PUBLIC ATTITUDE TOWARDS SECRETARIES PROFESSION

 Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate into the public attitude toward the secretarial profession. In doing this, data/information were received from public and the practising secretaries in the Federal Ministry of Education Abuja. In that process, some research questions were formulated, questionnaire were also drawn based on the research questions, and distributed to collect the required facts from both the public and secretaries in other to assist the production of this work. This study covers areas like the secretaries and their functions, attributes to be exhibited in their organisation and the study of human relations as it effect the relationship between the secretaries and their executives, co- workers and the society as a whole.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

The secretaries are important officers in establishment; you hardly find an organization without a secretary. The work of the secretaries is of great importance to the organizations and the nation at large. The secretaries are found in every type of business organizations where personal services such as insurance, accounting, banking, advertising e.t.c are carried out, services to the general public, the secretaries have vital roles to play in organization like the local government, hospital, universities, colleges, social and welfare establishments and so on, the secretaries role cannot be over stressed. The secretaries operate and link the executives and the society even the other employees. Secretaries relieve their bosses of a great task of routine works and enquire by attending to callers. This is done by taking their messages, giving them the necessary information and allowing them to o about their businesses without disturbing their bosses. This may be through personal calls, telephone or through letters composed and mailed by secretaries. Having passed basic training in shorthand, good command of English and type mail able letters of a routine instructions, the secretaries arrange meetings, concisely compile minutes, record reports and logically arrange them. The secretaries are the bed rock in must executives. Their contributions and effectiveness enhance the efficiency of any organisation. The secretarial profession   is absolutely essential to the nation because it promotes the nation more than any other profession. It therefore means that secretaries must be people of high responsibilities, competence, dedication, morals and experience those vital duties perfectly.

The society outlook regarding secretaries’ profession is diversified depending on individuals and the organisation. There are few people who have positive views regarding the profession having known the effective role played by the secretaries, the qualities entailed and the attributes (business and personal) exhibited by them. Notwithstanding, there are so many people with negative perception towards the profession, they are frustrated persons, some group of people that are good for typing and shorthand alone. And so many others any employee who sits behinds a typewriter is a secretary. Gone are those days when the profession was looked down upon, when people regard it as a profession for the less fortunes, prostitutes, copy-typist and unrecognised people, a profession for medioevers, female folk and the unsuccessful.

  1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Secretarial profession is absolutely essential and contributes immensely to humanity. But from time immemorial, the profession had encountered a lot of allegation from the society despite its indispensability and its responsibilities to the nation, people tend to have different perceptions towards the profession. Some people feel that the secretarial profession entails some rigid skills that cannot be coped with especially shorthand. Some other thinks that is dominated by dullards, the unfortunate and the unsuccessful. A lot of people believe that secretarial have an indecent affair with their bosses due to intimacy established between the secretaries and their bosses. The researcher intends to investigate some of the above allegation as well as to verify how the secretaries interact with the public to attract positive or negative attitude towards the secretarial profession.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The researcher observes that the society is disappointed and discouraged in the execution of secretarial duties and the exhibition of their attributes. (Some people pursuing the career secretarial studies proposed to change to other courses).

Therefore the objectives of the study are:

  1. To find out the kind of relationship that exists between the secretaries and their bosses as well as the public.
  2. To know whether the secretaries actually meet up with the required roles and qualities.
  3. For the secretaries to detect and correct their areas of deficiency, if any, in the performance of their duties keep the society aware of the secretaries’ responsibilities as well to acquaint the readers with the qualification required for the profession.
  4. For the executives to know the importance of both female and male secretaries in an organisation  and the need to train and equip them with modern machine so as to meet today’s challenges especially in administrative responsibilities, office system and technology and even more managerial skills which profession outstanding.
PUBLIC ATTITUDE TOWARDS SECRETARIES PROFESSION

SECRETARIAL PROFESSION AND PUBLIC PERCEPTION

Abstract

This study is on secretarial profession and public perception. The total population for the study is 200 staff of state secretariat, Uyo, Akwa state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made secretaries, administrative staff, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Action and reaction are both governed by the society or public. Many are societal animals, who live and relate with the public as a whole. Sociologists have put it that “Man is not an island” that is, he cannot live in isolation. He cannot live in isolation. He must interact and relate with other people. With the above sociological perception, It is directly pertinent to state that man’s choice of career. His attitude to it and ultimately his performance are influenced by the public opinion or perception of his profession. Secretaries are indispensable in every organizational setup be it large or small, no organization can function effectively in the absence of an effective secretary. In the past the secretary was taken to be an employee usually a lady who sits behind a typewriter, where as this is not so. A secretary is in special position of trust and responsibility. Apart from taking diction dictation and transcribing the same on the typewriter, he handles administrative duties connect with processing, keeping and preservation of information to the more complex process of computerization and microfilming towards effective control of information for the accomplishment of the organizational. The secretaries are important officers in establishment; you hardly find an organization without a secretary. The work of the secretaries is of great importance to the organizations and the nation at large. The secretaries are found in every type of business organizations where personal services such as insurance, accounting, banking, advertising e.t.c are carried out, services to the general public, the secretaries have vital roles to play in organization like the local government, hospital, universities, colleges, social and welfare establishments and so on, the secretaries role cannot be over stressed. The secretaries operate and link the executives and the society even the other employees. Secretaries relieve their bosses of a great task of routine works and enquire by attending to callers. This is done by taking their messages, giving them the necessary information and allowing them to o about their businesses without disturbing their bosses. This may be through personal calls, telephone or through letters composed and mailed by secretaries. Having passed basic training in shorthand, good command of English and type mail able letters of a routine instructions, the secretaries arrange meetings, concisely compile minutes, record reports and logically arrange them. The secretaries are the bed rock in must executives. Their contributions and effectiveness enhance the efficiency of any organization. The secretarial profession   is absolutely essential to the nation because it promotes the nation more than any other profession. It therefore means that secretaries must be people of high responsibilities, competence, dedication, morals and experience those vital duties perfectly. The society outlook regarding secretaries’ profession is diversified depending on individuals and the organisation. There are few people who have positive views regarding the profession having known the effective role played by the secretaries, the qualities entailed and the attributes (business and personal) exhibited by them. Notwithstanding, there are so many people with negative perception towards the profession, they are frustrated persons, some group of people that are good for typing and shorthand alone. And so many others any employee who sits behinds a typewriter is a secretary.Gone are those days when the profession was looked down upon, when people regard it as a profession for the less fortunes, prostitutes, copy-typist and unrecognized people, a profession for medioevers, female folk and the unsuccessful.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Secretarial profession is absolutely essential and contributes immensely to humanity. But from time immemorial, the profession had encountered a lot of allegation from the society despite its indispensability and its responsibilities to the nation, people tend to have different perceptions towards the profession. Some people feel that the secretarial profession entails some rigid skills that cannot be coped with especially shorthand. Some other thinks that is dominated by dullards, the unfortunate and the unsuccessful. A lot of people believe that secretarial have an indecent affair with their bosses due to intimacy established between the secretaries and their bosses. The researcher intends to investigate some of the above allegation as well as to verify how the secretaries interact with the public to attract positive or negative attitude towards the secretarial profession.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To find out the kind of relationship that exists between the secretaries and their bosses as well as the public.
  2. To know whether the secretaries actually meet up with the required roles and qualities.
  3. For the secretaries to detect and correct their areas of deficiency, if any, in the performance of their duties keep the society aware of the secretaries’ responsibilities as well to acquaint the readers with the qualification required for the profession.
  4. For the executives to know the importance of both female and male secretaries in an organisation  and the need to train and equip them with modern machine so as to meet today’s challenges especially in administrative responsibilities, office system and technology and even more managerial skills which profession outstanding.
  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0:  there is no importance of a female secretaries influence the public perception

H1: there is importance of a female secretaries influence the public perception

H02: There is no relationship between secretaries and their bosses

H2: There is relationship between secretaries and their bosses

SECRETARIAL PROFESSION AND PUBLIC PERCEPTION

THE EFFECT OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY ON SECRETARIAL PERFORMANCE

Abstract

The aim of this project is to access the Effect of Modern Technology on Secretarial Performance, and also the problems secretaries’ face where there is a technological change or innovation in the office. The researchers selected Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu as a case study.  Questionnaires were distributed, and collected data were analyzed and presented in tables using a simple percentage formula.  From the data collected, it was found that if a new modern office machine is introduced, there is the need for the secretaries to be trained to be able to understand the language of the new machine and also be able to use it well.  Secretaries should be sent on training and retraining programme from time to time to meet up with the various challenges and advance technologically.  The automated office equipments should be acquired by employers of labour to enable secretaries cope with high demand for accurate, neat and urgent dissemination of information. Most importantly, recommendations were made based on findings to enhance secretarial performance.  The researchers believe that if all the recommendations are implemented, this research work will be of immense benefit to secretarial career, students and employers and institutions that train secretaries

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

The secretarial functions and its effectiveness depend much on the availability of office technology and equipments, as well as the skills and competencies of the secretary.  Many organizations have come to appreciate the role and importance of the secretary, and also the need of providing the needed office machines and equipments for the efficacy of the secretary’s performance of his/her functions. For decades now, fast changes have been taking place in all facets of life including the office environment.  This is as a result of technological advancement. Every office today requires facts and accurate information for quick decision- making and high productivity.   The office worker including the secretary expects certain supports from the organization into which he/she is employed.  This support can be technological (machines and equipments) and human.  In the past offices, manager dictates memo and letters, while the secretary types them.  Most recently, word processors have been developed and used, personal computers are relied on and even electronic mail in an effort to lesson the need for secretarial supports and make the employee (secretary) very productive, (Ezoem 1995, Osuala 2004)  As a result of the changes in technology, the role of the secretary has changed tremendously from that of typewriting and shorthand, dictation, answering of telephone calls and processing of mails.  Today’s secretaries are exposed to office technology/automation including the Internet that makes work easier and knowledge more accessible (Edwin 2008).  It is now easier to send messages by telex, electronic mails (e-mails) fax and telephones. Other office gadgets available to the secretary are photocopying machine, duplicating machines, dictating machines, and printing machines etc.  This is the era of computers and information technology, which has become an enabler of greater convenience.  Three of the most popular types of computer software programs are:

  1. Word processor, which helps the user (secretary) to write and edit memos, letters and reports.
  2. Data management programs or data based, which   helps the user (secretary) to use long lists of data.
  3. Spreadsheet programes, which handles tables and numbers  (Duller and Fielden 1999).

Secretaries now have many technologically advanced office gadgets to ease their jobs and enhance proficiency and productivity, leading to improved access to good and services. The office of today is highly mechanized/automated.  In many companies, the rate of turnover among office employee continues to be high with the result that proposed reduction in manpower requirements, are compensated by these technological innovations.  Many people have wrong views of who a secretary is, some takes a secretary for a typist, clerk or a receptionist in the paper on the impact of modern technology in today’s offices (Nerner 1972)  Having said much on the general effects, it is good to talk or see how modern technology affects the secretary one by one.  Technology has greatly affected secretarial performance much to the improvement of the profession.  Technology has completely enveloped secretarial performance in a way that it is now safe for one to say that without technology, there is no effective secretarial performance. Some of the ways by which technology has affected secretarial performance includes:

  1. The speed and accuracy with which documents are produced are   unrevealed in the history of human skills (Ukeje 2000)
  2. Technology has enriched secretarial job and this enrichment has resulted job satisfaction on the side of the secretaries. (Harding, 1985).
  3. Technology has brought the whole world to the secretary’s table he takes organization to the world and brings the world to the organization. For this reason, every member of the organization including his boss respects him (NAPSSON 2002).
  4. Technology is gradually revising the general misconception and poor perception of secretaries in the society.  Instead of their downgrading, they are now being respected and instead of looking down on secretaries as in previous cases, they are now being looked upon (NAPSSON 2002).
  5. Technology has broadened the scope of secretarial performance it has severed the secretary from the derogatory appendage status to an independent member of the organization, information manager and custodian of organizational information reservoir.(NAPSSON2000).

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It was discovered that many secretaries graduate with low knowledge and skills of operating machines like computer, duplicating machines etc. because of inadequacy (Okonye 1992).  However most secretaries have problem in their workplace, because they were unable to operate these machines. Another problem uncounted by secretaries is technological   unemployment, which sometimes result from advancement in technology.  The most common technological unemployment occurs especially when workers have no knowledge of the newly improved equipment.  This problem may result to the displacement of the secretary. Furthermore on the problem is that most of the machines are very costly and most small- scale organization finds it difficult to afford them.  When they are able to acquire them, they find it difficult to sponsor their secretaries for the required training. This study is focus on investigating the extent to which these modern technology, contributes positively or negatively to the secretarial performance.

 1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of this research work is:

  1. To determine if modern technology really contributes to the secretary’s unemployment.
  2. To determine if modern technology truly enhance the effective   performance of the secretary.
  3. To suggest how secretaries should ensure efficiency and improvement in their performance.
THE EFFECT OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY ON SECRETARIAL PERFORMANCE

FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN KEY BOARDING

ABSTRACT

This study is on factors affecting student performance in keyboarding. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Abuja. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals, computer science teachers, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Keyboarding skills is defined as the ability to key in information in the memories of the computer with minimum effort and energy use. Hames (2000:1) are of opinion that secretaries can be considered as skilled keyboard users when they are able to accurately key in data into the memories of the computer in a minimum time, with minimum use of energy and with high degree of consistency and flexibility.

Keyboarding is a long life skill. It has evolved from a transcription typing skill where student typed hand-written letters into a generative typing skill involving composing original thought at the keyboard, (Cooper, 1983). Technologically, progress and development has not resulted in information being made available and easier, but it has put more pressure on computer user to develop skills (such as keyboarding skill) in order to best utilize good business transaction and to improve communication, for example, the use of e-mail to interact with customers through the help of keyboard. The key to success when living in such a computer-centric world is to be able to interact effectively and efficiently through well-developed keyboarding skills. Unlike the days gone-by Cooper was considered a talent that ensured a secretarial position for typing someone else’s letter, typing has become an integral part of our daily lives, keyboarding is no longer a routine for transferring ideas from scribble to print. The average computer user spends at least 2.4 hours a day actively engaged in computing at work. (Usernomics , 2007).

The computer Keyboard and Mouse are devices common in everyday use of computers. They are widely used for simple activities like launching applications or programs, shutting down the computer and closing programs as well as for complex activities like graphic designing and programming. They are seen to be the most widely used devices of the computer system. Consequently, for one to be very good in using the computer he or she has to learn and practice in order to improve upon his or her keyboarding and mouse movement skills.

In today’s classroom, students are expected to produce handwritten work and computer-generated work as necessitated by demands of assignments and testing. Students who have difficulty handwriting and keyboarding may face challenges meeting these student occupational demands. Students struggling with handwriting development often have difficulty completing classroom assignments and may avoid academic tasks all together, thus decreasing overall occupational performance in school (Cahill, 2009; Freeman, Mackinnon, & Miller, 2005). With increasing numbers of computers available in the classroom and at home, keyboarding is an accessible option for students of all abilities. For keyboarding to be an effective alternative to handwriting, a level of keyboarding proficiency is required (Preminger, Weiss, & Weintraub, 2004). Students are expected to write essays using word processors (Poole & Preciado, 2016) in addition to computer-based testing. Since school curriculums are incorporating more assignments and projects that require keyboarding skills, keyboarding competency is important for all students (Barkaoui, 2014; Rogers & Case-Smith, 2002).

Since it is commonplace for all students to be using computers to meet educational demands, it is critical that effective keyboarding instruction be determined (Poole & Preciado, 2016) both for struggling and non-struggling students. Keyboarding instruction and sufficient practice opportunities are crucial for developing keyboarding proficiency in students struggling with handwriting skills (Freeman et al., 2005). Research suggests benefits to introducing touch-keyboarding instruction at an early elementary age, because these students have potential to develop the higher-level keyboarding style (Britten, 1988; Chwirka, Gurney, & Burtner, 2002; Cowles, Hedley, & Robinson, 1983; Hoot, 1986). Conversely, previous research suggests that younger students require more time and supervision making instruction less practical. Pisha’s (1993) study on students in grades third through sixth found that older students developed keyboarding abilities at a faster rate than the younger students. Alternatively, Nichols’(1995) determined that students in the third grade were able to improve keyboarding abilities from keyboarding lessons however, it was more of a challenge to keep younger students engaged. Ultimately, keyboarding should be introduced prior to the grade level when computers are used for academic work (Freeman et al., 2005; Kisner, 1984).

Current keyboarding speed norms are difficult to determine, because of the absence of a standardized keyboarding assessment and the variability of keyboarding instruction per grade level (Freeman et al., 2005). Freeman et al. (2005) published a summary of key-boarding speed norms from a collection of research. Research has indicated second grade students type an average of 5 word per minute (WPM) (Chwirka et al., 2002). Students in grades first through third were keyboarding at an average of 9 WPM. Third graders could reach speeds up to 30 WPM, fourth grade students to keyboard between speeds of 7.1 WPM to 30 WPM, and fifth grade students were keyboarding at an even broader range from 4.7 WPM to 70 WPM (Freeman et al., 2005). In addition, students who keyed20 WPM in fifth grade were able to maintain that level of proficiency in seventh grade (Ertl, 2007). Keyboarding speed norms in research are highly variable and difficult to generalize; however, an overall trend in increasing speeds with increased grade level can be concluded (Freeman et al., 2005; Pisha, 1993). Researchers do concur that keyboarding skills should be as fast as handwriting to be functional (Freeman et al., 2005; Pisha, 1993; Stevenson & Just, 2014). Base on this background the researcher wants to investigate factors affecting student performance in keyboarding.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Notwithstanding the fact that some students are very good in using the keyboard and mouse it was noted during practice sessions that most of the students could not use the mouse in performing tasks such as double clicking, left-clicking, click-hold, click-drag and drop icons on the desktop, selection of text, locating the movement of the pointer on the screen of the monitor. Some students could not even hold the mouse properly. Most students also find it difficult to locate the individual keys on the Keyboard or touch type; most of them do not know the functions of the special keys like the control key, alternative key, the Shift key, the Escape key, the Tab key etc. Since many modern day Operating systems and Applications Software require Graphical User Interface (GUI) to run applications and execute commands, it is important that students become familiar with the keyboard and the mouse therefore there is the need for students whom most are first time computer users to be skillful and proficient in using the computer keyboard and mouse.

FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN KEY BOARDING

EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SCHEME ON THE TRAINING OF OFFICE MANAGERS

Abstract

This research work was carried out to investigate into the effect of industrial training scheme on the training of Office Managers.  It was discussed under the following sub headings according to the purpose of the study: Objectives of Industrial Training, benefits derived from Industrial Training, causes and remedies to the poor implementation of Industrial Training programme. It was observed that the management problem of industrial training on the training of Office Managers was on how to achieve the organizational goal, poor visitation of students by supervision staff during training and non-payment to students on attachment.  This study helps students to achieve the practical aspect of learning, which enable them to perfect on the theoretical training.  The population of the study was made up of 253 managerial students both Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Federal Polytechnic Oko and Abia State Polytechnic Aba.  Four (4) research questions were formulated which guided the study. Thirty (30) structured questionnaires were used for data collection which was distributed to 165 managerial students from HNDI and HNDII in the selected tertiary institutions.  Also, tables, percentile method were used in analysis of data collected and the statistical tool employed in testing the hypothesis was Chi Square.  The findings reveals that the programme organized by the industrial training fund is relevant to students involved in skilled courses.  It was recommended that the activities of the establishment in which they had their IT exposure are related to their course of study.  There should be a line between the industries and schools so that the performance reports of the students would be sent to Industrial Training Fund (ITF) office after each industrial training experience for further assessment.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

Industrial Training is the training given to the students in tertiary institution in order to know the responsibilities of human resources development and how they will tackle their work/job after their school career.

The Industrial Training Funds was set up by (SIWES) Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme programme to help students in tertiary institutions especially those offering practical courses such as Office Technology and Management students, Art and Applied Sciences, Engineering students etc. to achieve their required training skills for their professions.

This programme has brought about many positive effects on the students.  As the manager’s job is to provide service to the general public, industrial training helps to expose managers to industrial behaviour in order to improve on practical aspect of their course.  According to Okafor (1993), this type of experience would expose students to the world of work and help them remedy the deficiencies of the classroom in terms of its practical components.

Thus, the Industrial Training Fund programs help Office Managers to perfect in their profession.  For instance, some courses in Office Technology and Management line is Office Management System, Office Practice, Principle of Law, Advance Transcription, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Human Capital Management etc. are being taught theoretical in school.

In Polytechnics, Office Managers due go to four months Industrial Training (IT), in their first year, in second year another one year Industrial Training making them acquire the necessary skills to perfect in their course of study.

Students experience during the course of their training will definitely help them to carry out their managerial work effectively provided that the programme of the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) is a continuous process.  The experiences gotten by students is a good tool that responds to a certain basic aspect of the students fullest development in the Office Management and Technology course making them acquire the necessary skills.

The most serious problem facing the students before the introduction of the Industrial Training (IT) is unemployment.  Many of them do not possess the relevant and employable skills needed by employers, students are being faced with the problem of acquiring the needed practical knowledge.  Thereby, making the students to imagine everything that are being taught.  But the introduction of this IT programme has helped Office Managers to perform well, especially in getting direct contact with some of the new office gazettes that have been taught theoretically in school.

The SIWES objectives is to help students to find solution to the problem of unemployment, to take their steps in the journey through their life career with pleasure, confidence, and to prepare students for the world.

Taylor (1983) had concluded that students who have benefited from SIWES opportunities pass on to the next level and are ready to accept any challenges of learning skills in their career.  For this reasons the potential managers that went through the industrial training fund programme benefited from many effects needed for their experiences and exposure.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The management problem of the industrial training is on how to achieve the organization goal.  And the effort of well trained managers as Folayan (1998) stated is a sine quo non for the achievement of the organizational corporate goal.

Before the introduction of Industrial Training Scheme, the Office Manager’s attitude and performance in school and outside school was very discouraging.

The Federal Military Government introduced this programme (IT) to guide and direct the Office Manager’s learning so that they will carry out their work/job effectively and accurately.

EFFECT OF INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SCHEME ON THE TRAINING OF OFFICE MANAGERS

THE COMMUNICATION RELATED PROBLEMS FACED BY SECRETARIES IN PUBLIC SECTOR

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study is to find out the problems of communication on secretaries in banks using the First Bank as a study.

In line with this, three research questions were framed. The sample size used was so of the senior and middle level executive from different department of the first bank to whom questionnaires were distributed

Their responses were analyzed and this led to the following findings.

·        Communication integrates Secretaries functions in banks

·        Poor communication could lead to industrial unrest

·        Improper functioning of communication in an Secretaries in Banks could be caused by delay in information circulation, misinterpretation of message, improper circulation by the messengers and non posting of information on the notice board.

·        Communication barriers exist in secretaries in first bank

·        Communication system is ineffective in secretaries in first bank

·        Effective communication can enhance and sustain good human business relations

·        Secretaries in Banksal productivity could be adversely affected when communication is full of barriers

·        Good business opportunities could be lost through communication ineffectiveness

·        The productivity of secretaries in first bank is high because there is no immediate substitute

·        Ineffective communication is a major contributor to loss of viable business opportunities.

It was therefore recommended that

–   The need for elaborate and clearly written down procedure for communication cannot be over emphasized

–   The two way communication system must be jettisoned

–   Communicating messages that are of either short-run or long-run importance should be done early enough

–   SECRETARIES IN FIRST BANK is advised to ensure that the communication barriers that exist in the Secretaries in Banks should adequately contain.

–   Secretaries in Banks should occasionally organize seminars, workshops, conference etc.

–   Management must have a genuine willingness to share information with employees.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Communication is a discipline that embraces all aspect of human life. It informs all our actions and inaction in relations to others and it takes place all the time. It can manifest itself in symbolic, verbal and non-verbal forms we can communicate with all apart of our body, our posture, smile and even the dress we put on communicate one thing of the other.

Different scholars have defined the word communication variously. However, there is the central theme that runs through all these definitions. That is the giving of information, ideas, opinions attitudes etc. by one person or group of persons to another person or group of persons

Communication particularly in a business Secretaries in Banks provides a means by which people in the Secretaries in Banks interact, exchange information, ideas, plan proposal and execute them. It is a medium through which relationships are established and maintained. It is also a means by which commendation is given and condemnation is handed down.

Business and Secretaries in Banksal communication helps to orientate secretaries to their jobs as well as helping the supervisors monitor activates of the secretaries. Communication is an extremely invaluable asset in human Secretaries in Banks. His is because at all levels in the Secretaries in Banks among and between executives, managers, staff, supervisors, foremen and employees, the communication process is always in action conveying information, ideas, attitude and feelings among individuals and groups

Communication affects all the management function since none of them can be effectively performed without it. Plans and innovation cannot be executed unless they are communicated to those who will carry them out. The Secretaries in Banksal structure is designed to set up channels of communication through which information is passed downwards, upwards, horizontally or laterally.

Interference are barriers to effective communication because of changes in a desired direction.

The effectiveness of communication discourages better performance, high productivity and job satisfaction in an Secretaries in Banks. This reduces the essentials for the internal functioning of an Secretaries in Banks, which could integrate the managerial; functions.

The problems in an Secretaries in Banks as a result of communication problems reduce and obstruct the chance of such an Secretaries in Banks achieving their goals.

For the purpose of this study we shall focus all our attention on the major courses of communication problems with a particular emphasis on the Mercedes Benze Anambra Motor Manufacturing Company (MB-SECRETARIES IN FIRST BANK)

MB – SECRETARIES IN FIRST BANK limited was incorporated on January 17, 1977 and the plant was commissioned on July 8, 1980 by the firs executive president of Nigeria, Alhaji Shehu Shagari. It started official production in January 1981 and has to date made enable mark on the nation’s industrial growth, adding over 25,000 vehicles to the nation’s transportation sector, backed up effectively with a network of over 36 after-sales service pints and spare parts supply depots. The first bank’s central spare parts deport stocks over 35, 000 line items

Mercedes Benz SECRETARIES IN FIRST BANK is a joint ventures between the federal Government of Nigeria and the Daimler Chryster AG. MB SECRETARIES IN FIRST BANK manufacturers Commercial vehicles and leads in the commercial vehicles markets from five tine payload and above in Nigeria. The plant, which occupies a sprawling 300,000 square meter site in Emene, near Enugu, is a shine example of a profitable and viable economic and technological corporation between the government and people of Nigeria and Daimler Chrysler AG and so there exists a combination of white/black system of administration.

As a result of the white/black relationship there are time when one system administration disagree with other both in the formulation and implementation due to communication problems.

1.2      STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Communication is a very important instrument in every Secretaries in Banks.

The problems of effective communication is pre-requisite for improper understanding and interaction of people in an Secretaries in Banks. Poor communication system makes for ineffective and inefficient management and this affects the preset goals. Some of these problems include

1.     Lack of proper channel of communication in the Secretaries in Banks. This can explain why there still exist, situation where minor problems which could be sorted out by discussion and understanding between the secretaries and the management escalate into major problems which causes some set back in the first bank.

2.     The management is not willing to share information with employees. As a result secretaries normally get information from the grapevine which usually lead to unfavorable actions in the first bank

3.     MB – SECRETARIES IN FIRST BANK is a multi-national first bank that carries information from different parts of the federation and outside the country too. The information is so much that the channels cannot handle all the messages that are been sent. Sometimes the telephone lines cannot get through of all the lines are in use at the same time. This information overload occurs when ,ore message are transmitted than the human receiver can handle, this leads to reduced efficiency

4.     Since the first bank does not fully consider communication as a very important aspect of the Secretaries in Banks and therefore allows communication gaps to exist between it and the secretaries the productivity level of the first bank will suffer.

THE COMMUNICATION RELATED PROBLEMS FACED BY SECRETARIES IN PUBLIC SECTOR

THE EFFECTS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SECRETARIES IN THE FRONT OFFICE

ABSTRACT

The study examined the effects of information technology on the performance of secretaries in the front office. Survey research design was adopted in the study in order to assess the opinions of the selected respondents with the use of 13 item questionnaire. Three research questions and hypothesis were raised to guide the study. Data obtained were analyzed using simple sample techniques, frequency and percentages while hypotheses were tested using Chi Square. The findings of the study showed that ICT application has impacted positively on the secretarial profession. It was also noted that the adoption of ICT has reduced the employment rate of secretaries and those employed stand the chance of retrenchment. Finally, it was also noted that most secretaries do not encounter problem using ICT but the maintenance and procurement is a problem.

Based on the finding, the following recommendations were made that organization should make adequate provision for ICT and necessary infrastructure should be provided so that the secretaries will be efficient and accurate in the performance of their duty, the secretaries should endeavour to update their knowledge as at when due so as to be well abreast of the modern office equipment, Efforts at training students/ pupils on ICT as a course should be intensified in the school curriculum and proper awareness and enlightment programme should be provided.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Information technology (ICT) is generally regarded as the fourth industrial revolution in the world (Asakpa, 2003). Indeed ICT has become the gateway to the modern information skills and orientation (ISO) which distinguish the world order. ICT in secretarial field can be understood as the application of digital gadget to all aspects of secretarial duties. Within the context of secretarial profession, ICT is described as the combination of technology for collecting, storing, processing, file management, diary keeping, communicating and delivering of information relating to secretarial processes (Oladimeji 2003). The spread and efficiency of ICT is critical to the achievement of secretarial goal (Obanya 2002). ICT involves the application of all aspect of the use of computer, micro electronic devices, satellite and communication technology.

The national policy on ICT (2001), describe ICT as any equipment that is used in the acquisition, storage, manipulation management, control, display, switching and transmission of information. In other dimension, ICT is conceptualized as communication in whatever forms used, assessed, relayed and transmitted to communicate, send and receive information. Application and utilization  of these devices converts information, text, messages, sound and motion to digital form. In an office situation, ICT influences the secretarial behavior of the secretaries through training and  retraining. It is an integral component of secretarial duties. Since the role of a secretary involves managerial and clerical function.

The potential of ICT as an effective tool to promote efficiency and meet present day secretarial challenges in the organization is not in doubt. The federal government of Nigeria approved a national ICT policy in March 2001 and implementation started in April of that same year. With the establishment of the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA), charged with the implementation of the policy, the federal government recognized that private service providers have enormous capacity for ICT services. Accordingly government setup the Nigeria National ICT for development of ICT4D, strategic action plan committee to develop a new road map for the nation.

ICT has positively affected the secretarial profession in   all ramification such that no nation can escape this transforming movement driven forward by the engines of the internet and the modern day invention like the computer, fax machines, GSM and so on. This implies that secretaries for the survival of their profession now have   to put their very destines in ICT. Recent findings, have shown that the introduction and application of ICT into the secretarial  profession improved the performance of the secretaries in every organization. Recent studies have shown also that the application of ICT makes the secretary work less and accurately (Ogunsiji and Aregbe 2010). Lasisi (2005) is also of the view that ICT has upgraded the function of  a secretary and has removed the boredomness of using a typewriter. The cyber revolution has started to redefine secretarial profession, creating new self Image, creativities and innovation, and an ever expanding technological framework. However, the new challenges of ICT and the excitement they are causing do not seems to permeate the entire society.

In early modern time, numbers of nobles have secretaries  who functioned quite similarly to those of the present day. They are men who had good command of several languages including Latin, and were required to have what we could consider today as a broad generalized education. Following the renaissance, men continued to dominate clerical and secretarial  roles until late 1880’s when the new writing machine was invented that welcomed the entering of women into the profession.

In 1942, the National Secretaries Association (NSA) was formed (now know as the International Association of Administrative professional).NSA first administered the certificate of professional secretaries examination in 1951. The history of secretarial profession in Nigeria can be traced back to the arrival of the missionaries and the colonial masters.

Information technology have restricted the role of the secretary through the elimination of monotonous aspect of paper holding and filling. As a result, the secretary would likely have more time for work that involve human behavioural aspect. There is no doubt about the fact that ICT has contributed greatly to the secretarial profession. The coverage of this research work is to examine the effect of information technology on the performance of secretaries in the office.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Defficiency of the typewriter and the duties of the secretary in the office has affected the organizational framework directly and indirectly, which slows the efficiency of the front office. There has been a lot of research efforts in other to recommend or find a lasting solution to the challenges of the secretaries in the office but their are still lapes. This study examines the effect of information technology on the performance of secretaries in the office.

THE EFFECTS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE SECRETARIES IN THE FRONT OFFICE

EFFECTIVENESS OF SECRETARY ON ADEQUATE TRAINING WITH MODERN EQUIPMENT

ABSTRACT

The study is on Effectiveness of Secretary on adequate training with modern equipment.

The need for secretaries to be trained with modern equipment’s in the world today is aimed at achieving the organizational goals.

The study examined closely with a view to identify the methods of training, types of training, objectives, needs, analysis, impact and assessing the result of training and development.

In carrying out the study, detailed explanations were made and the research work is divided into five chapters.

Historical background, statement of problem, justification for the study, significance study and research questions were dealt with in chapter one.

Chapter two was on literature review to confirm the variables of the study.

Chapter three contains the design used which several instruments such as questionnaires were used for collection of data.

CHAPTER ONE

1.1HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

People working in the offices in the past find it so today and working was so being due to the fact that certain modern amenities used in the offices today to and office workers were not in place.  As a result of this, the zeal to work in the normal trend so as to achieve the set goals by the organisation was not there.

The effectiveness of any organisation defends on the soundness of its workers.  As a result of this, the zeal to work in the office today has become quite interesting, motivating and enthausiatic because the modern office is well equipped.  The introduction of various modern machines which have greatly helped both the private and public enterprises to increase employees productivity. At this dispensation training of a secretary with modern equipment will enhance efficiency and effective performance of a secretary when discharging their legimate duly.

Training with modern equipment is very important expenses of manpower and resources development, whose relevance can never be over – emphasizes.  It becomes very necessary to train secretary with modern equipment so as to force the present and future challenges in dispensation of his legitimate duly.

Effective human resources development programme should be able to develop a secretary in the organisation for the purpose of improving productivities.

Actually development is a long term and more embracing programme that are meant to meet anticipated changes and the needs of an organisation as a whole. It utilizes a systematic organised procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purposes and it also aims at adding to the mills of workers, improving their knowledge and altering their attitude.  Thus training is a systematic development of knowledge, skills and attitude required by an individual to perform a specific or a given task.  It is a short – term process utilizing a systematic and organised procedure by which non-managerial personnel keeps technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose (A. A. Lawal (1992:310)

All secretaries no matter the level of their education, previous training and experiences, still need to undergo training with modern equipment within and outside the organisation in which they are employed.  Since secretaries have responsibilities and are connected towards attaining the goals of the organisation, there is need for them to be trained and re-trained.

A properly planned procedure of meeting the training and development needs of secretaries need to be put in place irrespective of the type of job each secretary carries out.  Specialised training touching the diversions of the job is a responsibility, which the management has to perform.  For training and development to be successful and resending, secretaries must desire to be trained with automated machines and be willing to improve on their performance.  Once a properly and systematic procedure have been put in place, secretaries should avail themselves with such opportunities because this will definitely increase their feeling of self esteem and value to the organisation to which they belong and this prepares them to future requirements and more responsibilities.

The objective of any training programme is to master the activities and behaviour of jobs.  No matter the type of training programmes given to secretaries, they all have an overwhelming effect not only on the improvement of secretaries alone but also rewarding advantages to the organisation, that is practice, policies, rules and so on, which affect them and the organisation.

Secretaries should be able to develop the abilities to learn and adapt themselves to new work methods, work contents and work relationships, suffice this to say that these benefits to be derived from training an indispensable investment in human resources management which no organisation should ignore.

The need for training with modern equipment have come to an increasingly high demand considering the part and roles in plays in the growth in organisation as a means of maintaining acceptable level of performance recently, large organisation have been changing partly or entirely in several aspects.  Office services and methods are becoming complex and the output expected daily is also very high.  As a result of the above engaging, maintaining and retaining qualifies secretaries to cope with this increasing demand of the office is the interest of every organisation.  Thus office automation becomes a challenging opportunity involving machines and the harassing of natural resources so receive human beings from the problem of heavy physical till Business nowadays demand advanced secretaries skills in area of business communication, operation of office recalled machines and organizing ability.

EFFECTIVENESS OF SECRETARY ON ADEQUATE TRAINING WITH MODERN EQUIPMENT

THE PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES OF FEMALE SECRETARIES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANIZATION EFFICIENCY

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the problems and challenges of female secretaries and achievement of organization efficiency in Ijebu-Ode Local Government area.  It employed descriptive approach of data gathering and analysis. Fifty (50) female secretaries were selected for the study. The non-parametric tool of chi-square was employed for the purpose of data analysis; three research hypotheses were tested in all.

Data analyzed revealed that female secretaries face different challenges in their work environment.  These challenges range from sexual assault to dynamism in work environment.  The researcher however recommended that organizations should procure as many modern technological gadgets as are available in the market to enable female secretaries increase their productivity.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                      INTRODUCTION

In any establishment, the secretary is seen as a key factor to other personnel in an organization.  It is quite impossible to by-pass the secretary to other executives; hence the role of the secretary cannot be over-emphasized.  A secretary has been given so many titles as pillar, mirror and skeletal structure of an establishment.

The word secretary has been in existence for a very long time precisely as soon as business organization came into being. The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defined a secretary as an employee in an office, who deals with correspondence, keeps records, make arrangements and appointment for a particular member of staff.

A secretary is the principal administrative support position in an office and increases the effectiveness of program staff by coordinating the paper flow of the office and carrying out the day-to-day administrative support activities required to accomplish the work of the organization.  The tasks which the secretaries perform fall into four broad categories; communication, coordination, organizations and records maintenance.  Within these categories, Secretaries perform a variety of tasks which enable managers and staffs to accomplish the mission of the agency.

It is pertinent to say that, despite the facts that secretary has many roles to play in the management of any organization, so also there are many challenges and problems facing the secretary which may affect the proper running of an organization, especially the female secretaries.

These problems may range from interpretation of words, tact’s in handling of office routines, inability to tackle complex situation, gender, and lack of general secretary skills to enhance efficiency.

Therefore, a female secretary needs to have good basic educational background and experience.  In addition, a female secretary should have good secretarial skills in shorthand, typewriting, she must be computer literate and sound knowledge of English Language and practical experience of office works since a female secretary is expected to ease the burden of her boss whose work and responsibilities make heavy demand upon her.

1.1               STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The following areas are to be identified such as lack of recognition for a female secretary, sexual assault from the boss, difficult boss, gender and working hours have become a very serious problem in an organization.  Drastic measure needs to be taken to prevent these problems among the female secretaries in an organization.

Considering the problems and challenges faced by the female secretaries from their boss, it arouses the interest of the researcher to appraise the challenges faced among female secretaries in an organization.

1.2          PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to highlight the challenges and problems facing a female secretary and achievement of the organization efficiency.

This project will also expose the cause of the problems and challenges of female secretaries and the effect on the organization they work for.  It will reveal the ideal type of relationship a female secretary should maintain with the public.

1.3                RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.              Are female secretaries more effective than male secretaries in an organization?

2.              Will stress at both home and office liable to destabilize competent female secretary?

3.              Is pregnancy a major setback for female secretaries to do their job efficiently?

4.              Will cordial relationship between the boss and secretary enhance productivity?

5.              Are female secretaries facing assault from their boss?

1.4                RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

1.     Female secretaries are more effective than male secretaries in an organization.

2.     Stress at both home and office are liable to destabilize competent female secretary.

3.     Pregnancy is major setback for female secretaries to do their job efficiently.

4.     Cordial relationship between the boss and secretary can enhance productivity.

5.     Female secretaries are said to be seductive and sometimes face sexual assault from their boss.

1.5              SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The success and achievement of any organization depends on a great deal of the effectiveness and efficient performance of its secretaries.  Knowing this fact, management has tried to adopt, effective personal policies on how best to encourage these secretaries so as to get the best from them in terms of output and flow of information effective use of time and efficient running of the organization.

THE PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES OF FEMALE SECRETARIES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF ORGANIZATION EFFICIENCY

THE CHALLENGES OF MODERN AUTOMATION ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF SECRETARIES IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

Work was the major activities of man before the industrial revolution, that was the period marked with mechanization of work, presently computer is representing mechanization thereby turning the work into automation. The 21st century has witnessed a lot of advancement both in science and technology. This advancement has been growing rapidly since the end of the Second World War both in manufacturing, aviation, medicine, engineering, finance and administration, such advances has affected adversely in all aspects of life. This technological advancement includes the modern office automation which we use in our day to day activities in the business organizations (Ajayi, 2000).

However modern automation in all works of life does not exempt secretarial productivity. The required unchanged while the procedure continues to change as more and more sophisticated machines are introduced in the office.

The impacts brought about the invention of the new office machines are immeasurable many of those office automation out-ways the secretaries performance due to their effectiveness, speed and time saving. The introduction of most office automation might go as far as costing secretaries their jobs as a result of limited numbers being employed (Merony, 2001).

The fear of cost of craftsmanship as new product (automation) replaces the old ones becomes the issue at stake. Consequently, the issue of bearing extra cost in training and retraining secretaries to get accustomed with these inventions becomes a problem. There is apprehension in offices by secretaries as to what is t heir fate due to inventions and innovations in modern technologies. The computer has been invented to do many things that are hitherto done by the secretary. A chief executive can stay in his office or room to make flight and hotel reservations. He can manage information. He does not need any knowledge of keyboard to input his information. He can now use a pen to input his letter or document on the computer and with internet facility and with efficient server he can send his mail and receive reply. He can store, edit, retrieve and print his information.

However, the secretary’s roles and personal attributes still make him somebody to reckon with in the office and in the organization.

There are wide range of office machines and equipment which now enable secretaries to improve their performances. Such new machines take the form of electronic typewriters that have replaced the manual ones. Word processors with multi-purpose facilities, computers and other sophisticated office machines and equipment are now provided by employers. Some of the physical equipment used by secretaries includes computer communication equipment and electronic pocket organizers (Lucas, 2007). New technological equipment that has altered the procedures and technique for office functions include the computers, electronic mail/commerce, voice mail, and the internet. A secretary is an office-staff who combines the mastery secretarial skills of typewriting and shorthand with office routine functions. Automation is an innovation and a consequence of the industrial revolution. It is a collection of methods for controlling machinery and production processes by mechanical method, usually with electronic equipment. Spencer (2001) defined automation as the process of replacing human work with work done by machines or system designed to perform a specific combination of action automatically or repeatedly. Mayer (2007) defines a secretary as an executive assistant, who possesses a mastery of office skills, demonstrates the ability to assume responsibility with or without supervision, exercises initiatives and judgment and makes decision within the scope of assigned authority. It means that a qualified secretary should have a wide knowledge of business acumen, versatile knowledge in accounting, personnel, office practice, and communication and inside knowledge of the operation of all departments within the organization where he works, unlike a half-baked secretary who possesses only knowledge of shorthand, typewriting and basic office practices. The advent of the word processor has helped to make the secretarial career path cleaner. For a secretary to be employable in an automated office, Merony (2001) believed that such a secretary must be well versed in the following specific automated office equipment training:

i.            The concept and theory of specific automated office equipment.

ii.            Knowledge of the categories of equipment and their intended uses and differences.

iii.            The skill to use resources or reference materials properly.

iv.            Hands-on equipment training, etc.

The success of the newly introduced equipment depends on people, procedure and equipment (PPE). Automation can only be successful if a careful study is carried out to assure the need of the equipment and the financial resources available for the purpose. It is important to note however, that technology is not static; therefore it is essential that while planning to equip the office with modern technology, great care should be taken of the changing nature of technology. As such finance should not be invested into technology that is likely to become obsolete in a short time. It is believed that for new equipment to be installed in any organization, it has to win the good will of the staff, since they are the ones to use it. By getting the good will of the user staff, the introduction and procedures will be accepted and effective.

An automated office, undoubtedly, offers new roles and responsibilities for the secretary. Such new roles presuppose that additional training and qualifications are required from the secretaries. The relevance of automation in business was identified by Aromolaran (2003) as follows

i.            Creating a distinct career path for the secretary.

ii.            Automation creates a prominent place for the secretary on the organization chart.

iii.            It creates routine and assigned roles for the secretary.

iv.            With automation the secretary now spends less time in correcting, revising, proof-reading and reproducing documents.

1.2       Statement of the problem

The world is undergoing a rapid change due to the innovation of modern automation. The evolution continues and financial institutions in Nigeria, in order to cope with the modern age needs to know the effects of all these automated machines on staff output. What are the effects of these changes on the productivity of secretaries in the office, his or her ability to cope, his/her job security, her relevance to the office work for which she is employed and moreover, the training which is to prepare her to meet the challenges of her ever-changing work environment. For financial institutions to equip their office with modern automation they need enough capital to import these machines since they are not produced in Nigeria. Modern office automation as we know needs expertise as regards to repair and like air-conditioned room, isolated pace and wide space. It is against this background that this study seeks to investigate into the challenges of modern automation on the job performance of secretaries in financial institutions with specific reference to Guarantee Trust Bank, Ijebu-ode.

THE CHALLENGES OF MODERN AUTOMATION ON THE JOB PERFORMANCE OF SECRETARIES IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

THE CHALLENGES OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) TO MODERN SECRETARIES IN OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT

ABSTRACT

This is with the basic aim of providing practical solution towards the re-engineering and sustenance of the secretarial profession. The re-training of secretaries, carrying out of visitation in form of excursion to those firms that assemble or reproduce these modern machines proper funding of institutions and requirements of modern machines and equipment. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) freming and development strategies to secret in the office technology and management. Development of Social and Physical Infrastructure of the within the government and organizations towards enhancing effective and efficient performance of the staff. However, the final recommendations are good proposals for any organization to adopt in order to make its secretaries more effective and efficient.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                           INTRODUCTION

The world of business is changing rapidly growing as a result of technological development. This is very wide departure from the traditional business enterprises to the evolution of international and multinational organizations in Nigerian economy. Some of these establishments have acquired and installed modern communication equipments.

Thus, information technology and an ultimate fully electronic office is fast becoming a reality. In effect, information and communication technology pose a lot of challenges to modern secretaries. The impact of technological improvement in the office demands that the development of a successful secretarial career today depends of upon the secretary to acquire information and communication technology (ICT) based skills and expertise as well skills required for each category of staff.

Technology changes in our environment coupled with competition within a particular industry or in the society account for the reason why secretaries should engage in training and development to meet up with the challenges. This is as a result of the need to match changes in structure, policies, technology, processes and producers with the needed performance, attitude and behaviors. This study will provide a sight into the present day technological realities in and office and how a secretary could fit into it.

1.1   Background Information

The emergence of information and Communication Technology (ICT) has given a new improved life to communication in the office, factory, banks, hospital, hotel, supermarket, and garage or at home. As information and communication technology (ICT) continues to expand in office across the nations, the role of the secretaries has greatly evolved. Office Automation and organizational restructuring have led secretaries to assume a wide range of new responsibilities once and reserved for managerial and professional staff. Secretaries now need to be provided with training and orientation, conduct research on the internet and learn to operate new office technologies. This will enable the secretary to work along with other staff and meet the challenges of modern office.

There is no doubt that the secretary remains the life-wire of any organization. Contributions and effectiveness of a secretary depends on how he/she can cope with the modern technologies. However, with the development of new technology, secretarial profession is becoming increasingly challenging and more sophisticated that the common traditional roles of a secretary are gradually being faced out.

Secretaries are responsible for a variety of administration and clerical duties necessary to run an organization effectively. They serve as information charring house for an office, schedules an appointment, provide information to caller, organize and maintain paper and electronic file, manage project, and provide correspondent. Secretaries are aided in these tasks by a variety of office equipment such as computer, photocopier, and telephone systems. In addition, secretaries increasingly use personal computer to run spreadsheet, word processing, database management, desktop publisher, and graphic programs. Tasks previously handled by managers. Hence, this study has been designed to bring to light the veracity of ICT and the challenges and how a secretary could meet up with these challenges.

1.2   Statement of the Problem

In today’s office, traditional job like filing, keyboarding

reprography, treatment of incoming and outgoing mail and other clerical activities have now learnt themselves to Automation. Attention is now shifting from the usual traditional secretarial skill to a more modernized practice. The central focus of this study is to address the challenges of information and communication Technology that modern secretaries face.

1.3   Purpose of Study

The main objective of this study is to analyze the various forms of information and communication technology (ICT) and how they pose as challenges to modern secretaries.

It will be of great importance to practicing secretaries, employers of labor, managers Researchers, Governments and trainers of  Secretaries to know the various challenges faced by secretaries on information and communication technology.

The study will analyze its differences and major challenges pose by each of them. It will also provide strategies for the employers and organizations on how they can develop secretaries and what they can embark upon for updating secretaries’ skills to meet the challenges of modern information systems and equipment’s.

THE CHALLENGES OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) TO MODERN SECRETARIES IN OFFICE TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT

A STUDY OF THE ROLE AND PERFORMANCE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROFESSIONAL SECRETARIES IN SELECTED GOVERNMENT METROPOLIS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1            BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 

In this world it is known that professions have remarkable features that differentiation them from other professions depending on the effectiveness of the profession.

The layman’s idea about a profession is the nature of the job carried out by the members of the profession and its importance to the society. This is the reason it is mostly agreed that medicine and law are the only professions existing before the advent of the industrial revolution.

In recent past, secretarial profession was not regarded medicine and law irrespective of the indispensability of its service to the survival and growth of any organization.

Secretarial profession requires expertise training education and moral conduct. The position of secretaries then was not something to write home about, in a research carried out by carr-saunders (1964) confirmed the deteriorating social position of secretaries at that period when the issue of whether or not secretaries deserve the more honour to be consulted when matters affecting the conditions of their services are made. Secretaries were then regarded by people as more servant”.

Secretarial profession was the product of commercial school with in that period, those who attended commercial schools, were regarded as secretaries but in actual sense they ware typists.

However curriculum used in training of secretaries at the advent of industrial revolution changed to new techniques and equipment. Carr- Saunders (1964) also stated that  the rise of the secretarial profession took place almost in our own time and may be traced down to profound changes which have come over the educational world.

Secretarial profession in Nigeria today is distinguished as one of the profession that exist as a result of its immense contributions to commercial social and political growth of any nation. It is  generally conceived as an instrument for achieving national growth, more so now that there is urhant need for it.

However, the main reason for this research is to clearly examine and determine those vital effectiveness that secretaries under toot  to ensure continued professional growth witnessed through the efficiency of their continued service to mankind. The excellent performance of secretaries in their fields. Are most needed now that Nigeria has gone computerized like the European countries.

Companies and Ministries require the services of competent personnel like the secretaries to help them achieve their organizational goals. As a result the image of  secretaries is coming to receive a great credit in this are and has helped the Nigerian youth to pick interest in secretarial course which labour market. The efficiency and proficiency of these secretaries depend extensively on the quality of grooming they received from their various schools and instillation of higher leaning

1.2            STAEMENT OF PROBLEM 

Since our institution of higher learning are determined towards producing  adequate manpower capable of undertaking secretarial jobs in today’s ministering these secretaries  who make organization objective releasable must have to carry out some personal activities meant for and therefore  result in the perfection of their performance .

The problem now is what impede the professional growth of the secretarial profession are yet know.

1.3            PUROSE OF THE STUDY 

The main purposes of this study are:

1        To find out the type of professional growth activities that secretaries engage in to improve their professional effectiveness and efficiency.

2.       To find out how often these secretaries engage in such activities.

3.                 To find out who organization and finances these activities.

4.                 Determine whether these secretaries within the vicinity of the study are satisfied with the professional growth activities which they had at one time or the other engaged.

5.                 Determine alternative suggestions about appropriate development of these secretaries.

1.4            SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

The result of the study will help to expose the secretaries and to the type of performance that they would engage in for their professional development. It will be of great help to selected government parastatal particularly in Enugu Metropolis to determine the type of professional development activities they would engage their secretaries in.

Finally it will help carry out research studies on related topics.

1.5            RESEARCH QUESTIONS 

1.                 What type of professional  growth activities performance effectiveness do secretaries engage in ?

2.                 How often do you engage in professional performance effectiveness?

3.                 Who organizes and finance these activities?

4.                 How does these professional performance affect your activities?

5.                 What problem do secretaries encounter from engaging in professional growth effectiveness?

A STUDY OF THE ROLE AND PERFORMANCE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROFESSIONAL SECRETARIES IN SELECTED GOVERNMENT METROPOLIS

A SURVEY OF THE IMPLEMENTS OF AN AUTOMATED OFFICE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

It is a well-know fact that different places of work apparently have peculiar tools that are appropriate and which lessen the difficulty of work at those places. When an appropriate and standard tool in used for a certain job, the output from that job more often than not appears to be very good and satisfactory and in most cases, the exercise is usually performed within the shortest possible time,. Take for instance, peasant farmer who uses hoes and cutlass in his farming activities, he will surely have less farm produce when compared with a mechanized farmer who uses mechanized equipment, such as planter, tractor, insecticide, at cetera in his faming.

Similarly, a roadside mechanic can not perform excellently like his counterparts who has well-equiped modern workshop.

In the same vein, therefore, secretaries will perform better when an office is automated, having modern machinery, the products of technology such as computer, photocopier, facsimile telephone, Electronic mail (E-mail) et cetera to perform secretarial function.

Business world is becoming more complicated and challenging. Things move fast and for any business to survive and breakeven, performance for one’s task cannot be done manually any more. In Nigeria there has been a lot of innovations and technological development in the last twenty years. When one thinks of technological development in the office, new innovation in term of automated office usually come to the mind. New innovation of offices such as computer data communication and micro graphics, data processing, computer and word processing equipment have the work of the secretary.

However, it is note worthy that some offices find it difficult to afford modern office equipment and are therefore, forced to stick to the old equipment such as:- manual typewriter, Roneo Machine and so on to perform secretarial functions. This explain why secretarial work in such organisation seems tedious and the output usually look poor as a result of substandard office equipment employed in the process and not necessary the fault of secretarial staff.

Every organisation needs a competent and effective secretary. It is essential to note that the competency cumulates the efficiency of any secretary, which depends on the type of office equipment at her disposal.

No matter the level of qualification and experience of a secretary, if her office is not automated i.e equipped with standard modern office equipment, her degree of efficiency and productivity will be far below that of  her counterparts in automated office in term of quantity and quality.

Amongst term used to describe an automated office include “The office of the future,” “Integrated office system,” “Office information communication system.”

This technology development is referred to as the “Third wave” and therefore started to undertake massive technological change the result of which is obvious in the successful ones that are now really prospering in their business. Tom 1984

Offices, Today, are fast changing technological and as a result working in an office is now far more existing and stimulating than it has ever been. With the introduction of modern technology, business no longer suffer setbacks in terms of increased productivity, speed and accuracy Automated office or office automation. therefore, can be said to have been facilitating the work of the secretary rather than causing unemployment’s thought same people No wonder an extract from the Cambridge training Associates (1982) “what also can a secretary do?” state that the work of the office stay, the same but the way it is been carried out is changing fast. Electronic aids are not so much causing unemployment in offices, often, they expand the range of skills and duties which offices workers have, Although, some features of secretarial works are still the same things like routine typing all day. Doing the same letter over and over again., sorting mailing list by hand are  being taken over by machine skills on the word processor and problem solving when it misbehaves, for example, it may not have happened to you yet, but it is coming and on the whole, it makes the job a lot more interesting and gives full recognition to secretarial skills.

Fulon,eatl (1978) also agree  with the above assertion when they say another changes that has occurred in the secretarial field is due to technology today. They went further to say that much routine work that was done by secretaries in the past is now done by the cassettes typewriters (word processing equipment which is manufactured by IBM, Xerox and Savim) can play back recorded materials at over 500 words a minute computers which can receive information perform mathematical computations and print out report at high speeds have been developed Data transmission device can send and receive information to and form a location which is thousand of miles away, electronic calculation perform a variety of mathematical operation with speed and accuracy. Due to these sophisticated machines and the continued research and development in the electronic field, the secretarial job has, and will continue to be upgrade.

Furthermore, technology advancement in the world of communication needs to be mentioned. We now have fax machine (fasimile) which has virtually replaced telex also Electronic mail. (E-mail) via internet, which is more suitable for sending large written document with minimal cost. There is now secretarial set telephone system which allows the secretary to talk with the boss while the outside caller is on hold.

This enables the secretary to sieve caller, to allow the boss to concentrate on her tight schedule. Modern technological invention has developed such as telephone that has facility for holding conference in which case people can discuss without necessarily gathers in one place.

The major benefits of an automated office to both the secretary and the organisation include increased productivity, greater efficiency and reduce operational cost. In this regard, the impact of automated office on secretarial service is very much appreciated.

Although, the tremendous importance and advantages of automated office cannot be over-emphasised, nevertheless, it cannot be taken totally as a replace of human being in the office because human beings have to set the machine in motion to perform certain functions. Deyer (1980) “One machine can do the work of fifty ordinary men, but no machine can do the work of one extra-ordinary man” It is therefore the intention of this research to find out “the survey of the implement of an automated office” on secretarial service in organisations

A SURVEY OF THE IMPLEMENTS OF AN AUTOMATED OFFICE

THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN SECRETARIAL ADMINISTRATION

ABSTRACT

Communication is the heart of all social intercourse. Whenever man has come to establish regular relations with one another, the nature of the systems of communication created them; the forms these have taken and the measure of effectiveness they have attained have largely determined the chances of bringing communities closer together or making them one.

It is the aim of this research to find out how important communication is to secretarial administration and the problems associated with it.

A number of past related literature were   examined as it relates to communication and its importance in the administration of a secretariat.

The questionnaire was designed, validated and administered on the respondents. Data gathered thereof were analyzed using simple percentage analysis.

By and large, it was discovered  among others that communication helps in the dissemination of the goals of the organisation especially to a secretary, it is also used for the organising of human material resources.

It was however, recommended intreallia that communication outfits should rehabilitate their network and promote dialoged by making more use of non technical language in their communication.

To this end, the researchers, considering that the interest of new issues will continue to grow, realises that the importance of the new order we seek is not only a goal but a stage in a journey. It is continuing quest for more within all organisations. This research represents what the researchers believes they have learnt. And this above all, is what they wishes to communicate.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Communication services started in 1886 when the British colonial power in Nigeria established a wireless contact between Lagos and London under the CABLE AND WIRELESS COMPANY. This was followed by the establishment of telephone services in government offices in Lagos. By 1928, the first service trunk had extended to the hinterland reaching Ilorin, Jebba and Calabar. Further, the service extended to the principal town of the country reaching Kano by 1952.

Telecommunication infrastructure was purposely developed to support the colonial administrative set up and as such, services were developed in two parallel schemes. The internet services were provided by the governments posts and telecommunications (P &T) Department while the external services were carried out by the CABLE AND WIRELESS COMPANY. This parallel scheme persisted up to 1984 even though, after independence in 1960, government took over the CABLE Company known as NIGERIA EXTERNAL TELECOMMUNICATION (NET) a limited liability company. When NET was established in 1963, it was jointly owned by government and the CABLE AND WIRELESS on equal basis.

The second phase of taken over came in 1972 when the government acquired 100% of NET shares. Over the four development plans expenditure, the set objectives were quite ambitious but actual implementations over these period was less impressive. They were:

i.              At the end of first plan in 1968, the country had installed 22,000 main telephone lines.

ii.            At the second planned period from 1970 to 1975, the network stood at 52,000 main telephone lines. The second planned period also ushered in the use of satellite for International Gateway in Lagos with standard A – EARTH Station at Lanlate in Oyo State.

iii.           The third planned period from 1975 to 1980 saw the network grow to 188,000 main telephone lines, 5,000 telex lines and the extension of the Euro-West Africa submarine cable via Abidgjan to Lagos.

iv.           The fourth phase from 1981 to 1985 brought in a second international Gateway at Kujama, Kaduna state in 1983. The total installed capacity as at the end of 1984 was 250,000 main telephone lines.

With effect from January 1985, government decided to make fundamental changes in the structure of the communication section. NET and telecommunication arm of P & T were merged to form what is known as the Nigerian Telecommunication limited, by the then minister of communications col. A.A. Abdullahi, while the postal unit still remains government department called Nigerian Posts (NIPOST) responsible for postal services only.

NITEL was given the responsibility of providing integrated internal and external services with autonomy as a commercial organisation to support itself without government subvention. The ownership was however, 100% government.

The world in pursuit of general economic development, started experiencing a progressive departure from government and state owned natural monopolies to commercialized and privatized public utilities and enterprises. On the heels of these melodramatic changes, are the emerging technologies which are redefining the traditional methods of business practices and social integration.

In consonance with the burgeoning   trends world –wide, coupled with the focus on performance of parastatals and government owned enterprises as the raison d’etre for the creation by the federal government of the defunct Technical Committee on privatization and commercialization (TCPC), the Nigerian telecommunication  eventually gained the status of a fully commercialized but government owned entity in January 1992. With the subsequent signing of the performance agreement by NITEL Ltd in May, 1992, the  Onus of  sourcing and   appropriating funds and the general management of human and material resources of the company fell on it’s shoulders.

Understandably therefore, and in pursuance of the initiative towards the deregulation of it’s telecommunication sector, the federal government formally inaugurated the Nigeria communication commission (NCC) on the 16th of July 1993 to set standards, regulate, monitor and arbitrate on all activities in the eight areas open to private sector participation.

THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN SECRETARIAL ADMINISTRATION

THE EFFECTIVE SECRETARY: HER ROLES AND CHALLENGES IN THE MODERN ORGANIZATION

ABSTRACT

This project examined the effective secretary: Her roles and challenges in the modern organisation. It analyses the duties of secretaries: the handling of males, (machines operation) computer, fax machines, copier. It talks extensively about the roles or function carried out by the modern day secretary, and the challenges and problems which they encounter in the modern organisation. This project also examines the functions of the secretary in relation to her duties in today’s modern office: it analysed the roles of secretaries in the absence of her boss, organising meeting, booking appointments and record keeping and keeping imp rest system. It recommends that there was need for effective training for potential secretaries, in order to enable them cope with the roles and challenges ahead of them in the modern organisation. It aims are helping executives at all levels to develop the secretarial function within their own organisation, departments, section or offices, so as it integrate the secretarial staff into the team, be it administrative, managerial, production or any other special field.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

The secretary formed an important part of the unique roles of an organization because he or she is part of the management.  The secretaries are usually called names like.

Next in command of the boss’ “memory aid”, Protector of the boss”, Company’s image makers” etc. This indicated the importance of secretaries in Management, and the roles they play and the challenges they face in the organization.  The Effective Secretary’s roles and responsibilities also mingle with that of her boss, and could affect him adversely if there is no adequate effort to ensure correspondence.  Therefore, communication between secretary and the boss has to be properly coordinated to ensure Effectiveness of the secretary’s output.

The rapidity of the growth of business organization and its documentations, couples with the dependable roles of a secretary, which makes this research timely and imperative. Basically, the efficiency of any organization depends on the effectiveness and effective contributions of the secretary.

Also the tremendous changes in our society today, presents a continuous challenge for any  secretary; therefore any secretary who wants to meet up with these advancements has to be prepared, and to prepare means to undergo on the job trainings, attend seminars courses and workshop where they will be properly briefed and taught.  The word “Secretary” ultimately came from the same Latin word that gave us “secret.”  Originally, it means “one entrusted with the secrets and confidences of a superior.” In English it was secetarie and in middle Latin it was secretaries.  The word “secretary,” in something close to its present meaning, has been with us for at least 500 years.  In France, from the 13th to the 16thcentury, the word “secretaire” meant a confident.  It also became an administrative term meaning “someone who transcribes or arranges for another.” Probably the earliest use of the word was in relation to those people who acted for a king. A king would have his trusted agents handle correspondence on private or secret matters, particularly matters of state.

Just when secretaries originated no one knows exactly.  The role arose out of the natural need for a prominent person to whom confidential matters could be entrusted and who could act as an assistant for a principal.  It is known that secretaries exited in Rome prior to the establishment of the empire.  They were usually educated men who took dictation as “scribes,” and oftentimes acted as trusted advisors.  Before the invention of parchment and reed pens, tools of the trade for scribes ranged from chisels used upon stone to styluses used on clay, wood, or wax tablets.  Shorthand became part of the preparation and training of secretaries (and emperors as well, including Julius Caesar and Augustus).  In early modern times, members of the nobility had secretaries, who functioned quite similarly to those of the present day.  They were always men; most has command of several languages, including Latin, and were required to have what we would consider today as a broad generalized education.  Men continued to dominate the secretarial field until the late 1880s.  With the invention of the writing machine, many women entered the office workforce in various clerical roles.  Many women held, or aspired to hold, positions as secretaries.  They attended secretarial schools and worked to attain superior skills.  The demand for secretaries was so great that in outpaced the supply.

In the 1930s, the number of men with the title secretary dwindled.  Women dominated the office workforce.  Some were promoted form steno pools, some were graduates of business colleges or secretarial schools, but all were seeking the professional status and pay previously enjoyed by their male counterparts. Recognition continued as America’s heartland became the nucleus of an organization that would help to professionalize the occupation.  In 1942, the National Secretaries Association (NSA) was formed (now know as the International Association of Administrative Professionals). NSA first administrated the Certified Professional Secretaries Examination, a standard of excellence for the profession, in 1951. Today, secretaries (also known as administrative assistants, office coordinators, executive assistants, office managers, et al} are using computers, the internet, and other advanced office technologies to perform vital “information management” functions in the modern office.  Just when secretaries originated no one knows exactly.

Secretaries no longer “simply” type correspondence for “the boss.” Now, they often write that correspondence as well as plan meetings, organize data using spreadsheet and database management software, interact with clients, vendors, and the general public, supervise the office and other staff, handle purchasing, ands even train other workers.

THE EFFECTIVE SECRETARY: HER ROLES AND CHALLENGES IN THE MODERN ORGANIZATION

THE CONFIDENTIAL SECRETARY’S EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH ADEQUATE COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT

Communication within any organisation is vital for the achievement of organizational goals.  These are the processes that link the various composition of the organisation together.  They are found in all levels of the organisation and they affect every individual working for the organisation, in one way or another.  The effectiveness of communication medium.  The way in which it is managed has a significant impact on the ultimate effectiveness of the total organisation.

Communication has a major influence on both types of organizations goals, task and maintenance with respect to task or productivity, without provision for downward communications, employees would not know what to do.

Without adequate provision for upward communication, secretaries would not have the information needed to decide what to tell employees to do.

This project therefore examines the place of communication in secretarial functions of an organisation.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Although communication applies to all phases of effectiveness, it is particularly important in the function of leading.  People communication is the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver, with the information being understood by the receiver.  This definition then becomes the basis for the communication process model (discuss) in this project.  The model focuses on the sender of the communication the transmission of the message, and the receiver of the message.

The model also draws attention to noise, which interfer with good communication and feedback, which facilitates communication.  This chapter also examines the impact of the electronic media on communication.  It is no exaggeration to say that the communication function is the means by which organized activity is unified.  It may be looked upon as the means of which social inputs are fed into social systems.     Whether it is church, a family, a scout, troop, or a business enterprise the transfer of information from one individual to another is absolutely essential.

Over the years, the importance of communication in organized effort has been recognized by many authors, Chester I. Barnard for example, viewed communication as the means by which people are linked together in an organization to achieve a common goal.  This is still the fundamental function of communication.  Indeed, group activity is impossible without communication because coordination and charge cannot be effected.

Psychologists have also been interested in communication.  They emphasize human problem that occur in the communication process of initiating, transmitting, receiving information.  They have focuses on the identification of barners to good communication, especially those that involve the interpersonal relations of people, sociologists and information theorist as well as psychologist concentrated on the study of communication network.

1.2   HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA

The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is one of the most important and Strategic Federal Ministries which has been in operation prior to Nigeria’s Independence. The Ministry, Precisely came into being on 1st April, 1958, when the control of the Nigerian Military Forces was surrendered by the British War Office to the Government of Nigeria.  With this creation, the ministry of Defence became institutionally responsible for the administration of the Armed Forces Comprising of the Nigerian Army, the Nigerian Navy and the Airforce and comprising of the Nigerian Army, the Nigerian Navy and the Airforce which are collectively referred to as the Armed Services.  In addition to the services, the ministry also has under its umbrella the Defence Headquarters, the Defence Industries Corporation, the command and staff College, the Veteran Affairs Section and the National War College.

The Ministry of Defence Headquarters is headed by the Honourable Minister of Defence ably assisted by the permanent secretary.  The Civilian cell of the Ministry which operates through Departments in consonance with the 1988 Civil Service Reforms has eight (8) Departments and three units, while the military cell comprises of the Armed Forces.  The Civilian Cell provides supportive services to the Armed Forces in order to ensure their combat readiness.  The eight (8) Departments and the three units of the civilian cell of the Ministry are as following:

a.           Personnel Department

b.           Finance and Supplies Department

c.            Planning Research and Statistics Department

d.           Joint – Services Department

e.            Army Affairs Department

f.             Navy Affairs Department

g.            Airforce Affairs Department

h.           Veteran Affairs Department

i.             Legal; Audit and information units.

The Armed Services cell of the Ministry Comprises the following:-

a.           Defence Headquarters

b.           Nigerian Army Headquarters

c.            Naval Headquarters

d.           Nigerian Airforce Headquarters

e.            Defence Institutions like the NDA, War College and CSC, Jaji.

f.             Defence Parastatals like Dicon Kaduna, Tafawa Balewa Square Investment Limited Lagos.

The Overall Policy Objectives of the Ministry of Defence include the following:-

a.           Maintaining men of the Nigerian Armed Forces in a state of combat readiness on land Sea and Air.

b.           Maintaining a proper balance in Arms and Men to meet the needs of Internal and external Security of the Country.

c.            Making Provision for the welfare of the men of the Armed Forces in terms of training, accommodation, health care and other benefits aimed at boosting their morale.

d.           Enhancing the capability and sophistication of the country’s Defence Industries in order to rescue the country’s dependence on foreign sources of supply.

Each of the Armed Services – Army, Navy and Airforces has its own peculiar history which explains its evolution, with the Defence Headquarters being at apex of the Armed Forces hierarchy.  As with other military organizations the world over, the creation of Defence Headquarters (DHQ) was predicated on the need to have an Organ with the Nigerian Armed Forces whose primary role would be to harmonise and co-ordinate the activities of the 3 services.  This aspect of the Armed Forces hierarchy came into existence with the creation of the office of the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) by the 1979 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.  The CDS formally took office in April 1980.  The Defence Headquarters was however abolished with the change of Government in 1983.  In 1985, it was re-established as Joint Chief of Staff Headquarters and headed by a Chairman. As the military embarks on restructuring and preparation for civil rule, the Defence Headquarters along with the office of CDS, recognized in the constitution was re-introduced with effect from September 1990.  In its basic concept therefore, the DHQ is tasked with the duty of removing operational bottlenecks in interservice combat functions by giving firm policy guidelines on command, control communications and intelligence.  Other tasks of the DHQ include general administration and attending to the logistics needs of combat forces.  The operational, logistics, training, planning, intelligence, administration and information are co-ordinated by five Departments namely:

Department of Training, Operations and Plans, Department of Logistics, Department of Administration and Defence Intelligence Agency.

The ministry of Defence takes responsibility for matters that are of common interest to the three armed services on training, welfare, procurement, international engagements.

THE CONFIDENTIAL SECRETARY’S EFFECTIVENESS THROUGH ADEQUATE COMMUNICATION

FACTORS THAT MILITATE AGAINST EFFICIENT PERFORMANCE OF RESOURCES IN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY (I.M.T)

ABSTRACT

In this research, it is assumed that factors that militate against efficient performance of humans’ resource management in Institute of Management and Technology (I.M.T) Enugu is a factor where nt in the nations economic system, because Internationally or unintentionally the policy makers do not deliberately resort to measure capable of reducing inefficient performance of our management to acceptable level.
This research is concerned with ways and means of identifying us causes and measures of curbing the problem created by poor performance of our management.
To do this, this research will specifically investigate the incidence of factors that militate against efficient performance of humans’ resource management in institute of Management and Technology Enugu and to determine what factors are responsible for that poor performance of our managements.

FACTORS THAT MILITATE AGAINST EFFICIENT PERFORMANCE OF RESOURCES IN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY (I.M.T)

THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE ON STUDENT DEPARTMENT SECRETARIAL STUDIES

ABSTRACT

The study reported herein was carried out to identify the impart of industrial training to the training of students secretarial with particular reference to the institute of management and Technology Enugu, Enugu State.

The study treated the background, statement of problems, purpose and objectives, scope and delimitation, significance and general research question parting to the study.

Matters related to the study were review and questionnaires were used collection of data.  Tables and simple percentages were used in the presentation and analysis of data.  Finally, the findings were discussed, summarized and conclusion and recommendation made so.

From the study, it has proved from available the following:
1.    Students were given practical training during SIWES
2.    The student could perform better after graduating if their receive adequate work experience from the industries during their one year industrial training.
3.    if employers will accept and provide students with any available machines and equipment, the students will be able to carry out their duties effectively.
4.    It was discovered that students are not adequately supervised during their industrial training.
5.    Some students drop t work after their I T than going back to school.

To solve the problems identified in this study, the following recommendation were made.
1.    The ITF should make the students to understand the concepts of SIWES.
2.    Employers should accept and provide students with facilities necessary for meaningful industrial experiences
3.    Institution should organization proper supervision and assign every supervisor to a number of students who are under going the training in one state or town.
4.    Effects should be made to study carefully the objectives and relevance of SIWES in conjunction in with the students needs interest and aspiration (socially and academically as future builders the nation and nation’s manpower requirements.  In order to come up with a mere meaningful education plan)

Conclusively, student industrial work experience scheme creates a great impact on students performance in the labour market.

THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE ON STUDENT DEPARTMENT SECRETARIAL STUDIES

THE CHALLENGES OF WORD PROCESSING TO SECRETARIES IN SOME ELECTED FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

ABSTRACT 

This project is on the challenges of word processor to secretaries in some selected financial institutions in Enugu state. Questions have been asked on whether word processor had a problems in secretarial practice or not? Will the introduction of word processor not make additional demands on the secretary in terms of skill training and finally, will it not straight away leads to redundancy and subsequently loss of job for some secretaries.
The project comprises of five chapters. Chapter one deals with background information, statement of problems research questions, scope of study, significance of the study and definition of terms.
Chapter two deals with review of related literature, word processor, functions of word processor, word processor as an aid to decision making, word processor and achievement of organizational goals and challenges posed by word processor to secretaries.
Chapter three deals with the method use in collecting data. The findings of the researcher was that word processor has indeed posed a lot of challenges to secretaries. One of the challenges is  that secretaries have undergone training in order to keep abreast with the use of machine.
In chapter four, dealt with data analysis and presentation. Simple percentage was used to analyzed and interpret the data collected.
The researcher discovered that word processor does not constitute a threat to secretaries, instead she used it as part of her tools and processing of information which aid decision making.
My recommendation is that the employee of labor especially secretaries should endeavor to provide word processors and engage their secretaries in an in service training on how to use the machine.

THE CHALLENGES OF WORD PROCESSING TO SECRETARIES IN SOME ELECTED FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

THE EFFECT OF INADEQUATE COMPUTERS IN SECRETARIAL TRAINING

ABSTRACT

This research work was carried out to investigate the effect of inadequate computers in secretarial training in Isoko North Local Government Council and Delta State Polytechnic, Ozoro.

In fact, the availability of computers has a great positive effect on secretarial training.  Lack of it usually affects them vehemently.

In line with this, three research questions were constructed and structured questionnaire administered, which were analyzed.

It was discovered that inadequate computers exist in the Department and only five computers are presently in use in the selected school together with manual typewriters and few electric typewriters.  Even the few computers supplied were yet to be installed thereby making the students to graduate without computer skill.

Low performance of student secretaries was associated to inadequate computers and would be better if provided with the needed equipment as they desire more practical training to theoretically oriented training.

Lack of funds was also noted as responsible for the lack of equipment and as such, government assistance as well as external assistance and management assistance are needed for the procurement of more computers. Students’ payment of equipment levy would also be seen as a way of solving the problem.

THE EFFECT OF INADEQUATE COMPUTERS IN SECRETARIAL TRAINING