THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER IN MINNA, NIGER STATE

THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER IN MINNA, NIGER STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of Study

Water is a common natural chemical substance containing two atoms of Hydrogen and an atom of Oxygen. Its common usage refers to liquid form, though has other forms: solid water- ice and gaseous forms – water vapour and steam.

Water is indispensable for life and socioeconomic development of any society. It is used in domestic activities (cooking, drinking, washing, bathing etc), agricultural activities (e.g irrigation, gardening), generation of power (hydroelectric power plants), running industries, recreational activities etc. It is very essential for human existence and sustenance of life. Water constitutes 60%-70% of the total body weight. A man can live for several days without food but will only survive for few days without water. Therefore, water is indispensable for normal physiological function of plants and animals.1 In spite of its importance in sustenance of live and livelihood, it is the major cause of morbidity and mortality because of limitations in access and quality 2,3.

The basic physiological requirement for drinking water has been estimated at about 2 litres per capita per day which is just enough for survival 4,5 .World Health Organization (WHO) states that domestic water consumption of 30-35 liters per capita per day is the minimum requirement for maintaining good health 6. However, the amount of water required by individuals varies depending on climate, standard of living, habit of the people and even age and sex.

One factor that impinges more on the accessibility to enough quality drinking water is the distance of the source from house. This condition forces the individual most especially the women and children (especially girls) to transverse many kilometers to get safe drinking water (which deprives them from engaging in productive ventures or going to school like their male counterparts). In addition to this, in order to reduce the hardship in getting water, they may resort to reducing the quantity of water used in the house far below the recommended volume and also they may resort to fetching water from unimproved sources e.g. unprotected well, pond, stream etc7.

Safe (quality) drinking water is that which does not present any significant health risk over a life time consumption, including any sensitivities that may occur in different stages of life.8 It is water which is free from pathogenic microbes, hazardous chemicals/substance and aesthetically acceptable ( i.e. pleasing to sight, odourless and good taste). It is important that this type of water should not only be available, but also be available in enough quantity all the time 4 i.e. twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week (“24/7”). In assessing quality of drinking water, physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters must be considered. Although water from a source may not pose any health threat to consumers, they may abhor it due to its colour, odour, or taste 8. Physical parameters include colour, smell, temperature, PH, turbidity etc. There are myriad of chemical substances which may be naturally present or introduced (even chemicals used for water treatment) into water; those that are naturally present seldom pose risk to health. However, chemicals released due to anthropogenic activities (fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides, industrial effluents and byproducts etc) carry more health risk to consumers. Fortunately, whether chemical naturally present or introduced into water, there are maximum allowable concentration (limit) of most of them proposed by World Health Organization (WHO) which serves as guide. Some of the chemical substances include residual chlorine (RC), Iron (Fe), Fluoride (Fl), Nitrate/Nitrite, Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg)8,9,10 etc.

Bacteriological (microbial) parameter is used to assess drinking water quality using the index /indicator concept as advocated by Waite (1991) 9. The infectious risks associated with drinking water are primarily those posed by faecal pollution and their control depends on being able to assess the risk from any water source and applying suitable treatment to eliminate the risk. Rather than trying to detect the presence of pathogens at which time the consumer is being exposed to possible infection, it is better practice to look for organisms, while not pathogenic themselves, that show the presence of faecal pollution and therefore the potential for the presence of pathogens. For this reason, Escherichia coli (E.coli) is universally used as an indicator organism to assess water treatment and widely preferred as index organism for faecal contamination.9 Thermotolerant coliform count (Faecal coliform) is acceptable where E.coli detection is not possible8,9.

 

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THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER IN MINNA, NIGER STATE

SOCIO CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS OF GENOTYPE TESTS AMONG YOUNG POPULATION IN BUNU KABBA

SOCIO CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS OF GENOTYPE TESTS AMONG YOUNG POPULATION IN BUNU KABBA

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to study

Statement of the Problem

Objectives of Study

Research question

Hypothesis

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Review of Relevant Theories

Theory of Reasoned Action Core Assumptions and Statements

Health Promotion Model Theoretical Propositions

Attitudes Toward Genetic Testing

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA

Research Design

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE

Population and sampling of study

Research Instrument and procedure

Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS

Discussion of findings

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion

Recommendation

REFERENCE

 

Abstract

Genetic diseases are more prevalent in developing countries like Nigeria. So, it is paramount to indulge in genotype tests. Premarital genetic screening could help in its prevention. Awareness and acceptance of pre-marital genetic screening is not well documented in Bunu Kabba, Kogi State. The aim of this study was to determine the socio cultural implications of genotype tests among young population in Bunu Kabba.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to study

Genotyping is the process of determining differences in the genetic make-up (genotype) of an individual by examining the individual’s DNA sequence using biological assays and comparing it to another individual’s sequence or a reference sequence. It reveals the alleles an individual has inherited from their parents. Genetic screening is distinct from screening for other conditions in that it has the potential impact not just on the individuals being screened, but also their family members and society generally.

 

Genotype testing and screening presents an opportunity for individuals to become informed about their genetic predisposition to diseases, for youths to be informed before going into relationships and  for couples to be aware of the possible genetic characteristics of their unborn children. Hence, if one holds the view that one of the reasons for marriage is procreation, then worrying about genetic compatibility and avoiding genetic inheritance of grave consequence becomes something to strongly consider.Themostcommon genetic diseases include sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sach’s disease of which sickle cell disease is the commonest. Genotype tests consists of a comprehensive group of tests, especially for those who are planning to get married. According to World Health Organization (WHO),reports have shown that 5% of the world population carries genes responsible for haemoglobinopathies and that Sickle cell anemia is particularly common among people whose ancestors comes from sub-Saharan Africa, India, and Saudi Arabia and Mediterranean countries. Further, over 300,000 babies are born worldwide with sickle cell disease mostly in low and middle income countries, with the majority of these births in Africa. Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest genetic disorder in Nigeria, about 24% of the population are carriers of the mutant gene and prevalence (at birth) is 2%. That is, 15,000 children are born with sickle cell disease genotype annually in Nigeria alone. Sickle cell disease contributes to the equivalence of 5% of under five deaths on the African continent, more than 9% of such deaths in west Africa and up to 16% of under five deaths in individual West Africa countries.

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SOCIO CULTURAL IMPLICATIONS OF GENOTYPE TESTS AMONG YOUNG POPULATION IN BUNU KABBA

 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY

ABSTRACT

Despite the global decline in under-five mortality rate from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990 to 48 in 2012, Nigeria has failed to record any substantial improvement.  Under-five mortality in Nigeria increased from 138 per 1,000 live births in 2007 to 158 per 1,000 live births in 2011 against the Millennium development Goal target of 71 per 1,000 live births.  The data used in this research is a secondary one; the data was fetched from the medical records department of the ABUTH, Zaria. The research was carried out to: test for the difference of two means between infant and child mortality rate; estimate infant and child mortality rate; estimate age specific fertility rate; and to determine the trend line and forecast of infant and child mortality. Descriptive statistics, Regression and Correlation analysis are the statistical techniques used for the study. From the regression analysis result obtained, it showed that both infant and child mortality rates has a direct relationship with delivery rates. The correlation analysis result showed that there is a very strong and positive relationship between mortality and delivery rates. The study revealed that infant and child mortality rates will continue to decrease if there can be improvement in the factors under study.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Infant mortality refers to the death of a child born alive before its first birthday and child mortality is the death of a child aged between one and five years. Demographers have for a long time been interested in the study of mortality which is one of the components of population change. Infant and child mortality are among the best indicators of socioeconomic development because a society life expectancy at birth is determined by the survival chance of infants and children.

Childhood mortality is an important indicator of all heath programs and policies; likewise it contributes to population projection. Childhood mortality measures also help identify specific population that are at increase in health risk. Several measures of childhood mortality are calculated using Demographic Health Survey (DHS) data. During the twentieth century almost all countries experienced decreases in child mortality rate. However, the timing and pace of the decline varied substantially. Sustained reductions in child mortality began in the nineteenth century in Europe, North America, and Japan and continued gradually throughout the twentieth century. Major declines in other parts of the world generally began only after World War II. Mortality reductions in Asia, Latin America and Africa were usually much more rapid that they had been in countries that began mortality declines earlier. By 1999 there were great variations in child mortality among countries for example, although less than 0.5 percent of children died before the fifth birthday in Iceland, more than 33 percent died by age five in Niger. Since the 1960s the decline in child mortality sometimes has appeared to have stagnated as was the period from 1975– 1985, when many poor countries experienced severe crises and other problems such as economic recovery from the 0.1 crisis of 1973 – 1974. Recent evidence suggests that child mortality has continued to decline in most countries since 1980. However, during the 1990s the HIV/AIDS epidemic halted or reversed declines in child mortality in some eastern and southern African countries. For example, in Zimbabwe in the period 1990 – 1994 there were 50 deaths under age five per 1,000 live births.

 

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STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY

STEPS INVOLVE IN THE CONTROL OF LARGE EPIDEMICS OF TYPHOID AND PREVENTION OF FURTHER OUTBREAK.

STEPS INVOLVE IN THE CONTROL OF LARGE EPIDEMICS OF TYPHOID AND PREVENTION OF FURTHER OUTBREAK.

ABSTRACT

Typhoid fever (TF) is still an important public health problem in many eleveloping countries of the world, it is difficult to estimate the exact incidence. In Nigeria, the incidence of TF is estimated about 300-810 cases per 100,000 population per year which mean that the number of cases are 600,000 to 1 ,500,000 per year and the case fatality of TF is estimated 50,000 per year. Typhoid fetter is a systemic infection characterized by continued fever involvement of lymphoid tissues, especially of Peyer’s patches, enlargement of spleen, presence of rose spot on trunk, and constipation more commonly than diarrhea. Mode of transmission of TF is through direct and indirect contact with patients or carrier. Principal vehicles of spread are contaminated water and food. Prevention of TF based of epidemiologic factors influenced, ie. agent approach, environment strategies and host approach Strategies of prevention and control of TF are: disease surveillance, vaccination of persons at risk, detection and treatment of causes (acute and the convalescent) and detection and control of chronic carriers, improvernent of sanitation, protection of animal stocks, promotion of food hygiene and prevention of contamination in food production. Health education in community plays  an important role in prevention of TE particularly about personal hygiene, such as washing hands before meal or doing something, to serve of places for washing hands with clean water in public service and restaurant and vaccination of typhoid fever.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Typhoid fever is an acute infectious fever caused by Salmonella typhi and characterized clinically in typical cases by long continued pyrexia, headache, relative bradycardia, moderate enlargement of the spleen, abdominal tenderness, discomfort and rose colour eruption. However, typhoid fever often present atypical picture which hinder its diagnosis and thus makes it more difficult to treat (2).

Salmonella typhi enters to the human body via the gastrointestinal tract through the mouth. The bacilli invade and multiply in the lymphatic tissue of the small intestine and in the neighbouring lymphatic nodes. They enter to the blood stream via the lymphatic vessels. They tend to localize in the spleen and in the bone marrow. Gall bladder is always infected. During illness, the bacilli are disharged, from the body, to the stool and urine (3,5)

The incubation period varies with an average of two weeks, and the usual range is 1 to 3 weeks, although many cases have been reported well outside this range. There is some evidence that when the disease is water-borne, the incubation period is longer, probably due to the small probably number of organisms likely to be present. Shorter period of four to five days only is also not uncommon. The onset of TF is normally insidious, with malaise as a vague aches & pains, anorexia but typical presenting symptoms.

 

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STEPS INVOLVE IN THE CONTROL OF LARGE EPIDEMICS OF TYPHOID AND PREVENTION OF FURTHER OUTBREAK.

THE EFFECT OF COMBINES LEAD AND DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE EXPOSURE ON BRAIN, HEPATIC & RENAL CA2+/MG2+ AND TOTAL ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN THE BRAIN, LIVER, KIDNEY OF MALE ALBINO RATS

THE EFFECT OF COMBINES LEAD AND DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE EXPOSURE ON BRAIN, HEPATIC & RENAL CA2+/MG2+ AND TOTAL ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN THE BRAIN, LIVER, KIDNEY OF MALE ALBINO RATS

Abstract

Lead and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are environmentally ubiquitous and epidemiologically important toxic agents that millions of people are currently exposed to, worldwide. Although the adverse impact due to exposure to either lead or DEHP are documented, the toxicological effects of co-exposure to these agents are largely unknown. In this study, exposure to these chemicals was investigated for their effects on ATPase activities in the brain, liver and kidney of rats. Male Wistar rats were exposed daily to 100 mg L-1 lead via drinking water and to 100 mg DEHP kg-1 body weight in corn oil either individually or concurrently for 30 days. Toxicity was assessed by evaluating changes in body and organ weights, as well as, Na+/K+-, Ca2+-, Mg2+– and total ATPase activities in the brain, liver and kidney. Exposure to either lead or DEHP resulted in drastic reduction in activities of the enzymes in the compartments investigated, except in the brain where Na+/K+– and Mg2+– ATPases had their activities significantly increased. Also, DEHP displayed no effect on the total ATPase and Ca2+ ATPase in the kidney and brain, respectively. Interestingly, co-exposure to these toxicants significantly stimulated the activities of all these enzymes in the brain. In this compartment, combined treatment resulted in an additive interaction between the toxicants and a potentiation effect of lead on DEHP with regards to the Na+/K+– ATPase activity and Ca2+– ATPase activity, respectively. Our findings demonstrate tissue specific response to combined lead and DEHP exposure in rats with the effect on the brain significantly different from other compartments.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

Statement of problem

Objective of the study

Significance of the study

Scope of the study

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

ATpases Activities of living organism

Exposure to phthalates

Routes of exposure to phthalates

Assessing human exposure to phthalates

Exposure to lead

Effect on The nervous system

Assessing Human Exposure To Lead

CHAPTER THREE MATERIALS AND METHODS

Chemicals

Experimental design

Biochemical analyses

Statistical analysis

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Result

Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Conclusion

Recommendations

REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Living system needs a continuous input of energy for building up and maintenance of its organization. The energy rich compounds are stored as ATP and its derivatives in a biosystem (Lehninger, 1984). ATPases represent a complex enzyme system which has requirement for Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+ and K+ ions for their activity. They are not only responsible for asymmetric distribution of Na+ and K+ ions across the cell membranae but also in junction with other transport proteins, mediate the bulk movement of ions and fluids in a variety of tissues. The enzymes Na+ /K+ ATPases and Mg2+ ATPases have a relatively high sensitivity to certain classes of heavy metals and other pollutants. It has been observed that toxicosis from pollutants may develop primarily from ATPases inhibition. Therefore the present study was designed to determine the aluminium acetate induced alterations in total ATPase activity in different tissues of albino mice

 

 

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THE EFFECT OF COMBINES LEAD AND DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE EXPOSURE ON BRAIN, HEPATIC & RENAL CA2+/MG2+ AND TOTAL ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN THE BRAIN, LIVER, KIDNEY OF MALE ALBINO RATS

MICRO-ORGANISM ASSOCIATED WITH SPOILAGE OF TOMATOES (CANNED TOMATOES)

MICRO-ORGANISM ASSOCIATED WITH SPOILAGE OF TOMATOES (CANNED TOMATOES)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Tomato (lycopersicumesculentum) is an animal plant, having a weak woody stem covered with glistering red iscultivated in many parts of the world. the tomato plant is widely cultivated in many parts of the world and also has a smooth stain. It is green when immature but becomes bright red or yellow as it ripens. These products are considered important worldwide (Robins et al; 1994).

Tomato fruit is a well vegetable eaten raw as salad or for garnishing various foods in Nigeria as well as in many part of the world. The fruit contains high amount of carbohydrate, fat,organic acid,water,minerals,vitamins and pigments(Reddy,2009)

When spoilt as a result of life process of bacteria, yeast and molds, the sugar are rapidly used up being changes into acetic acid lactic acid, alcohol and carbondioxide,the amount of these substances depending on their types of organism which are most activities particular sample in question.

In generally, adequate heat processing is given to tomato paste to achieve commercial sterility (speck 1994), but subsequent abusive post process handling /storage may lead to understand microbiological changes. It is public knowledge that can of tomato paste often show external evidence of spoilage under tropical retail condition (Anon, 1980)

Tomato fruit contains a lot of water which makes them susceptible to spoilage by microorganism.Also,the high water content makes storage and transportation of vegetable difficult. The microorganism reduce not only the nutritional values but also the market value s of tomato fruit. Micro organisms also affect the seller due to the spoilage of tomato.

Hazard analysis and critical control point –HACCP identifies evaluate and control hazards that control or significant for food safety(De Rover, C. 1998)food safety (De Rover, C 1998)

The control of parameter include various factors such as time of harvesting, temperature and moisture during storage, selection of agricultural product prior to processing, decontamination conditions, addition of chemicals at final product storage (Sango, 1995).

Tomatoes were chosen for this study because they are referred to as ready-to-eat food since they are manually processed and many people take tomatoes raw directly or via meals of salad usually served cold. Microbial spoilage and contaminating pathogens on this product poses a serious problem in food safety.

Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens or raw growth of human pathogen on raw fruit and vegetables. There are vew reports of studies on micro-organism associated with spoilage of tomato fruit in Nigeria. Similar research cost of test ripened tomato fruits sold in local markets in Benue State has tended to turn the worry public to patronize spoilt tomato fruit because they are relatively cheap. (Benchat, L.R.:2002).

The study was under taken to isolate and identify micro-organisms that are associated or responsible for the spoilage of ripened tomato fruit sold in some market within Benue State metropolis. In addition, the study investigated the toxin producing capacity and the susceptibility of micro-organisms to some antibiotics.

 

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MICRO-ORGANISM ASSOCIATED WITH SPOILAGE OF TOMATOES (CANNED TOMATOES)

MALARIA AND HELMINTH INFECTION IN PREGNANCY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO ANAEMIA AT FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITAL GOMBE

MALARIA AND HELMINTH INFECTION IN PREGNANCY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO ANEMIA AT FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITAL GOMBE

Abstract:

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malaria and helminth infection in pregnancy and their relationship with anaemia at booking at the Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 192 pregnant women who booked for antenatal care at the Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe between August 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016. Socio-demographic data were collected through a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected and thick and thin blood films made, stained and examined for malaria parasites under a light microscope using x100 objective lens with oil immersion. Wet mount was prepared from the stool specimen using direct smear method with normal saline and iodine preparation, and the concentration procedure using formol/ether for the identification of ova of helminths. Data obtained was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. The results are presented in frequency tables and figures.

Results: The prevalence of malaria, helminth, and their co-infection at booking were 24.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% respectively while the prevalence of anaemia at booking was 16.7%. Malaria and helminth co-infection accounted for 3.1% of the study population with anaemia while 75% of those with anaemia had malaria infection alone. The helminth infection identified in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides. There was a statistically significant relationship between malaria and helminth coinfection, and the area of residence (p= 0.036).

Conclusion: The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection was very low and had no statistically significant relationship with anaemia. Malaria infection was mainly associated with anaemia at booking.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

Background to study

Statement of problem

Justification of the study

Research Questions

Research objectives

Specific Objectives

Scope of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

Anaemia in pregnancy

Causes Of Anaemia In Pregnancy

Public Health Importance of Malaria and helminth parasite

Susceptibility of Pregnant Women to Malaria

Effects Of Anaemia On Pregnancy Outcome

Effect of anaemia on maternal morbidity and mortality

Effect of maternal anaemia on birth weight

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY

Study Site

Study Design

Study Population

Inclusion

Exclusion Criteria:

Sample Size Determination

Study Instruments

Questionnaire:

Blood and Stool Sample Collection

Microscopic Examination

Data Entry

Data Management

Statistical Analysis

Ethical Considerations

Limitations

 

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS

 

Results

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Discussion

Conclusion

Recommendation

References

Questionnaire

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to study

Parasitic infection during pregnancy is a major cause of anaemia in Africa [1]. Malaria and helminthiases are co-endemic especially in subSaharan Africa, and there is an extensive overlap between the area of malaria and helminth infection in Africa [1,2]. Their co-infection is not uncommon, and its additive effect may lead to worsening anaemia and other morbidities, this could have dire consequences on pregnancy [1,2].

 

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate, there were 212 million new cases of malaria worldwide in 2015 (148304million), with Africa contributing 90% of the global cases of malaria. About 429,000 (235,000 – 639,000) deaths occurred from malaria worldwide, most of these deaths occurred in Africa (92%) [3]. Nigeria is one of the most endemic countries for malaria, and the susceptibility to this infection is increased by pregnancy [4]. An increased risk of malaria during pregnancy was observed over 60 years ago,6 and besides young children, pregnant women remain the main high risk group for malaria in endemic areas.[7] Frequency and severity of malaria are greater in pregnant women, than in non-pregnant women,[8] and causes serious adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia.[9] Incidentally malaria infection is more rampant among the primigravidae and secundigravidae than the Multigravidae.[10]

 

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MALARIA AND HELMINTH INFECTION IN PREGNANCY AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO ANEMIA AT FEDERAL TEACHING HOSPITAL GOMBE

PRODUCTION OF BAR SOAP AND DETERGENT

PRODUCTION OF BAR SOAP AND DETERGENT

ABSTRACT

Today in every market exists different types of soap and detergents.  Some of them are not efficacious as advertised because the ingredients of such soaps are not always in right proportion and as such the efficacy of active ingredients is not rendered. Soaps are the sodium salts or potassium salts of stearic acids or any other fatty acids. They are prepared by the saponification process, which is, reacting the oil which contain triglycerides with caustic soda (NaOH) to give the soap. However different oils have different composition of fatty acids which are responsible for different properties of soaps made out of them. In the present work 5 different types of oils are taken. They are blended in various ratios to prepare 14 different samples of soap. Different properties of these samples were analyzed to see which soap is the best one. The cleansing and lathering properties of all samples were compared. The blend of coconut oil and castor oil at 3:1 ratio is found out to be the best with 76.8% of TFM and 89.46% of yield. The best blend is analyzed for various properties and they were compared with that given in the literature. The saponification values, iodine values of coconut oil and castor oil were found out and these values were also found for the blend. It was found that the blend was having SAP value of 230.4 and iodine value of 40 which are higher than the individual values. Thus soap prepared using blend of both these oils has better properties than the soaps prepared by individual oils.

 

 

1.1       INTRODUCTION

Soap can be defined as the sodium or potassium salt of fatty acid, made by hydrolyzing fats and oils with caustic alkali (cook 1964).  Soap acts as a good cleansing agent in soft water, at an interphase of greasy and water. In hard water soap reacts with the mague sum and calcium ions to form insoluble precipitate (scum), which lowers the cleansing effect of the soap.  This abnormality in soap led to the introduction of synthetic detergent.

Detergents are sodium salts of an acid.  They are substance that causes oil or grease to form emulsions in water so that soap acts as a cleansing agent.

A soap is also a salt of a compound, known as a fatty acid. A soap molecule has a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid group on one end, which has ionic bond with metal ion, usually sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is non polar which is highly soluble in non polar substances and the ionic end is soluble in water. The structure of the soap molecule is represented below:

 

The cleaning action of soaps because of their ability to emulsify or disperse water-insoluble materials and hold them in the suspension of water. This ability is seen from the molecular structure of soaps. When soap is added to water that contains oil or other water-insoluble materials, the soap or detergent molecules surround the oil droplets. The oil is, dissolved in the alkyl groups of the soap molecules while the ionic end allows it to be dissolved in water. As a result, the oil droplets are to be dispersed throughout the water and can be washed away.

 

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PRODUCTION OF BAR SOAP AND DETERGENT

EVALUATING THE KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS TOWARD HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

EVALUATING THE KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS TOWARD HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY

1.1     Background to the Study

The practice of HIV care has dramatically changed during the past two decades. Knowledge regarding HIV pathophysiology has quickly accumulated and has led to the development of new medications. In addition to knowledge updates, the attitudes of health care professionals toward current concepts about HIV care are even more critical. The core philosophy of modern HIV care puts emphasis on patient autonomy and optimal utilization of health care professionals’ different specialties. Research evidence derived from clinical, economic, and humanistic outcomes also strongly supports the importance of patient autonomy and a team approach to HIV care. Pharmacists’ knowledge and attitudes toward HIV can significantly influence patient outcomes (Hsiang-Yin, 2014).

Given the prevailing concept of a team approach toward HIV care, only when all health care providers share the same high level of knowledge and positive attitudes could the quality of patient care be ensured (Hsiang-Yin, 2014). Pharmacists are highly accessible to chronically ill patients such as those with HIV, especially when the disease becomes controlled and the patient only needs to visit a pharmacy to have their prescription refilled (Hsiang-Yin, 2014). Pharmaceutical care has significantly reduced the occurrence of drug-related problems and fulfilled the desired outcomes of drug therapy in other diseases and conditions such as anticoagulation, hyperlipidemia, and asthma (Jungnickel PW, 1997). Studies have also shown that pharmacists’ participation in the management of poorly controlled HIV patients resulted in better outcomes (Jungnickel PW, 1997).

This study is focused on the attitude and knowledge of community pharmacists on HIV infected which also received special mention in the WHO adherence report (WHO, 2013). HIV infected is a disease of pandemic proportions increasingly making its presence felt in the developing world where, it is predicted; most of the world’s HIV burden will in future be borne (King H, 1998). Furthermore, it is a disease where antiretroviral therapy and lifestyle modification play major roles in the treatment and management of the condition, (Chitre MM, 2016) and where health promoting interventions in both these therapeutic areas are accommodated within the pharmacist’s defined scope of practice (Wermeille J, 2014) (Kiel PJ, 2015) (Johnson LC, 1997).

Most, if not all, HIV patients make use of long-term antiretroviral therapy to manage their disease. The prescription refill dynamic provides for frequent personal and informed contact between the patient and the pharmacist and thus positions the community pharmacist for roles in HIV care beyond the traditional medicine dispensing role (Kiel PJ, 2015) (Johnson LC, 1997). Encounters of this nature present pharmacists with ideal opportunities to provide pharmaceutical care across a range of chronic diseases.

Today, 300 million people have HIV, mostly  (that is 6.6% of the adult population) (Mbanya, 2009). Each year the number is increasing by 7 million (International HIV Federation, 2009). By 2030, 438 million people will have HIV (7.8% of the adult population), a rise of 54% in 20 years (Mbanya, 2009). This is more than the populations of Mexico, the United States and Canada combined.

 

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EVALUATING THE KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS TOWARD HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTES ON THE QUALITY OF UNDERGROUND WATER [A CASE STUDY OF IKIRUN, OSUN STATE

EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTES ON THE QUALITY OF UNDERGROUND WATER [A CASE STUDY OF IKIRUN, OSUN STATE

ABSTRACT

This research paper examines the effects of solid wastes, quality and its control on groundwater pollution in Ikirun (Maboreje and Okeafo areas) Osun state Nigeria. The study was born out of unregulated manner in which both domestic and industrial wastes are deposited on the streets, river courses, buried, burnt and discarded in refuse heaps. Solid waste commonly generated in Ikirun includes papers and polyethene, tin and metals, ashes and dust, texture and rags, aluminium and other minerals. The analysis of physical, chemical and biological of raw water at ten different locations in Ikirun close to dump areas shows these wastes produce leachates and gases when they are decomposed and are washed by percolating and infiltrating rain water into the groundwater. However, most of the water parameters tested fall within World Health Organisation (W.H.O) recommendations while few are not. Inspite of this, recommendations are made to remedy the situations which include encouraging analysis of raw water, enlightenment campaign, groundwater exploration in Ikirun should be intensified and the principle of resource management should be adhered to.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENT

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 PROBLEM OF THE STUDY

1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

1.3 OBJECTIVES

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 DEFINITION OF WASTES

2.2 SOURCES OF SOLD WASTES

2.3 COMMERCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WASTES

2.4 INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES

2.5 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL HAZARD OF SOLID WASTES

2.6 WATER POLLUTION FROM SOLID WASTES

2.7 SOURCES OF WATER

2.8 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER

2.9 EFFECT OF RAIN WATER ON UNDER GROUND WATER

2.10 COLOR DETERMINATIONS

2.11 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID WASTES (TSS) TOTAL DISSOIVED SOLID WASTES (TDS)

2.12 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLID WASTES (TDS)

2.13 DISSOIVED OXYGEN (DO)

2.14 TYPE OF WASTES AND ITS CONSTITUENTS

2.15 SOLID WASTES EFFECT AND CONTROL ON UNDERGROUD WATER.

2.16 TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF WASTES

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 PHYSICAL OBSERVATION OF THE STUDY AREAS

3.2 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 METHOD OF LABORATORY TESTS ON PH, TEMPERATURE, CONDUCTIVITY, ALKALINITY, TOTAL HARDNESS, CHLORINE AND BACTERIOLOGICAL TEST OF THE WATER SAMPLE.

4.2 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY

5.1 CONCLUSION

5.2 RECOMMENDATION

5.3 APPENDICES

5.4 REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 This chapter introduces what solid wastes are all about including its quality and effects on underground water. Solid wastes commonly known as trashes or garbages are wastes consisting of everyday items we consume and discard.

It predominantly includes food wastes, yard wastes, containers, product packaging, and other miscellaneous inorganic wastes from residential, commercial, institutional and industrial resources.

While underground water is the water found beneath the soil. Underground water occurs as a result of rain fall entering into the soil surface. It may also occur as a result of percolation from surface water into the soil. When rain falls to the ground, the water does stop, some flow along the surface to the streams or lakes, while some are used by plants, some evaporate and return to the atmosphere while some sink into the ground . When pouring a glass of water into a pile of sand, it is obvious that the water will move into the space between particles of sand. Scientifically, groundwater is found in the cracks and spaces in the soil, sand and rock.

It moves slowly through layers of soil, sand and rock called aquifers. Aquifers typically consist of gravel, sand, stone or fractured rock, like lime stone. These particles are permeable because the large connected spaces that allow water to flow through the speed at which ground water flows depends on the size of spaces in the soil or rock and how well the spaces are connected. The area where water full aquifer is called the saturated zone (or saturation zone).

 

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EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTES ON THE QUALITY OF UNDERGROUND WATER [A CASE STUDY OF IKIRUN, OSUN STATE

EFFECTS OF SALT WATER ON CONCRETE (A CASE STUDY OF RIVER NUN IN NEMBER IN BAYELSA STATE)

EFFECTS OF SALT WATER ON CONCRETE (A CASE STUDY OF RIVER NUN IN NEMBER IN BAYELSA STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO PROBLEM

Concrete is an artificial engineering material made from a mixture of Portland cement, water, fine and course aggregates, and a small amount of air. It is the most widely used construction material in the world.

Concrete is the only major building material that can be delivered to the job site in a plastic state. this unique quality makes concrete desirable as a building material because it can be molded to virtually any form or shape. Concrete provides a wide latitude in surface textures and colours and can be used to construct a wide variety of structures, such as highways, and streets, bridges, dams, barge buildings, airport runways, irrigation structures, breakwaters, piers and docks, sidewalks, soles and farm buildings, homes and even barges and ships.

Other desirable qualities of concrete as a building material are its strength, economy, and durability. Depending on the mixture of material used, concrete will support, in compression, 700 or more kg/sq cm (10,000 or more 1b/sq in). the ensile strength of concrete is much lower, but by using properly designed still reinforcing, structural members can be made that are as strong in tension as they are in compression. The durability of concrete is evidenced by the fact that concrete columns built by the Egyptians more than 3000 years ago are still standing.

There are however, many different types of concrete, the names of some are distinguished by the types, sizes and densities of aggregates e.g. eight weight, normal weight or heavy weight. Concrete are similar in composition to mortar, which are used to bond unit masonry. Mortars however, are normally made with sand as a hole aggregates.

Whereas, concrete contain much larger aggregates and this usually have greater strength. As a result, concrete have a much wider range of structural application, including pavements, footings, pipes, unit majoring, walls, dams and tanks. Because ordinary concrete is much weaker in tension than in compression, it is usually prestressed or reinforced with a much stronger material, such as steel, to resort tension.

There are various methods employed for carting ordering concrete. For very small projects, sacks of prepared mixes may be purchased and mixed on the site with water, usually a drem-type, portable, mechanical mixer.

For large projects, mix ingredient are weighed separately and deposited in a stationary batch mixer or a continuous mixer. Concrete mixed or agitated in a truck is called ready mixed concrete. In general, concrete is placed and consolidation is forms by hand tamping or pudding around reinforcing steel or by spreading at or near vertical surface. Another technique vibration or mechanical pudding, which is the most satisfactory one for achieving proper consolidation.

 

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EFFECTS OF SALT WATER ON CONCRETE (A CASE STUDY OF RIVER NUN IN NEMBER IN BAYELSA STATE)

ECONOMIC BURDEN OF CANCER AND PAYMENT COPING MECHANISM

ECONOMIC BURDEN OF CANCER AND PAYMENT COPING MECHANISM

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the economic burden of cancer patients and payment coping mechanism in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Plateau State. Four objectives and two hypotheses were raised to guide the study. Cost-of-illness framework was used to assess the economic burden of cancer patients and payment coping mechanism. A cross-sectional descriptive survey design was used for the study. A sample of 179 cancer patients was drawn consecutively from an estimated population of 276 that used the hospital in one year. Data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Chi-square was used to determine the association between socio-economic groups and payment coping mechanisms utilized by cancer patients and between the cost distributions among different socioeconomic groups. Majority of respondents were ranked among the poorest, the mean monthly total income of the patients is N65,978.74+ 104,036.97, mean monthly total expenses is N43,916.28 + 56,070.33, the mean monthly patients’ expenditure is N43,916.28 + 56,070.33, the mean total annual loss was N217,515.19 + 798,708.95, the mean patients’ annual loss as a percentage of their mean annual income is 11.38 + 19.13% while as a percentage of their mean annual expenditure was 50.06 + 421.98. Payment coping mechanism utilized by most (78.8%) of the patients was their own money (i.e. salary, earnings and/or savings). There was a significant difference between payment coping mechanism of cancer patients (borrowed money/loan, sales of land) and different socio-economic groups (P < 0.05).

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION 

1.1      Background to the Study

Cancer is the second leading cause of death and disability in the world followed by heart disease (Mathers& Lancer, 2006).  It is a major public health issue and represents a significant burden of disease. Based on the most complete and current data available, cancer accounts for one out of every eight deaths annually (Mathers& Lancer, 2006). The incidence and death rates from cancer remain significantly higher in the developing world including Nigeria (Boyle & Levin, 2008). It is responsible for more deaths than all the deaths due to HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria combined (Okoye, 2010).

Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells (Global cancer facts and figures, 2011). It affects different parts of the body and the name of the cancer is given in relation to the part that is affected. It is a global disease that consumes resources.  The cost of cancer treatment globally is reported to be high. Records have it that developed countries spend more on cancer treatment  than developing countries; for example in the United  States of America, the economic burden  from cancer is tagged at $895 billion nearly 20% more than heart diseases toll ($753 billion) (John & Ross, 2009). The cancers which account for the largest costs on a global scale, and the greatest burden in developed nations are; lung, colorectal and breast while in low-income countries, the cancer with the greatest  impact are cancer of the mouth and oropharynx, cancer of the cervix, breast and prostate cancer (John & Rose, 2009).

 

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ECONOMIC BURDEN OF CANCER AND PAYMENT COPING MECHANISM

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DISINFECTANT EFFICIENCY OF ETHANOL, BLEACH AND PHENOLICS AGAINST PSUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DISINFECTANT EFFICIENCY OF ETHANOL, BLEACH AND PHENOLICS AGAINST PSUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

ABSTRACT

Ethanol, Bleach and Phenolics are three kinds of disinfectants which have been widely used in common laboratories.  In this study, a compared experiment on these three disinfectants efficiency was conducted against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using agar hole diffusion method.  Different concentrations of bleach (1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%) were used on both organisms.  Also (50%, 60%, 70%, 85% and 95%) of ethanol as well as (5%, 10%, 20%, 25%, and 30%) Phenolics were used. Differences in concentrations tested was because, the original concentrations of the disinfectants differs. After 24 hours of incubation at 370C, the results showed that all the disinfectants inhibited the growth of the test organism in their concentrated forms.  The diameter of zone of inhibitions were measured around each well by using a ruler in millimeters, using different concentrations, their efficacies varied.  The results showed that 30% Phenolics had the best efficiency against both test organisms and 5% bleach had a better effect on Staphylococcus aureus than Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while ethanol showed least sensitivity. 70% concentration gave the highest effect on Staphylococcus aureus as compared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

 

1.INTRODUCTION

In the mid 1800s, the Hungarian physician Ignaz SEMMELIVEIS and English physician Joseph Lister used these thoughts to develop some of the first microbial control practice for medical procedures.  These practices include hand washing with microbes killing chloride of lime and use of techniques of aseptic surgery to prevent microbial contamination of surgical wounds (Hamamah, 2004).  Over the last century, scientists have continued to develop a variety of physical methods and chemical agents to control microbial growth.  Control directed at destroying harmful microorganisms is called disinfection.  It usually refers to the destruction of vegetative (non-endospore forming) pathogens example bacteria by using a disinfectant to treat an inert surface or substances (Bhatia and Icchpujani, 2008).

Bacteria are major causes of disease and even human death.  A disinfectant is one of the diverse groups of chemicals which reduces the number of microorganisms present (normally on an inanimate object).  There are various official definitions of the process of disinfection and disinfectants agents.  It is defined as a chemical that inactivates vegetative microorganism but not necessarily high resistant spores (ISO, 2008).  Cleaning and disinfection of surfaces are essential steps for maintaining the cleanliness of pharmaceutical industries, hospitals and environments (Rollins, 2000).  Disinfectant as effective agents that kill or eliminates bacteria is widely used in various ways; especially in microbial laboratory.  Disinfectant can be mainly divided into five agents; alkylating, sulfhydryl combining, oxidizing, dehydrating and permeable.  The most commonly used disinfectants in laboratories are ethanol, bleach and Isol (Larson and Morton, 1991).  Bleach also known as sodium hypochlorite is a broad spectrum disinfectant, non specific in their action, only action biological material that is present on any surface. They effects by oxidizing the cell of microorganism and attacking essential cell components including lipid, protein and DNA (Ho-Hyuk Jang et al, 2008).    Ethanol, as a dehydrating agent, lies between the highly specific and broadly based categories.  It is effective against actively growing bacteria and viruses with a lipid based outer surfaces, but are not effective against bacterial spores or viruses that prefer watery environment.  They cause cell membrane damages, rapid denaturalization of proteins with subsequent metabolism interference an cell lyses (Larson and Morton, 1991).  Another surface disinfectant is the compound that contain phenol group, a popular commercial brand of Isol, (a saponated brand of cresol) as a phenolics are intermediate level disinfectant derived from coal tar, that are effective on contaminated surfaces (Bittel and Hughes, 2003).

 

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DISINFECTANT EFFICIENCY OF ETHANOL, BLEACH AND PHENOLICS AGAINST PSUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF BOREHOLE WATER AND SACHET WATER IN OWERRI MUNICIPAL, IMO STATE

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL  ANALYSIS OF BOREHOLE WATER AND SACHET WATER IN OWERRI MUNICIPAL, IMO STATE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page ………………………………………………………………………………….i

Certification page………………………………………………………………………..ii

Dedication………………………………………………………………………………..iii

Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………………iv

Table of content…………………………………………………………………………vi

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………x

                                                                           

CHAPTER ONE:

  • ………………………………………………………………………1

1.1    Sources of Water ………………………………………………………………..3

1.2    Importance of Water……………………………………………………………6

1.3    Water Pollution………………………………………………………………….10

1.4    Water Quality ………………………………………………………………………….13

1.5    Portable water ………………………………………………………………………15

1.6    Objective of the work ………………………………………………………..……17

1.7 Sampling………………………………………………………………………….……18

 

CHAPTER TWO:

Literature review ………………………………………………………..19

 

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHOD

3.1            Sample Locations…………………………………………..…………………31

3.2            Method of Analysis……………………………………………………………34

3.3            Physical Analysis………………………………………..………..…………..35

3.3.1         Determination of Colour……………………………..………….…………35

3.3.2 Odour…………………………………………………………………………….35

3.3.3         Electrical Conductivity.…………………………………………………….35

3.3.4         Determination of PH Value…………………………………………….…36

3.4            Chemical Analysis……………………………………………………..…….36

3.4.1         Determination of Total Solid…………………………………………..…36

3.4.2         Determination of Dissolved Solid ………………………………………37

3.4.3         Determination of Suspended Solid (S.S)…………………………….37

3.4.4         Determination of Acidity………………………………………….………37

3.4.5         Determination of Alkalinity………………………………….…………….38

3.4.6         Determination of C.O.D…………………………………..……….……….38

3.4.7         Determination of Dissolved Oxygen…………………………..…….…39

3.4.8         Determination of Calcium ………………………………………..…….…39

3.4.9         Determination of Magnesium……………………………….…..……….40

3.4.10       Determination of Chloride…………………………………….…..………40

3.4.11       Determination of Iron…………………………………………………….…40

3.4.12       Determination of Zinc ………………………………………………………41

3.4.13       Determination of Lead………………………………………………………41

3.4.14       Determination of  Manganese………………………………….…….….42

3.4.15       Determination of copper ………………………………………………….42

3.4.16       Determination of Nitrate………………………………………………….42

3.4.17       Determination of Phosphate..………………………………………..…43

 

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

4.0            Analytical Results …………………………………………….………………44

4.1    Tables……………………………………………..………………………………44

4.2    Discussions…………………………………………………………………..…49

4.3    Conclusions………………………………………………………….…………54

References………………………………………………………………………55

Appendix One………………………………………………………………….60

Appendix Two……………………………………………………….……

ABSTRACT

Three types of sachet water samples and three types of borehole water samples all from Owerri Municipal, Imo State were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters. A total of twenty (21) parameters including Odour, Colour, pH, Conductivity, Acidity, Alkalinity, Total Solids, Dissolved Solids, Suspended Solids, Dissolved Oxygen (D.O), Chemical Oxygen Demand (C.O.D), Calcium, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Lead, Chloride, Nitrate, Zinc, Magnesium and sulphate were analyzed. The W.H.O recommended standards shows that all the samples are odourless and colourless. Borehole water is 7.1 in pH, while sachet water has a lower value of 6.5. Acidity in sachet water has a mean value of 50mg/l while borehole water has 54mg/l. Total solids of borehole water is higher with a mean value of 15.6mg/l, while sachet water has 5.7mg/l. Alkalinity is higher in borehole water with a mean value of 165, while sachet water has a lower value of 113. Dissolved oxygen in borehole water has a higher value of 1.19mg/l than sachet water with a value of 0.83mg/l. C.O.D is trace in all the samples. Suspended solids in borehole water is 1.02mg/l which is higher than sachet water which has 0.62mg/l. Calcium is higher in borehole water with a value of 3.1mg/l, while sachet water has 1.92mg/l. Copper content is higher in borehole with a value of 1.42mg/l in borehole water, while sachet water has 0.49mg/l. Chloride is higher in sachet water with a value of 64.1mg/l and lower in borehole water 56.2mg/l. Manganese and Lead values of borehole water are 0.54mg/l and 0.77mg/l respectively, which are higher than W.H.O standard, while  sachet water has values of 0.28mg/l and 1.01mg/l. Iron value of borehole water is 1.20mg/l, while sachet water is lower with a value of 1.12mg/l. Nitrate is 0.39mg/l in borehole water which is lower than sachet water which has 0.41mg/l. Borehole water is lower in Zinc with a value of 0.41mg/l while sachet water has a higher value of 0.44mg/l. Borehole water has a phosphate value of 5.21mg/l while sachet water has a lower value of 4.02mg/l. Magnesium is higher in borehole water with a value 1.47mg/l, while sachet water has 0.93mg/l. The parameters analyzed most generally conform to the W.H.O standards for drinking water.

 

 

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL  ANALYSIS OF BOREHOLE WATER AND SACHET WATER IN OWERRI MUNICIPAL, IMO STATE

CAUSES, MANAGEMENT AND PERCEPTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS OF FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY

CAUSES, MANAGEMENT AND PERCEPTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS OF FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the study

 

Breast cancer (BCa) is a malignant tumour that has developed from breast cells, which has no cure at present. However, it can be managed with modern  technological tools,  and one’s life can be prolonged. In the last four decades, with the introduction of screening programmes that efficiently detect cervical cancer in its early stage, BCa has been seen to overtake cervical cancer in incidence and has become  number  one neoplasm among women (Okolie, 2012). BCa has therefore become a worldwide major health problem. The vast majority of it occur invasively in women (National Cancer Society [NCS], 2013). It accounts for 16% of all female cancers, and 22% of it are invasive. In both men and women, it accounts for 18.2% of all cancer deaths (NCS, 2013). Adebamowo and Ajayi (2006)  corroborate the opinion  of NCS  and maintain  that BCa is the commonest cancer among women in the world and in Nigeria too.

Adebamowo and Ajayi (2006) opine that it has become the commonest malignancy affecting Nigerian women. Also, according to Smeltzer, Bare, Hinkle and Cheever (2010), among the ten leading types of cancers by gender determined on the basis of estimated new cases and deaths in the United States in 2004, BCa accounts for 32% and the highest in female while prostate cancer accounts for 33% in males, which is the highest among them. Some of its common threats to physical wellbeing according to Adejumo and Adejumo (2009) include effects of treatments, recurrence and metastasis, fatigue, arm and shoulder discomfort, as well as lymphedema.

Unfortunately, Nigeria (which is the home country of the female students that are the focus of this study) remains ill-equipped to deal with the complexities of cancer

 

detection and care as the testing and care facilities are still very few. The prevalence of BCa within the country is 116 per 100,000, and 27,840 new cases were expected to develop in 1999 (Adebamowo & Ajayi, 2006). In 2005, between 7 and 10,000  new  cases of BCa developed.

This increasing incidence of BCa in Nigeria is in line with the situations in other developing countries, and even those advanced countries that used to have a low incidence now record high incidence. The relative frequencies of BCa among other female cancers, from Cancer Registries in Nigeria were 35.3% in Ibadan, 28.2% in Ife- Ijesha, 44.5% in Enugu, 17% in Eruwa, 37.5% in Lagos, 20.5% in Zaria and 29.8% in Calabar (Banjo, 2004 ). Similarly, in all the centres, except Calabar and Eruwa, BCa  rated first among other cancers.

Further reports showed that majority of cases occurred in premenopausal women, and the mean age of occurrence ranged between 43–50 years across the regions. The  youngest age recorded was 16 years, from Lagos (Banjo, 2004). This trend  was attributed to several factors such as: the acceptance of fine needle aspiration as an accurate diagnostic evaluation, and increased awareness about BCa and usefulness of breast self-examination (Thomas, 2000).

Several other factors are responsible for this increasing detection, but the most  important in the researcher’s view are: increased access to diagnostic facilities;empowerment of women, which is increasing women’s ability to make independent decisions about their own health-care; increasing westernization of dietary products;and physical activity; obstetric and gynaecological factors among others. Conventionally, breast self-examination (BSE) is the easiest and simplest procedure for detecting breast masses because a woman who knows the texture, contour, and feel of  her own breasts is far more likely to detect changes that may develop (ACS, 2007).

 

 

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CAUSES, MANAGEMENT AND PERCEPTION OF BREAST CANCER AMONG FEMALE STUDENTS OF FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOUR SOP FRUIT, BARK AND LEAVES RIPE AND UNRIPE

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOUR SOP FRUIT, BARK AND LEAVES RIPE AND UNRIPE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of Study

The use of medicinal plants as major source of formulated drugs in the industrialized society can be traced back to the traditional use in folk medicine. Scientific utilization of medicinal plants is important as they can be toxic, also, can offer a wide range of therapeutic application. Annona muricata (soursop) belongs to the genus Annona of the custard apple tree family and has age-long traditional use as medicinal plant. Soursop is a tropical plant that is also cultivated in Saharan Africa. They are perennial crops with edible fruits and they are commercially underutilized. The plant has been reported to contain nutrients like vitamins B and C; phosphorus, iron and calcium. These nutrients are thought to be complimentary in the traditional use of the plant. For instance, the iron ameliorates effects of massive haemolysis. All parts of soursop are widely applied in alternative medicine. The bark, leaves and seeds possess diverse biological activities and they are traditionally used in the treatment of infectious and chronic non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and inflammation. The leave has been demonstrated to be hepatoprotective, antiplasmodic and anti-diabetic. The fruit has been reported to possess antimicrobial, antitumor and antiviral effects. The juice of ripe fruit is applied as diuretic and the powdered immature fruits can be used as remedy for dysentery. Like other medicinal plants, Annona muricata contains phytochemicals that are responsible for their healing properties. The phytochemical screening of this plant revealed the presence of flavonoids (group of polyphenolic antioxidants), saponins, tannins, glycoside and alkaloids. The leaves and seed of Annona muricata contain 50 mono THF acetogenins which is a key intermediate in acetogenins synthesis. Family Annonaceae family, to which soursop belongs, also contain neurotoxic alkaloids named annonacin. This neurotoxin is suspected to cause atypical Parkinsonism and other neurological effects on large or frequent consumption. Reactive oxygen species are formed in minute quantities during physiological cell metabolism. However, at high concentration, excessive free radical production or decreased capacity of endogenous antioxidant leads to state named oxidative stress. This condition has potential of causing damage to cellular macromolecules including as carbohydrate, protein, lipids and nucleic acids thereby disrupting the functional and structural integrity of biological cells]. Oxidative stress plays important roles in the pathogenesis of diseases such as cancer, neurological disorders, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischaemic disease, diabetes, acute respiratory syndrome, fibrosis, pulmonary disease and asthma. The ability to isolate RNA with good quality and free of contaminants like protein, genomic DNA and secondary metabolites, is crucial for cDNA library construction and molecular analysis, e.g. northern hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (Liu et al., 1998). Several methods have been routinely used for isolation of total RNA (Chirgwin et al., 1979; Chomczynski and Sacchi, 1987; Logemann et al., 1987) and are still being developed due to the fact that plant species from the same genus or related genera may contain variable amounts of diverse substances, like polysaccharides, polyphenolics and secondary metabolites. Therefore, it is not expected to find a unique nucleic acid isolation method adequate for all plants (Loomis, 1974; Weishing et al., 1995; Sharma et al., 2003).

The extraction of RNA from fruit tissue can be affected by several factors, mainly by high levels of RNases and alcohol insoluble substances (AIS) (Romani et al., 1975). Many compounds in the fruit pulp, such as polysaccharides, and phenolic compounds, are known to interfere with nucleic acid extraction (Ikoma et al., 1996; Woodhead et al., 1997; Jaakola et al., 2001). Concerning fruit pulp tissue, several protocols have been described for the isolation of RNA (Podivinsky et al., 1994; Jones et al., 1997; Liu et al., 1998; Woodhead et al., 1997; Asif et al., 2000; Jaakola et al., 2001; Valderrama-Chairez et al., 2002). However, when protocols are applied to new material without further adaptation, RNA quality and yield can be poor or, in some  cases, no RNA  could be  reco- vered. In a current study on soursop fruit ripening, we characterized the expression profile of alternative oxidase (AOX) at the protein level (Brasil, 2002). Further inve-stigations require a reliable protocol that provides the same quality and quantity of RNA from different stages of ripening. Here, we report a simple and efficient method for isolating total RNA from ripe and unripe soursop fruit tissues. This protocol is based partially on a rapid nucleic acid extraction method (Dorokhov and Klocke, 1997), using SDS and potassium acetate for precipitation of contaminants (polysaccharides and proteins) in combination with steps of the RNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany).

 

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ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SOUR SOP FRUIT, BARK AND LEAVES RIPE AND UNRIPE

PROXIMATE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOURSOP

PROXIMATE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOURSOP

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Problem Statement

1.3     Justification

1.4     Objectives

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Introduction

2.2     Taxonomical Characterisation and Description Of Soursop

2.3     Types of Annona Genus Plants

2.4     Traditional Usages Of Annona Genus Plants

  • Demand for Soursop

2.6     Health Beneficial Constituents Of Soursop

2.6.1 Antioxidant Activity (AOA)

 

 CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1     Preparation of Plant Material for Proximate And Phytochemical Analyses

3.2     Preparation of Plant Material for Phytochemical Analyses and in Vitro Antioxidant Assays

3.3     Proximate Composition

3.4     Phytochemical Screening

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS

4.1     Results of Proximate Analyses

4.2     Phytochemical Analysis of Fruit, Leaf, Stem-Bark, and Root-Bark of Annona Muricata

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Discussion

5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendation

References

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Edible wild indigenous plants become an alternative source of food with high potential of vitamins, minerals and others interesting elements particularly during seasonal food shortage (Umaru et al., 2007). Wild fruits are also known to have nutritional and medicinal properties that can be attributed to their antioxidant effects and they can be used to fortify staple foods particularly for malnourished children (Barminas, 1998). There is much evidence that the quality and composition of food may contribute to present and future health benefits of young children.

 

According to the World Health Organization, malnutrition is the cellular imbalance between the supply of nutrients and energy and the body’s demand for them to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions (Tierney et al., 2010). The term protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) applied to a group of related disorders that include marasmus, kwashiorkor, and intermediate states of marasmus-kwashiorkor (Tierney et al., 2010). The most common form of malnutrition in Africa is protein energy deficiency affecting over 100 million people, especially 30 to 50 million children under 5 years of age (Jildeh et al., 2010). Some legumes such as soybean, bean, and peanut, are important sources of protein and can therefore help to increase the protein intake of the diet of population. However, the low-income group, especially in rural areas, sometimes cannot afford these protein foods. Soursop (Annona muricata) belongs to the family Annonaceae, and it is wide spread in the tropics and frost–free subtropics of the world (Samson, 1980). The soursop plant is cultivated mainly in home gardens. The tree yields up to 10 tons/ha and each fruit weighs 0.5 to 2 kg (National Academy of Science, 1978). The fruit is compound in and covered with reticulated, leathery-appearing but tender, inedible bitter skin from which protrude few or many stubby, or more elongated and curved soft, pliable “spines”. The skin is dark-green in the immature fruit, becoming slightly yellowish-green before the mature fruit is soft to the touch. In aroma, the pulp is somewhat pineapple-like, but its musky, subacid to acid flavor is unique (Schultes and Raffauf, 1990).

 

It is indigenous to most of the warmest tropical areas in South and North America including Amazon, A. muricata has become naturalized in many countries, and now has a wide distribution throughout tropical and subtropical parts of the world. The fruit makes an excellent drink or ice cream after straining. Several studies have described the medicinal purposes of Annona muricata and have outlined the social history of the plants’ use (Ayensu, 1981). All parts of the A. muricata tree are used in natural medicine in the tropics including the bark, leaves, root and fruit-seeds. The crushed seeds are used as a vermifuge and anthelmintic against internal and external parasites and worms. The bark leaves and roots are considered sedative, antispasmodic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, smooth muscle relaxant and nervine and a tea is made for various disorders for those purposes (Holdsworth, 1990). Many bioactive compounds and phytochemicals have been found in A. muricata and its many uses in natural medicine have been validated by many scientific researches (Heinrich, 1992; Sundarrao, 1993). Generally the fruit and fruit juice is taken for worms and parasites, to cool fevers, to increase mother’s milk after childbirth (lactagogue), and as an astringent for diarrhea and dysentery. Due to the fact that the fruit has a wide distribution throughout tropical and subtropical parts of the world and mainly in developing country, the aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical, the nutritional potential and mycoflore associated with Soursop (Annona muricata L.) from Benin. An emphasis has been placed on its use as food supplement against Protein-Energy Deficiency. For its valorization, the physicochemical and microbial changes in soursop puree which has been pasteurized at optimum thermal condition (Umme et al., 1997) were also investigated. This study also aims to make available an improved industrial technology for the production of soursop puree, which retains all the nutritional potential of the fruit during storage.

 

The bark, leaves, fruit, roots, and fruit seeds of the soursop tree are known since long for various medicinal uses. The fruit and juice is used against worms and parasites, to cool down fevers, to increase lactation after childbirth. The seeds can be crushed and then used against internal or external parasites, head lice, and worms[6].The tea prepared from the leaves are used as a sedative and a soporific (inducer of sleep) in the West Indies and Peruvian Andes. This infusion is also used to relief pain or for antispasmodic purposes. For liver problems a leaf tea is used in the Brazilian Amazon[7]. Traditionally it is used in medicinal herbal drugs to cure various diseases such as for diarrhea (fruit), cough, hypertension, rheumatism, tumors, cancer, asthma, childbirth, lactagogue (fruit), malaria, tranquilizer, skin rashes, parasites (seeds), worms (seeds), liver problems, arthritis (used externally) etc[8]. It contains a variety of components which attribute to the various biological activities. The roots and bark can be of aid for diabetes, but can also be used as a sedative. The purpose of the present review is to highlight the various traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological reports on Guyabano (A. muricata).

 

1.2     PROBLEM STATEMENT

There is dearth of information on the health beneficial constituents of the edible and non-edible portions of soursop fruits in Nigeria to make any substantial claim for their optimal use (WHO/FAO, 2004; Abebrese et al., 2007). Endeavours in research works to enhance the commercial production and subsequent value addition of fruits, have been skewed towards the hackneyed ones leaving no room for variety for consumers. This challenge is exacerbated by recent policy that focuses on the common few fruits such as pineapple, citrus and pawpaw in a bid to diversify the nation’s agricultural export base to ensure food security through non- traditional export commodities (Aboagye et al., 2006; FASDEP II, 2007).

 

1.3     JUSTIFICATION

Investigating key parameters for assessing the health potential of the underutilized fruits will complement literature in making known the potential of the soursop as well as provide a stepping-stone for further

 

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PROXIMATE AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOURSOP