AWARENESS OF GOOD NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY AMONG WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

AWARENESS OF GOOD NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY AMONG WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

ABSTRACT

This research work was designed to examine the awareness of good nutrition during pregnancy among women of childbearing age. Six (6) research questions were formulated and questionnaires were administered to one hundred (100) respondents in order to gather data for the research. Results showed that the pregnant women are aware of the importance of good nutrition to a child bearing mother. It was discovered that the level of education among child bearing age mother does affect their level of food intake in the area of study. The result also revealed that poor food intake can lead to malformation of the unborn child. Some recommendations were made by the researcher which includes the following: Health workers should embark on a proper sensitization of pregnant women on the importance of good nutrition during pregnancy.

Government should sponsor giggles that centers on the usefulness of good nutrition among child bearing age mothers during pregnancy.

Seminars and workshops should be organized regularly for the pregnant women to educate them on the importance of good nutrition during pregnancy.

Pregnant mothers should be encouraged to eat food rich in vitamins by the health workers/officials.
Child bearing age mothers should be empowered by government financially to improve their health living.
Based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that pregnant women had low level of nutritional knowledge level in the study area.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

All human beings need a balanced amount of nutrients for proper functioning of the body system. Nutrition is a fundamental pillar of human life, health and development throughout the entire life span (World Bank, 2006). Proper food and good nutrition are essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance and productivity, health and wellbeing. However, the nutrition requirement varies with respect to age, gender and during physiological changes such as pregnancy. Pregnancy is such a critical phase in a woman’s life, when the expecting mother needs optimal nutrients of superior qualities to support the developing fetus. Naturally, the urge to eat more is experienced by nearly all pregnant women.

Pregnancy is considered to be a delightful experience for the expectant mother. Evidences manifested that adequate intake of nutrition is a key component for individual’s health and well-being, particularly during pregnancy. It is well documented that inadequate maternal nutrition results in increased risks of short term consequences such as; Intra Uterine Growth Restriction(IUGR), low birth weight, preterm birth, prenatal and infant mortality and morbidity. Moreover, excessive intake of nutrients during pregnancy can lead to some pregnancy complications (such as, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, macrosomia, distocia and higher prevalence of cesarean section).

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AWARENESS OF GOOD NUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY AMONG WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES AMONG EXPECTANT MOTHERS IN ONITSHA NORTH AND SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF ANAMBRA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES AMONG EXPECTANT MOTHERS IN ONITSHA NORTH AND SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF ANAMBRA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

ABSTRACT

The interaction between a pregnant mother and her developing baby are numerous and varied ranging from the food she eats to the kicks of the baby that she feels. What the developing baby feeds on goes a long way in determining its state of health at birth. For a pregnant mother to eat healthfully, she needs to have adequate knowledge of the different component of food. But if the knowledge is not put in practice, it becomes meaningless.

The major objective of this study therefore was to examine the nutritional knowledge and practice of the pregnant women in Onitsha North and South Local Government Areas of Anambra State. Because of the large number involved, and the fact that most of the hospital had no maternity, only two hundred and fifty expectant mothers were used. Eight specific objectives and corresponding research questions and six hypotheses were stated and used for the study.

The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire which had three sections. The personal data of the respondents, fourteen questions each on nutritional knowledge and practice respectively. The questionnaire responses on knowledge were two-point scale of Yes and No while that of practices were in three-point scale of “Practice Always”. “Do not practice” and “Practice Rarely”. Data were analyzed using correlation analysis, percentage, ANOVA and multiple t-test of paired comparison. The results showed that all the hypothesis of the study were rejected. The mean (x) percentage of the subjects who indicated knowledge of what constituted good nutrition was greater than those who indicated regular practice. Some correlation existed between the subject’s knowledge of nutrition and their nutritional practice. Education, age and parity influenced their knowledge and practices of nutrition. Based on these results some recommendations were made such as:- (a) Health educators and nutritionists should be invited to give health talks to pregnant women during antenatal clinic. (b) The age, educational level and parity levels of these expectant mothers should be considered during the lessons.

 

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NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES AMONG EXPECTANT MOTHERS IN ONITSHA NORTH AND SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF ANAMBRA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF INVENTORY IN GOVERNMENT HEALTH INSTITUTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF INVENTORY IN GOVERNMENT HEALTH INSTITUTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Inventories occupy the most strategic position in structure of working capital of most business enterprises. It constitutes the largest component of current asset in most business enterprises. In the sphere of working capital, the efficient control and management of inventory has paired the most serious problem to the health institutions. The turnover of working capital is largely governed by the turnover of inventory, that is the rate of working capital is largely governed by the amount of inventory which is largely provided by the government. It is therefore quite natural that inventory which helps to maximize profit occupies the most significant place among current and profit assets. The American usage of the word ‘inventory’ is synonymous with the British use of the word ‘stock’, this synonym is evident in the definitions of inventory and stock by the Oxford Dictionary. The Oxford English Dictionary defined inventory as follows: 1. A list, catalogue, detailed account 2. A lot or stock of goods, etc which are or may be made the subject of an inventory. 3. The aggregate of goods and some specified kind of goods which a trader has on hand as provision for the possible future requirement of customers. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) defined inventory thus, the term inventory in used to designate the aggregate of those terms tangible personal property which are held for sale in the ordinary course of business, in the process of production for such sale or currently consumed in the production of goods and services to be available for sale. According to the Nigerian Accounting Standard Boards (NASB) stock includes those finished goods and livestock waiting sale, work-in-program, raw materials and supplies to be consumed in the production of goods and rendering of services. Many understand the word inventory as a stock of goods, but the generally accepted meaning of the word ‘goods’ in the accounting language is the stock of finished goods only. In a manufacturing organization, however, in addition to the stock of finished goods, there will be stock of partly finished goods; there will be stock of partly finished goods, raw materials and stores. The collective name of these entire items is ‘inventory’. Inventory management is aimed at maintaining a minimum investment in operations to maximize profitable operations. To maintain a large stock of investment to ensure a smooth and efficient operation of the firm. The effect of inventory management on government health institutions like UNTH Enugu cannot be over emphasized; this is because asset of many institutions represents considerable percentage of the total invested capital. The control, accounting and management of an efficient inventory management system is of a special interest to both management, suppliers and other users of accounting information.

 

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MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF INVENTORY IN GOVERNMENT HEALTH INSTITUTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNIZATION STATUS OF CHILDREN IN A RURAL SUBURB OF ANAMBRA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNIZATION STATUS OF CHILDREN IN A RURAL SUBURB OF ANAMBRA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight and obesity is a health hazard and is an emerging public health problem.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to determine the pattern of overweight and obesity and influencing factors among secondary school students in Ekwulobia town in Anambra state of Nigeria.

METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Subjects were selected randomly using multistage sampling technique. 250 students aged 12-19 years from three schools were studied. Calibrated mechanical weighing scale was used to measure their weights. Heights were measured with rigid meter rule. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on their physical activities, dietary habits and parent’s occupation.

RESULTS: Mean age of the students was 15.6 years ± 1.75. Overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among them were 5.6 percent and 3.2 percent respectively. Females were more overweight than males (7.8% and 3.3% respectively), and also more obese (4.6% and 1.7% respectively). Prevalence of obesity was highest in the 18- 20 year age group (5.6%). Prevalence of overweight and obesity (combined) was higher in private school (10.7%) than in public schools (6.0%). Frequent consumption of soft drinks, meat pie, biscuit, sweet; and frequent television watching promoted obesity (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.001 respectively). Occasional physical exercise, promoted overweight (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATIONS: Gradual increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. However these are still much lower than in developed countries. Faulty dietary eating habits and sedentary activities are major culprits. This constitutes a major public health challenge. I therefore recommend the following: Health education in schools, and media campaigns are needed.

 

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EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNIZATION STATUS OF CHILDREN IN A RURAL SUBURB OF ANAMBRA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG UNITY PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS, IN ORAIFITE, EKWUSIGO L.G.A., ANAMBRA STATE, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA.

INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG UNITY PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS, IN ORAIFITE, EKWUSIGO L.G.A., ANAMBRA STATE, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

Abstract

A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pupils in Unity primary school in Oraifite, Ekwusigo Local Government Area, Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria. Dame Of the 462 surveyed pupils, 47.6% had parasitic infection. Bloemeny Heren & Dame Seven intestinal parasites were isolated; Ascaris lumbricoides (12.8%), Hookworm (7.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.8%), Trichuris trichiura (1.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (11.0%), Entamoeba coli (6.7%), Giardia lamblia (2.8%). Prevalence rate was higher among (p > 0.5) males than females though not statistically significance. Pupils in the age-group 10-14 years had the highest prevalence value (61.4%) while those in age-group 5-9 years had the lowest prevalence value (24.1%). Dame Infection was higher among those whose parents were farmers and traders than those of civil servants. Dames Prevalence was also higher among nursery school pupils. Dames Zwart Wit Health education, sanitation and mass chemotherapy should be encouraged in order to control intestinal parasitic disease in the school.

 

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INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG UNITY PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS, IN ORAIFITE, EKWUSIGO L.G.A., ANAMBRA STATE, SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR INMATES OF THE NIGERIA PRISON: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN PRISON SERVICE ADO EKITI. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR INMATES OF THE NIGERIA PRISON: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN PRISON SERVICE ADO EKITI. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Despite Nigeria’s progress on democratic, economic and political reforms, Nigeria’s prisons are yet to make appreciable impact on the welfare of the inmates. A recurring debate within contemporary academic circles, criminologists, health workers and prison experts, is to ensure an appropriate health template for proper prison administration that will reflect its objectives. Even though crime and other vices need to be deterred, it should be to the extent that inmates health should be adequately taken care of during and after imprisonment; it is therefore needful to be logical and rational in terms of health delivery while in custody.

Seven years into the new millennium, health for all prison inmates in Nigeria and many African nations has remained mirage. Recent assessment of African Prison Health systems indicates a gloomy picture of weakness in performance (African Regional Health Report, 2006). The inability to provide quality and equitable access to prison health care services through much reliance on western health care framework have further widening the existing health inequalities in many African countries and the Nigerian prisons in particular. This scenario has also the poor and the rich, urban and rural dwellers, inmates and the “free” at different axis of the production spectrum of health care delivery in Nigeria. A good example of this unfavourable equation becomes obvious when the health of special groups like the prisoners is critically examined (Health in African Prisons, 1999). Evidence has linked major determinants of health in modern populations to socioeconomic, political and cultural factors and as such inequalities in health have remained problematic across cultures, socio-economic class, gender or ethnicity (Bambra et al., 2005). In the social sequence of events, prison inmates are most times from the poorest sectors of the society, and suffer more from inequitable access to effective health care services. This experience also exacerbates existing health problems of inmates (de viggiani, 2007). Hence, the current drive towards realizing the health related millennium development goals requires more forceful drive from the Nigerian government. Health is political and the power exercised over it is part of the wider economic, social and political system (Bambra1, et al., 2005). Thus, achieving both qualitative and quantitative health among special groups like prison inmates may be far from realization going by the slow attitude of prison officials and the government in particular in addressing the health needs of prisoners. Hence, this paper attempts a sociological discourse of prison health within the social context producing it.

 

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HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR INMATES OF THE NIGERIA PRISON: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN PRISON SERVICE ADO EKITI. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

PUBLIC HEALTH EXPENDITURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN NIGERIA 1986-2016

PUBLIC HEALTH EXPENDITURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN NIGERIA 1986-2016. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

Abstract

Conventional wisdom holds that health is central to human general well-being, as well as a prerequisite for increased productivity, and overall economic growth and development of an economy. This explains why governments across the globe are making enormous efforts to achieve good health for all and Nigeria is no exception. Regrettably, despite government’s efforts to improve the health situation of the citizens through massive health care expenditure, the Nigerian health outcomes (such as life expectancy and mortality rate) are still considered one of the poorest and most miserable in the world. Thus, the study follows a causality approach to examining the relationship among government health expenditure, health outcomes, and economic growth in Nigeria during the period 1986 – 2016.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The reform of health delivery system is one of the essential elements of overall development of a country. Most common policy response to the demand for improved healthcare is to increase the public health expenditure. However, taking into account the complexity of the determinants of health outcomes, it can be naïve to presume a direct positive relation between public health expenditure and health outcome. The Governments in developed countries with better health indicators have large growing public health expenditures; nevertheless the role of public expenditure in health care provision has been constantly debated. Conventional wisdom holds that health is central to human general well-being, as well as a prerequisite for increased productivity, and overall economic growth and development of an economy. Health is also a driving force upon which other human capitals such as education, skills, etc, rely on. Oni (2014) posits that healthy workers lose less time from work and are more productive when working. According to (WHO, 2005), good health has the consequence of widespread economic growth, and an escape of ill – health traps in poverty. As pointed out by Barro (1996), health is a capital productive asset and an engine of growth. Therefore, it is rather instructive to appreciate how dramatic the improvements in World’s Health have been over the past decades. In 1950, some 280 out of every 1000 children in developing countries died before their fifth birthday. By the year 2000, the number had reduced to 126 per 1000 in low-income countries, 39 per 1000 in middle-income countries, and 6 per 1000 in high-income countries (Todaro and Smith, 2006).

 

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PUBLIC HEALTH EXPENDITURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES IN NIGERIA 1986-2016. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

DANGERS OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG THE YOUTHS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

DANGERS OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG THE YOUTHS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Drug abuse is one of the top problems confronting the nation today especially among the youth. Incidences of drug abuse and related anti-social behavior have tremendously increased in recent years. This has become a matter of concern to the government, parents, teachers, Non-governmental organizations and all other relevant agencies. Parents do not recognize the extent of drug use and as a result, some young people think they can use drugs with impunity. Most parents believe that it is the responsibility of teachers to check drug abuse among school going youths and still most of them delude themselves that their children are safe and secure. Drug abuse is not confined to young people in certain geographical areas or from particular social-economic backgrounds. It affects the nation as a whole-both urban and rural areas. The concept of “drug” has been defined as any chemical substance which affect living organism. Such a substance may be used to fight infections and illness or minimize pain, fatigue, anxiety or at times to achieve certain level of euphoria. WHO (1952) defined “drugs” as any substances that when taken into a living body produce reactions or modify its psychological and physiological functioning. On the other hand “drug abuse” has been defined as any use of drugs for nonmedical purposes almost always for altering consciousness. Drug abuse denotes substances that change the mental or physical state of a person and that may be used repeatedly for that effect leading to abnormality. WHO defined “Drug dependence” as a “state” arising from repeated administration of a drug on a periodic or continuous basis in order to experience its psychic effect and sometimes to avoid the discomfort of its absence.(Kilonzo, 1996:170). However, experience shows that drug abuse has been on the medical and nonmedical drug which is the concern of this study. For the medical drugs, using them without prescription of the medical personnel or using them contrary to the prescriptions of the medical personnel is considered as abusing the medical drugs.

 

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DANGERS OF DRUG ABUSE AMONG THE YOUTHS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE AND SAFETY PRACTICE AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING MEDICAL IMAGING IN 3 SELECTED HOSPITALS IN THE F.C.T. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE AND SAFETY PRACTICE AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING MEDICAL IMAGING IN 3 SELECTED HOSPITALS IN THE F.C.T. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The use X-rays in imaging modalities such as Computed Tomography (CT scans) and mammography to diagnose injury and illness is on the increase in modern medicine. The biological effects of ionizing radiations are of concern here as evidence shows that medical uses of radiations have harmful effects (Hendee and Edwards, 1996). According to the neuroradiologist Mark Pfleger (http://healthyoutlook.dephealth.com, 2011) patients and the community need to understand the safe use of radiation, and to become more active participants in their own healthcare. Quinn et al. (1997), Bushberg et al. (2003) and Kiguli-Malwandde et al. (2006) report that radiographers and clientele are not very awareness of radiation doses, and that there is a lack of communication between radiographers and patients relating to radiation and its possible effects. X-ray utilization in human medicine leads to exposure of the patient and the radiographer. Although the radiation dose is low in diagnostic examinations, attention is usually given in order to minimize unnecessary exposure for members of the public and occupational workers. Exposure to ionizing radiation cannot be avoided in medical imaging facilities. Radiation exposure over a long period of time (years) produces stochastic effects (NCRPM, 1980). There is no threshold level of radiation exposure below which it could be said with certainty that cancer or genetic effects will not occur. Doubling the radiation dose doubles the probability that a cancer or genetic effect would occur (Kondo, 1993). The steps needed to prevent accidental exposures to any part of the body include adequate training of personnel, enlightenment of non-radiation workers in the vicinity of radiation sources (Belyakov et al., 2001), monitoring and control of radiation exposures, putting up warning signs, and proper disposal of radioactive. Radiation protection is the science and art of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It is also described as all activities directed towards minimizing radiation exposure of patients and personnel during x-ray exposure. In developing nations , more recent studies show that about 3.6 billion imaging studies per year are carried out world-wide, leading to an increase of 70% in worldwide collective effective dose for medical diagnostic procedures. More concern has recently been appeared in recent studies that the knowledge of referring doctors about radiation doses incurred during diagnostic radiological procedures is deficient.

 

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KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE AND SAFETY PRACTICE AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING MEDICAL IMAGING IN 3 SELECTED HOSPITALS IN THE F.C.T. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PHARMACY

CYSTOISOSPORIASIS AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS WITH MALARIA IN GENERAL HOSPITAL MINNA NIGER STATE NIGERIA

CYSTOISOSPORIASIS AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS WITH MALARIA IN GENERAL HOSPITAL MINNA NIGER STATE NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

ABSTRACT

Cystoisospora belli infection often occurs in immunocompriomised individuals, notably in patients suffering from HIV/AIDS. Concentration techniques was used for diagnosis of Cystoisospora belli. A total of 375 samples from HIV-positive patients and 50 samples from HIV-negative patients were processed using the modified kiyoun staining methods. In addition patients blood samples were analysed and examined for malaria and CD4 cells by Giemsa staining technique and Flow cytometry. The overall prevalence of the coccidian was 14.93% and there was a significant association between the HIV infected patients and Non HIV subjects (P<0.05). There was no significant diference among the sex and age group (P>0.05). There was a significant relationship between Cystoisosporiasis and CD4 cell counts in HIV-positive patients (P<0.05). Risk factors such as level of education, swimming and occupation among HIV patients did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the prevalence of C. belli infection while source of water and contact with animals significantly affected the prevalence of C. belli infection. Other risks factors such as washing of hands and washing of vegetables showed significant differences. This study has demonstrated that C. belli infection is prevalent in General Hospital Minna, Niger State, Nigeria and, as a result, may increase the burden on HIV-infected patients.

 

 

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CYSTOISOSPORIASIS AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS WITH MALARIA IN GENERAL HOSPITAL MINNA NIGER STATE NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

 

SONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE LIVER IN PREGNANT WOMEN. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

SONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE LIVER IN PREGNANT WOMEN. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

ABSTRACT

The variations in the sizes of the various organs during pregnancy is well known with various organs of the body increasing in size throughout pregnancy and returning to their pre-pregnant state during the pueperium. The purpose of this research was to investigate on the ultrasonographic evaluation of the liver in pregnant women at the Agbor General Hospital. The study was a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women with data obtained from the Agbor General Hospital. We investigated a total of one hundred and fifty (150) subjects and the result was analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Science version 20.0. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Research and Ethics Committee of Human Anatomy Department in Delta State, University, Abraka. From the results; an average mean ± standard deviation was gotten for the pregnant female patients as regards liver length. The study showed apositive correlation between the liver lengths but not with gestational age and also a significant difference in the liver length as regards the age groups and with second and third trimester.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of Study

The variations in the sizes of the various organs during pregnancy is well known with various organs of the body lincreasing in size throughout pregnancy and returning to their pre-pregnant state during the pueperium (Melamedet al., 2011). The liver is the largest abdominal organ with function in filtering and storage of blood, metabolizing of carbohydrates, proteins, hormones and strange chemicals; to form bile, storage of vitamins and iron; and production of clothing factors. Also, the liver size estimation is important in the diagnosis and follow up of various disease occurring in pregnancy like hepatitis, and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy (Wennet, 2001). Thus, the knowledge of the normal sonographic liver size is important.

Ultrasonography is the best method for the assessment of abdominal organs during pregnancy as it is non-invasive non-ionizing thus safe in pregnancy. It is also readily available, quick, cheap and accurate (Kerstin and Brennan 1992). Examination is in real time, three-dimensional and independent of organ function thus the internal structures can be assessed easily. It has advantages over other radiological imaging modalities such as conventional radiography and computed axial tomography in that ionizing rays which are harmful to the developing fetus are used. With ultrasound, sound energy is used and has been found to have no adverse effect on the developing fetus, thus it is safe. It can be used at any stage of pregnancy (Miller et al., 1984). Physical examination of the liver through palpation and percussion is less accurate compared to ultrasound estimation of the size especially in detecting small increases in size (Rosemeriet al., 2010).

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SONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE LIVER IN PREGNANT WOMEN. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

THE USE OF SILDENAFIL AMONG MALES IN BENIN CITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

THE USE OF SILDENAFIL AMONG MALES IN BENIN CITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Sildenafil citrate is a potent, competitive phosphodiesterase type 5 isoenzyme inhibitor, it was the first in a class of effective oral treatment for erectile dysfunction(ED) of varying etiologies including erectile dysfunction associated with drugs, diabetes, other general medical conditions and spinal cord injury (Giulinao et al). Sildenafil citrate was initially studied for use in hypertension and angina pectoris but since it induced penile erection to patients who took the drug in clinical trials (ABM), Pfizer decided to market it for erectile dysfunction rather than Angina, and was approved for use for erectile dysfunction by the FDA on March 27th 1998. Sildenafil popularity with young adults has increased over the years (Peterson, 2001). The availability of sildenafil has changed the view of ED management, as well as increased patient access to disease management resources.(Boyce et.al 2001). A significant portion of the literature describing the use of sildenafil in recreational settings comes from Great Britain. The authors of one British review in 2000 reported that the PDE5 inhibitor was supplied via the Internet, as well as from street sources.(Downie et.al 2000) Opioid abusers were seeking the drug to improve sexual performance that might be adversely affected by long-term opiate use. Healthy menwere also seeking the drug in the belief that it would improve their sexual performance. The perceived risks of obtaining sildenafil via such online sources were assessed in 1999. Ten virtual pharmacies that sold sildenafil pursuant to an online prescription issued by an affiliated physician were assessed for their extent of dispensing the drug despite evident patient contraindications.(Eysenbach et.al1999)  Investigators posed as a 69-year-old obese woman with coronary artery disease and hypertension who complained of having “no orgasm.” Concomitant medications that were listed on the patient’s request form were captopril, pravastatin, atenolol, and erythromycin. One pharmacy offered to supply cimetidine tablets to be used in conjunction with sildenafil, with the explanation that concomitant use would lead to a “56% increase in plasma sildenafil concentrations…increased effectiveness would be noted with the same dose of Viagra taken with 800 mg of cimetidine.”(Eysenbachet al 1999) Three companies provided the requested drug, one of which sent an e-mail message advising the patient to discontinue the use of her other medications when taking sildenafil. Of those that failed to ship the product, two cited importation restrictions, three unknown benefits of the drug in women, and one cardiovascular concerns. The mean purchase cost per tablet was approximately twice that of prescription sildenafil obtained from a U.S. community pharmacy.

Erectile dysfunction is defined as the inability to achieve and sustain an erection of adequate rigidity for satisfactory sexual intercourse during sexual activity of humans. Penile erection is the hydraulic effect of blood entering and being retained in sponge-like bodies within the penis.

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THE USE OF SILDENAFIL AMONG MALES IN BENIN CITY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

EVALUATING THE STATUS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN DABBAN, LAVUN LGA, NIGER STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

EVALUATING THE STATUS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN DABBAN, LAVUN LGA, NIGER STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Human Schistosomiasis (Bilhariziasis) is second only to Malaria in Sub–Sahara Africa causing severe morbidity. Killing 280, 00 people each year in, the Africa region alone (Shashieet al.,2005). Of the world 207 million estimated cases of Schistosomiasis, 93% occur in Sub Sahara African.With Nigeria having the highest burden of schistosomiasis in the region (Humpheyet al.,2012).Studies have indicated that Urinary Schistosomiasis is a major health problem in the rural areas of Middle East and most African countries. It remains as one of the major health problems facing developing children. The endemicity of the disease in many rural areas are attributed to ignorance, poor living condition, inadequate sanitation, water contact activity with snail infected rivers, streams and ponds (WHO, 2003).

Urinary Schistosomiasis is significant due to Schistosomahaematobiumwhich causes significant clinical morbidity and disability in the endemic countries of Africa and Middle East. Recent report of the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that about 779 million people in 76 Tropical and subtropical countries are at risk of Schistosomiasis (Steinmannet al.,2006). Over 207 people in these countries are infected; of this 120 million are symptomatic, with 20 million having severe clinical disease (Houmosouet al., 2012).Atleast 261 million people required preventive treatment for Schistosomiasis and more than 40 million people were treated for Schistosomiasis in 2013 (WHO, 2015).Schistosomiasis is a parasistic blood – dwelling fluke worms belonging to the genus Schistosoma; the genus Schistosoma contains six species that are of major pathological importance to man, Schistosomahaematobium, S. mansoni, S. japonicum, S. mekongi, S. intercalaturn, and S. guineersir (Webster et al., 2006). The species differ in their final location in the human host, the species of the intermediate (Snail) host, they use in their life cycle, the pathology they induce, and the number in size and shape of the eggs they produce.

The severity of vesicular (urinary) Schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosomahaematobium, is found throughout Middle East and Africa (WHO, 1990). Severity of the disease alerted the Federal Ministry of Health to Establish the National Expert Committee for surveillance of urinary Schistosomiasis in August, 1998, in order to determine the prevalence of the disease rapidly to enable the government to develop feasible control strategies (Adeoye, 1993). Although the occurrence of urinary Schistosomiasis in Nigeria has been documented in several years, its distribution remains inadequately understood (Uwaezuokoet al., 2007).

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EVALUATING THE STATUS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN DABBAN, LAVUN LGA, NIGER STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

EXAMINATION OF INCIDENCE OF MALARIA INFESTATION CAUSED BY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF PLASMODIUM (A Case Study Of Parklane Hospital Enugu). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

EXAMINATION OF INCIDENCE OF MALARIA INFESTATION CAUSED BY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF PLASMODIUM (A Case Study Of Parklane Hospital Enugu). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

ABSTRACT

The incidence of the infestation of plasmodium species (P.Falciparum, P. Vivax, P.Ovale, and P. alaria) which causes human malaria in Enugu metropolis was conducted at Parklane Hospital using their patients. Thick and thin, smear of blood were made and examined after proper staining. The staining method which proved effective were the Giemsa and Liesman staining method. It was observed that P.Falciparum was most prevalent of the fair species while P.Ovale has occuarence. The report from P.Malaria and P.Ovale were not significant to be recorded. Prevalent is higher in children than in Adult.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 THE BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Malaria is a febrile illness caused by a protozoan of the germs plasmodium present public health problem and cause suffering and premature death in tropical and subtropical countries, because of htier ample rainfall; and long periods, of warmth which favour both mosquito breeding and human infection (Adams and Magraitt 1980,).

In many endemic area, malaria increases and difficult to control because of the resistance of the parasite to antimalaria drings and the failure of vector control measures: At present, about two billion population live in malarious zone. Every year, 200-300 million people are due to the disease. Most of the victims are children under five (5) and pregnant women in areas of stable malaria (intence malaria) transmission. Malaria also poses a risk to travellers, tarists and immigrants and exotic cases of malaria are.

There are four species of Plasmodium which infects humans. although infection is generally cases occur in the USA and other countries which are otherwise free of malaria transmission. Falciparum, and Plasmodium vivaz, which are found throughout malaria belt. Plasmodium malaria is widely distributed but less common Plasmodium Ovale is rare but it tends to replace P. Viax in west Africa where it has been linked with Lack of Duffy blood group by (John Murray, 1880).

The life cycle of the malaria (Plasmodium protozoa) includes of the malaria (plasmodium protozoa)includes three basic stages. The first stage occurs in the mosquitos body (Exogenous stage). The second and the third stages take place in a persons body (exogenous stage) the first stage begins where the mosquito bites Samoan who has malaria. Plasmodium enter the insects body and reproduce in its stomach. The protozoan young tin their way into the mosquito saliva. The second stage occurs after the mosquito bites another person. Plasmodia.

 

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EXAMINATION OF INCIDENCE OF MALARIA INFESTATION CAUSED BY DIFFERENT SPECIES OF PLASMODIUM (A Case Study Of Parklane Hospital Enugu). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

ASSESSING THE PREVALENCE OF MICROSPORIDIA IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS IN MINNA, NIGER STATE

ASSESSING THE PREVALENCE OF MICROSPORIDIA IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS IN MINNA, NIGER STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the study

Microsporidia are single-celled, obligate intracellular parasites that were recently reclassified from protozoa to fungi. Microsporidia are a group of intracellular parasites which have attracted the interest of parasitologists for over 100 years. The first species, Nosemabombycis, was discovered in the middle of the 19th century as the cause of silkworm disease (i.e., pepper disease, pebrine disease), which nearly destroyed the silkworm industry in Southern Europe (Didier,2005; Franzen,2008).More than 1,400 microsporidian species have been described in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Only eight genera and 15 species of microsporidia have been associated with human infections.

The first report on human microsporidia infection was in 1959 and described the case of a 9-year-old Japanese boy who presented with disseminated microsporidiosis associated with fever, headache, vomiting, and spastic convulsions, (Matsubayash et al.,1959). Interest in this group of parasites started with the development of the AIDS pandemic around the world in 1980’s. In 1985, a new species Enterocytozoonbieneusi was found in an HIV-infected patient. Since then, species of microsporidia have been recognized worldwide as etiologic agents of opportunistic infections. The clinical course of microsporidiosis depends on the immune status of the patient and the site of infection. The groups at risk constitute people with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients being treated with immunosuppressive drugs, travellers, children and the elderly, (Didier, 2000; Garcia, 2002;Rabodonirina, 2003; Wichro, 2005; Dworkin, 2007; Galvan, 2011).

Two microsporodia Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon Intestinalis have been identified as possible causes of diarrhoeal illness in HIV-infected patients, (Moura et al.,1993; Kotler, 1995). Over 40 million people are living with HIV/AIDS, the majority (more than 25 million) of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. Up to 2.4 million deaths were recorded worldwide in 2005, (Akinbo et al., 2009).

People in the advanced stages of HIV infection are vulnerable to secondary infections and malignancies that are generally termed as opportunistic infections as they take the advantage of the opportunity offered by a weakened immune system, (Saidu, et al.,2009). In HIV/AIDS positive patients, the most clinical manifestation is chronic diarrhoea and wasting due to enteric infection, (UNIADS 1998).This parasite is commonly observed in HIV-infected patients with CD4 Lymphocytes count of less than 50cells/mm3 who complain of chronic diarrhoea, nausea, malabsorption and severe weight loss but asymptomatic infection have also been reported in immune competent persons, (Sak et al., 2011).

 

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ASSESSING THE PREVALENCE OF MICROSPORIDIA IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS IN MINNA, NIGER STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

THE USE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN THE TREATMENT OF MALARIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ABRAKA DELTA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

THE USE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN THE TREATMENT OF MALARIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ABRAKA DELTA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

Breastfeeding is the very first stage of improving child’s survival. Breast milk as food for infants is very beneficial for the all round growth of a child. It enhances the physical, mental, and social growth of a child. Breast milk contains many nutritional values like antibodies which boost the immunity of a child, prevents child mortality and morbidity. Breast milk has an enormous impact on the health of infants, most especially those who weighed less at birth. It has been discovered that breast milk is far more nutritious than processed milk. Aside from the benefits of breast milk on an infant, breastfeeding creates an inevitable bond between a mother and her child (Heckman J.J, 2011).

World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF) recommended breast milk as an ideal food for infants, and that is why in the past decades, these organizations have been encouraging mothers worldwide to embrace the practice of breastfeeding, particularly exclusive breastfeeding (EBF).

Exclusive breastfeeding according to WHO entails feeding an infant with just breast milk (and syrups if need be) for six months and after that period of time give the infant complementary food (Cattaneo et al., 2000). It has been revealed by a study that infants who are not fed with breast milk at the first 60 days of their birth are likely to die from infection than those who are breastfed (WHO, 2014). Exclusive breastfeeding has a dual advantage on both a child and his mother. Apart from ensuring the good health of a child, it saves cost for the mother; as well as prevent her from breast cancer and other related diseases.

However, despite the recommendation of Exclusive breastfeeding by WHO, the rate of Nigerian mothers who practice EBF is fluctuating. A study proved that the rate of children between ages 1-5 who are exclusively fed dropped from 18% in 2003 to 12% in 2008 and 12% in 2010 and returned to 18% in 2010; consequently increasing the rate of child mortality (NPC and ICF macro, 2008). It was still discovered in this study that the number of people who are enlightened about EBF in the urban areas of Nigeria is higher than those in the rural areas and this poses a threat on the importance of EBF (NPC and ICF Macro, 2009).

 

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THE USE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN THE TREATMENT OF MALARIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ABRAKA DELTA STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ATTITUDE OF WOMEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ATTITUDE OF WOMEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to find out the factors that influence the attitudes of women towards family planning in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. Specifically, the study attempts to find out the influence of education, health, religion, culture, age of women and income on the attitudes of women towards family planning.

This research work deals with the types of contraceptive methods, importance of family planning and the benefits of family planning. The subjects were selected using simple random sampling.  A total of 100 questionnaires were administered to subjects of the target population which are the educated women randomly selected from five communities under Egor Local Government: Uselu, Uwasota, Osasogie, Evbareke, Osakpamwan. The data collected were analyzed using percentage approach and the results showed that:

  1. Women recognize the impact of family planning on their families.
  2. Family planning is an opportunity for couples to actually plan their family towards better standard of living.

Recommendations were made based on findings from the data analyzed, amongst which are that:

  1. There should be enlightenment programmes to educate people on the need for family planning.
  2. Incentives should be provided for couples that practice family planning so as to encourage more people towards it.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Family planning as the name implies is having children by choice and not by chance; it is the process of having specific number of children at intervals acceptable by individuals or couples, to promote the health and welfare of the family. Family planning is not a new idea all over the world and also applies to Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. Throughout the ages, individuals and families have tried to regulate their fertility either by using herbs, abstinence during ovulation, prolonged breast feeding and living with parent in-laws to avoid sex or polygamy.

Historically, most communities in the past used to have policies that encourage large population.  Traditionally, in Africa, the low level of economic development and heavy reliance on agriculture have brought about several factors that encourage high fertility. In addition, according to Namboze J.M.E. (1985), religious and cultural traditions favour large families because children are expected to help their parents financially and to ensure a kind of family immortality by continuity of the family name.

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FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ATTITUDE OF WOMEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

AWARENESS OF THE DANGERS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND MOTHERHOOD AMONG TEENAGE MOTHERS IN IKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

AWARENESS OF THE DANGERS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND MOTHERHOOD AMONG TEENAGE MOTHERS IN IKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

The number of teenagers giving birth each year in Nigeria is increasing. Babies are seen dumped in toilet places, bushes and road sides. These babies who are dumped are in most cases, given birth to by teenagers who are unwed. Some of these teenage mothers cannot identify the fathers of their babies because they have multiple sex partners so they feel the best option is to dump such babies.

Some teenage girls become mothers, because they cannot meet some life goals. Being a teenage mother is not accidental for some girls but intentional. This is because such girls see no better option in life other than being a mother. That is the reason most current sex and pregnancy preventive education efforts are ineffective at preventing teenage motherhood. There is a public concern over the rate at which the number of teenage mothers is increasing. The resolution to become a teenage mother by these young girls has triggered both political debate and academic inquiry.

Teen childbearing is associated with negative outcomes for teen parents, their children, and society. The vast majority of all pregnancies among teenagers are unintended that-is, they were either unwanted or they occurred outside marriage (Ohonsi 2010). Teen birth rate in Katsina is the highest when compared to those of other states including Oyo and Edo. (Ogbu 2013).These teenage mothers face a variety of difficult decisions. For the unmarried ones, they must decide whether to raise the born child or to place the baby for adoption. For the married ones, they must make decision with their husbands about mode of delivery, are they going for normal delivery, cesarean section or go for an abortion?

 

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AWARENESS OF THE DANGERS OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND MOTHERHOOD AMONG TEENAGE MOTHERS IN IKA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF FEMALE BANKERS TOWARD THE PRACTICE OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING IN IKPOBA-OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF FEMALE BANKERS TOWARD THE PRACTICE OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING IN IKPOBA-OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of female bankers toward the practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Ikpoba Okha local government area in Benin City, Edo state. The background of the study gave a general and comprehensive introduction of the study, statement of the problem were identified. The significance of the study was outlined and operational definition of terms was included for proper understanding, scope of study was also drawn out current related literature were reviewed and theoretical framework that, is relevant lo the study that is discussed. Questionnaires with open and closed ended questions were administered to 115 respondents and all were retrieved and a total of 100 that were properly filled were analysed. Date was analyzed using frequency table, percentages pie chart and bar charts. The discussion of result and interpretation of findings were made. The results from the findings in figure IV shows that 95 (95%) of the respondents have good knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding while in figure IX only 15(15%) practices exclusive Breastfeeding. From the above, it was observed that the respondents have good knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding had no influence on their poor attitude towards the practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding. Other factors such as early resumption to duty and late closing hour as seen in figure VII, XIX 98 (98%) and also lack of support from colleagues in figure XIX 96 (96%) are other hindrances to the effective practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding.

The findings result revealed that female bankers have good knowledge about Exclusive Breastfeeding while their attitude towards the practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding is very poor. Recommendations and suggestion for further study were made.

KEYWORDS: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, FEMALE BANKERS, PRACTICE OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING, IKPOBA OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENIN CITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Breastfeeding is considered the most complete nutritional source for infants, because, breast milk contains the essential fats, carbohydrates, proteins and immunological factors needed for infants to thrive and resist infection in the formative year.

Cardwell and Barry, 2004, jones et al, 2003 in their analysis of child survival strategies, identified exclusive breastfeeding from b to u months as the single most effective preventive intervention in reducing child mortality with the potential of saving 1.3 million infants uses annually.

 

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KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF FEMALE BANKERS TOWARD THE PRACTICE OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING IN IKPOBA-OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF PREVENTION OF MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION (PMTCT) SERVICES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE-NATAL CLINIC IN UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR TEACHING HOSPITAL (UCTH). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF PREVENTION OF MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION (PMTCT) SERVICES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE-NATAL CLINIC IN UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR TEACHING HOSPITAL (UCTH). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY

ABSTRACT

This study sought to assess the factors influence the utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in antenatal clinic in University of Calabar Teaching Healthcare (UCTH), Calabar. The specific Objectives of the Study were: to assess the level of knowledge about PMTCT services, determine the socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services and to identify the cultural/religion factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women in UCTH. Three research questions were raised and a hypothesis formulated to guide the study as follows: There is no significant relationship between level of knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women. The study was a descriptive research where 85 pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic in UCTH were selected through the purposive sampling technique. Data were collected by administering questionnaire. Data were analyzed using frequency tables and percentages, the findings of the study revealed that: Majority of the respondents have good knowledge about PMTCT services. The socio-economic factors influencing utilization of PMTCT services among pregnant women were: stigmatization and discrimination by healthcare personnel; dependence of women on their husbands to make healthcare decisions; distance to PMTCT facilities; unavailability of PMTCT services and attitude of health personnel (nurses) towards people living with HIV. Cultural/religious beliefs do not hinder utilization of PMTCT services. The hypothesis was tested for significance at 0.05 level and 1 degree of freedom, using the Chi-Square (X2) analysis. The result showed that the calculated value 55.45 is higher than the critical value (3.84). Thus, the null hypothesis was rejected, indicating that there is significant relationship between level of knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women. Based on the findings, conclusion was drawn. It was recommended amongst others that: there is need for involvement of the stakeholders in the healthcare system in bridging the gap between knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women.

 

 

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FACTORS INFLUENCING UTILIZATION OF PREVENTION OF MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION (PMTCT) SERVICES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING ANTE-NATAL CLINIC IN UNIVERSITY OF CALABAR TEACHING HOSPITAL (UCTH). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PHARMACY