ASSESSING THE STRATEGIES OF PRODUCTION AND INVENTORY CONTROL IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ROSEMORE HOTELS, UYO). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

ASSESSING THE STRATEGIES OF PRODUCTION AND INVENTORY CONTROL IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ROSEMORE HOTELS, UYO). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Hospitality industry is one of the leading industries in the world;
It contributes to prosperity creation and further economic development of a country; it covers hotel, resorts, and travel as well as restaurant businesses.

These services business are mutually depend increase in tourism will ultimately lead to improvement in resorts, restaurants, hotel including travel industries.
This study basically concerned with assessing the strategies of the production planning and inventory control in hospitality. This will consequently access the extent to which stock can be controlled.

Production planning and inventory control is a management function that involves planning organizing, directing, coordinating, motivating, staffing and controlling of activities in the store and inventory control.

On the other hand it can also be defined as the art and science of achieving objective of the store in an organization.
A fundamental problem currently faced by hospitality according to Karlin and Zipkin (2009) is the seasonal demand for their products. This problem is very common and concerns a wide variety of products such as food stuff, functions and banqueting and many other applications.

The seasonal demand issue is difficult to access for both the theorist and practitioner. The problem requires the optimal combination of inventory and production rates for each product in each time period to be found; principal question is to determine the product quality in each period so as to minimize the discounted costs of production, inventory storage, and cost sales. This type of demand usually creates more complex problem because firms usually have insufficient capacity to meet demand in high demand period.
This ultimately impacts on planning of production process as a whole.

 

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ASSESSING THE STRATEGIES OF PRODUCTION AND INVENTORY CONTROL IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ROSEMORE HOTELS, UYO). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON INVENTORY CONTROL IN THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON INVENTORY CONTROL IN THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The American institutes of accountants defines the term inventory as “the aggregate of these items of tangibles properties which are held on sales in the ordinary course of business, are in process of production for such sale or one to be currently consumed in the production of goods or services to be available for sale”. Advanced accounts.

Inventories are the significant portion of most forms of assets which accordingly requires substantial investment in order to keep these inventories from becoming unnecessarily large, inventories must be managed efficiently. In efficient procedures regarding inventory and some items of stocks, other overstock, necessitate excessive investment. Inefficiencies ultimately will have an adverse effect upon profits, thus the effect of  inventory control in flexibility and level of investment required in categories represent two sides of the same coin. These are various principles of inventory control which will be viewed from the content of a profit oriented organization form which a base can be formed for the title of the project.
In the modern business worlds, greater importances have been put to the control of inventory. Its concern in the management of inventory control must be to provide right goods in right condition at the right time. It implies that, the control procedure should be able to;

  1. retain appropriate stock levels
  2. Ensure proper use of stock in business operation.
  3. Ensure the inventory is duly accounted for.
  4. Safe guarding of stock against loss or misuse the management needs to ensure that adequate control procedures for purchasing and controlling of inventory in a way that optimum balance is obtained between efficient control and economy.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Using information technology in inventory control is one of the most recent aspects of the modern business method. A lot of establishments engage diverse strategies to achieve accountability goal. The control problem of inventory control as it store and proper recondition of possible loss to a business through interruption of production or failure to meet other with the holding cost of stock large enough to give security against loss.

 

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THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON INVENTORY CONTROL IN THE OIL AND GAS SECTOR OF NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF MATERIAL HANDLING ON THE PROFITABILITY OF A MANUFACTURING COMPANY (A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA PETROCHEMICAL COMPANY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF MATERIAL HANDLING ON THE PROFITABILITY OF A MANUFACTURING COMPANY (A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA PETROCHEMICAL COMPANY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

Definition of Material Handling
Iornum (2007) defines material handling as an aspects of material management which is concern with the safety of material in transit with the regularity of delivery, as well as the flow of materials.
According to Badi (2004) Materials handling refers to the movement of materials inside the work premises from raw materials stage to finished product storage. Maximum movement activity takes place on work-in-progress.
Material handling is actually the process of moving through a full cycle of operations form the procurement of raw materials, include reception and storage prior to use, handling into and between processes and the handling of the finished goods,  packaging, storage and distribution. In other words, materials handling is the art of moving things economically and safety when used properly, material handling result into some the linking of all the processed within the functions of business into a single efficient machine or system.
However, materials handling absorbs time, manpower and money. It adds nothing to the value of items, but only its cost. Materials handling must therefore be controlled and carried out properly if a high standard of efficiency and cost effectiveness is to be achieved.
Better material handling reduces:

  1. Handling cost
  2. Space cost
  3. Damage for poor handling and storage
  4. Labour cost
  5. Fatigue
  6. Production waiting time on one hand,

But materials handling increases:

  1. Effectiveness and quality controls
  2. Safety level
  3. Productive capacity level
  4. Efficiency in receipt, storage and dispatch proper material handling requires a lot of pre-planning which should begin with a systematic analysis of the nature of the handling problems at hand.

2.2  Place of Material Management in a Production System
Westing and Zone (2003) defines material management base on production system as “one of the several activities dealing with the planning for acquisition and ultimate organization structure which involve those activities such as purchasing, inventory control, traffic, material handling, and production control. For the survival of a production organization will no longer be producing organization. In fact, materials are the main input in any production system it is the importance attached to raw materials that calls for a proper management of raw materials in an organization.
Moreover, the benefits occur to organization as a result of materials management concept cannot be the major responsibility of single department (material department). Therefore such responsibilities has to be shared to various departments in the materials under one umbrella known as material management for better accountability, better control, better handling, maximum efficiency necessary recording of data required and reduction to various acquisition cost.

 

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ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF MATERIAL HANDLING ON THE PROFITABILITY OF A MANUFACTURING COMPANY (A CASE STUDY OF KADUNA PETROCHEMICAL COMPANY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

IMPACT OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

IMPACT OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

INTRODUCTION
The effective and efficient functioning of a productive system requires the regular demand and supply of inventory at the input transformation and output phases of the production process.

Management is also seen as the effective and efficient utilization of resources for the achievement of organization objectives. To ensure the achievement of the objective three must be free flow of material, unencumbered  at every stage of the production process.

In Nigeria today, there are many soft drink production companies in the  beverage industry and they all source their raw materials from few of not the same market. With the present economic melt down, organization are after these scare resources to  product their product. Therefore, theurgency for the effective and efficient management of inventory in form of  raw material, work-in-progress and finished goods constitute significant  proportion of assets of most organization.

But why is it pertinent to keep an eye on these items in other words, why do we engage in inventory management?
Inventory items cost money to acquire, they cost  money to store and to look after, which means storage facilities has to  be provided so as to  make sure that these materials or items do not get spoilt until they are turned into sellable goods, they do not produce money.

When stocks are held, it means tying down capital that would have been used in other areas, so it all represent cost and should be managed properly to acquire efficiently.

We must however, hold stocks to meet production needs and sales needs. This is because if we do not hold stocks in sufficient quantities west and the risk of running out of stock. Similarly, if we short of finished good, we may disappoint our customers. Inventory shortage in both these forms will likely lead to loss of customers and money. For the organization not to have above problems they should strike a balance between too much stocks (over inventory) and carrying too little stock. (Under inventory).

This is essentially the importance of inventory management, managing assets of all kinds is basically an inventory problem, the same method of analysis applies to cash and fixed assets as to inventories themselves.

First of all a basic stock must be on hand to hand balance in flow and outflow of items, the size of the stocks depend on pattern of  flow whether fast moving or regular items.

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IMPACT OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE PROBLEM OF PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION IN A BEVERAGE INDUSTRY (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY OWERRI). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE PROBLEM OF PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION IN A BEVERAGE INDUSTRY (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY OWERRI). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

ABSTRACT

This research work is carried out to determine the problems of physical distribution management in a beverage industry.  A case study of Nigeria bottling company Owerri.

To achieve this, it is necessary to find out the physical distribution problem in a beverage industry. The study is aimed at.

  1. 1.          To determine the factors that affect physical distribution in a beverage industries.
  2. 2.          To determine the activities inherent in physical distribution, its barriers and to identify the factors.
  3. 3.          To recommend ways and means of improving the physical distribution system.

The data for the study was collected through the use of questionnaire and interviews which was conducted at the premises of the industry. The were analyzed, giving solution to such as suing the right distribution channels and ensuring that product are distributed to where they are highly needed for effective physical distribution.

This work is written in chapters. Chapter one is the introductory part of the work, chapter two takes about the literature review chapter three is the research methodology, then chapter four review the data presentation of the work done and the chapter five is the summary, conclusion and the recommendation of the work.

 

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THE PROBLEM OF PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION IN A BEVERAGE INDUSTRY (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY OWERRI). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

APPRAISAL OF INVENTORY CONTROL IN A MANUFACTURING COMPANY (A CASE STUDY OF SEVEN UP – BOTTLING COMPANY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

APPRAISAL OF INVENTORY CONTROL IN A MANUFACTURING COMPANY (A CASE STUDY OF SEVEN UP – BOTTLING COMPANY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

ABSTRACT

This research work examined the appraisal of inventory control in a manufacturing company of a case study m seven­-bottling company PLC, Lagos.

The finding after questionnaire were administered to the staff of seven up- bottling company PLC specifically accounts and warehousing department, showed that effective inventory control would not minimize total inventory costs in a manufacturing company and high inventory costs would not lead to a reduction in the profit of a manufacturing company.

However, solution and recommendations were proffered to the above identified problems to ensure a proper appraisal of inventory control in a manufacturing company in seven up-bottling company PLC, Lagos.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In the real sense of economic development, the efficiency and effectiveness of a nation’s economy rests viably on its ability to meet with the demands of the populace of such an economy.

In order words, the effectiveness of an economic is vested on the manufacturing sector. This is because, the indices by which the development and progress of an economy is measured is predicated on the goods and services so produced by the out fits in such a sector which could either be consumed locally or be exported for exchange of foreign currency.

Furthermore, the distinguishing factor between productive and unproductive economies lies in the production capacity in relation to the importation capacity which directly affects the economy. However, the afore-mentioned positive outcomes/results are based on the” effective management of the manufacturing industry in terms of its capital (Financial resources) ,inventory, labour (Human resources) among other things, so as not to bring about negative results such as costs resulting from overstocking, loss resulting from capital tied down and loss goodwill as a result of stock outages.

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Inventory plays an essential role in any organization. The larger the inventory size, the easier it is to reduce costs of purchasing, manufacturing and shipping as well as provide prompts customer’s service. However, a larger inventory stock requires a higher investment of money, higher carrying cost such as storage handling risk of obsolescence and data processing. These costs must be balanced off against any advantages in holding inventory.

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APPRAISAL OF INVENTORY CONTROL IN A MANUFACTURING COMPANY (A CASE STUDY OF SEVEN UP – BOTTLING COMPANY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

ROLE OF PURCHASING IN COST REDUCTION AND CONTRIBUTION TO PROFITABILITY – AN APPRAISAL OF A MANUFACTURING COMPANY (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA DISTILLERIES LIMITED). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

ROLE OF PURCHASING IN COST REDUCTION AND CONTRIBUTION TO PROFITABILITY – AN APPRAISAL OF A MANUFACTURING COMPANY (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA DISTILLERIES LIMITED). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

ABSTRACT

The purchasing function contributes directly to the operating results, cost reduction and profitability of an organization. It has been argued out that, the fact that purchasing is responsible for spending more than 70 percent of an organization’s sales capital highlights the profit enhancing potentials of the purchasing on an organization.

The purpose of this research is to describe the role purchasing played in cost reduction and its impact on the profitability of Nigeria Distilleries Limited.

Primary and secondary data collected were collected in order to fulfil the research work; the primary data was gathered directly from relevant sources in, Nigeria Distilleries Limited through one on one interview and questionnaires. The secondary data was obtained from indirect sources, such as textbooks, articles, and websites. Due to population size of the entire staff which was 200, 10% of the entire population was chosen which amounted to 20 staff to administer the questionnaires.

These findings revealed so many problems encountered by the study which includes the problems of stock out, overstocking which had devastating effects on cost and profitability of the company. Recommendation was made to correct all the problems in the concerned company.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

Purchasing is a relatively new profession in Nigeria, in comparison with other professions like Accounting, Administration, Banking, Law and Business Administration. Its acceptability by many organizations is slow and gradual. In many organizations, the buyers are not professionals; they do not therefore know the principles and techniques involved in purchasing. The trained professionals are now finding it difficult to find jobs in most organizations, as their positions have been occupied by the administrators, accountants and other allied professionals. To be a practicing buyer, one has to be trained in the art and science of buying effectively to the profitability of the organization.

Many people even in other disciplines think that casual or domestic buying is the same as organizational purchasing. Buying is, however not the same as purchasing. Obtaining quotation, placement of purchase orders or contracts after negotiation and scheduling of deliveries constitute a composite professional practice. Buying is a static concept and does not imply fostering of economies of scale.

 

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ROLE OF PURCHASING IN COST REDUCTION AND CONTRIBUTION TO PROFITABILITY – AN APPRAISAL OF A MANUFACTURING COMPANY (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA DISTILLERIES LIMITED). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

USE OF RAW MATERIAL INSPECTION AND ITS IMPACT ON QUALITY OF PRODUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

USE OF RAW MATERIAL INSPECTION AND ITS IMPACT ON QUALITY OF PRODUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

Background of the Study

The ideal situation for inspection is of course one in which no inspection is necessary. This is because the quality assurance effort cooperatively mounted by the purchaser and supplier has resulted in outstanding quality performance and reliable supporting supplier generated records.

However not all organizations have reached this enviable goal, examining some of the more common ideas surrounding inspection and quality control is useful conversely. Adequate drafting or written of specification of materials to be delivered by suppliers is not always a guaranteed to ensure quality material in an organization there is need for the inspection of materials coming into the organization to ensure that supplier provides materials that conform to the quality expected.

The purpose of inspection is to ensure that supplier has delivered item that corresponds to the organizational specification or description of the organizational product or services, their product and services must be watched with care until they have get to prove themselves dependable.
Unfortunately, two production methods skills even of established supplier change from time to time. Operators becomes careless, errors are made and occasionally a seller may try to reduce production costs to the point where quality suffers. Thus, for a variety of reasons, if is poor policy for buying organization to neglect inspection methods or procedures. Therefore, the verification of the quality of incoming materials is an important task by any concerned in order to ensure quality materials and also to provide the customer service required level.

Statement of the Problem

Apparently, in the market, there had been increased in the number of substandard items or products ranging from organizational goods to the consumers goods, therefore, the reasons for that is total negligence upon inspection which automatically result to many substandard products found way into production process and warrant to poor quality products in the market.
In consideration of the money spent on materials acquisition, inspection is very vital. The researcher observed that in many organizations purchasing and supply aim that is responsible for acquisition of materials has not been given the right to exercise their profession that will take care of inspection, for that we can see procurement activities has been snatched from the procurement officers by other officers of different background at all levels, such backgrounds include: account, marketing, human resources, management, engineering, architecture, medical line, even social development.

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USE OF RAW MATERIAL INSPECTION AND ITS IMPACT ON QUALITY OF PRODUCTION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

SOURCING AND FINANCING LOCAL RAW MATERIALS IN THE NIGERIAN BEVERAGE INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

SOURCING AND FINANCING LOCAL RAW MATERIALS IN THE NIGERIAN BEVERAGE INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1         HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The history of raw materials can be traced back to the rise of industrialization from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century when the feudal system was still in existence in England.

Farming was the principal occupation of the thirteenth century in England and was destined to remain so for another 500 years. Baronial power was strong and increased with the enclosure movements for sheep rearing in the late middle age, especially after the Black Death of 1348-49 had killed at least one third of the laboring population. This gave a fillip to the principal manufacturing industry of the age the cottage wearing of wool especially in eastern England. At first the raw product only was exported, mainly to the wearing centers in flankers. By the mid thirteenth century the domestic course weaving industry had become sufficiently established in rural areas to facilitate an important cloth exporting trade as well. Near the end of the century Edward III induced the skilled Flemish weavers to settle in England, safe from religious persecution and fine quality cloth manufacture arose.

Metal working was perhaps the only other not worthy industry of these times, primarily for weapons of war rather than implements of peace reflecting the unsettled nature of the times. Iron smelting using wood as fuel was located mainly in forested areas such as the weald and Gloucester shire. Other industries, of less importance included the product ion of glass and salt, ship building and the mining of lead and coal.

In late mediaeval England, the location of wool manufactured moved from the plains of the east to the higher lands in the rural west and north, with its domestic and part time nature emphasized. In home industry the women and children carded and spun, and the men wove the yarn. Merchant capitalists, using pack horse transport delivered the raw materials and collected the finished product. Production was cheaper and less restricted than in the old gild dominated towns and facilitate the use of local water supplies for power and for filling, but by the nature of production the work could not be closely supervised and losses of cloth and time had to be tolerated by travelling merchants.

At this, time, export of raw wool hides, leather and tin from England were controlled by the merchant staplers and woolen cloth primarily by the merchant adventures. The country had been a late starter in international trading owing to her position on the fringe of the old world. The Mediterranean has maintained its Northern Europe involved continental merchants such as the handcars of German and Scandinavian, who largely provided the initial impetus and enterprise which brought English traders wide markets.

 

 

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SOURCING AND FINANCING LOCAL RAW MATERIALS IN THE NIGERIAN BEVERAGE INDUSTRY. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE IMPACT OF QUALITY CONTROL ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE ( A CASE STUDY OF PEUGEOT AUTOMOBILES, UYO. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE IMPACT OF QUALITY CONTROL ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE ( A CASE STUDY OF PEUGEOT AUTOMOBILES, UYO. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The ultimate or core aim of an organization in this world today with the level of competition is to maximize profit and the satisfaction of consumers need through quality product irrespective of competitors and this can be achieved by quality control in an organization.
Quality is concerned with fitness or proper quality of product and it also goes with it price and delivery quality control takes this form of fitting standard quality, according to specification delivery and to schedule, the process through which the establish and need standard is commonly call “control series” this process consist of university accepted series of steps applied to problems quality to follows:

  1. Choosing the control subject that is selecting what is to be regulated.
  2. Selecting a standard values that is specifying the quality characteristics
  3. Creating sourcing services which can measure these characteristic in terms of unit of measure
  4. Interpretation the difference between actual and standard decision making and acting on the difference.

When the universal regulatory process as in the above is applied to problem of product quality.
It is often called “quality control” quality control have many definition such as.
Quality control is an attempt to identify and analyze weakness in product and decide on how best it is to decide with those problem or weakness so that the organization will grow.
Sometimes, the problem with a product is not that it fails to perform to specification but rather that it does not offer any significant advantage over competitors products already in the market.
Organization may have employees that are able and having appropriate equipment that leads to the increase in productivity yet sales falls below. Expectation the missing factors in many cases is the lack of effective quality control model in the organization.
A manager in any organization needs to have technical knowledge and competence about their product and best control model to be adopted and the best way of handling them effectively.
­
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
Quality control cannot be ignored if meaningful goals and objectives are expected to be achieved.
Quality must be control as well as all other resources use in ensuring quality product. Currently Nigeria major problems in quality control is the use of outdated or inappropriate technology and lack of managerial experience is another problem facing quality control.

 

 

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THE IMPACT OF QUALITY CONTROL ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE ( A CASE STUDY OF PEUGEOT AUTOMOBILES, UYO. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE IMPACT OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL ON OPERATIONAL COST OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SEVEN-UP BOTLING COMPANY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE IMPACT OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL ON OPERATIONAL COST OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SEVEN-UP BOTLING COMPANY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE MEANING OF PRODUCTION
Production is the central point of any manufacturing concern basically it is the stage where real action takes place either the transformation of raw materials (input) into finished products that is (output) concept of production has been subject to various definition Buffa (1980) define production as the process by which goods and services are created, similarly apple by RC (1996) defined it as the activity of transformation of raw materials or components into finished product.  Whatever the definition, it is clear that production essentially entails the production of goods and service.

The idea of production dates back to the ancient time when human beings conceive modes of productive system.  Beginning with the family hand craft system.  Cummulating to mass production line and automation concept.  Thus production are the unique invention of mankind.  They are the means by which we create goods and services needed from sustain modern society.  The determinants of the production process can never be over emphasized.  If the development of production unit were are accompanied by successive change from job production to batch and finally to follow which stress that manufacturing capacity is only one of the factors which determines the type of production employed Mayer R.R. (1984).  There is a logic behind the operation of the production process, it stems from type of technology involved in the complexity and size of the products as well as in type of production in the particular manufacturing process.

PRODUCTION PLANNING
This is a managerial function that tends to design and plan what to produce, when to produce, where to produce and how to produce the quality, the quantity to produce and for whom to produce. These functions attempts to define the key decision model involved in production that is the long term and the short term planning as well as identifying the procedure, politics and their control a cost effective way wild R (1980).  This function requires action.

STEPS OF PRODUCTION PLANNING
1.  Designing or developing a product that is translating conceived production requirement into form that is capable of being produced or used.  This involve in process of studying consumer need, choice of specific product features, evaluation of alternative design and the final design which establishes a fit between the customer products requirements and technological requirements.

In doing this, action should be taken at certain occasion because customers need which form the basis of product design is subject to change hence the need to change product design.  The change may be induced by change in technology.  Generally when designing a product, room must be allowed for modification of units for the products to meet the general market and customer requirement.  This require close co-operation between the production and marketing department for effective product design or development.

PRODUCTION DESIGN
Having designed or determine a product, the next step in production planning and control is the production design.  This involve considering and evaluating the various alternative design and selecting those designs which generates the least cost.

Now that the product is designed, the next thing is to determine the basic operation required in the production of the designed product.

 

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THE IMPACT OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL ON OPERATIONAL COST OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SEVEN-UP BOTLING COMPANY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE IMPACT OF PLANT MAINTENANCE ON QUALITY PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIAN BREWERIES, ENUGU. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE IMPACT OF PLANT MAINTENANCE ON QUALITY PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIAN BREWERIES, ENUGU. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

The Concept of Quality Production
Quality production implies conforming to the required standard of production. This concept is customer focus. This is so because quality productions are targeted at satisfying customer. Quality in this regard is based on standard set through sales feedback of consumers desire (Donald, 2003).
Good manufacturing lead to positive business outcomes and positive business outcomes are always associated with effective manufacturing which focuses on customer satisfaction. Greater manufacturing capabilities in terms of quality production contribute to high level of managerial success. The rational behind this preposition is that executive in firms with high level of manufacturing capabilities in terms of quality production have more options to play with in meeting their overall business goals and objectives. All things being equal, excellent production improves the odd of being managerially successful, which in firm improves the odd of having good economic outcomes (Donald, 2003).
Quality production is the main driver creating value, goals and system to satisfy customer expectations and improve of an organizations performance (Ahire etal,2006). A customer focus keeps the business aware of change taking place in its environment and provides the knowledge needed to change the product. Likewise, bench making is another process in which an organization continuously compares and measure it self against business leaders anywhere in the world to gain information and provide a guideline for rational performance goal (Boone and nikin,2005). As of late, it has been widely accepted that the most valuable resources of within an organization is human resources. As such should be continuously trained and given adequate training and education on prescriptions, method and the concept of quality production, which usually include total quality production management derived from total quality management as well as setting a goal of zero defects which gives much emphasis to costumer focus production aimed at achieving customer satisfaction which enhances customer retention by preventing customer defections (Richman, 2004).

The Fundamental Requirement of Plant and Equipment Maintenance  
According to Paula (2006) coordination should be a cooperative attitude between production and maintenance. This is best achieve by a meeting between the maintenance manager and production management, including the foreman level , so what will be done to prevent failures, how this will be accomplished, and what production should expect to gain in uptime may all be explained. The cooperation of the individual machine operators is of prime importance. They are on the support and most able to detect unusual event that may indicate equipment malfunctions. Once an attitude of general cooperation is established coordination should be refined to monthly weekly, daily and possible even hourly schedules. Major shutdowns and holydays should be carefully planned so that any work that required “cold” shutdown can be done during those periods technician will find that they most do this kind of work on weekends and holydays, when other persons are on vacation.

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THE IMPACT OF PLANT MAINTENANCE ON QUALITY PRODUCTIVITY IN NIGERIAN BREWERIES, ENUGU. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE EFFECT OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES ON PRODUCTION PLANNING PROCESS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE EFFECT OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES ON PRODUCTION PLANNING PROCESS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

Material Management is an integrated management approach to the planning, purchasing, warehousing, stock keeping allocation and movement of needed material from point of source to user department. It can also be defined as the process of management of materials which involves purchasing, storage, inspection, control and transportation.
Material management is a relatively new discipline. The 20th century’s rapid growth and the significant industrial development has played a major role in the relationship and effective management of the traditional 5Ms which are: Machine, material, men, money and management.
The famous industrial revolution made material(s) the largest elements costs in any organization. At the wake of the 20th century many firms had recognized the importance of material, and several material activities like purchasing, warehousing, stock control and distribution carried out by the organization.
By the 1950 firms have identified the need for effective coordination or integration of such material activities and material organization tools concept, like those of physical distribution movement, logistic movement and material management as a means to check, coordinate and control the firm’s material activities.
Globally, there is no clear definitions on the area of material management. According to M.A. Tokunbo (1987) defines it in the context of store and material control as compensation or the effective coordination of the principle element.

  1. Identifying, classifying and coordination of stocks
  2. Provision, inventory control and stress accounting
  3. Store house layout and organization
  4. In house storage handling and distribution
  5. Presentation of materials in store

To these, material management has the duty to apply the most suitable technique in the most effective way to ensure the minimum total cost consistent with providing the service required. The American production and inventory control society (APICS) defines material management technique and production as the grouping of management function related to the complete cycle of material flow from the purchase and internal control of work in the latter term, traditionally is limited to internal control of production materials.
In examining the whole definition, one could easily notice that they are not quite different from one another, only the way of approach and little difference in terminology. In this respect (material and resource) or material management is not only limited to buying and storing as many view it but involves also purchasing, transport and distribution planning and continuous monitoring.
The subject matter of this study is the effect of material management technique on production planning process in coca-cola Nigeria Bottling Company, Kaduna. The research is meant to be of great importance to various enterprise and organization wishing to conduct a detailed study into stores and purchasing material.

 

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THE EFFECT OF MATERIAL MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES ON PRODUCTION PLANNING PROCESS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

IMPACT OF QUALITY CONTROL AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN PRODUCT STANDARDIZATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

IMPACT OF QUALITY CONTROL AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN PRODUCT STANDARDIZATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Product quality and price constitute vital factors that consumers consider in the choice of product. Unfortunately however, the qualities of products continue to decline due to a number of factors. First and foremost, the production cost and other considerations have placed a heavy burden on product quality since as the economy weakens, the quality of a products is being sacrificed for quality at a relatively lower price. Secondly, most manufacturer have a realization that to survive in a recessionary economy such as ours, there is the need to review prices downwards to induce patronage from the low income groups all these are threats to quality.

In the seven-up Bottling company industry the nature of the existing completion where by foreign manufactures dominates the markets in Nigeria provides serious challenge to the indigenous manufacturers. Foreign products are often preferred by most Nigerians on the basis of quality, durability, price, colours, etc. this constitute an important competitive advantage to the foreign manufacturers and a threats to the indigenous company.
This calls for effective quality control in our seven-up industry to enhance product standardization and to favourably compete with other producers.

This study is an attempt to provide a realistic approach to quality control in seven-up bottling company.

Quality control is the comparison of products and services with a set standard. Total quality involves customer satisfaction by building in and ensuring quality from product planning to production, purchasing sales and services. In total Quality Management (TQM), everybody is involved and not just the quality control staff alone.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The quality of product may be defined in terms of its kinds, type, character, property, degree of goodness or excellence.
However, most present day, goods including seven-up company are produced or manufactured by massive production method on machines which repeatedly produce almost identical units owning to the uncontrollable variation in the quality of the processing machines, variation of the manufactured product are bound to occur.
If a company’s product is to satisfying the customer’s requirement, then it is necessary for the company to establish standard for the functions and appearance aspects of its products as well as for the durability requirement, then this is the general requirement for setting up an quality control department to ensure that standards is adhere to.

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IMPACT OF QUALITY CONTROL AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN PRODUCT STANDARDIZATION. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

MINIMIZING DEFECTIVE PRODUCT THROUGH EFFECTIVE PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

MINIMIZING DEFECTIVE PRODUCT THROUGH EFFECTIVE PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

ABSTRACT
This research work examine production planning and control as a tool for minimizing defective products through effective production planning and control in Defence Industries Corporation of Nigeria (DICON), Kakuri Kaduna. Hence the scope of the research cover every activity which has to do with production planning and control. The work covers statement of the general problems, research objectives, scope of the study, significance of the study and limitation of the study. Also diverse view of authors on production planning and control and other related areas in review. The research work employs the descriptive method for the purpose of an in-depth investigation. A sample size of 70 respondents was selected from the total population of 180 staff, questionnaire were administered to them, oral and verbal interview as well as obtaining information. Hypothesis H0 and H1 formulated on using effective production planning and control to minimize defective product in production performance. Date collected were presented and daily analyzed in tabular format using percentages, other findings of the studying centered on the required raw materials used by the organization but sourced outside the country, government policies such as hinge tax payments, customers and excise charges contributes to high production cost with locally sourced raw materials not maintaining a stable price from time to time with future plans having limitation due to some government regulations, economic downs turn, environmental factors technological changes, competitors actions. The study also brought to the fore the importance of production planning and control in the role of forecasting in production and operation management. Finally based on the findings a number of quality recommendation were offered to the organization to embrace in raw materials sourcing using alternative means i.e. research and development department, the complete computerization of the control system and other key system should be pursued effectively.

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MINIMIZING DEFECTIVE PRODUCT THROUGH EFFECTIVE PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE EFFECT OF BUSINESS PROCESS RE ENGINEERING ON ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES IN UNION BANK PLC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE EFFECT OF BUSINESS PROCESS RE ENGINEERING ON ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES IN UNION BANK PLC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

Concept of Business Process Re-engineering
Business process re-engineering is an integrated set of disciplines for building or changing an enterprise, its processes, and systems. It integrates the most powerful change methods and makes them succeed. Business process re-engineering provides management with a tool box of change methods. It aims to select and integrates the most powerful methods so that management can plan and succeed with complex change while continuing to run the business (Nadler, 2006).

However, Kaizen (2009) opined that business process re-engineering is about the simplification of work to achieve higher quality, better results for customers, and lower costs. It is about replacing manual processes with automation, eliminating unnecessary bureaucracy, streaming and minimizing handoffs across departments providing the right information at the right time to the right people, eliminating unnecessary work, reducing unnecessary controls, empowering every employee and getting it right the first time.

However, Klein (2007) defines business process re-engineering as the rapid and radical redesign of strategic, value added business and the system policies and organizational structures that support them to optimize work flows and productivity within an organization. Johansson and Mchugh (2008) opined in their book “Business Process Reengineering: Breakpoint strategies for market Dominance,” defines business process reengineering as the means by which an organization can achieve radical change in performance, as measured by cost, cycle time, service and quality, by the application of a variety of tools and techniques that focus on the business as a set of related customer-oriented core business processes rather than a set of organizational functions.

Furthermore, Jacob (2009) defines (BPR) as an informed, participative process resulting in new ways of doing business that position an entire organization for success, now and into the future.

 

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THE EFFECT OF BUSINESS PROCESS RE ENGINEERING ON ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES IN UNION BANK PLC. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE APPLICATION OF PRODUCTION SKILLS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION TO GAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE ( A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

THE APPLICATION OF PRODUCTION SKILLS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION TO GAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE ( A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Production skills (defined)
Industries and business organization be it private or public, have one thing in common, the human workforce, this could confidently be said, that organization, will not exist without its human resources, since a business organization cannot even start without a workforce, and effective and efficient skills, will gear the ability of the organization to stand out among its competitors.

Production control is defined by Burbidge (1992). In his book the principles of production control, “Is the function of management which plans, directs and controls the material supply and processing activities of an enterprise, so that the specified products are produced.  By specific methods to meet an approved sales programme. These activities being carried out in such a manner that the labour, plant and capital available are used to the best advantage.
Poter (2006). In his book, effective entrepreneurship, he is of the view that companies can choose between three general strategy to build competitive advantage a differentiation strategy, a low-cost strategy and third approach, frequency used by entrepreneurs in focus, or ninche strategy. A firm that uses a differentiation strategy competes on the basis of its ability to do things differently than its major competitors do.

Beal, Reginald (2000). In his journal competing environmental scanning competitive strategy and organizational performance in small manufacturing firms is of the view that pursuit of an effective entrepreneurial strategy is mainly through advantages, has been mapped through the collection and analysis of information from existing and potential customers.
Boxalla (1996) Boxall 1996 defines strategy as a firm’s frame work of critical ends and means. This definition helps to make the point clear, that means do not flow unproblematically from ends. Rather the historically developed means to shape what ends are conceivable and possible.
Mitchell Porter (1984), Competitive advantage is a very basic word, a position a firm occupies against its competitors. The three methods of creating a sustainable competitive advantage are through: cost leadership, differentiation and focus.

 

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THE APPLICATION OF PRODUCTION SKILLS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION TO GAIN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE ( A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

QUALITY CONTROL AS A COMPETITIVE TOOL FOR SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

QUALITY CONTROL AS A COMPETITIVE TOOL FOR SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

TRADITIONAL CONCEPT OF QUALITY 
There is the need to differentiate between the traditional concept of quality and the TQM concept of quality.

The traditional concept of quality makes quality a function of the attributes of the product or service, for example, a quality product/service is one that meets all the specifications laid down by the provider of the product/service. Within this conception of quality, there is the implied relationship between quality and costs (in short by implication is that the higher the quality, the higher is the cost of product/service.

Nonetheless, Robson (2000) define quality as “meeting the agreed requirements of the customer, now and in the future. Adedeji and Basiru (1989) provide the following systems – oriented definition of quality:
Quality refers to an equilibrium level of functionality possessed by a product or service based on the product’s capability and the customers need.

Quality for a product or service has two aspects (Wakhlu, 1995). The first relates to the features and attributes of the product or service. These ensure that the product meets the needs of its users. The second aspect concerns the absence of deficiencies in the product. The users of products (customers) are satisfied by a product only if it meets their expectations through these attributes.

Organisations owe their success to good service quality. Companies that differentiate on the basis of service, can ask higher prices for comparative products or services and achieve superior profit margins. These same companies are more resistant in economic down turns and experience greater growth in economic boom periods (Horovits and Panak, 2002). They also have, on average, lower advertising cost, lower sick level rates and consequently, service quality excellence, has become the most Recent ‘buzz’ phrase in management circles and the strategic objective of many major firms. Companies, who find it difficult to compete on the basis of price or technology, find service quality an attractive option.

It is an attractive option because unlike most strategies, a strategy based on excellent service quality is nearly impossible to imitate or duplicate. “Service quality converts a company from a anonymous object into a familiar face (Horovitx and Panak, 2002).

CONCEPT OF SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES
2.3.1  Definitions of Small Scale Enterprises
There is hardly any unique, universally accepted definition of small scale enterprises because the classification of business into small or large scale is a subjective and qualitative judgment (Ekpenyoung and Nyong, 1992). Rather each country tends to define this category of enterprises based usually on the peculiar needs of public policies. Even with a country, the definition changes over time, depending on circumstances and specific objectives of institution. There are, however some common indicator in most definitions, namely, the size of capital investment (fixed asset), value of annual turnover (gross output) and number of paid employment. The popularity of the three indicators derives largely from their ease of measurement.
In Nigeria, the definition of small scale enterprises also varies from time to time and according to institutions, for instance, the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) monetary policy circular No22 of 1988 defined small scale enterprises (excluding general commerce) as enterprises in which total investment (including land and working capital) did not exceed N500, 000 and or the annual turnover did not exceed N5.0 million (Inang and Ukpong, 1992).

 

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QUALITY CONTROL AS A COMPETITIVE TOOL FOR SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISES IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

 

IMPACT OF MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SEVEN-UP BOTTLING COMAPNY, LAGOS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

IMPACT OF MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SEVEN-UP BOTTLING COMAPNY, LAGOS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

It is quite obvious that every organization keeps materials which form one of the pivotal elements in the organization. Any establishment that is set up to produce one thing or another; any organization could either be goods producer or services delivery or both, and they must make use of materials in all their operations, and these materials must be properly managed to achieve the desired objectives.
Materials management is one of the most technological choices in any organization. Thus, it must be decided as to when, how and by who materials should be handled. It covers the processes of moving, packing and storing materials. Note that in the past, there was no any distinct method in use.
However, today the methods employed are numerous such as: The Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV), the Automated Storage and Retrieval System (ASRS).

1.1  Background of the Study
What dominates organizational operations and there seeks to transform management practices is no other than material management.
It is obvious that in all kinds of organizations, management effort is often times committed to the effective and efficient management of materials. Furthermore, the management practices have gained the understanding that the success of any can only be guaranteed in today’s circumstances by a practical and holistic commitment to materials management.
Materials management is not a mere technique, but a philosophy anchored on a belief that long run success depends on the uniform commitment to materials management in 7Up Plc, Kaduna Plant which can be achieved via the interplay of both the analytical and holistic facilities of the personalities concerned.
1.2  Statement of the General Problem
Materials management as we all know is considered “life blood” of every organization. Unfortunately enough, most companies have entrusted the materials management functions into the hands of mediocre.
Therefore, the basic problem with which the study is concerned about is the unethical practices in the 7Up Plc Kaduna plant which includes: the placement of unqualified personnel on the functional, they do not have professional knowledge about, over invoicing and local inaccessibility of raw materials. Also, therefore is the problem of wastage and pilferage of materials in 7Up Plc, Kaduna plant.

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IMPACT OF MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SEVEN-UP BOTTLING COMAPNY, LAGOS. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

BASIC PRODUCTION CONTROL PROBLEM IN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA AND BEST WAYS OF SOLVING THEM. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

BASIC PRODUCTION CONTROL PROBLEM IN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA AND BEST WAYS OF SOLVING THEM. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.

PRODUCTION CONTROL DEFINED
“Control is a general management function which can be described as the constraining of events to follow plans. It involves setting standard or plans, monitoring performance and company results against plan of standards and correctly deviations from plans or standards when necessary.

Production control can therefore be described as a function of management which plans, direct and controls the material supply and processing activity of an enterprise. As Mayers puts it in his book, Production Management, that production control involves the development and implementation of a plan, which is capable of yielding the desired results. In his book Principle of Production Control as a function of management which plans directs and controls the material supply and processing of activities of any enterprise so that the specified methods to meet an approved sales programme can be achieved.
Note that the above mentioned definition restates the act that planning and control functions are inseparable. The definition does not only imply that production control functions is only concerned with production method or processes but also with the material, labour and capital employed in the production process. The aim is to ensure timely deliver of products to the customers in a state that is capable of satisfying their needs on one hand and ensuring the economic use of resource: labour, materials and capital on the other hand.

OBJECTIVE OF PRODUCTION CONTROL

The following may be considered simultaneously as the major objectives of production control:

  1. To ensure timely delivery of output
  2. To meet the targeted output
  3. To minimize waste
  4. To improve quality through reduction in lower-time reduction in ship floor labour etc.
  5. To improve cash flow by reducing work-in-process, raw materials, stock and finished goods stock
  6. To minimize industrial relations problems

The achievement of one of these could be at the expense of others.
For example, the majority of others could be produced on time but this could lead to minimal order batching, which in turn will increase production cost.

More finished goods stock could help batching but cash flow will deteriorate.

It is therefore important the production and other be able to calculate the advantages of the objective that must be aware of the need to consider ‘trade-offs’ and have the information with which to do it.

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BASIC PRODUCTION CONTROL PROBLEM IN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY OF NIGERIA AND BEST WAYS OF SOLVING THEM. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON  PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT