THE ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION IN OSHODI-APAPA AXIS OF LAGOS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.    Background of the study

Traffic congestion in commercial cities in Nigeria has been a cause for concern for every well-meaning Nigerian who craves for infrastructural development and maintenance. The continuous road traffic congestion in Nigerian cities especially in Lagos which started from the 1980s immediately after Udeoji award which enhanced household income and resulted to increased desire for both private and commercial vehicle ownership is intensifying on daily basis. The daily movement of people in Nigerian cities is becoming more difficult and complex.

Lagos state being the most populated state in Nigeria according to the national population commission has been engulfed in traffic congestion this may be due to population explosion and urban migration which has increased the pressure on the available infrastructure. This is reflected in the increasing bumper-to-bumper traffic being experienced in the major cities during the morning (7:00am – 9:00am) and afternoon (3:00pm – 6:00pm) peak hours (Okpala, 1981:46). In some cases, such as in Lagos, road traffic congestion is being experienced throughout the day from 8:00am – 9:00pm which can even extend into the dead of the night on occasions. In Lagos state especially, it is not uncommon for commuters to spend more than two hours enroute to work, school, market, hospital etc. or back home even when to and fro distance is not much. According to Okpala (1998: 23), the situation has become so common that it even appears that traffic hold-ups are becoming acceptable excuses for late attendance to work or even formal and informal meetings. This malady in most of the Nigerian cities has been causing people a lot of concern (Oyefesobi, 1981:35). It is posing formidable challenges to both state governments, Local government Councils, researchers and particularly the city residents.

1.2.    Statement of the general problem

The search for an enduring solution to the traffic problems will necessarily commence with thorough investigation that will unveil the factors responsible for such problems. This is what this study intends to do with particular reference to Oshodi-Apapa express way Lagos.

1.3.    Objectives of the study

This study aims at the following:

Ø To provide this missing link by way of making good attempt at identifying the factors which are responsible for traffic problems in Oshodiapapa express way.

Ø  To recommend ways of easing traffic congestion in Lagos

Ø To examine the major causes of road traffic congestion in Lagos

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION IN OSHODI-APAPA AXIS OF LAGOS

THE IMPACT OF NIGER DELTA CRISIS ON NIGERIAN’S NATIONAL SECURITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In 2002, an international observation proclaimed the Niger Delta as one of the most volatile regions of the world. This observation came on the heels of incessant crisis which the region have been witnessing for decades but which took alarming dimension in loosing years of the 1990’s and the opening years of the new millennium. The region from one decade to another has witnessed unprecedented crisis which revolve round political and most importantly economic factors. Also from one decade to another the nature and dynamics of crisis in the region have changed, the transformations which the crisis took from the one period to another have paved way for its institutionalization in the history of the region and Nigeria in general.1 If the institutionalization in the history of the Niger Delta crisis in the politics and economy of the country is something to discuss, the threat which it has been posing and still posing to domestic and international security of the Nigerian nation state is an aspect which requires critical academic enquiry.

A systematic analysis of the crisis is informed by my intention to identify the changing dynamics of what constitutes national security over the years and how the nation state of Nigeria have been contending with the threat which the Niger Delta crisis is posing to the so called national security. National security questions is a complex of political, legal, social, economic, ideological and military problems that arises in the course of a people struggling for political and economic independence and for the establishment of equal and friendly relations with other people in the bilateral and international affairs.

It is imperative to see how regional based crisis affect the survival of the entire country and how the political entity called Nigeria have been dealing with the changing dynamics of the crisis, the current study therefore understands that the concept of national security is fluid and dynamic. All nations of the world contend and will continue to contend with the challenges arising from the national security. To Nigeria, the complicated nature of the Niger Delta crisis poses serious and enduring threat to the fragile nature of Nigerian democracy and the ever volatile national security.

What this work explores is the complexity involved in the maintenance of national security which arose as a result of the crisis in the Niger Delta. For the purpose of this research, the concept of National Security questions and the contributions of Niger Delta crisis are both international and domestic in nature.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

In this work, I attempt to answer the entire questions of the place of crude oil in the escalation and the reduction of the Niger Delta crisis. The significance of the other exigencies or factors in the crisis? The contributions of the Multinational Corporation and different political ferments in the region? The Niger Delta crisis cannot be understood without a critical understanding of the relationship between individual communities on the one hand and with the federal government on the other hand which revolve round the control of resources and retarded infrastructural, economic and social development in the region.

To what extents have the crisis constitutes threats to national security? Put differently, what is the threat which the crisis is posing to the Nigeria’s nascent democracy? How crisis have metamorphosed in the all-embracing concept of national security is also analyzed and the entire attempts made by the federal government to preserve legitimacy in the name of the fundamental national security are not left undiscussed.

Niger Delta crisis at every point in time have threatened the primacy responsibility of the government in terms of security of lives and properties and the preservation of oneness of Nigeria as a single political entity.2 National security transcends the primary role of the government in the protection of lives and properties. It also involves the international security and sovereignty. The gagging question is: is the Niger Delta crisis posing any threat to the international security and sovereignty of the Nigerian nation?


DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE IMPACT OF NIGER DELTA CRISIS ON NIGERIAN’S NATIONAL SECURITY

THE EFFECT OF MANPOWER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT ON PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study In recent times, world attention is being focused on the importance of manpower planning and development as panacea to problems associated with economic growth of nations. This is due to the fact that the growth of tangible capital stock of a nation depends to a considerable degree on human capital development. Without adequate investment in developing human capital which is the process of increasing knowledge, skills and the capacities of people in the country, the possibility of the growth of that nation might be minimal (Gyang cited in Eleyowo, Salako, and Oketokun , 2015 ).

The success of any organization whether drawn from the public sector or private sector in the contemporary business world depends on the quality of human resources available to it to initiate and implement its policies and programmes. According to Solkhe and Chaudhary (2011) human resource is the most vital factor of production and labour productivity. They also maintained that a positive future-oriented human resource development is essential for the ecient and eective service delivery in the public. In line with this, Appah, Coleman and Busine (2011) pointed out that the public sector especially in the developed world often invest several millions of money on training and development of their human capital for eective service delivery. This demonstrates the importance government attach to its human resource in the achievement of their national goals. However, in the developing world like Nigeria little or nothing is being done to plan and develop employees in many public corporations, employees often become obsolete like machines thereby hindering their ability to eectively and eciently deliver the needed services to the people ( Odumeru and Ilesanmi, 2013).

The development of indigenous manpower to serve as the propelling force for public service delivery in the public sector is no doubt a key to Nigeria’s socio-economic and political development. This is quite indispensable considering the argument of the concept of transfer of technology as a catalyzing tool for the development of the developing countries of which Nigeria is one (Ake cited in Agunyai, 2015).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE EFFECT OF MANPOWER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT ON PUBLIC SERVICE DELIVERY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

THE EFFECT OF FEDERAL CHARACTER PRINCIPLE IN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT APPOINTMENT ON NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Nigeria a federation of different nations is the most populous country in Africa with a population of over 160 million people. The country is divided into 36 states and 774 local government areas. The religious, ethnic, and cultural diversities of the federating units no doubt make it a unique one. Otite (1990) in Mustapha (2007), identifies 374 ethnic groups which are broadly divided into ethnic ‘majorities’ and ethnic ‘minorities’. The majority ethnic groups are the Hausa-Fulani of the north, the Yoruba of the southwest, and the Igbos of the southeast. However, the relationship between these groups is characterized by fear and suspicion of domination of one state or ethnic group by another. Meanwhile, this suspicion and fear between groups is historical.

However, it became pronounced when Sir Fredrick Lord Lugard began the process of subjecting ethnic groups with a history of mutual distrust and hatred together as one Nigeria. Remarkably, these ethnic groups are not of equal population and hence some tend to dominate others thus exploiting them. Also, political and economic imbalances exist among these various states or ethnic groups that make up Nigeria. These imbalances arose from the nature and character of the post-colonial Nigerian state. In almost all the sectors, state, ethnic or regions, people feel marginalized. These have brought about a choking competition for federal government appointments among the various ethnic groups which have resulted into ethno-regional conflict and tension that characterize Nigeria since 1960.

The emergence of various militia groups in the Niger Delta, OPC in the South-West, MASSOB in the South East and of recent Boko Haram in the North, are all indications of the existence of rivalries between and among the various groups over the sharing of national cake. These ethnic, regional, and religious divides in the country have become so problematic with resultant patterns of inequalities. These inequalities are caused by a complex range of factors, including history, geography, cultural orientation, religious affiliation, natural resource endowments, current government policies, and past colonial policies. Akinola and Adesopo (2011) in Aderonke (2013) support this argument when they posit that, the problem of ethnic minority has been receiving attention of scholars and practitioners of governance and development. This is because ethnic minority is usually sidelined and ignored by the majority in decision making and resources distribution.

The consequence of such politics of exclusion has been agitation and demand for social inclusion, which at times results to violent actions. In a heterogeneous and deeply divided societies all over the globe attempt to manage their diversities and divisive tendencies through one or combination of policy alternatives in the management of their public services for performance and service delivery has been of great concern in politics and administration globally (Abdullah, 2007). Often times, these policy alternatives turn out to be delicate arrangements, but when carefully conceived, crafted and practiced, it provides opportunity for centre-seeking and centre-fleeing forces to interact peacefully and co-habit on agreed terms. One of such policy alternatives adopted for the management of diversities and ensures even appointment is the Federal Character, which was borne out of the need to ensure national integration in the country (Nzeshi, 2012).

The principle of federal character was formulated and put into use by successive governments in Nigeria to address and hopefully mitigate the problem of diversity so as to ensure a peaceful, stable and united Nigeria. As Ojo (1999) persuasively explained, Federal character principle as an integrative mechanism is defined as fair and effective representation of the various components of the Federation in the country’s position of power, status and influence. He however observed that the principle of federal character touches on array of problems in the political process which includes ethnicity, the national question, minority problem, discrimination based on an indignity, resources allocation, power sharing employment and placement in institution, et cetera. It provides a formula for participation in the governance of the country in such a way that a single section of the country will not dominate another or a segment dominating the rest. Federal character principle sought to give “opportunities in education and employment, usually at the point of entry, to disadvantaged groups and areas to enable them compete and catch up with more advanced areas and sectors of the nation” (Ekeh, 1989:38).

Section 14, subsection 3 of the 1999 constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) also states that: The composition of the Government of the Federation or any of its agencies and the conduct of its affairs shall be carried out in such a manner to reflect the federal character of Nigeria and the need to promote national unity, and also to command national loyalty thereby ensuring that there shall be no predominance of persons from a few states or from a few ethnic or other sectional groups in that government or in any of its agencies. To this end the Federal Character Commission (FCC) was established by act No. 34 of 1996 to implement and enforce the Federal Character Principle of fairness and equity in the distribution of public appointment, socio-economic amenities and infrastructural facilities among the federating units of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

The provision of the 1999 constitution of section 14 and 153 also empowers the commission to operate in a democratic setting (Samuel et al., 2012). Therefore, the undertaking of this research will critically assess the application of federal character principle in federal government appointment and its effects on national integration in Nigeria. This research project is set out to examine critically the application of federal character principle in federal government appointment and its effect on national integration in Nigeria.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE EFFECT OF FEDERAL CHARACTER PRINCIPLE IN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT APPOINTMENT ON NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA

THE ROLE OF ETHICS AND PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN FOSTERING LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT IN LAGOS STATE

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

There has been a considerable debate in the literature of political science and dating back to the period of Thomas Hobbes as to whether the state, as a sovereign entity, should be accountable to anyone or whether it should be treated as a moral and responsible agent. The consensus now seems to be that while the state must be self-accounting on the basis of the constitution and the laws of the country, the individuals who exercise power on behalf of the state whether appointed or elected, must be accountable for the actions they take on behalf of the state as a prerequisite for national development (Adamolekun, 2013). One of the most important and significant features of most modern societies today is the emergence of a powerful state bureaucracy. This, has raised the issue of bureaucratic power which can be abused by the bureaucrats, either for selfish ends (especially for personal or family enrichment) or in the course of their dealings with private citizens.

In regard to this latter issue, attention is usually drawn to the weak position of the citizens in relation to the powerful state bureaucracy. Most modern states have devised some methods of dealing with problems that may emerge from this interaction. In Nigeria, the public complaints commission, usually called the ombudsman system, has been established to act as a grievance redressing mechanism for the populace (Agarah, cited in Tunde and Omobolaji, 2009). Apart from that there are some other internal mechanisms and control measures put in place to ensure that the bureaucracy conduct its business within some ethical parameters. These internal mechanisms not only provide an ethical environment within which the bureaucracy is expected to perform its responsibilities but also act as a form of accountability to foster national development in Nigeria. These are the civil service rules (CSR) which replaced the general orders bequeathed to the public service by the colonialists and the civil Service Handbook.

The CSR is the grand norm for service conduct and it covers appointment to separation from the service, discipline, salary, leave, and reward for performance ( Abdullahi, 2013). Ethics means moral codes of conduct (Vittal, 2002). The concept of ethics occupied a central piece in the art of governance. In 172BC, the Babylonian code of Hammuurabi stipulated ethical rule of conduct for their judges and military ocers. The Aristotle of the Greek had prevailed on the citizens as well as the public oce holders to separate private activities and ownership from public activities and ownership. Both China and Britain as early as 622 BC had propagated the prominence of merit and non partisan service, as essential conditions for the public service in a bid to foster national development

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE ROLE OF ETHICS AND PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN FOSTERING LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT IN LAGOS STATE

EFFECTS OF LEGISLATIVE-EXECUTIVE CONFLICTS ON DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE AT THE GRASSROOT IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

A true democracy is a sine qua non for the development of all sectors of any country’s economy. However, democracy incorporates the exploitative and allienative tendencies often demonstrated by the capitalists against the downtrodden. Democracy, from an empirical view point could mean “a socioeconomic and political formation that grants the hoi polloi (common people) the irreducible instrument of determining and participating effectively in the day-to-day smooth governance of their country”. That is, the general transformative and re-structuring powers of that state are vested in the hands of the electorates (Golden, 2010). The rudiments of a true democracy are good governance, fair and legitimate elections, justice, equity, accountability, transparency, responsible leadership, political education of the masses, respect for the rule of law and importantly corporation among the different branches of government.

Regrettably, the practice of the so-called democracy in the 21st Century Nigeria is intrinsically characterized by legislative cum executive conflicts ( Obidimma & Obidimma, 2015). One of the major factors threatening Nigeria’s democracy in the current fourth republic is conflict between the executive and legislative arms of government. Contemporary development at the federal, state and local government levels proved that the relationship between the legislature and executive branch is not harmonious. Success and failure of government, as well as governmental policies, programmes and projects are all considered in many quarters as consequences of the nature of relationship existing between the executive and legislature (Bassey, Raphael & Omono, 2013).

During the days of former President Olusegun Obasanjo, there were several attempts to muzzle the legislature. But the attempt to assert the independence of the legislature, considering its constitutional role in the political arrangement, invariably brought it on collision with the executive. This led to frequent frictions between the two arms of government. The protracted face-off took a life of notoriety with the removal of three Senate Presidents in three years. In the circumstances that led to the removal of Senators Evan(s) Enwerem, Chuba Okadigbo or Adolphus Wabara, as senate presidents, the connivance, collusion or involvement of the executive arm of government was always alleged. Most National Assembly watchers at the time saw the Presidency as the unseen hand behind the crisis of confidence that almost wrecked the Senate (Eme & Ogbochie, 2014).

It is important to note that, the legislature performs the all-important function of law-making, one of three limbs of the doctrine of separation of powers. And without doubt, legislation is the most far-reaching and crucial power of the government of a society. As succinctly put by a most learned constitutional scholar, legislative power is the “distinctive mark of a country’s sovereignty, and the index of its status as an independent state” (Nwabueze, 2003). The executive on the other hand, performs the function inter alia of execution and maintenance of the laws made by the legislature. Laws validly made by the legislature are the predominant source of executive powers, and without such laws, the executive function cannot be performed ( Obidimma & Obidimma, 2015).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

EFFECTS OF LEGISLATIVE-EXECUTIVE CONFLICTS ON DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE AT THE GRASSROOT IN NIGERIA

THE GRASSROOTS OF LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

Many forms of governance, institutions and bureaucracies that were transferred to a majority of African states at independence were, for the most part, ill-adapted to the African realities and the continent’s development challenges (Afegbua, 2012). Therefore, one of the major challenges that have faced African states and particularly Nigeria since the advent of political independence has been that of establishing and sustaining appropriate governance, institutions and practices that would engender democratic leadership and promote sustainable development at the grassroots levels and beyond (Yimer, 2015). In Africa, in general, leadership and governance have been identied as major problems militating against growth and development in all sectors of the economy and the grassroots levels not being exempted. The need for leadership in any nation or state is very essential. This is because nations or states exist with stated ideologies and leaders are ‘machineries’ for achieving such stated ideologies.

Organisational goals will remain unrealistic without a ‘designated individual’ known as leader. As a result, leaders are ‘central instruments’ to any organization. Success or failure of an organization lies in the hand of a leader ( Lamidi & Adeyeye, 2013). One of the major challenges facing Nigeria is how to create a context of stable political and socio-economic environment for policies and programmes to be implemented. The issue of getting the right leadership to ght corruption and propel good governance has been a recurring decimal in Nigeria and Africa in general. Once this enabling environment is created, it becomes easy for the people to confront and resolve challenges facing them by using resources within their environment to create a condition of life where each stage is progressively better than the preceding one. However, this is not the case in Nigeria due to corruption and bad governance. Good governance encapsulates transparency, accountability, freedom of choice and liberty for the people to pursue their individual and corporate interest.

Indeed, at the core of Africa’s underdeveloped status are corruption and leadership decit ( Anazodo, Igbokwe-Ibeto & Nkah, 2015:42). Leadership and good governance are crucial to realizing any giant stride taken in pursuit of development anywhere in the world, Nigeria is not an exception. The reverberation eects of the failure of leadership, corruption and bad governance are visible and being felt down to the grassroots levels of the Nigerian society. Unemployment and employment for cash, insecurity, crude oil thefts, crisis in education, dearth of infrastructures such as health services, transportation, accommodation, communication, medication etc are all common features in Nigeria. It is an irony that of all oil producing nations, Nigeria is the only country with the history of crude oil thefts ( Anazodo, Igbokwe-Ibeto & Nkah, 2015:43) .

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE GRASSROOTS OF LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA

EXAMINING THE ROLES OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL TRANSFER AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AT THE GRASSROOTS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Intergovernmental relations involve the relationship, both vertical and horizontal, that exists between the various organs and departments within the sovereign government of a particular country (Akinsanya, 2005). If we take Nigeria for example, inter-governmental relations would mean the relationships existing between the various levels of government from the federal, state to the local government level; between the various ministries, etc (Usman, 2010). Evidently, finance has emerged as the most critical policy issue in intergovernmental relations in every federal administrative system since the Second World War.

A dominant theme in intergovernmental relations studies as noted by Ademolekun (cited in Sam, Eme and Emeh, 2012) is the different attempts made to administer federal finance to the satisfaction of each level of government. In this manner, Danjuma (cited in Sam et al., 2012) opined that the existence of a federal system with its accompanying political units necessitates a revenue sharing arrangement to enable its units to carry its constitutional assigned responsibilities. Corroborating this stand, Onuoha (2007) stated that in a federation, the logic underlining the allocation of tax powers (revenue resources) does not always tally with the logic underlining the assignment of constitutional responsibilities and that there is always a gap between the revenue obligation and revenue resources to the levels of government. Financial transfers therefore have been evolved as a mechanism for dealing with this imbalance or gap between expenditure obligation and revenue sources.

Nigeria’s model of fiscal federalism represents a fundamental legal and institutional framework for policymaking in the country. As in other federations, it defines the core rules for f inancial transfers , distribution of responsibilities for service delivery, and mechanisms for interaction between different tiers of government (Angahar, 2013). In practice however, there exist some degree of decentralization in what is discernable in a federal states hence Ekpo (2004) averred that among the different levels of government, fiscal arrangement must be worked out to ensure fiscal balance in the context of macro-economic stability and this fiscal arrangement is referred to, in a federal structure as fiscal federalism or intergovernmental fiscal relations. Fiscal federalism, according to Nwankwo (2007) is essentially about the allocation of government responsibilities, as well as the sharing of revenue resources among tiers of government.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

EXAMINING THE ROLES OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL TRANSFER AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AT THE GRASSROOTS IN NIGERIA

THE EFFECT OF E-GOVERNANCE ON PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN LAGOS STATE INLAND REVENUE SERVICE

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1  

Background of the Study

technological advances have changed the way people go about their daily activities. Whether we are checking our e-mails or texting or sending messages with our phones, mobile communication is growing, and our ability to navigate the World Wide Web is improving dramatically. We use the internet to shop on-line, do banking transactions, book for our ight tickets and make payment on-line, check the weather, do research on any subject and connect with network. You may wonder what this has to do with public administration. As Internet usage grows, and the use of technology in general grows, so too does the use of technology and Internet by government (Onuigbo, 2015). The integration and adoption of electronic government (e-government) to provide services by government is rapidly gaining ground across the world.

E-government if properly used has the potential to empower people to overcome development obstacles, address social problems, and strengthen democratic institutions. However, for a country like Nigeria to gain from the benets of e-government, technology must be implemented and used eectively (Achimugu, Chukwurah & Ochala, 2013). E-governance, which is a paradigm shift over the traditional approaches in Public Administration, means rendering of government services and information to the public using electronic means. This new paradigm has brought about a revolution in the quality of service delivered to the citizens.

It has ushered in transparency in the governing process; saving of time due to provision of services through single window; simplication of procedures; better oce and record management; reduction in corruption; and improved attitude, behaviour and job handling capacity of the dealing personnel in the developed countries (Monga, 2008). In Nigeria, very little or nothing has been heard about government readiness to adopt e-government and therefore join the global trend of rendering eective and cost ecient services to the people on the on-line web platform. In this vein, Inedo (2008) revealed that Nigeria is just beginning to understand the importance of such a concept in governance.

Hence, Nigeria has a very poor e-government ranking. Nigeria according to him has an e-government index ranking of 0.243 as against the world average of 0.414, meaning it is yet to be positioned to harness the limitless opportunities available in e-government to reinvent governance that is accountable and transparent in its public revenue management (Achimugu, Chukwurah & Ochala, 2013). Owing hugely to widespread public demands for transparency in governance and the global outcry against corruption, accountability is now of serious concern in many countries including Nigeria. One of the critical issues dominating public sector management in Nigeria, as Addison (cited in Ejere, 2012) rightly observed, is lack of accountability and transparency.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE EFFECT OF E-GOVERNANCE ON PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN LAGOS STATE INLAND REVENUE SERVICE

THE INFLUENCE OF COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE SECRETARY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

            The word communication is very complex and could be used in different contexts to mean to wide range of things. Communication particularly in business organizations provides a means by which power is required, exercised, shaped and sustained.

            Generally, communication is an act shaped by all living things. It originated from the Latin word “communies” meaning to share. Communication is the act of imparting a share of something.

            To emphasized on the importance of communication, Cicero (1970) said thus “If a wise man were granted a life of abundance of materials things, so that he has leisure to contemplate everything worth knowing, yet if he could not communicate with other human if he could not communicate with other human beings he could abandon life”

            By John fists (1982) “Communication is talking to one another, it is television, it is spreading information by whatever means. It is our life style, it is literary criticism, the list is endless.

            Two schools of though exist on communication. The process school and the sem school. Both schools agreed on the fact that for communication to be effective, there must be a sender, a receiver, a channel and the subject matter which is being communicated on. There could also be noise which is anything that is being added to the communication signals between its transmission and reception that is not intended by sources.

            Communication in a business organization encompasses more than mere oral transmission. It involves all the sensory, oral and written activities that form part of our organizational life. The actualization of communication is the equipment. This is because when instruction are communicated through the equipment,. The people working know their responsibilities and the secretary dispensers her duties appropriately. Thus, the organizational goal would be enhanced.

1.2       WHO IS A SECRETARY

            The word secretary us coined from the Latin word “Secretus” which literally means “a secret”. Perhaps it is the fact that aspect if the work of a secretary involve keeping secrets that the secretaries are often regarded as a keeper of secrets.

            The National Secretaries Association (United stated of America) defined a secretary as “an assistant to an executive, possessing mastery of office skills and ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision, who displays initiatives, exercises judgment and takes decision within the scope of her authority. There is therefore no doubting that fact that the secretary is the wheel on which the executive activities revolve. The secretary is often refereed to as the executive alter ego.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE INFLUENCE OF COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE SECRETARY

TE RELEVANCE OF INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE TO SECRETARIAL STUDENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0              INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

            The student’s industrial work Experience Scheme (SIWES) is a programme designed to expose and prepare students in the institutions of Higher Learning for the Industrial work situation, how to relate to God and how to manage oneself. These they are likely to meet after graduation.

            The scheme affords students the opportunity of seeing familiarized and exposed to the needed experience in handling of machinery and equipment which are usually not available in the educational institutions.

            Furthermore, the scheme exposes the students to work methods and prepare them in safeguarding the work area and other workers in the industry.

            SIWES was introduced by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF) in Nigeria in (1973) about 31 years ago. It was then limited to students of technology. Today it has covered many disciplines and has  become a necessary recognition for the award of national diploma (ND) and Higher National Diploma (HND) in polytechnics in the country.

            A center focus of the scheme is to enlist and strengthen  employers involvement in the educational process of preparing students for the worlds of work. The scheme is therefore aimed at promoting the much-desired technological know-how ultimate goal of the scheme force needed to build a self-reliance economy.

            The following are SIWES relevance to secretarial studies.

            It provides opportunity for the researcher and co-students to gain experiences as a supplement to their students by this, the researcher’s writing in this project will be supervised by the supervisor who helps to direct on how to carry out any given task.

            It affords students the opportunity of being familiarized and exposed to the needed experience in secretarial studies.

            It exposes the researcher/students to real life situation thus supplementing the theoretical lessons in the classroom.

            It helps students to be acquainted to what nature of job they are likely to meet at the labor market.

            It broader the knowledge and understanding of the students in terms of each person to know more

            It is to prepare the researcher the participating students for better future use of their hand s and brain.

            It helps students to gather more information for difficult issues.

            It is one of the most task to take before graduating as a national diploma holder before enrolling for higher national diploma

            As a problems facing the department and a solution to it is to relate it to the people in charge for better result in due time for the life wire of secretarial; studies.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

            It has been observed that some students have some misconception about the work experience programme of the I.T.F. some students for example, equate the programmer with holidays job. Hence the commitment is lacking and so the skills and experience to be gained cannot be acquired from the scheme.

            Again there is relevance among large number of employers to accept and provide facilities necessary for meaningful industrial experience to students. The fears of many employers are that students are inexperienced to handle certain delicate machines and tools without damaging them. A situation in which students are not allowed to use certain equipment does not provide the desired experience needed to prepare them for the world of work.

            Also some students are not supervised during the attachments or training period at all. This is attributable to lack of adequate transportation facilities and or lack of seriousness on the part of their supervisors.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

TE RELEVANCE OF INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE TO SECRETARIAL STUDENTS

THE INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY EQUIPMENT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE SECRETARY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

            The word communication is very complex and could be used in different contexts to mean to wide range of things. Communication particularly in business organizations provides a means by which power is required, exercised, shaped and sustained.

            Generally, communication is an act shaped by all living things. It originated from the Latin word “communies” meaning to share. Communication is the act of imparting a share of something.

            To emphasized on the importance of communication, Cicero (1970) said thus “If a wise man were granted a life of abundance of materials things, so that he has leisure to contemplate everything worth knowing, yet if he could not communicate with other human if he could not communicate with other human beings he could abandon life”

            By John fists (1982) “Communication is talking to one another, it is television, it is spreading information by whatever means. It is our life style, it is literary criticism, the list is endless.

            Two schools of though exist on communication. The process school and the sem school. Both schools agreed on the fact that for communication to be effective, there must be a sender, a receiver, a channel and the subject matter which is being communicated on. There could also be noise which is anything that is being added to the communication signals between its transmission and reception that is not intended by sources.

            Communication in a business organization encompasses more than mere oral transmission. It involves all the sensory, oral and written activities that form part of our organizational life. The actualization of communication is the equipment. This is because when instruction are communicated through the equipment,. The people working know their responsibilities and the secretary dispensers her duties appropriately. Thus, the organizational goal would be enhanced.

1.2       WHO IS A SECRETARY

            The word secretary us coined from the Latin word “Secretus” which literally means “a secret”. Perhaps it is the fact that aspect if the work of a secretary involve keeping secrets that the secretaries are often regarded as a keeper of secrets.

            The National Secretaries Association (United stated of America) defined a secretary as “an assistant to an executive, possessing mastery of office skills and ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision, who displays initiatives, exercises judgment and takes decision within the scope of her authority. There is therefore no doubting that fact that the secretary is the wheel on which the executive activities revolve. The secretary is often refereed to as the executive alter ego.

1.3       ROLES OF A SECRETARY

            The role of the secretary plays in an office is wide and varied depending on the size and type of organization in which she is working. Technological innovation in the office has increasingly made the work of the secretary more complex and sophisticated though a lot easier.

            However, there are some of the routine duties a secretary is expected to perform.

ARRANGING FOR MEETING

            It is the duty of the secretary to arrange for meetings, take accurate minutes of the meeting and type them out neatly.

DECISION MAKING AND PROBLEMS SOLVING

            H.A. Dauda (1993) The secretary should assist the executive in his decision making and problem solving role. She does this by filtering calls and callers which enables the manager to concentrate fully. She also furnishes her boss with adequate information from files and elsewhere. The secretary should seek as the ears of her boss when he is away and inform him accordingly when he is back.

COMMUNICATION AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION

            The secretary joins the manager in his communication processing and dissemination of information. Modern communication and information technology can enable people communicate locally and internationally at the shortest possible time. Local area networks, teleconferences and caller phones are good facilitators of both near and far distant communications. The secretary in particular plays a great role in dissemination of information. He must give adequate and timely information.

INTERPERSONAL SKILLS.

            Every organization is made up of different kinds of people/business associates, clients, peers and staffs of the organization. It believes on the secretary to develop a good public relations skill by which she grapes quickly the mood of views of all these people and adjust his own responses accordingly such skills include: being a good listener, making people feel at ease and being able to interpret the body movement and signals people display.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY EQUIPMENT ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE SECRETARY