The study investigated the influence of truancy on the academic performance of primary pupils in Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State. Two hundred pupils were purposively selected from collected 20 primary schools through the influence of truancy on academic performance question more data was analysed using frequency counts, percentage, t-test and ANOVA statistics. The results indicated that truancy has negative influence on the academic performance of male and female young and old and pupils from polygamous and monogamous parents. However, there is a significant difference the influence of truancy on the academic performance of pupils from illiterate non graduate and graduate parents. In view of this finding it is recommended that guidance and counseling should be introduced to primary school to assist pupils with problems.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Pages i
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Study 7
Research Question 8
Purpose of the Study 9
Research Hypothesis 9
Significance of the Study 10
Scope/Delimitation of the Study 11
Definition of Major Terms 11
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE RELATED
The Concept of Truancy 13
Causes of Truancy 16
School Factors in Truancy 19
Effects of Truancy 27
of Related Literature 30
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 33
Population of the Study 33
Sample and Sampling Techniques 34
Validity of the Instrument 35
Reliability of the Instrument 35
Administration of the Instrument 36
Procedure for Data Analysis 37
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Hypothesis Testing 38
Discussion of Findings 44
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Distribution of respondents by sex 38
Table 2: Distribution of respondent by parental education 38
Table 3: Distribution of respondents by age 38
Table 4: Distribution of respondents by family types 39
Table 5: Result of t-test analysis on the academic
performance of male and female pupils. 41
Table 6: Result of t-test analysis on academic
performance of young and old truants. 41
Table 7: Results of ANOVA analysis on the
academic performances of pupils from illiterate and literate parents. 42
Table 8: Duncan multiple range test on parental education 43
Table 9: Result of t-test analysis on the
academic performance of pupils by party type. 43
Background to the Study
The school is a social organization and as such it has got her established patterns of behaviour expected of all its members. These are expressed in the form of rules and regulations which governs the deeds of the headmaster, the teacher, the pupils and many other groups of personal that work within it.
Today, the school like most other social organization, faces the serious problem of its members, mostly the pupils do not conform to the standard behaviour expected. The non-conforming to norms of an organizations is what sociologist refers to as “deviant behaviour”.
Truancy is one of its aspects and the most common among primary schools pupils and secondary school students.
According to Webster’s Dictionary (1991), truancy is the act of a child absenting himself or herself from the school without permission or good reason. Also the Oxford Dictionary (1989) defined “truancy as absence from duty without leave, especially a child absenting himself or herself from school without permission or running away from one’s place of work or school without a good reason”.
From the above definitions, truancy could be take to mean an act of staying away from school by a child without a good reason. According to editorial comment of Nigeria Tribune (20th July 2001 Pg 10) the news was as worrisome as it was alarming. It was widely reported in the media recently that about 600 students from various primary and secondary schools in Lagos State were found at a party organized by some of the at a hotel situated at lyana-Ipaja during school hours. Bewildered the matter to the Lagos state commissioner for education who promptly sent the rapid response team of education ministry to investigate the case.
By the time the team and some armed policemen arrived the hotel, the students has reportedly embarked on a drinking space and sexual orgy of unimaginable proportions. They were said to have dangled bottles of bear and condoms at the government team, which forced the door of the hotel open.
Subsequently, thirty students were arrested while the rest escaped leaving their bags behind. This is symptomations of the pervasiveness of the not in the society in general and the education sector in particular.
Such incident, has become imbiquistes all over the country in recent times. Rather than staying in schools, some students visits video games shop, hostel and recreation centres where they some cigarette, drink alcohol and generally indulge in vacuous nefarious activities.
It is this some set of students who are members of secret cults in Nigeria secondary or primary schools. This situations is so bad that the students reportedly bring things to their schools to molest teachers and fellow students. Little wonder than that these students are daily being recruited as pimps, prostitutes, drug carries and even armed robbers by criminals who frequently besiege hotels like the one located at Iyana-Ipaga where students held their “Owanbe party”. It is therefore beyond the researchers imagination of hotelies that would allow underage student’s to hold a party as early as a 9.00-am and even sell cigerattes and alcohol to them.
Perhaps, it is such playing of truancy that has led to the phenomena decline in the standard of primary and secondary education in the last ten years and the attendant increase in the examination mal-practices.
Primary education as referred to in the National Policy Education (1998) is the education given in an institution for children aged normally 6-11 years plus.
Since the rest of the education system is built upon it, the primary level is the key to the success or failure of the whole system. This being the case, the general objectives of primary education are:-
a. The inculcation of permanent literacy and numeracy and ability to communicate effective.
b. The laying of sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking.
c. Citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribution to the life of the society.
d. Character and moral training and the development of sound attitude.
e. Developing in the child the ability to adopt to his changing environment.
f. Giving the child opportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable him to function effectively in the society within the limits of his capacity.
g. Proving basic tools for further educational advantage cement including preparation for trades and craft of the locality.
In pursuance of the above objectives of the Kanaiwa Cegiwa square venue of the lunch of UBE president Obasanjo took the tumultuous crowd down memory land when he launched the Universal Primary Education (UPE) in his position then as the military of state 23 years ago. The justification for that programme, at that time, remains such the same as it is today. There is a continuous need to provide for the children and indeed for all citizens, the basis educational skills they require to be useful citizen in their communities, their country and in the world at large. He said the UBE was almost the same in concept as the defunct UPE, “It is still full and universal like before, but now in addition, it will be compulsory” he further maintained that, the present scheme extended to all children from age (six) 6 to 15 primary school to junior secondary school and adult literacy programme. The Universal Basis Education programme has been expanded to enable all Nigeria children not only to learn how to read and write but also to learn how to acquire basis technical and other skills for survival in this modern time.
Education describes the total process of human learning by which knowledge is imported facilities trained and skills developed. Schooling is only one form in which education is provided. The ideas are implicit in the world education, one is that of leading out into knowledge and experience, the other is that of feeding, thereby producing growth and development.
Both of these helpful in understanding what education is and both point to the fact that education is an essential process whereby the adult members of the society guide the development of the younger ones. It is how deviation of the expected roles affects the system that is the forms of this study.
Statement of the Problem