Palm kernel, coconut and melon oils were extracted and refined. Their physical and chemical characteristics were examined. The refined oils were blended to produce three samples of margarine: palm kernel oil margarine (PKO), palm kernel and coconut oils margarine were tested for free fatty acid and Iodine value with the following results 0.27,0.84, 1.68 Free Fatty Acid, 17.77, 20.30, 21.57 Iodine value for PKO, PCO and PCM margarine respectively. These products were assessed organoleptically using 9 – point hedoic scale o both samples and the standard were found to be significantly different at 5% level of probability.
There was however no significant difference in taste and colour at the same level of significance. Production of margarine using these three blends of oils should be encouraged to add to the varieties of margarine in the market.
1.1 Background to the study
Margarine, a butter substitute made originally from other animal fats, but nowadays exclusively from vegetable oils, like homogenization and pasteurization is a reach innovation. Margarine is made from water in oilemulsion because margarine is oilemulsion. Today it is a manufactured imitation of butter made by mixing a variety of fats that may include whale oil or vegetable oils, hydrogenated to an appropriates degree. Stabilize, an oil soluble dye and a proportion of soured skimmed milk to supply flavour.
Like its model, margarine is about 80% fat, 20% water and solids. It is flavoured, coloured ad fortified with vitamin A and sometimes D to match butters nutritional contribution. Single oil or a blend may be used. During World War 1, coconut oil was favoured, in the thirties, it was cottonseed, and in the fifties, soy. Today, soy and corn oils predominate. The raw oil is pressed from the seeds, purified, hydrogenated, them fortified and coloured, either with a synthetic carotene or with annatto, a pigment extracted from a tropical seed. The water phase is usually reconstituted or skim milk that is cultured with lactic bacteria to produce a stronger flavour although pure diacetyl, the compound most responsible for the flavour of butter, is also used. Emulsifiers such as lecithin help disperse the water phase evenly throughout the oil, salt and preservatives are also commonly added. The mixture of oil and water is them heated, blended, and cooled. The softer tub margarines are made with less hydrogenated, more liquid oils than other types of margarines.