THE IMPACT OF PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL ON OPERATIONAL COST OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF SEVEN-UP BOTLING COMPANY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MGT.
THE MEANING OF PRODUCTION
Production is the central point of any manufacturing concern basically it is the stage where real action takes place either the transformation of raw materials (input) into finished products that is (output) concept of production has been subject to various definition Buffa (1980) define production as the process by which goods and services are created, similarly apple by RC (1996) defined it as the activity of transformation of raw materials or components into finished product. Whatever the definition, it is clear that production essentially entails the production of goods and service.
The idea of production dates back to the ancient time when human beings conceive modes of productive system. Beginning with the family hand craft system. Cummulating to mass production line and automation concept. Thus production are the unique invention of mankind. They are the means by which we create goods and services needed from sustain modern society. The determinants of the production process can never be over emphasized. If the development of production unit were are accompanied by successive change from job production to batch and finally to follow which stress that manufacturing capacity is only one of the factors which determines the type of production employed Mayer R.R. (1984). There is a logic behind the operation of the production process, it stems from type of technology involved in the complexity and size of the products as well as in type of production in the particular manufacturing process.
This is a managerial function that tends to design and plan what to produce, when to produce, where to produce and how to produce the quality, the quantity to produce and for whom to produce. These functions attempts to define the key decision model involved in production that is the long term and the short term planning as well as identifying the procedure, politics and their control a cost effective way wild R (1980). This function requires action.
STEPS OF PRODUCTION PLANNING
1. Designing or developing a product that is translating conceived production requirement into form that is capable of being produced or used. This involve in process of studying consumer need, choice of specific product features, evaluation of alternative design and the final design which establishes a fit between the customer products requirements and technological requirements.
In doing this, action should be taken at certain occasion because customers need which form the basis of product design is subject to change hence the need to change product design. The change may be induced by change in technology. Generally when designing a product, room must be allowed for modification of units for the products to meet the general market and customer requirement. This require close co-operation between the production and marketing department for effective product design or development.
Having designed or determine a product, the next step in production planning and control is the production design. This involve considering and evaluating the various alternative design and selecting those designs which generates the least cost.
Now that the product is designed, the next thing is to determine the basic operation required in the production of the designed product.