if obtaining formal education in journalism/mass communication has any positive role on the performance of journalists practicing in Enugu state.





The study, examine public perception of social media contribution in the fight against corruption, the Idealistic theory, was  used in this research study, as different philosophies  of  scholars review ,is noted to make this research concrete , observed to examine , the public perception ,in Corruption, as news information is being neglected .  the magic bullet theory, creates a strong effect in the media influence .The social media, has played an effective role ,in disseminating and evaluating problems to fight corruption, as the  messages is sent ,through digitization, blogging, tweeting ,etc  enable the masses, have freedom of expression, at the comfort of each and everyone, pace. Therefore; enhancing the brand of messages, disseminated  using the Old and New Media, very effective .The qualitative methodology, is hereby inflicted in the study, with the aid of a secondary data collection(internet materials, journal articles, newspaper reports and books) to obtain in-depth information and concept clarification so as to facilitate the survey .

The study indicates,  the Masses play’s significant roles ,in curbing corruption as the perception of the audience matters towards the fight against neglect of News information ,as a result of Entertainment ,which has therefore affect the lifestyle of Individuals, in the Society .

The criticism of the Public towards News  ,through opinions, determines the Evaluations towards problems solving, in the society .hereby creating room for the government, tackle the issues of Inadequate governance  , excess government and maintain a mutual understanding between the Government organization and the Public .Therefore, through Adequate censorship , information articles should be made catchy, interest its audience ,must be from a reliable source  ,and revolve around finding solutions to solving problems in Nigeria.



    1. Background to the Study

Chillieh, (2013), depict the social Phenomenon known as public perception,  can be seen, in the difference between an absolute truth based on facts and virtual truth shaped by the popular opinion, media coverage or reputation.

Expat (2013), evaluate  in Modern society ,the media is part of the solution to the problem of “How to fight corruption.” There is no justice ,if people  can’t see what is happening .Media fulfill the first act of justice in any society –They can help us see what is happening ,as a tool for social justice ,it is not bound by academic or policy definition of corruption .Like the “the man on the street” we find out the media uses much more general understanding of corruption ,that may be more useful for corruption fighters .when we look beyond academic or international donor definitions, we find that the older use of the term still applies .People consider corruption ,to include anything  that contribute to the decay of the society. Regardless of the formal criminality of the act ,someone is doing what they should not be doing .

Media can provide awareness of the negative impact on society and is one of the most fundamental parts of an anticorruption strategy for society. Sometimes journalist ,editors and publishers lose their role as a voice to inspire positive change .they lose sight  of the idea  that  positive change is possible and fall into the lowest level of journalism whereby they merely try to create any emotional reaction in the reader .

Fischhoff (1993), examined the standard method for learning public values which include contingent valuation and utility elicitation .The first involves posing questions about willingness to pay, either to avoid having some condition occur or to make it go away, once  it has occurred. This involves asking questions about the importance that the respondent attaches to various valued attributes so as to be able to construct a normative model of choice among outcomes, that involves  different levels of the valued attributes .Both of this approaches suffer from the difficulties that they assume that people have well-articulated values on the question of interest and the problem is simply one of measuring those values .

Schultze (2009), emphasized social media as the collection of tools and Online space ,available to help individual  and business to accelerate their Information and Communications needs .The corruption ,in Nigeria context has been  a nagging issue ,the phenomenon has defied any known definition .It is recalcitrant’s as the character  ‘abiku’ which keep reincarnating .Corruption has also defied every effort by successive government, to put it at bay.  Carrying in sourcing News items, this has created a Broadway fight against corruption thereby creating room for the public to freely, disseminate opinion, using the social media, On an Event  .There’re two Mode of media ,they Include the Old Media(Radio and Television)  and The New media (The Social media  ) .the  purpose of the creation of the New media, which, is also referred to as the Internet base medium of communication ,in other to share opinion on the Internet , to a subject been discussed  at the comfort of their homes, creating opinion to a cause of event ,been discussed . sight the example of  Howpublic funds vanishes at jamb Office ,by a Snake .  creating a shake on the social media, as diverse thoughts and Idea’s were made by  public opinion of the  masses, in other to be heard ,by the public government in the society. with the Invention of the New Media  ( Face book, Twitter, Badoo, Pintrest ) ,everyone, in the public, Is considered a source of News ,using the mass media .

University of Oslo(2018), emphasizes while the Internet was initially used for contact with strangers, it has later become a platform where people develop and cultivate their already existing relationships. while most of the initial research in this field concluded with Internet mostly having negative impacts on social life and well-being, more recent research focusing on social networking sites like Facebook and Instagram find that users of such sites have increased social capital, social support, sense of community and improved well-being.Therefore ; the conventional, Mode of communication has helped , in the effective communications, as Nigerian’s from the rural and Urban Part ,of Nigeria easily gain connected through a broadband Internet , throughbeing watch-dog and Nosey for News Event Post. such news event on social media  get Opinion, Known as  feedback, to the government ,through comments using the New mode of communication  ,which creates Impact towards evaluation of problems in Nigeria.

Shakespare(1900), describe the emergence of public opinion as a significant force, in the political realm ,whereby Opinion has been regarded as having singular importance since far Medieval  Fama publican or Vox et Fama Communis ,from great legal and social Importance from the (12th) and (13th) century onward .William Shakespeare called Public Opinion “the mistress of success”.One of an Institution of central Importance. In the development of public opinion ,was the coffee-House ,London .In the (17th) century ,as charlse ii , tried to suppress, the London coffee House ,as places where the disaffected met ,and spread Scandalous report ,concerning conduct of the majesty and mistress ,whereby the public flock to them. The Coffee-houses were great social Levellers ,open to all and indifferent to social status, as a result associated with equality and republicanism.





The technological breakthrough of web 2.0 revolutionized communication channels, increasing information traffic from source to sender and vice versa. Media convergence is one of the many outcomes of this technological revolution whereby traditional media and the internet merge to disseminate information to audience. However, news preferences seem to relegate different audience demographics to particular channels of communication. This study which analyzed the most preferred medium for news consumption in Enugu between the broadcast media and social media was anchored on the Uses and Gratification theory as well as Choice theory. The study was based on survey research method which involved the use of multistage sampling technique to distribute 384 copies of the questionnaire to residents in Enugu state. Data retrieved were analyzed using descriptive technique including percentages, frequencies, and bar chart. The results of the research found that people of Enugu state were largely exposed to broadcast media and social media and these media were used to by the residents of Enugu state to a high extent. Broadcast media was chosen to be more credible than social media. The most preferred news media for the people of Enugu state was the broadcast media for mostly reasons of its news credibility, reliability and currency.



1.1 Background of the study

Mass media play crucial roles in the connection of individuals and its success is enabled through the dissemination of news.  While the focus of this research study is the preference of news in Enugu which further now compares the Broadcast media and social media news consumption, Encarta, (2009) cited in Ekwueme and Akpan, (2011) explains that broadcasting is the primary means by which information and entertainment are delivered to the public in virtually every nation around the world.

Similarly, Bolalek, (2013) opines that not only are social media beneficial for creating and maintaining social relationships but also, because of their popularity, social media have become a way to access news. News organizations and journalists now participate in sharing the news via social media.

It is generally said that if a news report provides answers to six questions, then it should be considered a news item. These six questions include five Ws and H: Who, What, When, Where, Why and How?  According to Williams, (1899) if ‘A dog bites a man’-that’s a story; but if ‘A man bites a dog’ –that’s a good news.  This is true in the real sense but suppose a dog bites the president of a country, it most certainly makes big news. In this context, therefore, the understanding of news becomes an obvious imperative to give clarity to how Journalists and News Anchors gather and process news. National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) Code, (2016) defines news as a truthful account of an event that assists the recipient live in a complex, dynamic and humane society.

Despite the criteria stipulated that a news item should possess, the importance of whom the news is gathered for should be in consideration. The mass media audience is heterogeneous and as such respond to media messages differently. This has further led individuals into vying into different sources in search of news they prefer that best suits them. This is in accordance with Olorunnisola, (2009) cited in Ojebuyi, (2013), who states that given the new trend of growing competition occasioned by liberalization of the media and communication industries and emergence of new media, the media audience now have greater freedom and a wide range of alternatives from where to get information about events that affects their lives.

According to NBC, (1996) audience research intervals to ascertain the taste and preference of the audience and it is therefore unwise for broadcasters arrogating to themselves the knowledge of the audience’s taste and preference to media content based on simple assumption.

This study, wishes to explore the channels through which news is consumed by audience and the most preferred channel of news consumption from the various mediums at the audiences reach.  The traditional channels of news are the television and radio. In recent times, social media has also come into limelight which houses news and entertainment disseminating platforms like facebook, twitter, instagram, whatsappe.t.c.  Ojebuyi, (2013) argues that Radio no doubt, has unparalleled capacity to reach the mass audience at a relatively cheaper cost and within a short time. This is against television which is the most expensive medium of mass communication but has an attractive motion picture inclined potential Esan, (2009). Television has the advantage of using a combination of sight through pictures, hearing, through sound which aids in attracting its audience unlike radio with sounds alone.  These are notable attributes as to why some people prefer or are against the traditional radio and television to social media and vice versa.

Opinions differ in this context as (Ha, Yoon, & Zhang, 2013, p. 2) argue that news consumption behavior of Social media users is a salient research topic in online social media studies because the characteristics of Social network sites such as feedback, instantaneousness and connectedness are powerful advantages as a news medium.

Despite the seeming challenges and gallops this social media is beginning to create, one cannot help but to observe that in order for the traditional media to keep up with the new age, it has practiced ‘media convergence’ in some areas of news dissemination. Flew (2017) describes it is a phenomenon involving an interconnection of information and communications technologies, computer networks and media contents. Flatzer, (2013) argues that with the rapid proliferation of internet based services, especially with social media and wireless communication and introduction of web 2.0 sites, the convergence phenomenon has attracted more attention since the 21st century. The digitization of media content and popularization of the internet is encouraged and adopted by the traditional broadcast media to keep up with the pace of the transforming news times.






1.1       Background of the Study

Cartoons have been a part of cinema history from the time the first motion pictures were made in the late 1800s. A cartoon is a movie made by using animation instead of live actors, especially a humorous film intended for children (Thompson, 2010). Cartoons can also be described as the making of movies by filming a sequence of slightly varying drawings or models so that they appear to move and change when the sequence is shown. These are the elements that keep viewers, (mostly children) glued to their seats. Cartoons were initially so short because people would be watching these shorts in the movie theatres before their feature film. When cartoonists could put their shows on TV, they began to get longer, creating the half hour block shows that are on Nickelodeon, Cartoon Network, and the Disney Channel today. Also, the cartoons had to become more “family friendly” so that more people would watch their show (Kapelian, 2009).

Television shows and animated films, for over 80 years, have been entertaining the kids. Felix the Cat the first ever cartoon icon, which started its journey in 1920s. In the next 10 years, Donald duck, Mickey Mouse and Pluto was the cartoon character which are being introduce by Disney Brother’ s Cartoon Studios (Box Office Mojo, 2004). Now a day, children’s physical activities are limited by excessive watching of television. As cartoon watching is the most favorite hobby of children in their leisure time, so they like to watch the cartoons on television rather than to do any physical activity. Cartoon watching affects the attitude and behavior of kids i.e. their liking and disliking, way of talking, and behaving with other children. It also has a strong affect on their language and the way of their dressing and eating.

Cartoon Network is the most favorite cartoon channel in the world. Cartoon network started its transmission in 1992, and has gained record breaking popularity. Since August 2002, it has been watched in more than 80 million homes in United States of America and in 145 countries throughout the world. It is one of the top ad supported channels for cable television network. Cartoon Network is a 24 hours channel, broadcasting only cartoons, yet, its 68 percent audience belongs to children of the age group from 2 to 17 years, whereas, 32 percent belongs to the age group of above 18 years and adults. The children from the age group 6 to 11 are the core audience of the Cartoon Network (Stabile and Harrison, 2003). Cartoon programs contain violence as its integral part. It is noted that cartoon content is full of violence than serial plays and comedies (Potter and Warren, 1998). As a result, children are more exposed to violence showed in the cartoon program than any other television program broadcasted during prime time (Gerbner, Gross, Morgan & Signorelli, 1994).

The recurrence of the roles like Cinderella in numerous animated cartoons has led to the perception that it is an exceedingly passive character who is devoid of role model behavior; a pathetic victim who takes no action towards the fulfilment of her own dreams. There is a need for children to understand that a female character like Kim Possible from the animated cartoon series of the same name is a seeker and saviour and that she is not necessarily “un-feminine” when actively determining her own destiny. Research has indicated that television has a socializing influence on children particularly in their attitudes toward gender roles.

Cartoons send strong and compelling messages about socially approved gender roles and stereotypes that are in turn, reinforced by parents, friends, and school, contributing to the child’s sense of what it means to be male or female in that society. There is increased risk to children’s safety in many of today’s children cartoons (Kindera 2006).  Cartoon characters jump, dive, and fall from very great heights and land without being harmed. For example on every episode of Looney Toons, Wylie Coyote is always trying to catch the Road Runner. And in every clip Wylie Coyote in some shape or form, seems to fall off a cliff or simply have one of his inventions go wrong and cause a massive explosion. Yet, he manages to collect his teeth, dust himself off and get up for another attempt to catch the Road Runner. This seems funny until a child thinks it is alright to imitate these deeds.

1.2       Statement of the Study

In today’s society, the prevalence of internet and television (TV) is an indisputable fact. While at the very beginning of 1980s, there were TVs only in a limited number of houses, we can now say that there are computers and internet connection available in nearly every house. As a result of these technological developments, the messages communicated from TV screens penetrate into houses and influence children, especially those in whose minds the defense mechanisms have not yet formed (Köşker, 2005). In her study, Arnas (2005) indicated that there was one TV in each house of the family in Nigeria, and about half of them have 2 and more TVs. Today, children are exposed to the effects of TV for too long within their daily lives.

Children spend much more time watching TV than participating in any other activity; Larson (2001) determined that young people in America, Europe and Eastern Asia watched TV an average of 1.5 to 2.5 hours daily. The effects of TV have been much stronger on children than on adults. This is especially true because the purposes for watching TV are different among children and adults. While adults generally watch TV for fun, children watch it for purposes of learning and recognition. Additionally, more vulnerable children try to understand the TV programs they watch and they are more influenced by them (Yavuzer  2011).





The purpose of this study was to determine The Influence of Nollywood Movies on Social Behaviour of Students in Public Secondary School in Enugu. It adopted the Survey method with the questionnaire as its instrument of data collection. The study population was made up of the students in Enugu North based on Post Primary Schools Management Board’s record of population of 12,689. Using Taro Yamani’s formula as its sampling technique, a sample size of 154 respondents was drawn from population. The study found out that Nollywood movies do have negative influence on students and that not all Nollywood movies is good for student’s consumption among other films. The study therefore recommended that the producers need ethical re-orientation through creating awareness, conference and seminars on the type films they produce.It is advisable that the National Film and Video Censor Board (NFVCB) and other regulatory agencies continue to review the educational curriculum of movies training institutes in the country and the emphasis should be on the promotion of movies that are educative and morally inclined. Also, that school administrators, government, parents, educational psychologists, teachers and even religious organizations should organize symposia, seminars and conferences for the students regularly to create awareness on the influence of Nollywood movies (negative themes) on our youths.



    1. Background of the Study

Film is an imperative aspect of social communication. Every moving image viewed on screen conveys a meaning that is to be deciphered by the audience. As part of mass communication, it involves the use of vision and sound (audio-visual) in transmitting and disseminating its messages.The messages can be used in educating, informing, entertaining and socializing its target audience.

Film was introduced into Nigeria in the 1900’s by the British colonialists who used it for propaganda purposes, while the church used it to spread the Gospel. The Colonial Administration and the Church saw film not only as a medium for entertainment but as an effective medium of communication (Akpabio 2003). The British colonialist with the Christian missionaries used film amongst other media to persuade Africans to accept Christianity, education and the western culture.

The word “Nollywood” coined following the style of Hollywood (referring to the American film industry) and Bollywood (referring to the Indian film industry) is the generic name for the Nigerian film industry. It grew from the rich traditional culture of Nigeria into a supposedly modern internationally organized industry.

Studies show that, the Nollywood movie, “Living in bondage”, released in 1992, set the stage for the Nigerian indigenous home movies, popularly known as Nollywood. This industry has continued to grow and explode to greater proportion such that it has pushed foreign media off the shelves of movie rental shops across Nigeria and other parts of Africa. (Uwakwe, 2010).

The concern on media Influence has led to the development of different communication theories. This is an attempt to explain the relationship between communication messages and their influences on the respondent.

O’Rork (2006) and Wogu (2008) argue that audiences are more likely to emulate models of behaviour seen on the media if they expect to receive gratification from emulating another person. “…Behaviour is influenced not only by personal or live models but by those presented in the mass media”. (O’Rork, 2006:72)

Analyses on media Influence continue to show that the media have Influence on the pattern of behaviour of its audience. (Uwakwe, 2010; Okunna, 1999 and Okoye, 1993).

Okunna opines that because of their special power to affect the way people think, feel and behave, the mass media have been credited with incredible persuasive ability to change attitude and behaviour (1999). Therefore, this media influence could be in the area of language and behaviour response.

One of the most debated aspects of film is the extent to which violent and obscene scenes influence societal moral conduct. However, there has been little scientific evidence to prove casual relationships such as one between violence exhibited in films and increase in crime rate.

From the earliest days of the medium, adults have expressed concern about the influence of Nollywood movies on the social behaviour of secondary school students. Parents have shown anxiety about violence of film on secondary school students, since at that age, a child’s social and moral adjustment or mental health is affected.

    1. Statement of the Problem

Nnabuko and Anatsui, (2012) stated thatthereappear to be an increase in violent acts among secondary school students.Nollywood movies have been accused of portrayingviolence, and its adverse effect on the behaviours of Nigerian youths and the society at large are devastating. Hornby, (2000)contends that some violent materials in movies include; Sex scenes, nudity, obscenity, vulgar language, curses, indecent dresses, killings, murder, rape, domestic violence, smoking, molestation and harassment. These are self-injurious in nature, and are likely to affect the secondary school students.

In the face of these challenges, it becomes necessary to examine how the Nollywood movies influence the social behaviours of students in public secondary schools in Enugu North.Such discovery is imperative since it will guide the producers and parents where necessary especially if it is found that the influence is negative and detrimental to Nigerian’s norms and values.

    1. Objectives of the Study

The study had the following objectives.

  1. To find out the extent to which secondary school students in Enugu North are exposed to Nollywood movies.
  2. To identify the dominant type of Nollywood movies that secondary school students in Enugu North prefer.
  3. To determine the factors responsible for their preferred contents.
  4. To determine the influence of Nollywood movies on the social behaviour of secondary school students in Enugu North.




The focus of internal corporate communication is gaining interest, particularly because it is very essential in all dimensions of the organization’s performance. Hence, effective communication has been linked to a number of positive outcomes like organizational success, financially and socially, higher levels of cooperation and employee job satisfaction while ineffective communication may lead to dissatisfaction, misunderstandings, lack of information, lower performances and more employee rotations. The inability of managers to effectively communicate with their employees leads to employee job dissatisfaction and poor performance. Hence, this study examines how internal corporate communication influences employees job satisfaction in selected organizations under study.

The survey method was adopted to gather data; 296 copies of the questionnaire were administered on junior and senior personnel of the selected organizations under study while in-depth interview was conducted with selected management level personnel. Data were collected and analyzed in simple frequency tables and the responses were represented in frequency tables as percentages of the overall sample. Also the Pearson chi-square was employed to determine the relationship between variables for any significance.

Findings from the study show that the channels of internal corporate communication operational in the selected organizations are: face-to-face discussions, e-mails, intercom units, intranet, reports, messengers, memos, newsletters, official letters, bulletin boards, departmental/management meetings, group/team discussions, in-house training sessions, management/employee briefing sessions, labor union meetings, suggestion boxes, notices, closed unit groups (CUGs), and assemblies.

Further findings reveal that most of the employees perceive internal corporate communication in their organizations as very effective, positive and a necessary organizational tool for employee job satisfaction. Findings reveal a significant relationship between internal corporate communication and employee job satisfaction which further enhances employee job performance. Further findings from the study also reveal that organizations are faced with diverse internal communication challenges such as: distorted feedback, matching message content with appropriate packaging, inadequate information, uneven flow of information, messages with lack of clarity of purpose, inability to arrive at a homogeneous internal communication approach and complete communication breakdown. These challenges, when not properly tackled, can hinder many organizational processes, especially its efforts at achieving employee job satisfaction/performance and, ultimately, organizational success.

Internal corporate communication plays a major role in influencing employee job satisfaction which significantly influences employee job performance hence; organizations that want to successfully retain a satisfied workforce must be willing to employ a communication style that is more participative and employee-supportive.





        Nigeria is a commercial manufacturing and transportation country. Individual people business and government we many different types of telecommunication in the country.

        Telecommunication arrived in Nigeria over 100 years ago. At independent in 1960, the country has about 18,724 phone lines. From, independence various government made several attempt to increase the number of telephone lines to Nigeria. However, these attempts failed woefully due to certain reasons, chiefly among these are monopoly of this sector by the country’s public utility Nigeria telecommunication plc. Nitel and its corrupt management. By the beginning of 1999, there were roughly 500,000 lines available for population of around 120 million Nigerians.

        Whatever uncomplimentary things, justified or not that many may have to say about the Olusegun Obasanjo administration since its in caption in May, 1999. One things has become in controvertible, this government successfully brought us a deregulated communications sector by auctioning is global system for mobile (GSM) license in January, 2001 and 285 million each and further resented a license 3 for NITEL. The administrations succeed where other before it had fail, in the end, these 3 lines the MTN is at the action. MTN communication wireless were awarded fully GSM license.

        An underlining vision for the introduction to GSM by the Nigeria government was to expand to Nigeria tele density and directly mate telephone communication cheap and accessible to common man . MTN telecommunication opens its door to its customers two days later that the ECONET wireless has opened its own, MTN has a similar package.

        Trust Nigeria, eager subscribers timbered both network operations to great available lines. These third networks NITEL was now here to be found mainly due to, its unprepared ness and internal disequilibrium.

        These two companies, according to their image makers have within two months, add mole telephone lines. Over 1 million as at the last count, into the Nigeria environment, more was ever the case in 40 years of independence.

        One years after, GSM has come to stay in Nigeria infact many have called for the introduction of the GSM telephone revolution in way, but one can also refer to GSM as a quantum leap for Nigerians infrastructure capacity building, which is a major ingredient for the much debated jump starting of the strangulated national economy. According to a World Bank comparative study on information and communication network between 1994-1997 in some African Countries, Nigerian was discovered to have 4 phone lines per 1000 people as opposed to 5 in Cameroon, 9 in Kenya, 11 in Senegal; and 15 in Zimbabwe. Another study contained in the World development report, 1999/2000 situates Nigeria as having merely 4000 telephones main lines and 0.00 mobile telephones respectively as at 1997.

        Thus, Nigerians embraced the GSM at its introduction. Expectation had always been high for the introduction of a mass based telephony which is both convenient and cheap to acquire.

        The nation treasury also benefited through license fee payments and import duties, though discounted and will continue to benefit through payroll and other taxes from these companies. Many direct and indirect jobs have been created. Such as employment by the individual operators, direct and indirect dealers, street recharge. Refill card hawkers, downright, tout selling second-hand handsets and accessories. We cam also say that the Nigerians lives of the people of Kwara State especially have been transformed and the socio-economics setting has been re-energized.

We should not neglect the fact that GSM has actually created the habit of time management in Nigeria and Kwara State particularly. This can be noticed right from the curtailment of expensive Nigeria salutations while contributing to the reduction of motor accidents on major highways due to the elimination of long journeys for pleasure and business. It is now convenient to place a call to business. As societies or relative rather than waste valuable time embarking on sometimes needless journey top among its benefit is the gait the Nigeria business environment has assumed with improved cost and information technology awardness through Wap services (Wireless Application Protocol), commerce through mobile payment system called M-payments among others further investors feels free and more secured investing in the economy now as the GSM offered a cornerstone in Nigerian’s race towards attainment of adequate infrastructure. According to most users, the cost of maintenance most have argued that call charges are too exorbitant at round 60 Naira per minute at the inception, but now about 30 Naira where as our per capital income per year in Nigeria as low. The telecom companies on the hands have insisted that they are still at lost and would probably break ever than until 2005. They have both ruled out direct tariff.





        Social media as sources of communication and connection across the world. It tends to improve the psychology of event and motivational traits swings among every socialized individual. This is implemented through communication.

        Communication is a basic human need and for that reason, man has always found a means of meeting those needs. The media which is an umbrella term for various means of communication has show case an integral part of human around and across the world. The weakness of not being able to communicate to large audience led to the development of mass media in Nigeria such as writing the earliest forms of personal media, speech and gestures has the benefits of being easy to use and did not necessarily need complex technology.

        The development of communication technologies have profound the role of the media in the society has being more significant. Also in relevant to cultural and civilized education. According to “John Dewey” the role of media is for education has opines which “James Ages and Walter” also highlighted the function of the media as a source of trapping information around the globe. Also as a means of entertainment.

        However, it’s a form of electronic communication which facilitates interaction based on certain intervals and characteristics. Social media is a medium for social interaction using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques. Social media uses water base technologies to transform and broadcast media monologues and social dialogues.

It supports the demo cratization of knowledge and information and transforms people from content consumer of new media and according to “Dammy Shea” in the Huffington post accessed 20th June 2012 have become the highest activity on the internet. The rapid growth of social media activities that has been observed over the last two to three years is in distractive of its entry into main stream culture and its integration on the daily lives of many individuals.  

        In parallel with this, social media have also gained considerable attention form the academic and business world. The new technology has led the types of media and their ability to use disuse of the communication and connection. Also gratification and crowd sourcing as engagement techniques for human right organization.

        Mass media have become part of the society even so much as the fin additional media in all parts of the world. In few years the term “new media” might not be very suitable because these forms are becoming part of out daily lives and the fusion with traditional media could be referred to has alternative media some theories which apply to traditional media might apply to new media as well, humanity has always lived through times of great change. Every age it has passed through has been on beliefs and new technologies, responding to the needs of individuals anxious to adjust to new forms of socialization.

        In view of this social media are believed convergence between the social media are belied to be changing how people use the mainstreaming media and roles described to them by their users. Based on this the research is aimed at investigating how the social media are interacting in the traditional one has the possible nurture of influence they have on the media consumer.


        This should intend to:

Examine the importance of social media among Nigerian youths to be able to assist in the smooth usage of newly impacts as well as the social media towards the connectivity in the globe.

        The study also creates ideology to explaining existing opportunities in the society by pronouncing the relationship between the mass media and social media. The study also generates observation of he users (mostly youths) of the social media on it prominent activities and official benefits.


        For the purpose of this study, the following research questions are formulated.

  1. What is the nature of function (s) ascribed in the social media by Nigeria youths?
  2. What influence dos the advert of social media have on the lives of tough?
  3. Does the social media serves as substitute to the traditional mass media?
  4. How does the social media attract youths to social activities and issues?
  5. What measure should be put in place to ensure responsible usage of social media among Nigerian youths?
  6. What is the nature of communication exchange among the social media users?



The deregulation of the broadcast media in 1992 democratised the media space and led to the establishment of the  National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) to regulate the Broadcast sector. NBC is the only body empowered to process and recommend broadcast licence for the President’s approval, through the Minister of Information. The lopsided approval of broadcast licence to political elite who are members of the ruling party has fuelled criticism among public analysts that broadcast media licence is being used for political patronage. This study examined the political interference and how the regulatory role of the NBC, affects the broadcasting industry in Nigeria.

The research design is a survey. The population was 1,558 broadcasters in the public and private broadcast media organisations as well as NBC officials in Lagos Nigeria. Using the criterion of professional experience of at least 15 years practice, purposive sampling was adopted in selecting senior Journalists in 8 public and private media organisations and 7 senior officials of the NBC. Consequently, 55 Key informants were interviewed from 8 public, private broadcast media organisations and NBC. The instrument was an interview guide. The Interviews from respondents were transcribed and sent via emails to ensure that responses were true reflections of their views as validity. The data were transcribed, content-analysed and thematically grouped based on research questions.

Findings from respondents revealed that the constitution of Nigeria and the NBC Act give room for political interference in the operations of the NBC. The constitution and the Act cover the powers of the President to grant broadcast licence while the Minister of Information controls the broadcasting regulatory agency . The study also reveals that causes of political interference are the power of the President to appoint the Director General for NBC , and the Minister of Information controls the operations of NBC as a parastaltal. The value addition of broadcast media as instrument for social, economic and political mobilisation attracted the interest of politicians to apply for broadcast licence. The study equally revealed that the effects of political interference were noticed in poor quality broadcasting, inadequate professionalism and lack of independence of the regulator.

The study concluded that effectiveness of the regulatory role of the NBC was inhibited by the provisions of the Constitution that enabled political interference. The study recommended the review of the Constitution, NBC Act, Broadcasting Code and the establishment of an Independent Media Commission to be managed by media stakeholders.

Keywords:     Political interference, NBC, Broadcast licence, Broadcast media, Media stakeholders, Independent Media Commission



1.1 Background to the Study  

 Politics and media are interwoven and critical to sustainable democracy because both involve the people, process of communication, utilization of resources and decision making. Kolade and Yankah, (1997), submitted that “politics and broadcast media are mutually beneficial because people must communicate with one another and the sovereign power of the people is not negotiable within the context of party politics and the broadcast media”. (p. 7). Omu and Oboh (2008) also noted that broadcast media play significant role in the conduct of politics in any country, (p. 10), Hence, Ogor (2002) posited that in a democratic society broadcasting is the “Oxygen of Democracy” (p. 74). It breathes life into political activities, makes government accountable to the people and an avenue for feedback on government policies, programmes and initiatives. Against this background,  Ogor (2002) stated “it is the responsibility of the broadcast media to help increase the level of general awareness and mobilisation of the populace and even  as an active participant in the shaping of democratic values through education and public enlightenment”, (p.86).

This postulation therefore set the stage for the  commencement of broadcasting in Nigeria in 1933 through  the  “Redifussion Service” on Glover Street, Lagos to broadcast the policy of the then Governor General of Nigeria, Sir Macpherson. The Redifussion service, an offshore radio service from Britain could be described as a product of politics, self interests and assertiveness by the British colonial power to broadcast news from Britain to its colony – Nigeria. The colonial power controls the operations of the Redifussion Service in terms of contents and programmes, modelled after the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), operated as a state monopoly. The control of the Redifussion service was the first attempt at broadcast media regulation by government. To accentuate the colonial government  monopoly on the broadcast media, in 1956, the colonial  government enacted an Act of Parliament (Ordinance No 39) enabling the conversion of Redifussion service from the BBC control apparatus to Nigerian Broadcasting Service, (NBS). Its role then was to regulate the operations of radio station in terms of ethical standard of fairness, objectivity and balance of news and programmes, NBC (2002) noted.

By 1957, the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation, (NBC), came into existence to replace NBS, as the broadcasting regulator. “In October 1959, the famous Western Nigerian Television/Broadcasting Service, (WNTV/WNBS) funded by the Western regional government under late the Obafemi Awolowo’s Action Group was established. According Ejiofor,(2002), “WNTV/WNBS” was founded by Chief Obafemi Awolowo  to have a voice and a right of reply to the central government broadcasting station- “the Redifussion Service”. The Redifussion Service had turned down the request of the then late Premier of Western Region to reply to an allegation against him by the Colonial government. In 1960, Eastern Region Government set up its own television service, Eastern Nigerian Television Service,(ENTS). This was followed by Radio Television Kaduna established by the former Northern Nigerian Government, an arm of the Broadcasting Company of Northern Nigeria, (BCNN), in March, 1962. In the same year, the Federal government established the Nigerian Television Service, (NTS) in Lagos. The (NTS) later changed its name to the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation /Television, (NBC/TV). All the regional broadcast stations in Ibadan, Kaduna and Enugu were merged under the NBC/TV. The radio arm came under the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) through military directive. Later in the same year, General Olusegun Obasanjo led federal military administration took over these television stations in 1978 and changed the name to the Nigerian Television Authority, (NTA).  The main media regulatory agency in the early broadcast years was Posts and Telecommunications which later changed to the Ministry of Information and Culture till now. 




Nigerian telecommunication industry has evolved into a competitive sphere as operators endeavour to entreat and win customers through monetary and non-monetary sales promotion typologies. Telecommunication operators utilise sales promotion to create brand awareness, encourage brand trial and ultimately persuade subscribers to be brand loyals in order to increase brand equity. While telecommunication operators are increasing brand equity on interactive media, the appropriate sales promotion typology to be adopted remains a challenge. Scholars have debated usage of sales promotion to increase brand equity. Therefore, this study examined interactive media sales promotion typologies and telecommunication operators’ brand equity among State civil servants in Lagos and Ogun states.

Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population comprised 17,161 State civil servants in Lagos and Ogun states. The states were selected using simple random sampling technique. Systematic sampling technique was adopted to select the ministries. The Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill formula was used to arrive at the sample size of 880 respondents. A validated questionnaire was administered to the respondents. The Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient values for the constructs were: monetary sales promotion (0.732), non- monetary sales promotion (0.797), brand awareness (0.797), perceived brand quality (0.754), brand association (0.796) and brand loyalty (0.827); while 0.930 was obtained for the total scale.A total of 880 copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents with a response rate of 93.4%. Inferential statistics (simple linear and multiple linear regression) were used to analyse the data.

Findings revealed that monetary sales promotion typology significantly influenced telecommunication operators’ brand awareness (R2=0.301, p<0.05), perceived brand quality (R2=0.155, p<0.05), brand association (R2=0.171, p<0.05) and brand loyalty (R2=0.058, p<0.05). Non-monetary sales promotion typology significantly influenced telecommunication operators’ brand awareness (R2=0.304, p<0.05), perceived brand quality (R2=0.218, p<0.05), brand association (R2=0.237, p<0.05) and brand loyalty (R2=0.163, p<0.05).

The study concluded that monetary and non-monetary sales promotion typologies were useful to enhancing telecommunication operators’ brand equity. The study therefore recommended that telecommunication operators should strategically combine monetary and non-monetary sales promotion typologies that would positively increase subscribers’ perception of their brands, foster positive relationship with subscribers to generate positive attitude and promote brand loyalty.

Keywords: Typology, Sales Promotion, Brand Equity, Telecommunication Operators, Interactive Media

Word Count: 352


          Content                                                                                                                       Page                Title Page                                                                                                                        i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vii

List of Tables                                                                                                              ix

List of Figures                                                                                                             xi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                     

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                4         

1.3       Objective of the Study                                                                                   6

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                         6

1.5       Hypotheses                                                                                                     7

1.5       Significance of the Study                                                                               8

1.6       Scope of the Study                                                                                         8

1.7       Operational Definition of Terms                                                            9


            2.0                   Introduction                                                                           12

2.1                   Conceptual Review                                                             12

2.1.1                Sales Promotion                                                                  13             Concept of Sales promotion                                                  13             Objectives of sales promotion                                             15             Typologies of sales promotion                                            18     Monetary Typology of Sales promotion                       19          Non-Monetary Typology of Sales Promotion                           22             Strategies of Sales Promotion                                           23             Techniques of Sales promotion                                          25

            2.1.2                Brand Equity                                                           31             Definition of brand equity                                               31

               Brand Attributes                                                          32

            Brand Awareness                                                     34

            Brand Perceived quality                                          36

            Brand Association                                                          38

            Brand Loyalty                                                   41                        Classifications of Brand Equity                                       42

            Brand Equity Scale Development                                      47

            2.1.3      Telecommunication Operators in Nigeria                         48

               MTN                                                                        53

Content                                                                                             Page             Globacom                                                                                            55             Airtel                                                                                                   56             Etisalat                                                                                               57

  •             Interactive Media                                                                                57

2.2                   Theoretical Framework                                              60

2.2.1                Prospect Theory                                                                     60

2.2.2                Expectancy Theory                                                              63

2.2.3                AIDA Model                                                           66       

 2.3                   Review of Empirical Literature                                          67

 2.4                   Summary                                                                        86


3.0       Introduction                                                                                 87

            3.1       Research Design                                                        87       

3.2       Population                                                                                    87

3.3       Sample size and sampling Technique                                               88

3.4       Instrumentation                                                                          93

3.5       Validity of Research Instrument                                                    94

3.6       Reliability of Research Instrument                                                    95

3.7       Administration of Research Instrument                                           95

3.8       Method of Data Analysis                                                                   95

3.9       Ethical Consideration                                                                  96


4.0       Introduction                                                                                 97

4.1       Presentation of Results                                                            97

4.2       Discussion of Findings                                                                   121


            5.1       Summary                                                                                      138

            5.2       Conclusion                                                                   139

            5.3       Recommendations                                                                     140

            5.4       Contributions to Knowledge                                                 141

            5.5       Suggestions for Further Studies                                              142

5.6       Limitation of the Study                                                                    144

References                                                                                                         144

Appendix I      Population of State Civil Servants in Ogun States by Ministries                   158

Appendix II    Population of State Civil Servants in Lagos States by Ministries                  159

Appendix III   Questionnaire Informed Consent                                             160

Appendix IV   Questionnaire                                                                        161

Appendix V    Test of Hypotheses Tables                                                    165


Table    Page

2.1                   Summary of Empirical Review                                          78

3.1                   Summary of Population and Sample Selection     88

3.2:                  Presentation of Lagos state civil servants, proportion of total population and sample size                                                                90

3.3                   Presentation of Ogun state civil servants population, proportion of total population and sample size                                        92

4.1.1                Composite Table of Respondents’ Demographic Details                               96

4.1.2                Frequency of Exposure to Telecommunication Operators’ Promotional Messages                                                                                 100

4.1.3                Awareness of Monetary Sales Promotion Typology on Interactive Media    101

4.1.4                Awareness of Non-Monetary Sales Promotion Typology on Interactive Media                                                                               103

 4.1.5                 Brand Awareness of Telecommunication Operators on Interactive Media    105

 4.1.6                 Perceived Brand Quality of Telecommunication Operators on Interactive Media                                                                                                 106

 4.1.7                 Brand Association of Telecommunication Operators on Interactive Media  108

 4.1.8                 Brand Loyalty to Telecommunication Operators on Interactive Media         109             Model Summary for the Influence of Monetary Sales Promotion Typology on Brand Awareness of Telecommunication Operators on Interactive Media                                                                       110             Simple Linear Regression showing the Influence of Monetary Sales Promotion Typology on Brand Awareness of Telecommunication Operators on Interactive Media                                                      110             Model Summary for the Influence of Monetary sales promotion typology on perceived brand quality of telecommunication operators on interactive media                                                                         111             Simple Linear Regression showing the Influence of Monetary sales promotion typology on perceived brand quality of telecommunication operators on interactive media                                                                        111             Model Summary for the Influence of Monetary sales promotion typology on the brand association of telecommunication operators on interactive media                                                   112             Simple Linear Regression showing the Influence of Monetary sales

promotion typology on the brand association of telecommunication operators on interactive media                                                                        112             Model Summary for the Influence of Monetary sales promotion typology On brand loyalty of telecommunication operators on interactive media        113             Simple Linear Regression showing the Influence of Monetary sales Promotion typology on brand loyalty of telecommunication operators on interactive media                                           113             Model Summary for the Influence of Non-monetary sales promotion typology on brand awareness of telecommunication operators on interactive media.                                                               114

Table     Page             Simple Linear Regression showing the Influence of Non-Monetary sales promotion typology on brand awareness of telecommunication operators on interactive media                                     114             Model Summary for the Influence of Non-monetary sales promotion Typology on brand awareness of telecommunication operators on interactive media                                                            116             Simple Linear Regression showing the influence of Non-Monetary sales promotion typology on perceived brand quality of telecommunication operators on interactive media                                     116             Model Summary for the Influence of Non-monetary sales promotion Typology on brand association of telecommunication operators on interactive media.                                                      117             Simple Linear Regression showing the influence of Non-Monetary sales promotion typology on brand association of telecommunication operators on interactive media.                                  117             Model Summary for the Influence of Non-monetary sales promotion typology on brand loyalty of telecommunication operators on interactive media.                                                                        118             Simple Linear Regression showing the influence of Non-Monetary sales promotion typology on brand loyalty of telecommunication operators on interactive media.                                  118             Model Summary showing the influence of telecommunication operators’ sales promotion typologies on brand equity                                                   119             Multiple Linear Regression showing the influence of telecommunication operators’ sales promotion typologies on brand equity                                  119

4.1.10       Summary of Findings                                                135


Figure            Page

2.1   Conceptual Model of Sales Promotion and Brand Equity of Telecommunication Operators in Nigeria                                                        12

2.2   Sales Promotion Strategies: Push or Pull or Both!                              23

2.3   Aaker’s Perspectives of Brand Equity                                         34

2.4     Framework for Measuring Customer-Based Brand Equity              44

2.5     Market Share of GSM Telecommunication Operators in Nigeria        54

2.6                   AIDA Model                                                                    67

4.1.1                Respondents’ Phone Type                                        97

4.1.2   Services Used by Respondents                                        98

4.1.3      Respondents’ Telecommunication Operators                                     99

4.1.4                Interactive Media through which Respondents Receive Telecommunication Promotional Messages                         99      

4.1.5                Resultant Model                                                          137



1.1       Background to the Study

Nigerian telecommunication industry has evolved into a competitive sphere as operators endeavour to entreat and win customers through various sales promotion strategies. Owing to this, it is a common phenomenon for organisations to bombard consumers with both monetary and non-monetary forms of sales promotions using either print, electronic, outdoor or digital interactive media. Telecommunication operators use sales promotion to create brand awareness, encourage brand trial and ultimately persuade consumers to be brand loyals with the ultimate desire to increase or maintain market share. In the world today, every single decision and effort of the organisation is evaluated by the relationship existing between the brand and the customers as well as brand managers commitment to the claims made by the brand, which leads to consumers’ satisfaction and ultimately end with brand loyalty. Companies deploy their strength to promote sales in the shortest possible time; hence, sales promotion, a marketing communication tool involves the manufacturers providing incentives alongside their products which gives the consumers enough justification to purchase the product, service or idea.

Going by World Bank record (2012), Nigeria with a population of well over 168.8 million has 65.8% (149,818,906) active subscribers of licenced telecommunication operators. According to Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC, 2016), “Nigerian telecommunication industry is one of the largest in Africa with 151,017,244 GSM users and is still growing with one of the highest fixed line revenue and cumulative revenue of US$16billion as at June, 2016” (p. 2). The major telecommunication operators in Nigeria are MTN, Globacom (Glo), Airtel, Etisalat and they engage in fierce competition through price slash, and data bundles tailored to meet the data needs of various groups of subscribers in order to gain and retain customers as well as increase their profit margin to broaden their market share.




Advertising as a profession and a field of study explains the reason why it cannot be underestimated. However, advertising in the 21st century has gone beyond making use of the traditional sources of the media to create awareness about product services, goods and ideas to prospective consumers. The advent of the new media has solidified the relevance of the internet in advertising. This research exercise examined online advertising and consumers’ perception on purchase decision of Smartphones. The study examined the general level of exposure which consumers had towards online advertising. The attention, awareness and perception level of consumers towards Smartphone brands advertised online was being checked as well. The relevance of Gibson’s theory of direct perception and the AIDA model was used in backing up the study.

In this study, the descriptive survey research design was adopted making use of the quantitative research method to accurately establish the relationships between the variables considered in the study. Residents of Lagos State from Agege and Ikeja Local Government Areaswere the accessible population for this study. The multi-stage sampling technique was used because more than one sampling method was combined in order to arrive at a finite representative sample size for the study. Validated questionnaires were distributed and data was being gathered, analysed and interpreted making use of frequency counts, mean, standard deviation, tables and charts.

This study adopted five objectives and three hypotheses. Eight hundred and sixteen (816) copies of the questionnaire were administered. Majority of the attendants were females and young individuals. It was deduced from this study that pricing, features, brand preferences, social Influence as important factors which contribute to the purchase decision of Smartphones being advertised online. The study also revealed that majority of the respondents pay less attention to online advertisements but are attracted to the graphic quality of advertised contents on social media which is also a form of online advertising. Overall, the study found out that the new media is capable of influencing consumer’s choice of purchasing Smartphones being advertised online. This research work made it evident that it becomes mandatory for and strategic for Smartphone manufacturers, vendors and marketers to adopt online advertising through social media.

It was concluded that Smartphone manufacturers, vendors and marketers need to identify online platforms that would enhance user interactivity with the potential for consumer online Smartphone advertisement customized exposure. This study proffered recommendations to Smartphone manufacturers, marketers, and vendors about the appropriate utilization of online advertising for Smartphones; with a view to improving the contents of online adverts of Smartphones as well as making use of the best platform for new media advertising to boost the purchase of Smartphones.

Keywords: Online Advertising, Awareness, Smartphone, Perception, Purchase Decision.



1.1 Background to the Study

The practice of advertising creates a positive and maximum potential for any manufactured product to be seen as an existing brand being made known to the general public otherwise, such a product will not sell. Advertising is capable of drawing the attention of customers to any kind of product, service and brand and this is done by making use of the media sources to persuade potential consumers or customers to buy the advertised product.

Advertising informs potential customers of an advertised product and it spells out the functions and features of the product. Good advertising is necessary as it creates a demand for the product which is being advertised.  Advertising may even create a brand identity for a product or series of products as well as creating an image surrounding a product, so that customers feel that they need it. Advertising can promote a new product and increase sales of existing products. The entire function of advertising is a determinant factor in developing the perception of diverse consumers either in appositive light or in a negative about an advertised product and this in turn determines the final purchase action or purchase decision made by consumers.

 Advertising is a non-personal form of communication usually paid for, designed to be persuasive about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through various media (Belch & Belch, 2004; Dzisah & Ocloo, 2013; Nwankwo, Aboh, Obi, Agu, & Sydney, 2013). According to Balakrishnan & Kumar (2011), advertisements are designed to appeal to different types of audience for the purpose of information dissemination about products and services so as to bring about positive consumer perception and purchase decision. It helps to deliver carefully prepared messages to target audiences thus facilitating marketing programs of the products and services of organizations (Zipporah & Mberia, 2014). The practice of advertising is very important as it helps in building a reputable and positive image about a brand or service in the sight of heterogeneous consumers. Advertising uses various sources of the media in reaching out to the target audience which advertising messages are being designed for. The professional practice of advertising is extended towards the radio, television, newspapers and magazines. Other sources of advertising include public speaking, door hangers and flyers, event sponsorship and word-of-mouth advertising.

Online advertising is the application of internet capabilities to the process of carefully packaging non-personal communication messages to specific audience in order to engender positive perception and purchase decision of products and services (Tavor, 2011). Online advertising ensures wider coverage because it has a very wide interconnection of individuals, businesses and organizations with huge processing capabilities overcoming geographical boundaries (Ducoffe, 1996). Tavor (2011) observes that the Internet has become a major source of information and has to some extent replaced old media such as the radio, television and the newspaper; this has occurred because the Internet gives the advantage of access to current information and mass dissemination of information. These factors according to Tavor (2011) have jointly contributed to ensuring that over 700 million people world-wide use the internet daily for important activities such as information search and product/service purchase.




The Nigerianuniversity educational system was liberalised in 1999 and this led to the establishment of private universities. To promote their different programmes and competitively position themselves, each employed varied marketing communication tools and strategies. Little is known about the use of marketing communication mix by universities. The study assessed the performance of marketing communication strategies used by private universities in South-West, Nigeria.

The study adopted survey research design. The population consisted of 22 private universities in South-West, Nigeria and 20,276 undergraduates in the same universities. Stratified sampling technique was used to select six universities. Multi-stage sampling technique was used for the rest of the selection process. Simple random sampling was used to select faculties/schools. All the departments in the selected faculties/schools were used for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample size of 753 students from the universities, which was proportionally distributed across the six universities. Interview guide was used to draw responses from the marketing communication officers of the selected universities. Avalidated questionnaire was used to collect data from the students. Cronbach’s Alpha co-efficient values of the constructs ranged from 0.796to 0.811. The response rate was 100%. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using inferential statistics. Interview responses were analyzed and presented thematically.

Findings revealed that marketing communication elements significantly influenced customers’ choice of all the private universities studied: Babcock (Adj. R2 =0..410, F(1,258)=180.833, p<0.05), Afe Babalola (Adj. R2 =0..550, F(1,221)=272.396, p<0.05) Lead City (Adj. R2 =0..40, F(1,128)=6.367, p<0.05) Adeleke (Adj. R2 =0..059, F(1,48)=4.056, p<0.05) Elizade (Adj. R2 =0..016, F(1,22)=0.647, p<0.05) Caleb (Adj. R2 =0..0.009, F(1,54)=1.504 p<0.05). The findings also indicated that Afe Babalola University, Adeleke University and Lead City University were the only private universities that competitively compared the value and satisfaction of their customers.

The study concluded that improvement in strategically combining marketing communication elements of these private universities would lead to more chances of choosing the universities by students and parents.  It was recommended that private universities should strategically mix their marketing communication tools to effectively communicate the uniqueness of their value and adequately deliver such value to meet the expectation of the target customers.

Keywords:     Marketing communications strategy, Marketing mix, Brand awareness, Brand image, Relationship building



  1. Background to the Study

University education is essential for economic and social development. In most countries in the world, it has the responsibility for equipping its products with knowledge and skills required for positions in government, business, industry and professions. Perhaps this is the reason the university prides itself as the highest citadel of learning in the production of high-level human resource for the labour market (Omoike & Aluede, 2007) Among others, the university is expected to produce new knowledge through research, adopt and disseminate the knowledge in order to facilitate new cultural values, support government, enhance business, industry and the professions with advice and consulting services. Thus, staff (academic and non-academic) students and graduates (products of the ivory towers) are seen to typically hold a privileged status as originators and keepers of knowledge by the society (Srivastava, Narayanan, Singh, Gendy & Arun, 2012). This pride has made candidates of tertiary institutions tend towards university education at the expense of other tertiary institutions.

Other factors that seem to propel candidates to prefer the university to other tertiary institutions are the course of study or programmes run by the university, the duration in running such programmes, the societal status accrued to such students. The fact that some of these courses are only offered in the university, coupled with the announcement made by the federal government that polytechnics would now be campuses of proximate universities and would no longer award Higher National Diploma, has increased the propensity of would-be candidates for university education. These factors have accounted for the annual increase in the enrolment figures of students into universities in Nigeria.

Consequently, government decided to grant licensing to private universities in order to accommodate the large number of candidates seeking admission placements into universities. This is because it seems difficult, if not impossible, for governments of the countries that are considered to be developed, to provide tertiary education singlehandedly for these candidates; hence the call for private involvement in providing the much needed infrastructure in the tertiary education sector (De Vaus, 2002; Zikmund, 2000).

The year 1999 marked the birth of private universities in Nigeria with the licensing of Babcock University, Ilisan Remo; Igbinedon University, Okada; and Madonna University, Okija (Akpotu & Akpochafor, 2009). Since then, there has been gradual increase in the growth of private universities at an average of four (4) every year (Sherif, 2016). This rise in the number of private universities has intensified competition between private and public universities, on one hand, and among the private universities, on the other hand, thereby precipitating fertile grounds for marketing strategies for the universities to thrive.

Marketing any product, most especially universities, relies heavily on communication, whether directly or indirectly, by bringing the product offering to the awareness of potential customers or creating a brand image for the product, in the market place. Communication is, therefore, described as a process of transferring information between a sender and a receiver(s) through understood symbols, words, expressions or and body language (Ogili, 2005). As a result, Jefkins (1989) explains that marketing communication must include every form of communications. Since marketing communication represents the totality of the elements in a brand’s marketing mix to facilitate exchanges of shared meanings with the brand’s stakeholders, private universities employ every element of the marketing mix to constantly and consistently communicate with their customers, starting from programmes offered to the physical evidence of their facilities (Masterman & Wood, 2005).