English is a language of the people of England. It originates from the Jute, Angles and Saxon, who are the early settlers in Britain. It is part of the Germanic branch of the Indo European language family. At the initial state, English was confined to Britain alone. Later, it grew wide within the British Empire as a Prestigious Core Language among all other European languages in the upper classes of London, Oxford, Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Cambridge and England. It further developed and got to other people of the world. It spread to Asia, Germany, Africa and other continents as a Native Language, Second Language or Foreign Language. Progressively, English Language has spread virtually all over the world.
English, throughout the world, is a significant everyday language. It is a global language and widely distributed medium of instruction and communication. It has a prestigious official status and has acquired a constitutionally endorsed legal right. It has gained explicit recognition, which has established it as a medium of administration, education, international relations, commerce and law. Throughout the world, English language is very important (Mac Arthur, 1996). In Nigeria, English language is a second language and a lingua franca. This means that it is the language for unit, communication economy, national pride, law, press, trade and instruction. As a language of instruction, it is an essential prerequisite for an advancement and career succession in the country. It means a lot in the life and progress of a child as it is a key subject with profound influence on all the school subjects. The English Language is used in the Junior Secondary Schools as core school subject. It is a solid foundational course. The key elements of the course are designed to cover the basic four language skills, which are listening, reading, speaking and writing. It is expected that after learning these skills in Junior Secondary School, the students who choose to work can use the language fluently while those who wish to go further can be very proficient in the language.
The study employed a survey designed. A sample of 800 students which were randomly selected served us the study sample. Data were collected using the questionnaire. Mean and standard derivation were used to analyze the data. It was found out that lack of interest and inadequate personnel and facilities were serious impediments to acquisition of computer education. Finally, recommendations were made that enough trained personnel should be recruited and posted to schools to teach computer studies.
The life of geography began with the abacus calculation instrument.geography Usage It is still used today by people in doing some counting.
The effect of geography usage in banking sector:
i.Computer is more reliable and also saves time
ii.It also provides easy access of information about customers account number and details into the computer.
iii. It also provide easy accessing of already completes projects.
iv. geography as an information technology helps to detects and eliminate fraud for immediate action fro further occurrence.
Before the use of geography, Nigeria will recall the long gone days of the tallies when customers need to rush to the bank as early as possible to submit their tellers in exchange for tallies so as to avoid the long delays. This was a result of the manual processing of Computer Networking; this is the ability of several geography in communication for sharing common data, files.
Bank: bank is an organization offering financial services, especially the safe keeping of money.
Banking industry: this refers to a place where business activities of bank are carried out as services.
This research work was conducted to identify difficult topics in teaching and learning topic in senior secondary schools curricula in Enugu urban of Enugu state, Nigeria. (A case study of SS3 curricula of chemistry, physics and English language). Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. A survey design was adopted for the study. A sample of 16 teachers in the subject areas and 200 students were drawn from the 16 senior secondary schools of SS3 in the Enugu South and Enugu North Local Government Areas. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and the data collected were analyzed using percentages, mean deviation and t-test for hypothesis. The finding of the study showed that, most of the teachers did not cover those areas when they were students, which made them to shy away from teaching those difficult topics in physics, chemistry and English language. The following recommendations were made:
The teachers should attend workshops, seminars and conferences. Resource personnel should be used to teach difficult topics, and they should be provided with adequate instructional materials for the teaching and learning of the difficult topics. The strategies identified by the study should also be used to stimulate the teaching and learning of physics, chemistry and English language and other science subjects in senior secondary schools.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Horny (2000), the word “Identification is defined as the process of showing, providing or recognizing who or what somebody or something is”.
Therefore, the identification of difficult teaching and learning topics in SS3 physics, chemistry and English language curricula in Nigeria can be seen as the process of showing or providing or recognizing the difficult topics in teaching and learning physics, chemistry and English language in SS3 curricula in Nigeria.
But, in order to identify the difficult teaching and learning topics in SS3 physics, chemistry and English language curricula, we have to look into how the definitions of the word curriculum have been offered by different educationists.
The study investigated the factor affecting the performances of computer science students in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu state. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. The questionnaires were constructed by the researchers in line with the research questions. Ten schools out of the fifteen schools in Enugu North Local Government Area were used for the study. The population for the study were all computer teachers 1 each from 5 schools and 2 each in 5 schools. They are all 15 in number. The entire population of the teacher in the 10 schools were used because of their limited number. The data collected was analyzed and presented using mean. Finally the results expose that there is shortage of qualified teachers teaching the subject “computer science”. The Government and schools do not provide adequate instructional materials and computer laboratories facilities which affect the learning of computer science in these schools. The government does not award scholarship to computer teachers who have distinguished themselves in excellent services. There are no standard text books for the teaching of computer in the junior secondary schools in Enugu North. All these factors affect the performance of the computer science students in the junior secondary schools in Enugu North. Recommendations were made by the researchers at the end and suggestions for further studies were also highlighted.
Background of the Study
Nigeria has realized the importance of functional education for the good and services of mankind. This realization is evidenced in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004). Where it is emphasized that, the overall philosophy of education in Nigeria among others should be directed to building a united, strong and self reliant nation by educational activities being geared towards scientific and technological progress. In the developing world, educational policy are faced with a major task, how to create chances of success for all children and their citizenry as a whole.
The topic of this study is constraints to effective teaching and learning of computer and integrated science in Enugu East Local Government Area (Problems and Remedies). The purposes of the study was to find out the problems affecting teaching and learning of compute and integrated science in Enugu East Local Government. In junior secondary schools and proffer solutions to the problems. The study is a descriptive survey research. The instrument used for data collection is questionnaire, the sample was selected through simple random sampling hand delivery method was used both for administering and collection of the filed questionnaires, statistical text used for data analyses are questionnaire. Unqualified and inexperience teaches, teaching in an unhealthy environment, inadequate textbooks, equipments, instructional materials and non-chalant attitude on the part of students to learn computer and integrated science. The researcher, therefore, recommends that qualified computer/integrated science teachers should be employed. N80, there should be adequate facilities such as libraries with current textbooks and laboratories. Regular supervision should be encouraged to make the teachers more dedicated.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The importance of the teaching and learning of computer and integrated science cannot be over emphasized as they are the background to science and technology, which played effective role in the life of man in the society. Such roles applies to medical, transportation, education, Automation, communication, Building and constructions, national defense and Global security 9 Turner .T. Isuon, 2003).
Through the introduction of computer age, one could not imagine how rapidly our world is changing and with the advent of electronic computer, it has only taken a few short decades to make giant studies such that man has full control over his environment, all these are the result of effective teaching and learning of computer science.
Integrated science in the other hand is the knowledge of the world of nature (the new encyclopedia Britannica, 20030.
Comparison of academic performance the research investigated the comparison of academic performances of junior Science in External Examinations from 2003- 2007. This study is a survey research design. It is a research conducted on a large number of people to identify general opinion. The study was carried out in Enugu North Local Government Area. The area belongs to Enugu Educational Zone. The population of the study consist of all the students and teachers in junior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu State. The population of the students are 20, 470 while that of teachers are 4, 300. We used four junior secondary schools as our sample out of the junior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu State. Random sampling techniques were used to select ten (10) students from each of the schools used in the table listed above to ensure that the relevant features of the population were adequately represented. Five (5) staff (teachers) from each of the schools were also sampled. The instrument used was a questionnaire design to elicit responses on the items in questions. The researchers used the four like scale of strongly agreed (SA), Agreed (A) Disagreed (D) and strongly |Disagreed (SD). The respondents are required to tick against the column that best describes their views in each item. The questionnaire will be distributed to ten (10) students from each schools and five (5) teachers from each schools and will also be collected through item. The researchers’ used mean to analyze and interpret the data. Interpretation of the data was based on the following scores interval:comparison of academic performance
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Comparison of academic performance measuring of academic performance of student is challenging since student performance is the product of socio-economic, psychological and environmental factors. Education ought to be growing as a profitable industry with prime objective of maximizing profit by delivering high quality education that produces well educated, skilled mannered students according to needs and requirements of the dynamically growing market. There are two groups of students as generally perceived, that is those who improve and those who don’t improve.
The study was conducted to investigate the extent of availability of computer systems and accessories for effective teaching and learning in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.The population of the study consisted of two hundred and forty teachers and students in senior secondary school inEnugu North L.G.A simple Survey research was used for the research design and simple random sampling techniques were used to select the subject for the study which is one hundred and forty (140) were administered,( 120) were returned duly completed while twenty (20) were not returned. Four (4) research questions guided the study. The questionnaire was used in data analysis. A mean of 2.50 and above was adopted as a cut of mark for the acceptance of items. The result findings showed that the computer systems and accessories for teaching and learning computer science in schools, are largely unavailable. Based on this, some implications of the study and recommendations were made.
Evaluation of accounting education the study evaluated Accounting education programme in Enugu State College of Education, Technical, Enugu. Four research questions were asked and ensured. The research method used is survey type.
The population of the study is 1262 (one thousand two hundred and sixty two). Data were corrected from two hundred students (200) and five (5) lecturers of the department of Accounting Education in ESECT. The instrument used was questioner. The instrument was validated by the academic staff of the Accounting education in ASPECT. The questioners were administered and collected fro data analysis.
The data collected were analyzed using means. After analysis it was fund out that the following responses were indicated by having high mean value. The major findings of the study were inadequate of conducive offices for working, unsteady power supply for practical, inability of the students to write programming language. Based on this recommendations the school authority should help in providing steady power supply.evaluation of accounting education.
In teaching, it is highly desirable to know exactly what one aims to achieve as it is in all great undertaking. Instructional materials according to Wiki (1998), are kind of tools or equipment that can help the instructor effectively in theory teaching classroom or in practical assessment. They are also materials that aid in the transference of information from one to another. Also Ilori (2000) pin-pointed that instructional material are aids the teacher uses to arouse the interest of the learner there by enabling the learner to gain direct experience. Instructional materials are assumed to have being in place right from the primary school level but if not properly utilized, enhancement of learning is thwarted. The neglect of the use of instructional materials by teachers pose negative effect in the process of teaching and learning of Accounting education. Merrrel (1993) (p.37) pointed out that at present, schools are continually faced with financial problem and this could increase the likelihood that teachers will make more use of free or cheap teaching materials to supplement their own ageing resources. It is therefore important that teachers remain vigilant and exercise sound judgment on approaching what is available to help them teach and their pupils to learn.instructional materials
The extent to which instructional materials are made available also determines the extent to which they are being utilized in teaching and learning of Accounting education. Onwuka (1981) indicated that instructional materials help the teacher to convey the intended message effectively and meaningfully to the learners so that the learner receive, understand, retain and apply the experience gained to reach an educational goal.
Instructional materials are some of the most important devices which both teachers and learners can use to enhance the quality of instruction.
The main instrument for data collection was questionnaire. The instrument was structured according to strongly agree, agree, disagreed and strongly disagreed. In our study, we find out that the teachers still have along way to go in the world of computer.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This century has witnessed the transformation of the human society from the industrial age to information age. The volume of information that circulates in an economy is now a measure of the level of advancement of any economy. Industries enjoy relative advantage over their competitors if they have monopoly of some classes of business information. Nation is stronger than others because they have more information. It is therefore, not surprising that government and private business organizations invest significant proportion of their budget in information technology. The computer plays a central role in the acquisition, processing, storage, dissemination, and use of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information. The use of computer has revolutionized the way we do business, study, work, and social activities and so on, as well as continue to touch and change our daily lives in a profound way. So significant is the impact of computer that it is regarded as an enabling technology, the facilitator of change and the creator of hitherto unimaginable possibilities.
In 1949 the government of Nigeria appointed F.J. Harlow, principal of Chelsea Polytechnic (London) to asses the need of establishing a College or Colleges of Higher Technical Education (Fafunwa 1994). The report of the two teams led to the establishment in 1952 of three regional Colleges named the Nigeria Colleges of Art, Science and Technology with branches at Ibadan, Enugu and Zaria. Chronological emergence of the Polytechnics showed that the first full blown Polytechnics in Nigeria were first and foremost Technical Institute or Colleges which were primarily established to train technicians. To mention for instance, the Yaba Technical Institute that metamorphosed to the present Yaba College of Technology in 1963 is one of such institute.
However, in the 1970’s Polytechnics/Colleges of Technology were established under various laws which recognize them as statutory bodies with autonomous status. The Institute of Management and Technology is not only a State owned Polytechnic but amongst the first generation of Polytechnics in Nigeria. The Enugu state University of Science and Technology started from one of the campuses of Institute of Management and Technology.
A recent event is that Enugu State College of Education (Technical) equally took off from a former Campus 2 of Institute of Management of Technology. The latest is Enugu State College of Agriculture and Agro Entrepreneurship, Iwollo. Conclusively, the Government of Enugu State has four tertiary Institutions of higher learning in Enugu State, Nigeria. The research will be basically interested in the Enugu State University of Science and Technology and College of Education (Technical), Enugu.
Also, there are several privately owned tertiary institutions namely: Institute of Ecumenical Education, Thinkers Corner Enugu; Our Savior Institute of Science, Agriculture and Technology, OSISATECH; African Thinkers College of Education, Enugu; Caritas University Emene Enugu; Renaissance University Ugbauka, Enugu; Bishop Okoye University, Emene Enugu; and The College of Education, Nsukka. However, there are other tertiary Institutions of higher learning owned by Federal Government of Nigeria.
This research work investigated the attitude of students towards students’ industrial work experience scheme (SIWES) using the descriptive survey research design. The research conducted among undergraduates students of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma. 200 students were randomly selected from the department of Vocational and Technical education. The instrument was a 20 item question name score in likert type response format; Strongly Agree (5), A =Agree (4), U= Undecided (3), DA= Disagree (2), and SD =Strongly Disagree (1). The research questions were analyzed using the mean rating, and the findings showed that:
School equipment were not found replicating those in the industries
The schools lack adequate infrastructures that discouraged students further in showing concern for industry’s based training
Knowledge of I.T was found to be valuable in giving students an idea of industrial management
SIWES enhance student’s ability to tackle technical problems
Attitude as a concept is concerned with individuals’ way of thinking, acting, and behaving. Attitudes are formed as a result of some kind of learning experiences. Attitude is fundamental to understanding social perception of people because they strongly influence people. Ojo (2000) said that it is the disposition of men to view things in a certain way and to act accordingly. This notion of attitude however, could be said to have propelled students who gain admission into universities to have preference for a particular course of study. Furthermore, some students still hold divergent views based on their attitudinal disposition to the Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES), which motivate them towards the studying of Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) in tertiary institutions.
According to Akerele (2007) the present state of technological development in Nigeria calls for appropriate orientations towards technological and vocational education as a springboard for skills acquisition. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) (2004) in her national policy on education defined technical and vocational education as acquisition of demonstrable skills that could be transformed into economic benefits. It also refers to those aspects of education process involving general education, the study of technologies, science and acquisition of practical knowledge and skills.
This study is aimed at looking at leadership behaviour of secondary Technical school principals and productivity in Aba urban.
To carry out this research, 4 technical school has been chosen in Aba Urban which constitute the study Area. The population consists of 10 teachers from each of the four selected schools summing it to 40 teachers.
The questions will basically be directed to the teachers at the selected secondary technical schools because they have direct and daily contact with the principals an d are in better position to make a near accurate judgment of the behavioural styles of their principals.
At the end of the studies it is expected that findings will be made of the prevalent leadership behavourial style of the principals of there selected on the staff and students productivity and also suggestions will be made concerning this based on the result of the findings.
Until recently applied electricity technical education was meant for those who could not cope effectively with conventional academic pursuits. In Nigeria today, applied electricity technical education had become a thing of National Interest because it has been realized that it has efficacy in producing the dreamed and desired manpower for the nation. It was on this stand that the researcher looked at the factors militating against the performance of Applied Electricity in technical colleges in Bayelsa state.
Thirty Technical Teachers were randomly sampled; research questions guided the study. Data were collected and analyzed. Based on the finding, it was discovered that lack of funds, teaching and learning facilities and obsolete curriculum affect the performance of Applied Electricity students, conclusion were made and recommendations proffered there after.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of contents vi
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the study 5
1.4 Significance of the study 6
1.5 Research question 7
1.6 Delimitation 7
1.7 Assumption of the study 8
Literature Review 9
2.1 Training Facilities and Equipment 10
2.2 Economy as it Affect Teaching
Applied Electricity Studies 11
2.3 Skilled Manpower Requirements for Industrial growth 13
Vocational and technical education (VTE) as a veritable tool in developing the youth for gainful employment and self-reliance. This research work sees VTE as a practically oriented education, which provides variety of opportunities for the youth to develop their potentials. This development will at the end leads to the much needed technological growth in all facets of the nation’s economy. However, it is the stand of this work that VTE has so far, not been adequately utilized for this purpose. The reason for this according to this paper, centers on the fact that government has not done well enough to popularized VTE among the youths by way of guidance and counseling in area of gainful employment and self-reliance in VTE, strategies for promoting sustainable vocational and technical education for gainful employment were highlighted and recommendation made.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE (INTRODUCTION)
Background to the study
Statement of problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitations of the study
Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO (REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE)
The nature of Vocational and Technical Education
The importance of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria
Concept of unemployment
Causes of unemployment in Nigeria
Consequences/effects of youth unemployment
Government response to youth unemployment
Vocational and Technical Education as the missing link
Areas of gainful employment and self-reliance opportunities in Vocational and Technical Education
Revitalizing Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria
Problems facing Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria
Strategies for promoting sustainable Vocational and Technical Education for gainful employment and self-reliance
Promoting incentives to VTE students
Provision of adequate occupation guidance and counseling tracing and retraining of VTE instructors and teachers
Having a share in their projects
Enlarging employment opportunities
Provision of micro credit scheme for VTE students and graduates
The need for entrepreneurship and information communication technology education in Vocational and Technical Education
CHAPTER THREE (RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY)
Population of the study
Sample of the study
Sampling techniques adopted
Validation of instrument
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
(PRESENTATION OF DATA DISCUSSION OF RESULT)
Sex distribution of respondents
Level of education
(SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS)
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Vocational and technical education has been existing in Nigeria before the arrival of Western Education, mostly in the form of apprenticeship programmes. However, formally organized vocational and technical schools were not in existence till after arrival of western education, on the arrival and co-existing of western education with the pre-colonial form of vocational and technical education took off in government organizations such as Nigeria Railway co-operation, public works department, the marine, post and telegraph etc. later on few vocational schools were established by both government and voluntary agencies (Fafunwa 1991).
The design of the Nigeria educational system is flawed, the neglect of technical education is an obstacle to national development and not everyone needs a university education. In Nigeria, technical degrees are regarded as inferior to regular academic degrees, while in advanced nations the reverse is the case. Individuals who posse’s practical skills with years of field experience are highly regarded in fact, the worth of everyone depends on the person’s skills and knowledge and not on the stack of academic degrees one has. Nigeria must learn to bleed theory and practicals in her education because theory alone cannot serve any useful purpose (National Policy on Education 1998).
Nigeria in the most populated country in Africa and the eight in the world with a population of over 140 million people (National population commission 2006). Nigeria is the eight biggest oil producing country in the world, but it has the largest population of poor and non-employed people in Sub-Sahara Africa and is ranked 158th on the human development index there is general high income greatly which has perpetuated the concentration of wealth of the nation in the hard of a few individuals (Action Aid Nigeria 2009).
Technical education plays an important role in nation building. It is the cornerstone and veritable vehicle for the revitalization of our technology education and our economy as it provides the required manpower for socio-economic, technical and industrial sectors of nation. The greatest secret to ones success is choosing a job/career that is in line with your natural gift and talents, even when no one employs you, you can create jobs yourself and become productive.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of research problems
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Research questions
1.7 Scope of study
1.9 Definition of terms
2.1 The world conservation strategy
2.2 Target population (development process)
2.3 Application of technical and vocational education
2.4 The role of technical education
2.5 Constraints and challenges of business education in Nigeria
3.1 Research design
3.3 Samples and sampling procedures
3.4 Research instrument
3.5 Data collection
3.6 Method of data analysis
Data analysis and interpretation
Conclusion and recommendations
5.3 Recommendation for further study
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Technical education is the systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical task, it then means that when one uses the knowledge gained elsewhere to solve a similar problems in another environment successfully then technology is in action or has taken place. in technical education, the teacher quantity is critical because of the very skills, that must be taught, the teacher becomes a general list if he can teach more than three skills at all levels. The technical teacher must have some ability for multiple skills and eventually for self employment.
Vocational education is designed to help the learners acquire and develop skills, knowledge and attributes for effective employment or progression in specific occupations. This demands the learners to be adequately informed, prepared and equipped for the task ahead. Nelson and Nies (1973) Okorie and Ezeji (1988) believed that the more informed young people are about the needed work, skills, the more they are able to maintain themselves in an occupation which best meets their individual aptitude and interest. Vocational technical education is the study of technology and related science and acquisition of practical skills and knowledge relating to occupations in various sections of the economic and social life (Abokede, 2000).
In designing process of technical education courses as a double major, there is a separation between technical education sources and education courses. Technical education uses the methods and techniques of education, courses in the teaching-learning of technical education. The aim of colleges of education is to expand knowledge and the supply of competent experts to assist the nation to accelerate its educational development.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of the study
In Africa and in Nigeria in particular, governments are making efforts to promote technical and vocational education in institutions with the belief that skills acquired through vocational and technical training enhances productivity in work environment. Abban and Quarchie (1996) pointed out that a shift towards practical skills training with technical and vocational education in Africa is increasingly under reform to make it more attractive, effective and efficient.
One of the most important features of technical and vocational education, as recognized by African governments, is its orientation towards the world of work with the curriculum emphasizing the performance of technical and vocational trainees in the work environment. African Union (2007) report also highlighted the current vision of African countries in developing a new strategy to revitalize technical and vocational education will promote skills acquisition through competency-based training. If this vision should materialize, it will require ability testing for employment in order to promote sustainable livelihoods and responsible citizenship.
In achieving the goal of work place performance of technical and vocational graduates, Roeske (2003) explained, the Nigerian Industrial Skills Development Center was established in 2002. This center, working in close collaboration with the Association of Nigerian Industries and the Nigerian Employers
Association, was tasked to harness the financial and material resources required for achieving and promoting excellence in skills training. A number of other institutions like Integrated Community Center for Employable Skills, the Opportunities Industrialization Center and the Department of Social Welfare’s Vocational Centers are parts of government effort to produce skillful technical and vocational personnel. Other innovative programmes like the Skills Training and Employment Placement (STEP) and the Vocational Skills Project were also kept in place to bring out the talented and skillful technical and vocational personnel for the job market (Roeske, 2003). The Nigeria Regional Appropriate Technology Industrial Service and the Intermediate Technology Transfers Units are also providing technical and vocational education graduates with additional and enriched practical skills to enable them set up their own enterprises. All these interventions have not yielded the expected result.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The poor performance of graduates in other disciplines has become a menace in that it has grossly aected
the economic output as a nation. Regardless of the various interventions to ensure that technical institute graduates are well equipped with the required practical skills for the job/labour market and the campaign about the benefits of technical and vocational education, it has not attracted the youth in the southern Nigerian region to move into technical and vocational training at all because most technical graduates have not been able to enter into employment in their respective fields of training. The poor transition from school to the labour market by graduates has an appreciable amount of technical and vocational education graduates, who are mostly young
people, leave to the southern part of the country for menial jobs. This trend of affairs may suggest that technical vocational training programs offered by technical institutes probably fail to develop the skills required for employment within the southern Nigerian region and beyond and this has significantly contributed to the poor socio economic development of Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study sought to discover the views of students, and technical and vocational education teachers on the state of practical skills training to meeting the socio-economic needs of the region.Specifically, the study sought to;
1. Know the challenges facing the effective preparation of technical students for employment and work output.
2. Determine the extent to which teachers’ qualifications and quality of teaching affect technical vocational graduates work place performance.
3. To examine the performances of technical vocational education graduates in the labour market.
4. Know how relevant technical and vocational skills are to graduates in the work place environment.
5. To examine the performance of technical and vocational education graduates in delta state.
The colonial education which was inherited by Nigeria was criticised for being too theoretical to be able to make meaningful impact on the life of Nigerians (Akinlua, 2007). Subjects taught in schools reflected the taste of the colonial education officials; hence school curricula were built around the existing colonial values. Students were supposed to mimic their teachers in subject like Basic Electronics Trade which involved demonstration of competency. The same problem which informed dependency on past colonial education relics seems to have continued till date. Woolman (2001) was forced to comment on issue of this sort in his remark about African education. According to him, “African school systems today still follow the rigid structure of time periods and grade-level progression found in Western education.”
One definite thing expected of the educational institution to provide training to meet the demand for the human resource needs of the nation. The training of youth in the technical college aims at equipping them with useful skills and improving their knowledge in their desired areas of study. One such educational program that provides the youth opportunity to acquire skills and knowledge for effective nation building is the technical education program conducted in technical colleges.
Basic Electronics Trade provides the youth with the practical skills in works pertaining to electrical installation, electrical windings, construction of electronic circuits, and maintenance work. However, it has been discovered that the persistently poor achievement of students in examination emanates mainly from the inappropriate teaching methods adopted by technical education teachers in the instruction of Basic Electronics Trade as well as lack of adequate teaching facilities.
The realization of the objectives of technical college programmes and to improve students’ performance in the National Technical Certificate Examination in Basic Electronics Trades depends to a large extent on a number of factors. These factors include the availability and adequate supply of qualified teachers, provisions of equipment and facilities, proper implementation and usage of technical education textbooks on subject matter.
Doramola and Emmanuel (2000) stated that most Basic Electronics Trades technical college graduates experience prolonged trial and error, and consequently perform poorly at the National Technical Certificate Examination (NTCE) and labour trade test examination. Daramola and Emmanuel further pointed out that this unsatisfactory situation could lead to breakdown in the economic, industrial, technological and educational growth of Katsina State, since the main goal of technical education is to achieve self reliance. Doramola and Emmanuel (2000), and Yalam and Fatuku, (2007) suggested the need for this study because of the challenges of increased unemployment (Faruk, 2005).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is apparent that there is an astronomical decline in students’ academic achievement in Basic Electronics Trades in technical colleges in Nigeria. Lack of success can lead to inappropriate behavior and frustration on the part of students (Igbo, 2007). In technical colleges, teachers are faced with the task of placing the students in an educational setting tailored to the students’ learning. The setting in which services are provided has a strong influence on the academic achievement of the students.
A number of reasons or factors have been found to have contributed to students’ poor achievement. Some of these factors include students’ study habits and teaching methods used by the teacher in the teaching-learning process (Yalam and Fatiku, 2007: 88). However, some researchers have attributed the poor performance of students to gender, as it is believed that technical trades and related tasks belong to male students. This is reflected in the ratio of male to female student enrollments in technical colleges. They further stated that the environment (urban and rural setting) also influences the academic achievement of technical college students as facilities are not available in rural locations. It appears to the researcher that Students’ Performance in Basic Electronics Trades in National Technical Certificate Examination in Technical Colleges in Katsina State has been dwindling in recent times and the situation calls for immediate attention in order to arrest this deplorable situation. It is expected of the technical colleges to provide trained manpower in applied technology, particularly crafts and advanced crafts and to provide individuals with knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, commercial and economic development. It is also meant to provide training and impart the necessary skills on individuals who shall be self-reliant economically (FRN, 2004).
It appears that individuals expected to acquire the knowledge and skills stipulated by the national policy on education document are graduating from the technical colleges with unsatisfactory achievement. As recorded in NABTEB (2002) from the chief examiner’s report, basic electricity students who sat for the examination performed very poorly. Additionally, NABTEB certificate research conducted in Basic Electronics Trade, May/June, 2004 recorded a 30% failure rate (NABTEB, 2004). This raises more questions as to whether or not adapting and understanding their teachers’ instructions, there are such factors as issues of males and females, and the enrollment of students in urban and rural areas which also influence this ugly trend. Thus, a correlation study for the Survey of Students’ performance in Basic Electronics Trades in National Technical Certificate Examination in Technical Colleges in Katsina State is desirable.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting students performance in basic electronics in national technical certificate examination in technical colleges in katsina state. The study in intended to:
1. Find out strategies that can be adopted to improve Students’ performance in Basic Electronics Trades in National Technical Certificate Examination in Technical Colleges in Katsina State.
2. Determine the school based factors that affect Students’ performance in Basic Electronics Trades in National Technical Certificate Examination in Technical Colleges in Katsina State.
3. Find out socio-cultural factors that affect students’ performance in Basic Electronics Trades in National Technical Certificate Examination in Technical Colleges in Katsina State
4. Find out students’ personal factors that affect Students’ performance in Basic Electronics Trades in National Technical Certificate Examination in Technical Colleges in Katsina State.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will enable Katsina State Government to improve the quality standard of Basic Electronics Trade in technical colleges in Katsina State. It will provide the Basic Electronics Trade teachers with new strategies for improving their teaching methods. And it will enable the students to identify courses of their failure in the examination so as to cure it.
1.5 Research Questions
1. What are the strategies for improving students’ performance in Basic Electronics Trades in National Technical Certificate Examination in Technical Colleges in Katsina State?
2. What are the school based factors that affect Students’ performance in Basic Electronics Trades in National Technical Certificate Examination in Technical Colleges in Katsina State?
3. What are the socio-cultural factors that affect Students’ performance in Basic Electronics Trades in National Technical Certificate Examination in Technical Colleges in Katsina State?
4. What are the students’ personal factors that affect Students’ performance in Basic Electronics Trades in National Technical Certificate Examination in Technical Colleges in Katsina State?
1.6 Scope/Limitation of the Study
This study, will make findings for improving Students’ performance in Basic Electronics Trades in National Technical Certificate Examination in Technical Colleges in Katsina State.