AN INVESTIGATION INTO ACADEMIC INDISCIPLINE AND FAILURE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN (ENGLISH LANGUAGE MATHEMATICS, IGBO LANGUAGE, AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE, ECONOMICS

AN INVESTIGATION INTO ACADEMIC INDISCIPLINE AND FAILURE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN (ENGLISH LANGUAGE MATHEMATICS, IGBO LANGUAGE, AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE, ECONOMICS

ABSTRACT
This studies an investigation into academic indiscipline and failure among secondary school students (English language mathematics, Igbo, Agric, Economics. period 2005-2011 (a case study of Nigeria) the population of the study consists of five subjects in senior secondary school in Nigeria. A total of nine thousand seven hundred and fifteen (9,7,15) students and about 200 members of the staff were involved. Ten students from each class (JSS1-SSIII) were selected by proportionate stratified random sampling techniques to ensure that relevant features of the population were adequately represented for the second set of sample (staff) the same techniques was used to selected five staff from each school. The instrument used for the data collection was a structured questionnaire section ‘A’ contained personal data of the correspondent eg Name, sex, qualification etc while section ‘B’ contained the structured questionnaire items. The items were structured to reflect four point rating scale of strongly agree (SA), Agree (A) strongly Disagree (SD), and disagree and others like response category. The researchers personally administered the questionnaire. The response code and values are shown below, used in calculating the mean using the formula.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Approval
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table Of Contents

Chapter One:
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background Of Study
1.2 Statement Of The Problems
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
1.4 Significant Of The Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Scope Of The Study
1.7 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two:
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Aspects Of Students Indiscipline
2.2 Causes Of Students Indiscipline
2.3 Consequences Of Students Indiscipline
2.4 Strategies Of Maintaining Discipline
2.5 Summary Of Literature Review

Chapter Three:
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area Of The Study
3.3 Population Of The Study
3.4 Sample And Sampling Techniques
3.5 Development Of The Instrument
3.6 Method Of Data Collection
3.7 Method Of Data Analysis
3.8 Validation Of Instrument

Chapter Four:
4.0 Data Presentation And Data Analysis

Chapter Five:
5.0 Discussions Of Findings, Recommendations, And Summary
5.1 Discussions
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Implications
5.4 Recommendations
5.5 Suggestion
5.6 Limitation Of The Study
5.7 Summary
References
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
Chapter One of An Investigation Into Academic Indiscipline And Failure Among Secondary School Students In (English Language Mathematics, Igbo Language, Agricultural Science, Economics Project Material starts from here.

1.1 Background of the Study
According to Oxford Advanced learners Dictionary (7th editions) failure is lack of success in doing or achieving something. It is pertinent (relevant) to know that everybody in every works of life is afraid of failure. According to America Heritage (R) Dictionary, failure is lack of discipline or restraint (control) while failure to fulfill promise is called indiscipline.
Indiscipline is a rudimentary ingredient that plays a crucial role in school system, which Insist on upholding the moral values of students. It comprises a wide spectrum of meaning, well from the negative or positive perspective i.e a particular attitude towards something i.e view point. However, it is human immune to always focus on the negative smell and that would be considered a popular issue if it involves an individual or a group that claims an intimate relationship (close relationship) within a society.
Schon, D. (1993) aptly states that every child has a need to attend school. Schools are seen as provider of education as education is an important process that each individual has to undergo in life today. Thus, education is seen as the key to unlock the treasure prove of knowledge i.e valuable things that are found hidden or whose owner is unknown student’s misbehaviour is a prevailing problem affecting schools not only in Nigeria but also across the many countries around the Africa.
Students misconduct in the classroom interferes with teaching and learning and is thought to be precursor to later school dropout and similar negative social out-comes. Student’s behaviour problems are also thought to be a leading contributor to teacher’s stress and attrition (Making somebody weaker). Teacher’s subjected to abuse report experiencing fears for their intense feeling of anger, humiliation or shame, Isolation and depression.
Some teenagers may never reveal the nature of the incident or it’s impact on them in such cases, the confidence of the teachers has been undermined, his/her sense of personal safety related and the perpetration has not been conditioned.
Salvin, R.E (2003). One of the most wide-spread reasons for bad discipline however is usually students inability to cope with the task. The noisiest students will demonstrate their frustration by loud outburst (a sudden strong expression of an emotion), disruptive behaviour (causing problems, noise), will the rest of the class may remain passive (Stermbery, R.J & Williams, W.W.(2002). Basically, discipline problems occurs when a students refuses to obey rules of the classroom or school.
A close investigation on why our students fail in their Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (SSCE) especially on English language, Mathematics, Igbo language, Economics and Biology will reveal the fact that most of the students, susceptible i.e influenced or harmed to failure are those who indulge in academic indiscipline such as truancy, lateness to school, fighting, vandalism (crime of destroying or damaging something) and others. Sometimes, some school principals and class teachers will dabble (to take part in an activating) into malpractice just to help the students. However, they do it so that the society will see them as committed and hardworking teachers in their schools. The knowledge that the teachers will offer them helping during examination leads to students to relax, instead of being serious with their studies.
The researchers are not happy because academic indiscipline is rapidly putting down the wall of education in our country. It ponders in the mind of the researchers the type of doctors, engineers, lawyers, accountants that will be produced in our nation in the next five-ten years. Onah, J. (2008). According to Dewey in philosophy of education he emphasized on learning, by doing’.
The child has to do something”. He has to get involved in order for learning to be meaningful.
Moreover, rules that deal with human actions will eventually be broken and require some sort of punishment. Rules must also relate to the stated function of education or the school process and again, common sense must prevail in establishing disciplinary action for breaking a rule.Furthermore all students must be aware and prudent of the rules before disciplinary action can be administered. Franken, R.E (1998) parent and schools share the responsibility of promoting values and standards which we hope will help younger people to establish sound behavioural codes for their lives.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Education is the bedrock of development of any country. This is the reason why the integral part of our budget goes to education. The government is fighting very hard to shake off the under-development. How much was voted for education budgets.
Academic excellence is everybody’s wish for himself and his relations. During the colonial days some people know the efficacy in education.
It is with dismay (a worried, sad feeling) to observe the damaged academic indiscipline has done to our schools even our secondary schools which the preparatory stage of higher education.
Teachers are not coping well with the implementation of the curriculum, hence the low achievement of the product of secondary schools illiteracy, innumeracy (unable to court or do simple mathematics) and basic skills.
The value system in the country has made everybody to be corrupt. Lack of adequate infrastructural facilities such as teaching aids, buildings, transport, water and power supplies etc have led to academic indiscipline and failure among secondary school students.

1.3 Purpose of the Study
It is ideal to investigate into academic indiscipline and failure among secondary school students based on these objectives:-
a. To critically define indiscipline and failure in secondary schools.
b. To investigate into the causes of academic indiscipline and failure into our schools.
c. To recommend possible ways of cubing academic indiscipline and failure among secondary school students.

1.4 Significant Of The Study
This study would be of immense help to the secondary school students as it would investigate clearly why our students are involved in academic indiscipline and why they fail woefully in their examination. It will also want to find out positive and lasting solution towards their being made better examination candidates especially in compulsory subjects like English language, Igbo language, Agric Science,, Economics and Mathematics.
The entire society also stand the chance to benefit immensely because the students in secondary schools will be equipped to take their Senior Secondary school Certificate Examination (SSCE) confidently which will in long them lead to sufficiency.

1.5 Research Questions
1. Does frustration cause academic indiscipline?
2. Can failure cause the student to dropout from school.
3. Is the teacher a role model to the students?
4.Do some secondary school administration encourage examination malpractice?
5. Does broken home make a student to be aggressive
6. Have the child’s background have any contribution to his behaviour at school.
7. Can lack of confidence lead to failure.
8. Teaching the students with precepts (principles) and examples can it help to combat indiscipline?
9. How did the students perform in these subjects from 2005-2010?
10. Which one did they perform better or worse?
11. What are the possible reasons for their performances?

1.6 Scope of the Study
The study is deliminated to five subject in senior secondary schools in Nigeria.
These subjects are:
1. English language
2. Mathematics
3. Igbo language
4. Agriculture science
5. Economics

1.7 Definition of Terms
Academic indiscipline involves all those undesirable attitudes exhibited by students in the schools. Examples; bullying, fighting, stealing, poor attitudes to schools activities, vandalism etc.
1. Truancy: According to NTI, NCE (2001) Education cycle 4, truancy is an act of staying away from school without good reason or permission and students who involve in this act is called truant. A times, they leave the school to stay in a hide out playing, gambling (the activity of playing games of chance for money and watching movies.
2. Bullying: A bully is someone who use his strength or power to hurt or frighten people. He enjoys oppressing others weaker then himself.
3. Vandalism: According to oxford Advanced learners Dictionary) it is the crime of destroying or damaging something, especially public property, deliberately and for no good reason.
4. Malpractice: The dishonest use of a position of trust for personal gain. It is an act of ommission or commission which comprises the validity, reliability and integrity of any examination.
5. Failure: It is lack of success in doing achieving something.
6. Indiscipline: Failure to fulfill promise.
7. Rudimentary: Means basic clearing with only the most basic matters and ideas.

CHAPTER TWO
Chapter two of this An Investigation Into Academic Indiscipline And Failure Among Secondary School Students In (English Language Mathematics, Igbo Language, Agricultural Science, Economics” research work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Two of “An Investigation Into Academic Indiscipline And Failure Among Secondary School Students In (English Language Mathematics, Igbo Language, Agricultural Science, Economics Contains: Literature Review , Aspects Of Students Indiscipline, Causes Of Students Indiscipline, Consequences Of Students Indiscipline, Strategies Of Maintaining Discipline And Summary Of Literature Review .

CHAPTER THREE
Chapter three of this An Investigation Into Academic Indiscipline And Failure Among Secondary School Students In (English Language Mathematics, Igbo Language, Agricultural Science, Economics” academic work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Three of “An Investigation Into Academic Indiscipline And Failure Among Secondary School Students In (English Language Mathematics, Igbo Language, Agricultural Science, Economics Contains: Research Methodology, Research Design, Area Of The Study, Population Of The Study, Sample And Sampling Techniques, Development Of The Instrument, Method Of Data Collection, Method Of Data Analysis And Validation Of Instrument.

CHAPTER FOUR
Chapter four of this An Investigation Into Academic Indiscipline And Failure Among Secondary School Students In (English Language Mathematics, Igbo Language, Agricultural Science, Economics project work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Four of An Investigation Into Academic Indiscipline And Failure Among Secondary School Students In (English Language Mathematics, Igbo Language, Agricultural Science, Economics Contains: Data Presentation And Data Analysis.

CHAPTER FIVE

Chapter five of this An Investigation Into Academic Indiscipline And Failure Among Secondary School Students In (English Language Mathematics, Igbo Language, Agricultural Science, Economics material is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Five of An Investigation Into Academic Indiscipline And Failure Among Secondary School Students In (English Language Mathematics, Igbo Language, Agricultural Science, Economics Contains: Discussions, Conclusion, Implications, Recommendations, Suggestion, Limitation Of The Study, Summary, References And Appendix.

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO ACADEMIC INDISCIPLINE AND FAILURE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN (ENGLISH LANGUAGE MATHEMATICS, IGBO LANGUAGE, AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE, ECONOMICS

CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION TO THE GROWTH OF THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY

CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION TO THE GROWTH OF THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY

ABSTRACT
This research work is aimed at the effects of contribution of Agricultural production in local governments. The purpose is to determine the relationship between the level of productivity and growth of the Nigerian Economy, training and Agricultural production; discover the courses of high labour turnover in local government, determine whether the availability of training, agricultural production opportunities, motivation of staff of the Enugu North Local Government to enable them stick firmly to the service of the local government. In conducting the research the researchers used oral interview, questionnaires and personal observations to collect the necessary data required. Sample size of 123 of Enugu North Local Government Area, were studied. The data collected were statistically analyzed by the percentage, it was discovered interalia that training and Agricultural production opportunities motivate workers and reduce the rate of labour turnover, growth of the Nigerian Economy, training, development and production justify the high cost of implications associated with it, despite the fact that substantial number of local government employees have been trained; their performances are still not encouraging. Local Government should ensure that the agricultural production and training programmes are well structured and planned; equal opportunity for training and development should be given to every member of staff all levels. Local Government should create a good organization climate and learning system; chairmen should ensure that trainers’ recommendations on trainees are implemented; production and training programme should be supported with adequate job rotation and assignment. Agricultural production, training and practical should be structured to cover aspects of the local governments. Local Governments should ensure regular training for trainers to enable them update their knowledge and skill. Trainers should be well equipped with materials that are in uniformity with the present economic, social and technological environment. The researchers also recommend that local government should keep this research work and refer to it whenever a training and development programme is being designed. The idea of dumping research work in the archives without any meaningful use of them is ill concerned.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Approval Page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgment
List Of Table
Abstract

Chapter I:
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background Of The Study
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
1.4 Significant Of The Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Scope Of The Study
1.7 Limitations Of The Study
1.8 Definitions Of Terms

Chapter II:
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Overview Of The Agricultural Production In Nigeria
2.2 Historical Background Of Nigerian Agriculture
2.3 The Role Of Agriculture In Economic Growth
2.4 Problems Of Agriculture In Nigeria
2.5 Agricultural Policies In Nigeria
2.6 The Period Of Structural Adjustment Programme
2.7 Summary Of Review

Chapter III:
3.0 Research Methods
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area Of Study
3.3 Population Of The Study
3.4 Sample Size And Sample Technique
3.5 Instrument For Data Collection
3.6 Method Of Data Collection
3.7 Validation And Reliability Of The Instrument
3.8 Method Of Data Analysis
3.9 Decision Rule

Chapter Iv:
4.0 Data Presentation And Analysis
4.1 Presentation And Analysis Of Data

Chapter V:
5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations
5.1 Summary Of Findings
5.2 Conclusions
5.3 Recommendations
5.4 Suggestions For Further Studies
References
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
Chapter One of Contribution Of Agricultural Production To The Growth Of The Nigerian Economy Project Material starts from here.

INTRODUCTION

These chapter deals with the following subheading: Background of the study, Statement of Problems, Purpose of the study, Significance of the study, Research questions, Scope of study, Limitation of the study and Definitions of terms.

1.1 Background of the Study
As men invented tools, weapons, clothing, shelter and language, the need for contribution, training, and growth became an essential ingredient in the match to civilization. Whether our ancestors invested these facts of civilization is relatively of little significant. What is more important is that man has the ability to practicalize and pass on to others that knowledge and skill gained.
This is done by deliberate example, by sign and words. Through these devices, the development process called contribution of agricultural production, was received by another successfully, we say that productivity took place when knowledge, skill and practical is being transferred.
One of the objectives of every organization should be to provide opportunities for its employees and optimize their performance in pursuit of the organizational goal. With this end in view, it may be profitable also to determine the contribution of agricultural production to the growth of the Nigerian economy.
When we consider contribution of agricultural production, training therefore, we are seeking instructional or experimental means to develop a person’s behavioural pattern in order to achieve a standard level of economic performance. Rising agricultural productivity therefore is an essential prerequisite for adequate performance in successful industrialization.
The importance of productivity to any organization whether public or private, has long been identified. Organizational object such as profit maximization, production and agricultural growth cannot be fulfilled without human beings, who co-ordinate these activities of the organization.
The undisputable reason’s why contribution of agricultural production; and training of employees should be a revolving undertaking is because of change posed by modern technology. Change take place minutes, hours, day etc. and the world is faced with an era of technological advancement that can make already acquired skill obsolete.
In Nigeria as in most developing countries agriculture is both the main traditional occupation and the key to sustained growth of the modern economy. It is a fact that economic growth and development has gone hand in hand with agriculture progress. Stagnation in agriculture is the principal explanation for poor economic performance, while rising agricultural productivity has been the most important prerequisite of successful industrialization.
The low rate of agricultural productivity in Nigeria, therefore, is responsible for our underdevelopment and inability to industrialize over the years. Agriculture contributes very immensely to the growth of the Nigerian economy and was the dominant production before the oil boom of the 1970s.
Statistics show that agricultural production contributed about 64.1 percent of the gross domestic product in 1960, compared to 1.2 percent from mining and 4.8 percent from manufacturing products respectively. From the peaks the share of agriculture to total production dropped precipitously to 28.1% in 1975 while those of other products particularly the crude oil gained rapidly. By 1980 the share of agricultural and manufacturing products relegated to the background.
As a result of the global oil glut in the early 1980s with its attendant economic consequences like a sharp decline in the revenue yield capacity of the government. Mounting national debts, poor foreign reserve, even evidence of successive deficit in the balance of trade and payments, there was a need to change policy direction. A lot of emphasis has been on the need to reactivate and stimulate activities in the agricultural production, various policy measures have been resorted to by various government in a bid to boost production.
They include:-
The National Accelerated Food Production Project (NAEPP) established in 1973. The Nigeria Agricultural and Co-operative Bank (NACB) also founded in April 1973. The River Basin Development Authorities (RBDAS) established in 1973. The Nigeria Agricultural and Co-operative Bank (NACB) also founded in April 1973. The River Basin Development Authorities (RBDAS), operation feed the Nation (OFN); Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme (ACGS), The Green Revolution Programme (GRP) to mention but a few.
However, these measures are yet to boost and rekindle the importance of the agricultural production as the main stay of the economy. It is against this background that this study is undertaken production on the growth of the Nigeria economy.

1.2 Statement of Problem
With the general down turn in the nature economic fortune brought about by the oil glut of the partly 80’s, there was an impressing need to change policy direct with the aim of diversifying the economy. More emphasizes were placed on resulting the priority of real production of the economy especially the agricultural of the economy especially the agricultural products. Consequent, upon this, there were various policies and other measures directed towards enhancing the activities of the agricultural production, which was one main stay of the economy.
However, these measures notwithstanding have not really improved activities in the agricultural production sector. Furthermore, the agricultural production seems to have contributed something significantly to the overall gross domestic product. There is now a problem as to whether government efforts to stimulating the activities of the agricultural production have any significant contribution at improving its performance and that of the economy in general. It is against this background that this research work is undertaken to examine the contribution of Agricultural production to the growth of the Nigerian economy.

1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general objective of this study, specifically, the study would attempt.
i. To determine the contribution of the agricultural production to the growth of the Nigerian economy.
ii. To identify some of the problems affecting the agricultural production in Nigeria.
iii. To proffer solutions to the problems of agricultural growth on the Nigerian economy.
iv. To make appropriate economic policies that will help improve the growth of the agricultural production in Nigeria economy.
v. To examine the training and agricultural production available to staff of the local government.
vi. To find out the number of staff that is being trained, each year and how it has affected their performance at work.
vii. To find out whether staff of the local government sees training and development programmes as motivating and means of job enrichment and satisfaction.

1.4 Significance of the Study
The importance of this research work cannot be over-emphasized. It will enable government and policy maker to make appropriate economic policies that will help improve the activities of the agricultural production in Nigeria.
Furthermore, with the findings and suggestions of this research work, awareness will be created in this great academic community so as to appreciate efforts by the government to improve the agricultural production and also benefits and contribution to the farmers and the country bas a whole. Finally, this will guide researchers this subject matter.

1.5 Research Questions
The following are research questions:
i. Does training and agricultural production have any influence on the level of performance of the local government?
ii. What proportions of staffs are being trained yearly?
iii. What type of training and production programme is available to local government worker?
iv. Does contribution of agricultural production and training has any effect on the growth of the Nigeria economy.
v. Are you convinced that production performance improves after training?
vi. Do staffs see training and production programme as motivating, contribution to the growth of the Nigeria economy and means of job enrichment?

1.6 Scope of Study
This study covers the Enugu North Local Government Area. A thorough study was carried in Enugu North, and any other reference to other local government is for charity and vivid understanding of the subject topic, “The Contribution of Agricultural Production to the growth of the Nigerian economy”.

1.7 Limitation of the Study
However, to carryout a more detailed work on this issue was limited by the following factor.
i. Lack of Fund: The financial involvement of this work was much that it was beyond our reach.
ii. Time Factor: The combination of the lecture and this research work did not give us enough time to carryout a thorough study of the subject matter.
iii. Lack of maximum co-operation by researcher: some of the researchers who are supposed to give maximum support did not assemble at once for the research work.
iv. Late Returning of Questionnaires: Some of the respondents did not return their questionnaires given to them and some returned theirs very late and they were as not returned.
v. Attitude of the Group Members:- They contributed so much in seeing that the work is been perfectly done. They put all they zeal both in writing aid in attendant to see that every thing concerning the writing of this project is completed successfully.

1.8 Definitions of Terms
i. Policy: Is a plan of action agreed to be carried out.
ii. Production: Involves the creation of utility that is, goods and services.
iii. Economy: This is the relationship between production, trade and the supply of money in a particular country or region.
iv. Export: Is the selling and sending goods to another country.
v. Growth: Is a term used to indicate increase of per capital gross domestic product.
vi. Improve: Is to become better than before.

CHAPTER TWO
Chapter two of this Contribution Of Agricultural Production To The Growth Of The Nigerian Economy” research work is available. Chapter Two of “Contribution Of Agricultural Production To The Growth Of The Nigerian Economy Contains: Literature Review, Overview Of The Agricultural Production In Nigeria, Historical Background Of Nigerian Agriculture, The Role Of Agriculture In Economic Growth, Problems Of Agriculture In Nigeria, Agricultural Policies In Nigeria, The Period Of Structural Adjustment Programme and Summary Of Review .

CHAPTER THREE
Chapter three of this Contribution Of Agricultural Production To The Growth Of The Nigerian Economy” academic work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Three of “Contribution Of Agricultural Production To The Growth Of The Nigerian Economy Contains: Research Methods, Research Design, Area Of Study, Population Of The Study, Sample Size And Sample Technique, Instrument For Data Collection, Method Of Data Collection, Validation And Reliability Of The Instrument, Method Of Data Analysis and Decision Rule .

CHAPTER FOUR
Chapter four of this Contribution Of Agricultural Production To The Growth Of The Nigerian Economy project work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Four of Contribution Of Agricultural Production To The Growth Of The Nigerian Economy Contains: Data Presentation And Analysis, Presentation And Analysis Of Data .

CHAPTER FIVE
Chapter five of this Contribution Of Agricultural Production To The Growth Of The Nigerian Economy material is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Five of Contribution Of Agricultural Production To The Growth Of The Nigerian Economy Contains: Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations, Summary Of Findings, Conclusions, Recommendations, Suggestions For Further Studies, References and Appendix.

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CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION TO THE GROWTH OF THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY

WOMEN INVOLVEMENT IN COMMUNITY IN NIGERIA

WOMEN INVOLVEMENT IN COMMUNITY IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
From the time of creation till date, expect in the recent time, whom have been seen generally especially by the male folk as second-class citizens, more especially in the less developed countries.
This has led to various misconceptions and bickering between the male and female group despite all efforts of women towards the development of there various communities. Even when it is obvious that women are taking the lead and vigorously help the spouses in executing various developmental projects their activities are rarely appreciated.
The purpose of this study therefore was to conduct an investigation into the contribution of Eku of the community development efforts of Eku as a case study in the “involvement of women in community development in Nigeria.” Specifically it is against this background that the researcher set out six research questions and three-research hypothesis to aid the study.
A total of 94 respondents were sampled to respond to the questionnaire, which was the main research instrument. These were distributed to the women who participate in economic Development through their community development efforts in Eku. The responses by the women were analyzed by the use of percentage.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract

Chapter One
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background Of The Study
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
1.4 Scope Of The Study
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.6 Significance Of The Study
Reference

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Background And Concept Of Community Development In Nigeria.
2.2 Women Involvement In Economic/ Community Development.
2.3 Impediments.
2.4 Suggestion And Efforts For The Further.
Reference

Chapter Three
3.0 Research Design And Methodology
3.1 Research Design.
3.2 Area Of Study.
3.3 Population Of The Study
3.4 Sample And Sampling Technique
3.5 Instrument For Data Collection
3.6 Validation Of The Instrument
3.7 Reliability Of The Instrument
3.8 Method Of Data Collection
3.9 Method Of Data Analysis
Reference

Chapter Four
4.0 Data Presentation And Analysis
4.1 Data Presentation And Analysis
4.2 Testing Of Hypothesis.
4.3 Summary Of Results
Reference:

Chapter Five
5.0 Discussion, Recommendation And Conclusion
5.1 Discussion Of Results/Findings
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Implications Of The Research Findings
5.4 Recommendation
5.5 Suggestion For Further Research
Bibliography And References
Appendices

CHAPTER ONE
Chapter One of Women Involvement In Community In Nigeria Project Material starts from here.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The study will place emphasis on the community development efforts of women in the economic development in Nigeria.
Community development involves some kind of co-operative actions by every member of a particular community to improve the well being or welfare of town members, Battern, R.T.R. (1957, p.8) in recent times, there has been noticeable change in people’s community development as the great provider. There is now remarkable awareness that the people can now develop their community through their own efforts and with their own resources, since the states or local government, government to which people look upon her help could not attract enough revenue from the federal government to come to their rescue.
It is against this background that people organized themselves into groups for self-help activities in communities most of these condition of their members and the community in general. Many areas they focus their attentions include the construction and building of rural road, schools, health centers, village halls, clinics, market, garri processing machines, oil processing machines and so on.
In Ethiope East for instance with a particular reference to Eku where most of these infrastruture are not available, women as vehicles for community development have now found themselves providing some of these amenities through their various groups. It is based on this that the research sought to identify the extent those women groups have gone in their development activities since their men are chiming to be at the forefront of every development activities.
But if the recent development in the affairs and attitude of women towards economics development are anything to go by them, I can be in a better positions to appreciate the roles played by the recent past. First ladies of this nation of Nigeria for example. Think of the development initiatives and activities carried out by Mrs. Maryam Babangida under the better life for rural women programmes. Recall the activities of Mrs. Maryam Abacha under FEAP.
In the international forum, mention must be made of reputable women like Imelda Marcus of the Philippines, Margate Ihatcher of Britain Winnie Mandela of South Africa and recently modline Albright to mention but a few.
Women natural are tender hearted, no wonder their roles in the family are indispensable, those roles are variously carried are into their immediate environment, hence they (women) are able to identify easily those economic areas where their activities greatly affects and enhance the lives of many. It is expect therefore that these work will contribute its quota to the eradication of this nation that the place of the women is in the kitchen, they deserve mush more positive recognition then that as shall be revealed by this work.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem this study out to examine is the extent women in Ethiope East with a particular reference to Eku Community have been involved in community development, since literature an women and development reviewed depicts women as the backbone of community development.
The need there arise to discover howWomen Involvement In Community In NigeriaHow their efforts have enhanced the quality of life of Eku people in general.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The sole aim of this research is to study the various contributions of Eku women to the community/economic development. Because of this, the study has set out to investigation that issue with the following aim:-
i. To examine the characteristics of females regarded as women.
ii. To find out the various community project(s) or programmes(s) embarked upon by these women.
iii. To find out their objectives for embarking on such project(s) or programme(s).
iv. To find out whether their activities promote hamper development.
v. To find out how the project(s) or programme(s) are being financed.
vi. To find out the problems the women encounter in carrying out their community development programme.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is intended to examine the various contributions of women in Ethiope with reference to Eku in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The contribution made by women in other neigbouring communities are however not be included.
Consequently, the study is going to focus on the various project(s) or programmes(s) of women groups involved in community development in Eku. The area to be studied are Igun, Samagidi, Sanubi and Echi.
In each village, sample of all women groups that take part in community development project(s) or programme(s) are to be studied. The study specially will be find out the extent to which women have used these projects or programmes in contributing to economic/community development.

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
A hypothesis is an intelligent guess of the solution to the research problem. A hypothesis may also viewed as a conjectural proposition, an informed, intelligent guess about the solution to the problem (Orjih, 1996. 145) the following are the research hypothesis:
Ho: The various community development project embarked by women do not bring new things.
Hi: The various community development projects embarked by women have brought new things.
Ho: Women do not encounter problems while carrying out the projects.
Hi: Women encounter problems while carrying out the projects.
Ho: The objectives of the projects are not well understood by other women in the community.
Hi: The objectives of the projects are well understood by the other women in the community.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Research is carried out because we want to solve a problem(s) and if the problem is solved that means it will benefit those who are affected by the problem, Ozo, Odo Anih, Ugwu (1999, p. 30).
It is clear that this that type of study never been made in some community including Eku. Although the research is carried out to fulfill an academic requirement it will also go beyond that scope encouraging more meaningful and conscious development efforts on the part of women.
This study will also well help to stimulate community development department of Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State to seek the opinion of women in planning any community development. This will also serve as a guide to other researcher.

REFERENCE
Battern, R.T.R. (1957) Community and their Development. Oxford University Press of 8.

Orijih, John (1996) Business Research Methodology. Enugu: Meteson Publicity Company Page 145.

Ozo, Odo, Anih, Ugwu (1999) Introduction to Project Writing (for Business and Financial Studies) Enugu: Sunny Enterprise Page 39.

CHAPTER TWO
Chapter two of this Women Involvement In Community In Nigeria” research work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Two of “Women Involvement In Community In Nigeria Contains: Literature Review, Background And Concept Of Community Development In Nigeria, Women Involvement In Economic/ Community Development, Impediments, Suggestion And Efforts For The Further And Reference.

CHAPTER THREE
Chapter three of this Women Involvement In Community In Nigeria” academic work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Three of “Women Involvement In Community In Nigeria Contains: Research Design And Methodology, Research Design, Area Of Study, Population Of The Study, Sample And Sampling Technique, Instrument For Data Collection, Validation Of The Instrument, Reliability Of The Instrument, Method Of Data Collection, Method Of Data Analysis And Reference.

CHAPTER FOUR
Chapter four of this Women Involvement In Community In Nigeria project work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Four of Women Involvement In Community In Nigeria Contains: Data Presentation And Analysis, Testing Of Hypothesis, Summary Of Results And Reference.

CHAPTER FIVE
Chapter five of this Women Involvement In Community In Nigeria material is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Five of Women Involvement In Community In Nigeria Contains: Discussion, Recommendation, Conclusion, Implications Of The Research Findings, Suggestion For Further Research, Bibliography, References And Appendices.

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WOMEN INVOLVEMENT IN COMMUNITY IN NIGERIA

INCIDENCE OF CANDIDACIES AMONG SINGLE AND MARRIED WOMEN OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUP

INCIDENCE OF CANDIDACIES AMONG SINGLE AND MARRIED WOMEN OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUP

ABSTRACT
In thus work the incidence of candidacies was studied using selected patients of university of Nigeria teaching hospital Enugu analyzed for the presence of candidacies yeast infection. The specimens were cultured on seaboards agar and blood agar and subculture isolated were C aibicans C Tropical C Knusei C Pseudoizo P cals C paraknusei and C stellatoides. The prevalence of candidacies among patients of UNTH was monitored in terms of level of occurrence and microbial types. Also the prevalence of candidicesis infection was 40% samples under study.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract

Chapter One
1:1 Introduction
1.2 Aim And Objectives
1.3 Statement Of Problem
1.4 Significant Of Study
1.5 Scope Of Study
1.6 Limitation
1.7 Hypothesis

Chapter Two
2.1 Literature Review

Chapter Three
3.1 Methodology
3.2 Sterilization Of Methodology
3.3 Population Sample
3.4 Preparations Of Culture Media
3.5 Collection Of Samples
3.6 Identification Of Isolates
3.7 Antibiotle Sensitivity Disc Testing

Chapter Four
4.1 Results

Chapter Five
5.1 Recommendation
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Reference
5.4 Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
Chapter One of Incidence Of Candidacies Among Single And Married Women Of Different Age Group Project Material starts from here.

INTRODUCTION
Candeda: This is a yeast like fungi several of which cause disease in man about 90% of infection are to candida albicans, which is normally present in mouth, intestine and veginal it is responsible for the infection in the sites defense mechanisms (carousal 1990)
Candida abbacies usually appears as oval yeast like cell that reproduce by budding however in infected areas. Filamentous hyphare plus pseudolyphae (which consist of elongated yeast cells that remain attached to each other many also be seen the yeast is easily grown at 250c 40 37 0c on sabouraudis glucose agar and if grown on cor a meal agar at 250c the organism can produce many characteristic thick walled chlamydospore Van leeuweuhoed (2 000) candida albicans is measured about 2.5 to 4.0 wm in diameter which can gives rise to pseudomycellun, in the body it has no sexual form the body it has no sexual form in poor medic at temperature of 2b0c it produces thick wall and resting cells is about 7 to 17 m in test positive in maminaliam serum it has the ability to split urear. it is pathogenic to rabbits. guinea Pig s and with where it cause abscesses in the kidney when give intran Veroush (Eleke, 2002).
Oral candidacies oral candidacies also called oral thrush) occurs and most frequently in the new born and is probably acquired during passage through and infected vagina the yeast appears as a creamy grade membrane covering the tongue and appears able to produce disease only because of the absence of their resident normal flora (Prescott et al; 1994) if thrush has not occurred by the 3rd day of life it is likely that it will appear but it should occur which will usually disappear without treatment as other members of the normal flora are acquired
Oral thrush in order children or Adults may occur as a result of endocrine disturbance or ceutaninosis (Particularity a deficiency of rib flauin as a complication of diabeta, as a result of poor oral hyepene or following the administration of corticosteroides or autibutics oral thrush also occur in bottle feed infants which the magnification of my white patches cowering red raw areas of mucous manbrance vanities , vagines cendiass is seen most frequents in women with diabetes, milieus deny pregnamai or following prolonged antibiotic therapy. The prominent symptom is a yellow, milk, veginals discharge yeast cells and pseudo my cell can be found on the mucous membrane and such infections may result in an intense inflammation of the entire ingunal area according to Atlas 199: 13) he state vaginal thrush in pregnant women are susceptible here with production of whish discharge with a pH below 5.2. Alimentary candidacies. Alimentary candidacies may follow essentially any of the predisposing conditions listed for adult oral thrush; however the majority of cases occur as a result of prolonged broad spectrum antibiotics therapy which destoirys a large part of the normal flora of the intestine. The organisms may also cause interse inflammation of the parinal region the region around the arws and may spread to the and thing coetaneous are systemic candidacies infection of the skin by Candida usually occurs in those with metabolic disorders in those whose obesity result in continuously most tools of skin or in persons in whom part of the body are kept moist under surgical dressings According to Prescott et al (1999, 18) systemic candidacies is exlvecnely but in debilitated person or those receiving immuno suppresure drugs sandida albicans can cause urinary trait infection endocarditis and meningitis chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is also a rare syndrome in which the skin mucous membranes hair and nails become infected, such infections appears to occur in persons with T. cell defects manifested by their inability to respond to Candida certigens, in addition to vaging yeast infections the acid environment of the veginal and the proliferation of normal vaginal bacterial limited its growth when the environment of the vegina changes, situations that change the environment of the birth control pills. Which often change the vaginal pH or taking bread spectrum cutibioties such as tertiary cline which kills the normal vaginal bacteria in addition, patients with Aids of uncontrolled eddiabetes often develop yeast infections.

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
To determine the prevalence of fugal infection among the patients of UNTH Enugu
To determine the prevalence of fungal infection among single and married women of different age group patient
To determine the yeast type involved.
To determine the autimicrobial sensitivity pattern of isolates involves.

1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY
This research work is limited to only patients of single and married women of different a group in hematology laboratory in university teaching hospital Enugu. The work was carried out with the use the necessary material such as early morning urine, HVS swab samples which was collected from those women vaginal

1.4 LIMITATION
In carrying out the research work. It was so stressful for me in area like buying of my material. I used for my practices that very costly I also went to different markets to get what I want then in carrying out my particle it was not easy for me also the money I was ask was not enough for due buying of book s and transporting price that is not steady also I found it very difficult to use university teaching hospital Enugu library

1.5 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Candidiasis has caused a lot of problem in our societies this days because of has the nature of the disease look like such as the discomfort it causes to people like itching which causes a lot of embrcincement to people publicly
Secondary the to candidiasis cause frequented urinating people that are suffering from the disease will not found it easy to stay in a public for a long time without beivery disgrace by this infection another problem with this infection is when it stays long in the body it will make the person that is suffering from it to be smelling due to severe discharge.

1.6 SINGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The study of this research topic will provide more constructor frame work to formation or creating a way of Eradicating the infection ( candidiasis it also help to educate people the cause and consequence of the infection candidacy. It will also help the communities to know the risk of staring thing that makes people to contact the disease, it will also help to provide precaution measure that will help in preventing the infection.
finally this research work will help to reduce the high rate of the disease occurrence and gives an insight into our communities

1.7 HYPOTHESIS
H0 The infection (candidiasis) is more prevalent in single women than married women
H1 The infection (candidiasis) is more prevalent in married women than in single women
H2 pregnancy is one of the factors that can change the pH or taking broad spectrum antibiotics.

CHAPTER TWO
Chapter two of this Incidence Of Candidacies Among Single And Married Women Of Different Age Group” research work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Two of “Incidence Of Candidacies Among Single And Married Women Of Different Age Group Contains: Literature Review .
CHAPTER THREE
Chapter three of this Incidence Of Candidacies Among Single And Married Women Of Different Age Group” academic work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Three of “Incidence Of Candidacies Among Single And Married Women Of Different Age Group Contains: Methodology, Sterilization Of Methodology, Population Sample, Preparations Of Culture Media, Collection Of Samples, Identification Of Isolates And Antibiotle Sensitivity Disc Testing .

CHAPTER FOUR
Chapter four of this Incidence Of Candidacies Among Single And Married Women Of Different Age Group project work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Four of Incidence Of Candidacies Among Single And Married Women Of Different Age Group Contains: Results .

CHAPTER FIVE
Chapter five of this Incidence Of Candidacies Among Single And Married Women Of Different Age Group material is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Five of Incidence Of Candidacies Among Single And Married Women Of Different Age Group Contains: Recommendation, Conclusion, Reference And Appendix .

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INCIDENCE OF CANDIDACIES AMONG SINGLE AND MARRIED WOMEN OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUP

ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY

ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY

ABSTRACT
The study on anaemia in pregnancy is aimed at determining packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb) level and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of pregnant women, as well as the selferity, significance of maternal, age, educational level, occupation and gestational age to the occurrence of anaemia in pregnancy managed, diagnosed and admitted at the university of Nigeria teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu. The result showed that most of the patient had moderate to secure anaemia and that the cases were commonest in the age range 25-29 years. Most of the patient were housewives and low level civil servants who lived in middle and lower class residential area ad who had no formal education. Anaemia in pregnancy was seen to occur most commonly in the third trimester. It occurred all through the year, but mostly in the wet season and had the greatest positive association with malaria and nutritional deficiency. Anaemia in pregnancy was seen not to be rampant in our today’s society due to the small number that tested positive Anaemia in pregnancy was also seen not to have any effect on birth weight of babies.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Cover Page
Title Page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract

Chapter One
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Epidemology
1.2 Classification
1.3 Types Of Anaemia
1.4 Pathophysiology
1.5 Aims And Objectives
1.6 Statement Of Problems
1.7 Limitations/Scope

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Hereditary Spherocytosis
2.2 Glucose – 6 – Phosphate
2.3 Ineffective Condition

Chapter Three
3.0 Materials And Method
3.1 Collection Of Samples
3.2 Sterilization
3.3 Determination Of Packed Cell Volume
3.4 etermination Of Haemoglobin (Hb)
3.5 Determination Of Erythrocyte
3.6 Sedimentation Rate (Esr)
3.7 Determining The Significance Of Age, Educational Level, Etc
3.8 Method Of Data Collection
3.9 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four
4.0 Results
4.1 Distribution Of Pregnant Women
4.2 Distribution Of Patients According To Their Occupation
4.3 Distribution Of Patients According To Their Educational Level
4.4 Distribution Of Patients According To Severity.

Chapter Five
5.0 Discussion
5.1 Distribution
5.2 Distribution Pregnant Women By Age
5.3 Percentage Of Anaemia In Pregnancy Etc.

Chapter Six
6.0 Conclusion / Recommendations
6.1 Action By The Government Etc.
References
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
Chapter One of Anaemia In Pregnancy Project Material starts from here.

DEFINITION: The world health organization (WHO) index for anaemia in pregnancy is when the hemoglobin level in the peripheral blood is Hg/dl or less. However, from practical experience in tropical obstetrics it is generally accepted that anaemia in pregnancy Exist when the Hemoglobin level is less than in loglde or the packed cell volume less than 30%

EPIDEMOOGY:
Anaemia in pregnancy presents a world-wide problem but it is uncommon in developed world. the importance of anaemia in pregnancy in the tropics lies firstly in its greatly increased incidence, and secondly in the seventy of the anaemia with which the patients commonly present for treatment. Both combine to make this complication of pregnancy a major cause of maternal and fetal death in the tropics. A third important problem posed by anaemia in the tropics is polymorphism. In almost all cales, the anaemia is caused by multiple factors whole individual importance varies from area to area. This makes rational prophylaxis and treatment much more difficult. Complication of pregnancy in the for at belt of West Africa, between January and April 1955. it was directly responsible for more than 20% of all maternal deaths in patients under the car of the Department of obstetrics, university college Hospital, Ibadan. It also contributed to many other deaths from Antepartum hemorrhage, postpartum hemorrhage and puerperal sepsis. In Nigeria it is a frequent complication, its incidence is high and its severity is staggering. The clinical feathers of anaemia in pregnancy in Nigeria are different from those encountered in temperate countries not only because of the severity of symptoms but also because of the concomitant autuminosis such as marked glossitis, Angular stomatitis and associated gross hepatomegly. Agbola A. (1991)

CLASSIFICATION
Anaemia in pregnancy could be mild, moderate or severe based on the haemoglobin level in the peripheral blood as well as the clinical manifestations and the management would differ for each.

TYPES OF ANAEMIA HB LEVEL
Mild Anaemia in pregnancy 9-Hg/dl
Moderate Anaemia in pregnancy 7-9g/dl
Severe Anaemia in pregnancy 7g/dl

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
For haemoglobin and Red blood cell synthesis, iron, folate, vitamin Biz and Vitamin c, trace elements like cobate and copper, and proteins are required. Erythroporetin produced by the renal parenchyma stimulates the bone marrow to increase erthropesis which is one of the noticeable physiological changes in pregnancy. Barnes, F.C (1994).
In the non-pregnant female, the total body is about 3.5-kg. 2/3 of this is Haemoglobin another ¼ is in the body stores and the remaining is in the tissue and plasma. Iron is stored in the liver and spleen as femitin and in bone marrows haemosiderin. Iron in the serum is bound to transfer in, a B1 – globulin and transfers is only 1/3 saturated with iron. A good diet provides about 10-15mg of iron per a day and only 10% of this is absorbed. Iron is mainly absorbed in the duedenuim and to some extent in the upper jejunum. The absorption is influenced by dietary phosphates, phytaces, ascorbic acid, sugars especially frutole, Hell in the stomach and gastric factors namely factors I, II and II, iron is lost in the bile, urine, fences, sweat and during menstruation. About 1-2mg of iron is lost daily.
In normal pregnancy, iron demand is increased many folds. The fetus need about 350mg, the placenta about 100mg: the increased material haemoglobin mass about 350mg and that from lactation about 150mg. In adding the pregnant women still excretes iron but on the credit side about 225mg of iron is available as a result of the amenorrhea of pregnancy is about 15%. The increased iron requirement is not uniformly spread over the period of pregnancy but as pregnancy advances from 28 weeks onwards, the increased demand is noticed as a resultant drop in PCV or HB concentration it no iron supplementation has been given Abidu, O, Sofola (1990).

COMPLICATIONS
In the absence of effective treatment, anaemia develops progressively as the pregnancy advances.
The following complications may occurs;
I. CONGESTIVE CARDIA FAILURE: This is the main effect of anaemia muscle oxygen lacse. The most dangerous period is during the first 12 hours after delivery.
II. SHOCK: Severely anaemic women readity go into shock as a result of very small amount of blood loss and motality in such patients.

TREATMENT
This disease cannot be cured, but can be managed for some extent. Air travel during pregnancy should be avoided, especially in unpressurized air crafts single the resultant anorexic may cause splenic or other vital organ infection of anaemic pregnant women in our environment should be examined for worms and ova of hookworm. However infestation of hookworm can be prevented by good food and personal hygiene and also protecting the slein from penetration for the worms by wearing fast wears.
Blood transfusion is given with caution in cases where the anaemia is severe, that is HB less than 5g/dl or PCV less than 5% or in cases where moderate anemia co-existing with seplis or Hemorrhage is discovered late after 36 weeks or in labour or immediate pos-partum

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The project work is aimed at the following:
1. To determine the haemoglobin level (HB) packed cell volume (PCV) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of pregnant women.
2. To determine the significance of age, educational level, occupation, severity and gestational age to the occurance of anaemia in pregnancy.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
1. Most pregnant women in the rural area prefers to go to farm rather than going to atenantal, so as a result can become anemic because they are not enlightened about their nutritional intake.
2. Because the foetus in the feeds more during 3rd trimester, so a pregnant women can appear healthy while she is anaemic, the only way to dectate such case is during laboratory test (HB, PCV, ESR) etc.

LIMITATION / SCOPE
2. The use of HB level in the body is not the infections.

CHAPTER TWO
Chapter two of this Anaemia In Pregnancy” research work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Two of “Anaemia In Pregnancy Contains: Literature Review, Hereditary Spherocytosis, Glucose – 6 – Phosphate and Ineffective Condition.

CHAPTER THREE
Chapter three of this Anaemia In Pregnancy” academic work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Three of “Anaemia In Pregnancy Contains: Materials And Method, Collection Of Samples, Sterilization, Determination Of Packed Cell Volume, extermination Of Haemoglobin (Hb), Determination Of Erythrocyte, Sedimentation Rate (Esr), Determining The Significance Of Age, Educational Level, Etc, Method Of Data Collection and Method Of Data Analysis.

CHAPTER FOUR
Chapter four of this Anaemia In Pregnancy project work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Four of Anaemia In Pregnancy ” Results, Distribution Of Pregnant Women, Distribution Of Patients According To Their Occupation, Distribution Of Patients According To Their Educational Level and Distribution Of Patients According To Severity.

CHAPTER FIVE
Chapter five of this Anaemia In Pregnancy material is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Five of Anaemia In Pregnancy Contains: Discussion, Distribution, Distribution Pregnant Women By Age and Percentage Of Anaemia In Pregnancy Etc.

CHAPTER SIX
Chapter six of this Anaemia In Pregnancy material is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter SIX of “Anaemia In Pregnancy Contains: Conclusion / Recommendations, Action By The Government Etc, References and Appendix

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ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY

STUDY OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING AMONG NURSING MOTHER

STUDY OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING AMONG NURSING MOTHER

ABSTRACT
This study centers on the study of exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers (A case study of the nursing mothers, in Enugu State College of Education Technical). The basic identified problem is that in spite of the importance of exclusive breast feeding, some nursing mothers are yet to adopt it. Therefore, the objective of this study is to find out the extent to which nursing mothers breastfeed their young ones and to propel those who finds it difficult to breastfeed constantly, for them to be able to continue pronto to exclusive breastfeeding. Consequently, questionnaire were designed and administered while simple percentage (%) was adopted as instrument for analysis. Moreover, the research design of this is descriptive survey research, I used sample size of 11o and the sample selected for the study is fifty (50) while simple sampling technique is used. Finally, the health sectors should employ health practitioners to sensitize nursing mothers more on the effects of exclusive breastfeeding.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Approval Page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract

Chapter One
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
1.4 Significance Of The Study
1.5 Scope Of Study
1.6 Research Question

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review
2.0.1 Review Of Related Literature
2.1 Study Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Adoption
2.2 Empirical Studies On Exclusive Breastfeeding
2.3 Summary Of Literature Review

Chapter Three
3.1 Research Design And Methodology
3.2 Areas Of Study
3.3 Population For The Study
3.4 Sample And Sampling Technique
3.5 Instrument For Data Collection
3.6 Validity Of Instrument
3.7 Reliability Of Instrument
3.8 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four
4.1 Presentation Of Data And Analysis

Chapter Five
5.1 Summary Of Findings
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation
References
Appendix I – Letter Of Introduction
Appendix Ii Questionnaires

CHAPTER ONE
Chapter One of Study Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers Project Material starts from here.

INTRODUCTION
Breast feeding which is the act of feeding babies with breast milk. This is a universal cultural practice among human species of all races. However, there are commonly observable variations in the frequency and exclusiveness of application of breast milk in the feeding of babies. This is noted by Berg and Brenms (1989) who asserted that the question about breastfeeding is not whether it is being practiced or not, but the degree of practice. There are, therefore types of breastfeeding of which three categories are discernible from literature: Exclusive, predominant and complementary breastfeeding.
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the application of breast milk alone in the feeding of a baby for at least four months and if possible six months of life, without the addition of water, food or drinks. The baby however receives vitamins, minerals and medicines in the form of drops and syrup as need arises (WHO,1981). The World Health Organization WHO (2001) received the optional duration of EBF to six months of life. The second type of breastfeeding, predominant breastfeeding (PBF), on the other hand, implies that the infants predominant source of nourishment is breast milk. The infant in this type receives in addition of breast milk, water and water based drinks (WHO 2001). Complimentary breastfeeding (CBF) or mixed feeding occurs where factory produced baby formula is the primary source of nourishment for the infant, the breast milk given occasionally. This practice offers mother chance to attend to their daily activities while nannies and house helps attend to babies: This present study was however concerned with exclusive breastfeeding.
Promotion of breastfeeding, particularly EBF, has been the focus of many public health and nutrition programmes and activities in recent years. Thus a joint World health Organization/ united Nations children’s fund (WHO/UNICEF) meeting on infant and young child feeding was held in Genera in 1979 and the emphasis was on breast feeding. In 1981 the combined force of the W.H.O and UNICEF produced the W.H.O international code of marketing of breast milk substitute. The main aim of the code obviously was to safeguard the practice of breast feeding. To enhance breastfeeding practices, WHO launched the baby friendly hospital initiative in 1992 as a primary intervention strategy for promoting and strengthening national health systems. The initiative has been implemented in 138 countries (including Nigeria) and the number of hospitals world wide designated baby friendly has risen from 6,300 in 1995 to nearly 40,000 by mid 2008 (WHO, 2009). Cataldo De Bryne and Whitney (1999) asserted that EBF is an unequaled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. The authors explained that nutritionally, breast milk is a complete food for the infant, providing all the nutrients needed for the first month of life.
Psychologically, breastfeeding permits an initial bonding between mother and child. Economically, breast-milk economizes on house hold expenditures on food and requires no itensils, water or fuel for preparation. However, the lactating woman do not have higher nutrient requirements and make substantial time to breastfeeding. Berg and Brenms (1989) cited breast milk for it’s anti-infective properties, lower incidence of diarrhea diseases, allergies and other illness among breastfed infants. It removes the danger of malnutrition caused by dilution of bottle feed and of infection caused by unhygienic preparation (Berg and Brenms, 1989).
However, it seems that EBF is still not widely accepted campaign by government and non-governmental organizations has gone far, but it appears not to be yielding expected dividend. The question that are yet to be answered, lies in determining those factors which can predict levels of acceptance or rejection of EBF. Possible predictor could be sourced from social mographic circumstances of the mothers. For instance such social demographic factors as religious affiliation, occupation, educational status, parity, age, as well as location are deemed to be capable of influencing adoption of exclusive breastfeeding. Parity has to do with the number of deliveries a woman has had. Breastfeeding, in Nigeria is still the norm as most mothers breastfeed their babies traditionally. However, exclusive breastfeeding is an innovation to the traditional way of feeding an infant where mothers starts complementary feeding as early as two months of life or even less. A woman who has nursed several babies successfully before may not be easily convinced to stop by giving her infant water and native concoction. She may not see why she should change her method of feeding, since she has successfully used such to nurse her older children (Mathai, 1983).
Age is sometimes associated with breast feeding. Omololu (1996) pointed out that younger mothers tended to be fashion conscious believing that their breast would sag if they get involved in breastfeeding. The younger mothers may also be over conscious of their body and looks and may not be willing to breastfeed the baby anywhere as the baby demand. Location as indicated by Okehialam (1986), Berg and Brems (1989), Barnes, Harjit and Stephers (1990), Cataldo (1990), Guashuddin and kalair (2004), Okehialam is an environmental factor, which could also be associated with breast feeding pattern. In the rural area, the extended family system still predominates and the nursing mothers to adopt or reject exclusive breastfeeding may be dependent on who takes health decision in the family. This, of course, could be the mother-in-law, father-in-law, or any of the extended family members who is close by. In the urban area, the nuclear family predominates and the decision to adopt EBF will be only between the woman and her husband. Apart from this, the mother in the urban area may have to go to school or work which will take her out of the house regularly. This may have an impact on adoption of EBF, since the mother is likely not going to school with her baby and may not have opportunity to comeback and breastfeed the baby when necessary.
Occupation of the mother place the mother in a social class. The mother may tend to follow what is fashionable or acceptable within the social class in which she be long (Wanmani and Tumwine, 2005). Hence if the social class sees bottle feeding as a mark of affluence, a mother in that class will likely go for bottle feeding. Religion is a predicate and a repository of culture which is a way of life of a people. The mother’s religion may be a pointer to the choice of feeding method the mother is likely to adopt for her infant (Njepuome, 1995). The success of any programme, to a large extent, depends on identification of factors that are susceptible to it’s intervention. The programme of EBF and the intensive media campaign attendant to it as part of the baby friendly initiative of WHO/UNICEF are receiving differential responses from Nigeria population. It seemed that no elaborate study has been conducted in the Enugu State College of Education Technical to identify fact or rejection f EBF. The study of EBF factors are most likely to serve the predictive function in Enugu State College of Education Technical.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Exclusive breastfeeding is a new method of breastfeeding which has been introduced by WHO/UNIEF. These two bodies have tasted it and find it successful for solving many problems in an infant.
Unfortunately, few mothers adopt exclusive breast feeding (Grange, 1992); WHO, 2001) What could be peculiar to them? What do they have in common which are lacking among those who reject exclusive breastfeeding? This study explore nursing mothers with a view of finding answers to these questions.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study is embarked up to enable the researcher address the following objectives.
1. The degree of EBF by nursing mothers.
2. The relationship between educational status and the nursing mothers level of adoption of EBF.
3. The relationship between age an the nursing mothers’ level of adoption of EBF.
4. Extent of relationship between parity and the nursing mothers level of adoption of EBF.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
A study of this kind will be useful in many ways. There will be research if the nursing mothers in Enugu State College of Education Technical do practice EBF. The finding will be useful to health educators and all those interested in passing the information based on the principles of EBF. If the finding prove negative, then suggestions will be to health educators especially those working with mothers the need to increase their effort towards the teaching of the principles and practice of EBF to mothers.
This finding will be useful to such government agencies as UNICEF and WHO, who are interested in promoting EBF. Thus they will use the finding to evaluate the EBF programe so far and also plan strategies for improvement.
There will be research on parity, religious affiliation, age and location to the effect of EBF adoption in the area of study. Knowing this will help health workers, particularly health educators in planning their health instruction and teachings of EBF. Attention should then be given to all nursing mothers irrespective of parity, age, religious affiliation to help and encourage them to adopt EBF.

SCOPE OF STUDY
The research attempts to give an insight into the importance of adopting Exclusive breast feeding. The area covered by this study is Enugu State College of Education (Technical).

RESEARCH QUESTION
The following research questions will guide the study.
1. What is the extent of EBF adoption by nursing mothers in Enugu State College of Education (Technical).
2. How does educational status of nursing mothers relate to their extent of adoption of EBF.
3. To What extent does parity relate to adoption of EBF by nursing mothers in the College.
4. What is the relationship between the age of the mother and adoption of EBF.

CHAPTER TWO
Chapter two of this Study Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers” research work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Two of “Study Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers Contains: Literature Review, Review Of Related Literature, Study Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Adoption, Empirical Studies On Exclusive Breastfeeding And Summary Of Literature Review.

CHAPTER THREE
Chapter three of this Study Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers” academic work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Three of “Study Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers Contains: Research Design And Methodology, Areas Of Study, Population For The Study, Sample And Sampling Technique, Instrument For Data Collection, Validity Of Instrument, Reliability Of Instrument And Method Of Data Analysis .

CHAPTER FOUR
Chapter four of this Study Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers project work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Four of Study Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers Contains: Presentation Of Data And Analysis .

CHAPTER FIVE
Chapter five of this Study Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers material is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Five of Study Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers Contains: Summary Of Findings, Conclusion, Recommendation, References, Appendix I – Letter Of Introduction And Appendix Ii Questionnaires.

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STUDY OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING AMONG NURSING MOTHER

FAMILY PLANNING

FAMILY PLANNING

ABSTRACT
In the olden days, it was a well-known facts, that a rich and wealth man is known by the number of children and yam barns he had. (Greater in number) but recently, the reverse is the case, in that a rich and wealth man is known as a man with lesser number of children who he takes greater care of.
The mass media had played a contributory role recently to educate parents in particular and the public in general of family planning programmes. This work however, is on how the mass medial family planning programmes have reached the target audience the moreover, how they feel about it.
The research work has gone to prove that the family planning programmes as show on the screen or listed to by the audience had in one way or the other changed the attitude of some families positively towards child spacing.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Acknowledgment
Dedication
Abstract
Content

Chapter One
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Brief History Of Family Planning
1.3 Statement Of Problem
1.4 Purpose Of The Study
1.5 Significance Of The Study
1.6 Scope Of The Study
1.7 Research Questions
1.8a Hypothesis
1.8b Assumption
1.9 Definition Of Terms
1.10 Operational And Theoretical Framework

Chapter Two
2.0 Sources
2.1 Rules Of The Media And Programme Strategies
2.2 Summary Of Literature Review

Chapter Three
3.0 Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Research Sample
3.3 Measuring Instrument
3.4 Data Collection

Chapter Four
4.1 Analyses And Resume
4.2 Hypotheses Test
4.3 Results
4.4 Discussion

Chapter Five
5.0 Summary And Recommendation For Future Study
5.1 Summary
5.2 Recommendation For Future Study
Bibliography
Appendix Questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE
Chapter One of Family Planning Project Material starts from here.

1.1 BACKGROUND
Family planning as a concept of world social order is as old as man.
It could be said to be a means of population control other then by disease, war, or other natural and man made disasters.
The term “family panning” was only applied to this ageless phenomenon when the social effects of abandoned babies, clue to illegal abortion and problem of outsize poor families began to seriously bother the mind of sociologists, health workers and governments.
Family planning has received media coverage around the world since it’s inception in 1916. Initially people reacted against it, due to misconception and ignorance of aim and values of family planning, but as the issue develop, it clear the people’s eyes and their perception more enlightened.
Internationally, the United Nation (UN) through an agency, the world health organization (WHO) has championed the publicity campaign for the introduction and the development modification and sometimes outright discontinuation of some aspect to the family planning qualified media coverage and manifested the importance of population in planning for world demographic and Economics distribution.

1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF FAMILY PLANNING
The origin of family planning can bee traced to the concern shown by two sisters Margaret sanger (1966-1976) married and her sister Ethel, on the tremendous loss of lives usually involving schools gulls and woman during childbirth.
Sanger who was trained as a nurse carried out a very courageous crusade against the legal system in the united state of American in the early part of the country to get abortion legalized. She was known to have developed the phrase “Birth control” to and have set up clinics in 1916.
Another, woman, Marie Stapes, followed Margaret’s steps seven years later by setting up a “Birth control” clinics in London in 1923. It was not until 1952, that family planning made it’s first imprint on the international scene in the year, an international conference of family planning was held in Bombry on November 29th, This was the birth of the international planning parenthood federation (IPDF) under the joint chairmanship of Margaret Sanger and Lady Ranca Rau.
Meanwhile, the acceptance of family planning as a practice has show at the first time.
Sweden, because of the first world action of family planning came in twenty-four years after the birth “IPPE” in 1976 and sixty years alter Sanger opened the first “Birth control clinic”. It was funds to the united nation funds for population activities (UNFPA).
During the long period of uncertainty in the development and acceptance of family planning the phenomenon was widely regarded believed to be a public health exercise designed to improve the health of the mother and child in the family, it was only later when scientist (social and physical) began to take more interest in the issue that it began to be strictly associated with an aim at population control, in conjunction with the General improvement of family health and consequently national and world health.
The development of the world and national economic also depend very much on the planning the uses population in his famous essay on the principles of population 1798. He said that population was increasing faster than the rate of which food was being produces.
He postulated that the world economics order was developing in arithmetical progression. 1,2,3, while population was increasing in geometrical progression 2,4, and 6.This assertion corroborated with the world population growth rate project as show in charts AP.
Today, family planning is a worldwide activity, implemented and financed by the PPFN.
In Nigerian, the planed parent-hood federation of Nigerian (PPFN) formerly known as the family planning council of Nigerian (FPCN) was established in 1960 as a reaction and social welfare profess to the prevailing social and health relate problems of the time. These problems include child dumping unwanted pregnancies leading to illegally induced abortions and morality (death) resulting from too closely spaced pregnancies.
The proposal to establish the family planning council of Nigerian was considered after the occurrence to two tragic cases septic abortion of 1957. These cases attracted the attention of the marriage guidance council in Lagos to existing family planning problems.
As a result this, a committee was set up to investigate the need for family planning services in the country. The reports of this committee revealed that it was a common practice among married and unmarried woman with unwanted pregnancies to commit illegal abortion. Family planning services was therefore needed to stop or reduce it (abortion).
In 1962 Miss. Edith Gate of the pathfinder find visited Nigerian and met with the members of the National council of woman societies (NCNS). This led to the setting up of a family planning committee with the responsibilities for family planning activities and marriage counseling.
CHARTS A1: INORID POPULATION GROWTH ESTIMATE
10,000 BC 5 Million
1 AC 200 Million
1959 AD 500 Million
1962 AD 3 Billion
1971 AD 3.7 Billion
2002 AD 9 Billion

Source: A guide to family planning S.K. Nwangori PP15.
Varuom family planning programmes on the English and Vernacular such Nigerian –Television Authority N.T.A. channel 8 Enugu. In lighter mood, ESBS “Ezi na ulo” have also been initiated to arouse the consciousnesses of people to the dangers and problems inherent in giving birth to more children that one cannot adequately and conveniently cater and care for.
As a result, the present hash Economics realistic, a new population policy was introduced by the government whereby four children will be the maximal a woman will bare.
The government went further to sponsor some radio and television jingles on population and family planning. It should be noted that the media plays a significant role in the spread of the family planning though their various educational programmes on rational and benefits of family planning in order to build up healthy and happy families.
This study attempts to find out to what extent the media has gone in performing this role and how the media massage has influenced the discussion of the audience in the family panning matters.
It also attempts to know how population control can hap the economies growth of family and the state as a whole.

1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Its important to make it clear that family planning is not just for stopping child bearing but it is also for child spacing.
In Nigeria, evidence shows that over population has been one of problem in economics development. The problem is that people behave to bear the entire child in their womb, without knowing the result.
Population has to be control, to the availability of resource to the counting, to enable the countries economics growth suit the population. In doing so, the countries social, cultural and economic development will grow.
Meanwhile, the media in it’s own has face many problems on family planning programmes.
Theses problems was as a result how infrastructure equipment etc.
These problems are the factors, which contribute to the media from reaching it target audience.

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the media coverage in family planning programmes and the effects of such coverage on the attitude of the families in Enugu state towards family planning.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Firstly, this research work is aimed at finding out whether media coverage of family planning programmes in Enugu state has helps the people to know about the family planning and adopt them to their various families.
Secondly, what more could be done and in what area, to reach the people with enough and timely information and facilitate on the family planning.
Since the families of most poor people in Enugu state are know to be over populated, the application of family planning principles is considered of importance cutting down on the fade of excessive family six.
A National population growth enhance by the family planning is believed to be necessary to make the government releases the objective of efficient and even development of nation on all phase of life.
The result of this research will help family planning organization to know the media strategies that are most effective in decimating family planning information.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Enugu state and beyond are the area for this study. The result of this study will be generalized to high validity in that it can bee carryout in any other place with a reasonable identical result provided that factors like social, economics, political, religion, influence the value system of each area taken into account and adequately adjusted.

1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) In what ways have the media helps families to adopt family planning programmes.
2) How does, some families in south East adopt the technique.
3) How many times does, families visit family planning clinics.
4) Does viewing of television campaign, change families, on family planning?
5) What extent does education effects the adopting of these family planning programmes.

1.8A HYPOTHESIS
H1: The media have played an effective role in family planning in the South East.
H0: The media have not played effective role in all in family planning programmes.
H2: The mass media coverage have motivated many families on adopting of family planning programs.
H0: The mass media have not motivated family planning programmes.
H3: The number of time, one visited family clinics does not change one’s attitude of the adopting family planning.
H0: Number of time, one visited family planning clinic does planning programmes.

1.8B ASSUMPTIONS
The research assumed that respondents of this study have access to radio, television, Newspaper and magazine.
It is also assumed that they are exposed to mass media programmes on family planning.
There is also an assumption that the media education campaign has very high research objectives of researching all it target audience.

1.9 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
CONCEPTUAL
1) MEDIA: It is the mean of communication with target number people especially, television, radio, newspaper, it is also can defined as a channel which information are disseminated to the public and reach target audience.
2) MEDIA STRATEGIES: these are the blue print designed by the media for achieving a particular purpose.
3) FAMILY PLANNING: It is a process of planning the number of children, intervals between birth in the family by using birth control.
4) FAMILY: It is a group consisting of one or two parents and their children.

1.10 OPERATIONAL AND THEORETICAL FRMEWORK
1) MEDIA: This is channel used in the research in all form of mass information dissemination, radio, TV, newspaper- applied by the media to attract their target audience.
2) MEDIA STRATGIES: As used in this research, it means the various technique applied by the media to attract their target audience.
3) FAMILY PLANNING: As used in this research, at is a means by which couples space and control the number of children, they can adequately cater for.
4) FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMMERS: In this research work, it means those programmes of FRCN, ESBS, NTA- used by families to achieve family planning objective.
5) FAMILY: As used this work, it means, a primary social group consisting of inter-parents and their offspring.

CHAPTER TWO
Chapter two of this Family Planning” research work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Two of “Family Planning Contains: Sources, Rules Of The Media And Programme Strategies and Summary Of Literature Review .
CHAPTER THREE
Chapter three of this Family Planning” academic work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Three of “Family Planning Contains: Methodology, Research Design, Research Sample, Measuring Instrument and Data Collection .

CHAPTER FOUR
Chapter four of this Family Planning project work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Four of Family Planning Contains: Analyses And Resume, Hypotheses Test, Results and Discussion .
CHAPTER FIVE
Chapter five of this Family Planning material is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Five of Family Planning Contains: Summary And Recommendation For Future Study, Bibliography, Appendix and Questionnaire.

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FAMILY PLANNING

 

SANITATION PRACTICES AND IMPLICATION ON STUDENTS HEALTH

SANITATION PRACTICES AND IMPLICATION ON STUDENTS HEALTH

ABSTRACT
Sanitation practice implication on students health in Enugu State College of Education (Technical) has been the desire of every right thinking for good health of both the students and lecturers in the above school. The purposes of this study is to investigate the causes of poor sanitation practices on students health in ESCET, the dangers and the strategies which could be employ to curb poor sanitation in ESCET. One hundred questionnaire were administered to the respondents, which was correctly answered by the respondents without mistakes five research question, each focusing on the formulated. A descriptive statistic using mean was adopted fro data analysis. Finding from their study showed that, regular clean up exercise, formulating the environment, illiteracy constitutes the problems of poor sanitation practices. The study was concluded with the recommendation which includes that the school management should employ labourers, make provision for facilities, formulate the environment. The researchers believed that if all these are put in place, it will enhance sanitation practices in the school, thereby improving students health.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Approval Page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
List Of Tables

Chapter One:
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background Of The Study
1.2 Statement Of Problem
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
1.4 Significance Of The Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Scope Of The Study

Chapter Two:
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Conceptual Framework
2.2 Sanitation Practice By Students
2.3 Implication Of Sanitation Practices By Students In School Hostels
2.4 Empirical Studies
2.5 Summary Of Literature Review

Chapter Three:
3.0 Research Methods
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area Of Study
3.3 Population Of The Study
3.4 Sample Size And Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instrument Of Data Collecting
3.6 Validation Of The Instrument
3.7 Reliability Of The Instrument
3.8 Method Of Data Analysis
3.9 Decision Rule

Chapter Four:
4.0 Data Presentations And Analysis
4.1 Presentation And Data Analysis

Chapter Five:
5.0 Discussion, Of Findings, Conclusions Limitations, Recommendation And Sugestion For Further Studies.
5.1 Discussion Of Findings
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Limitations
5.4 Recommendations
5.5 Suggestions For Further Research
Appendix
Questionnaire
References

CHAPTER ONE
Chapter One of Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health Project Material starts from here.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:-
World Health Organization defined sanitation as the means of collecting and disposing excreta and community liquids, waste in a hygienic way. So as not to endanger the health and welfare and also for the social and environmental effects, it may have on people; people have been suffering from one disease to another without knowing the problems of their illness, the situation and due to distress or dirty environment. Cleanliness is next to Godliness.
Similarly, Iheke (2010) sees sanitation as the process of keeping places clean and hygienic especially by providing a sewage system and a clean water supply. Sanitation refers to all conditions that affects the health of people in a geographical area. Billions of people still live without access to sanitation facilities and are unable to practice such basic hygienic as washing their hands with soap and water.
Disease related to poor sanitation and water availability cause many people to die of sickness like cholera, diarrhea, malaria, typhoid, which damages the body tissues. Children are most vulnerable to health hazards and consequently are affected the most. In 1998, 2.2 million people died because of poor sanitation, which the vast majority were children.
In 1950 the world health organizations expert committee on environmental sanitation defines environmental sanitation as the control of community, water supplies, excreta and waste water disposal, refuse disposal, vector of diseases, housing conditions, food supplies and handling conditions, food supplies and atmospheric conditions and the safety of the working environment. Environmental problems have grown in complexity especially with the advert of radiation and chemical hazards. Meanwhile the world needs for the basic sanitation services (like drinking water supply, excreta and waste water disposal), have greatly increased as a result of rapid population growth and highly expectations.
There has been considerable awareness of water supply in institution, but the problems of excreta and waste disposal have receive less attention. In Enugu State College of Education (Technical), every where is littered with pure water polythene, pieces of papers and so on, without proper disposal. In order to focus attention of these problems. Sanitation exercise should be done daily to keep the environment clean by employing labourers that will help keep the school clean. Environments should be formulated in order to kill dangerous animals like snake, scorpion etc.
In school hostels, there are problems of over-crowding and these affects the health of the students in the hostel. More than 200 students share four (4) toilets. Mostly girls in hostel have inadequate sanitation facilities. With this premise, the researchers seek to find out the implication of sanitation practices on students health in Enugu State College of Education (Technical). Inadequate sanitation and water in school jeopardize not only the students health but also their attendance. Girls in particular area likely to be kept out of school, if there is no sanitation.
Seminars should be organized in institutions to help educate students more, especially girls in the hostel on menstrual hygiene, sanitation hygienic practices, cleanliness in the surroundings. To make everywhere conducive for teaching and learning, lack of skills and this have hindered the educational prospects of girls residing in the hostel. Flies petch on dirts, toilet etc and later petch on uncovered foods and all this are dangerous to human health.

1.2 STATEMENTS OF PROBLEM:-
Control of pests, waste disposal had become a problem in our environment because of poor sanitation practices. Diseases related to poor sanitation and water availability causes many people to die of sickness like cholera, diarrhea, malaria, typhoid which damages the body tissues.
However, it is not clear on the extent in which school management and student union government (SUG) have contributed in curbing poor sanitation practices. The problem of this study is to find out the strategies which could be employ to provide facilities to students to reduce dirtiness.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY:-
The purpose of this study is to find out the implication of sanitation practices on students health in Enugu State college of Education (technical). Specifically this study was to:
1. Identify the causes of poor sanitation practices on student’s health in Enugu State College of Education (Technical)
2. Determine the extent in which the school management have contributed in providing facilities that will enhance sanitation practices in Enugu State College of Education (Technical) Enugu.
3. Find out the strategies that could be employed to curb dirtiness in Enugu State College of Education (Technical).

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will enable the students in Enugu State College of Education, to better understand and cultivate a clean environment because cleanliness is next to Godliness. The finding will help the following people:
The students to know the needs of hygiene or health practices, because cleanliness in next to Godliness and also enable to have a sound health, if sanitation is practiced by the students, sickness and diseases will be reduced.
To the school management: The findings will help the school management to provide adequate facilities that will enable the labourers to keep the environment clean and tidy, also provide fund for buying disinfectant and Antiseptic, and also paying the labourers.
Government:- The findings will help the government, to formulate a policies that will enable their follow students keep the environment clean and regulations on the school. Also they serve as a mediator between the management and the students.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS:-
In order to find answers to the objective of this study, the researchers formulated the following research questions.
1. What are the causes of poor sanitation practices on students health in Enugu State college of Education (Technical)?
2. What are the dangers of poor sanitation practices on students health in Enugu State College of Education (Technical) Enugu.?
3. What are the strategies that could be employed to improve sanitation in Enugu State college of Education (Technical) Enugu?

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study was delimited to determining the implication of sanitation practice in student’s health in schools especially those in hostel in Enugu State College of Education (Technical).

CHAPTER TWO
Chapter two of this Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health” research work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Two of “Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health Contains: Literature Review, Conceptual Framework, Sanitation Practice By Students, Implication Of Sanitation Practices By Students In School Hostels, Empirical Studies And Summary Of Literature Review.

CHAPTER THREE
Chapter three of this Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health” academic work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Three of “Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health Contains: Research Methods, Research Design, Area Of Study, Population Of The Study, Sample Size And Sampling Techniques, Instrument Of Data Collecting, Validation Of The Instrument, Reliability Of The Instrument, Method Of Data Analysis And Decision Rule .

CHAPTER FOUR
Chapter four of this Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health project work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Four of Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health Contains: Data Presentations And Analysis Presentation And Data Analysis.

CHAPTER FIVE
Chapter five of this Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health material is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Five of Sanitation Practices And Implication On Students Health Contains: Discussion Of Findings, Conclusions Limitations, Recommendation, Suggestion For Further Studies, Appendix, Questionnaire And References.

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SANITATION PRACTICES AND IMPLICATION ON STUDENTS HEALTH

PREVALENCE OF TRICHOMONA VAGINALIS AMONG ADULTS

PREVALENCE OF TRICHOMONA VAGINALIS AMONG ADULTS

ABSTRACT
The prevalence of Trichomonas Vaginalis among adult in “Osumenyi” in Nnewi south local government Area of Anambra state was carried out. This was done using a stotal of one hundred adults from there different clinics viz ;- Health center, family planning and Antenatal Clinic in Osumenyi; in Nnewi South L.G.A of Anambra State. the general prevalence was 37 (37%) positive cases out of the 100 samples used. The highest number of positive cases were seen in Health centre Clinics, Osumenyi with (20%) positive cases, followed by family planning clinic, Osumenyi with (14%) positive cases and the least in Antenatal clinic in Osumenyi with (4% positive cases. The parasitic organism was confirmed using wet mount preparation of urine and genital secretions. The organism trichomonas vaginalis was identified by its Jerky swaying motion or jumpy movement. It was observed that the prevalence was highest in adults in the age range 31-45 years with 19 cases (19%) positive, followed by the age range 16-30 years with 10 cases (10%). Next was in aga-range 46-60 years with 5 cases (5%) and least in age-range 61-75 years with 3 cases (3%)

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
List Of Tables
Chapter One
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Aim And Objective
1.2 Hypothesis
1.3 Limitation/Scope Of The Study
1.4 Limitation In The Study
1.5 Statement Of Problem
1.6 Justification Of The Study

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review

Chapter Three
3.0 Materials And Method
3.1 Materials
3.2 Method
3.2.1 Sterilization
3.2.2 Population Sampled
3.2.3 Collection Of Samples
3.2.4 Laboratory Examination

Chapter Four
4.0 Results

Chapter Five
5.0 Discussion

Chapter Six
6.0 Conclusion And Recommendations
6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Recommendations
References
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
Chapter One of Prevalence Of Trichomona Vaginalis Among Adults Project Material starts from here.
Posted by UniProjects.Net under Project Topics and Materials.

INTRODUCTION
Donne first discovered and named Trichomonas Virginalis in 1836.He found the orgnaism in genital secretions 7 women and men, but it was initially regarded as non-pathogenic (Donne, 1936). Trichomonas vaginalis is a pear-shaped, flagellaatic, motile protogoa, with an undulating membrance. It is about 10-20 Hm wide, and oxide. The organism is propelled by four anterior flagella with a flagellium attached to an undulating membrance (Heine, 1993). I. Vaginalis is a eukaryrote, anaeobic and does not contain mitochoria in its cytop[lasm but instead contains specialized granules called hydrogenosomes throguh out the region of the cytoplasm with a slender posteriorly protruding regid rod called axostyle (Nester, est el, 2001 and Rultyle, 1983). I. Vaginalis exist only as a trophozoile and do not take o a cyst from (Lossick, 1990). Due to the organism’s unique energy metabolism,s the organism bears a strong resemblance to anaerobic bacteria (Petriu, 1998). In wet mount preparation of vaginal secretions, the live organism can often be recognised by its unmistakably swaying motion (Nester et al, 2001). I. Vaginalis grows best under anearobic conditions and at elevated PH levels. Masimum growth and metabolic functions are greatest at PH of 6.0 (Spence, 1992) In accord with its anaerobic state, sthese interesting cytoplasmic double –bounded organelles (hydrogenosomes) remove the carboxyl group (CooH) from pyruvate and trasnfer electrons to hydrogen gas (Nester et al, 2001). I. Vaginalis derives its glucose into oseccinate, acelate, malate, and hydrogen. In addition it produces some carbondioxide but nost via the kreb cycle pathway (Dyall and Johnson, 2000).
I. vaginalis causes sexually transmitted inecxtion (STI) called Trichomoniasis. This infection is the most common nonviral sexually transmistted disease in the world. Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as “Trich” is primarily an infection of the urogenital tract,. Which infects both men and women. The urethra is the most common site for I. Vaginalis infection in men. The organism can aslo be detected in the epididymis, semen and urine (Krieger, 1981). I. Vaginalis was first located in prostatie secretions from husbands of infected women (Drummond, 1936). In women, vagina is the most, common site of the infection the organism may be isolated from the cervix, vagina, bartholins glands, bladder and occasionally. The upper sreproductive / urinary tract (Reing, 1990). Over 95% of infections have been isolated from vagina and only 5% from the urinaryu tract of adult women (Grys, 1964) the urethra and skene’s glands are infected in 90% of cases. There have also been instances where organisms were isolated from bladder urine (Thoniason, 1989). Infected men are usually asymsptomatic carriers of the organisms (Krieger, 1995) which most symptomatic I.Vaginalis infection occur in women (Wolner- Hanssen, 1989). It ranks third after bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis among the diseases that commonly cause vaginal symptoms (Nester, et al, 2001). According to World Health Organisation’s annual, estimates, There are an estimated 7.4 million trichomoniasis cases each year in the united states, with over 180 million cases reported world wide (Weinstock et al, 2004). WHO in 1999 states that the infection rates have been reported by some researchers to be as high as 67% in Monogolia in 1988 (Schwebke, et al, of 40 – 60% in Africa and 40% in indigenous Australians. Trichomoniasis rates are also high in inner city populations in the united states. I . vaginal is was originally considered a commensal until in the 1950s when the understanding of its role as a sexually transmitted infection began to involve (Swygard, et al, 2004). Trichomoniasis often leads to vaginitis, an acute inflammatory disease of genital mucosa.
This infection is associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increase in infant mortality. It also pre-disposes individuas to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer (Cohen, 2000 and Upcroft and Upcroft, 2001). Among both women and men, I. Vaginalis is emerging as one o the most important factors in transmission and acquisition of HIV infection (Sorvillo, 1998). In women, the health complications include increased risks for the following, infertility, development of a typical pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infection following gynecologic suggery and cervical inflammatory neoplasm. There have also been high rates of correlation between trichonioniasis and pregnancy complication in women (Cotch, 1997). In men, I vaginals has been linked to main factor in infertility and as a common cause of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in men (Sch webke 2002, and soper, 2004). Minkoff, et al (1984) identified a strong association between I vaginalis infection and prefern rupture of membrane. Several studies have showns I. Vaginalis to be a rish factor for tubal infertility (El-Shazly, 2001). Sorvillo (1998) states that I.Vaginalis may amplify HIV – I transmission by increasing subceptibity in an HIV-1 negative person and the infectiousness in an HIV-1positive patient. He further stats that I. Vafinalis is emerging as one of the most important cofactor in amplifying HIV transmission particularly in African American Communities in the united state (Sorvillo, 2001). The association of trichomoniasis with HIV amplification is seen among men as well (Hobbs, 1999). I. Vaginalis has a significantly increased incidence of HIV transmission (Jackson, et al, 1998). I vaginalis elicits an aggressive local cellular immune response with a heavy influx of target cells in HIV. This response may increase a seronegative individual. Conversely in an HIV-seropisitive individual, punctuate haemorrhages, That are frequently associated wit I vaginalis infection, increased shedding and subsequent transmission of the virus (Cohen, et al, 1997).
In women, the infection is often characterised by vaginal i.e a thin foamy yellow – green, frothy vaginal discharge, vaginal odour, sometimes macodoros, pains with sexual intercourse, pain with urination and vulvovaginal sorness (Itching) (Rein, 1990, and Nester et al, 2001). (Common clinical signs include vulva erythema, inflammation excess of white blood cells seen on a wet mount preparation of vaginal discharge, numerous polymorphonuclear nuetrophils (Similar in size with Trichomonads) and occasional red blood cell (Rein, 1980), motile trichomonads in the wet mount preparation and a vaginal PH above 5.0, most of which overlap with Baterial vaginosis (Rein, 1984, and Wolner-Hassen, 1989). The wall of the vagina and vulva are diffusely red and slightly swollen (Nester et al, 2001). I vaginalis infection is a persistant disease of genitourinary tract, characterized with foul odour, serve cases, puncstuate or scattered pinpoint hemorrhages are present. It may also cause preumonies bronchitis (public Health Agency of Canada. (PHAC) 2001, and MC Laren, et al, 1983). These symptoms usually appear within four to twenty days of exposure. In men, the infection is more difficult to detect as the majority of infections remain a symptomatic and readily available diagnotic techniques are inadequate this is problematic since long tewrm carriage of I vaginalis in a symptomatic men have been documented up to 4 months (Kreiger, 1993). Most men seeking treatment do so because of htier infected partners (Hager, 1994). Up to 50% males are usally a symptomatic with the organism persisting in their prostate gland or seminal vesicles (Krieger, 1995). Symptoms in men typically include Urethral discharge, dysuria, mild prurities licting burning after intercourse (Kreiger 1995, and Latif, 1987). These may casue Urethritis, prostatis, reversible sterility and semen PH is 78.1 – 8.0 (Gopalkrishnan, 1990). This changes have been attributed to the mechanical trauma by the moving protozoa, but toxins or exotoxins have not be ruled out by the organism. The frothy discharge is probably due to gas produced by the organism (Nester, et al, 2001).
The life cycle of I. Vaginalis is still poorly understood. The trophozoite lives in close association with the epithelia of the urogenital tract (Latif et al, 1987) and reproduces by longitudinal binary fission (Nester et al. 2001). I vaginalis is distributed world wide as a human parasite and has no other reserviors (Nester et al, 2001) the mode of transmission is by intimate or direct copntact with vaginal and urethral discharges of infected persons during sexual intercourse rarely occurs by intimate contact with contaminated articles. The highest rate of infection with multiple sex partners and congenital infection is possible (That is from infected mother to infant at child birth althought infrequent). New born girls can acquire the infection from their infected mothers through birth canal. In such cases, the infection tends to remain a symptomatic unstil puberty (Nester et al, 2001, Bradley, et al, 1993 and public Health Agency Canada (PHAC) 2001). The organism can survive for hours on moist objects such as damp towels clothes and bathtubs of infected women (Lossick, 1989 and Nester et al, 2001). Nonsexual transmission is extremely rare sine i. Vaginalis infection is generally rstricted to a specific sites namely the urogenital tract Ithomason (1989). The only known nonviral form of transmission is through perinatal acquisition. Approximately 5% of female babies born of infected mothers contract the infection (Bramley, 1976). Nevetheless, I. Vaginalis infection in children should at least raise the question of sexual abuse and p[ossible exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases (Nester et al, 2001). Evidence for sexual transmission of I. Vainalis is very strong as prevalence is highest among patients with increased sexual acitivity and mul;tiple partners. Approximately 14-65% of male partners of infected females are also infected (Krieger, 1995, and Sena, 2003). The incubation period before symptoms arise is 4-28 days and years for persistat infection (PHAC, 2001). There is high percentage of a sympstomatic carriers especially among men and this fosters tranmission of the disease (Nester et al, 2001). Asymptomatic infected individuals factors in trichomoniasis transmission. Many studies have shown that treatment of the male partner (s) of infected women improves bsoth cure rates and recurrence rates (Hager, 1980 and lyng, 1981).

AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To determine the prevalence of I. Vaginalis among adults in”Osumenji” in Nnewi South Local Government Area of Anambra state.
2. To determine the age level which are msore susceptible to the infection
3. To determine the sex with higher prevalence of the infection

1.2 HYPOTHESIS
Ho – The prevalence of I. Vaginalis is higher in women than in men.
Hi – The prevalence of I vaginalis is not higher in women than in men
H2 – The prevalence of I vaginalis occurs more in young adults than in older people.

1.3 LIMITATION/SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to adults in “Osumenyi” in Nnewi south local Government Area of Anambra state.

1.4 LIMITATION IN THE STUDY
1 There is high cost of the materials involved in the practical work.
2 Also, many individuals failed to willingly give out specimens for analysis due to unawareness and superstitious belief among people ind developing countries when a survey needs volunteers for a case study.
3 Optimal diagnostic method for detecting trichomoniasis among men are unavailable, contributing to low detection inmmen (Krieger, 1993).

1.5 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Trichomoniasis is a prevalent sexually transmitted disease (STB) pathogen that will not go away because we ignore it (Bowden and Garneth, 1999). Moreover, according to Duboucher (2003), data collected suggest that trichomonads are overlooked parastites and may be mplicated in various pathologies. Therefore it I pertinent to determine the prevalence of I. Vaginalis among adults.

1.6 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
The results project research revealed high prevalence of I. Vaginalis among adults, therefore, there is need for screening of the adult population from time to time. This is done either individually or by Government policy so as to promote the health of the populace.

CHAPTER TWO
Chapter two of this Prevalence Of Trichomona Vaginalis Among Adults” research work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Two of “Prevalence Of Trichomona Vaginalis Among Adults Contains: Literature Review.

CHAPTER THREE
Chapter three of this Prevalence Of Trichomona Vaginalis Among Adults” academic work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Three of “Prevalence Of Trichomona Vaginalis Among Adults Contains: Materials And Method, Materials, Method, Sterilization, Population Sampled, Collection Of Samples And Laboratory Examination.

CHAPTER FOUR
Chapter four of this Prevalence Of Trichomona Vaginalis Among Adults project work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Four of Prevalence Of Trichomona Vaginalis Among Adults Contains: Results.

CHAPTER FIVE
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CHAPTER SIX
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PREVALENCE OF TRICHOMONA VAGINALIS AMONG ADULTS

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADULT EDUCATION GRADUATE

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADULT EDUCATION GRADUATE

INSTRUCTIONS: Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates project material. Please, sit back and study the below research material carefully. DO NOT copy word for word. UniProjects aim of providing this Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates project research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates research materials. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”
You are reading project material titled: Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates

ABSTRACT
This study aims at identifying the career opportunities open to adult education graduates in Enugu State.
As a guide to the study, some research question is posed based on the following. Identifying people’s awareness of these adult education graduates and their job potentials.
Whether they are embracing this new programme in the field of learning with enthusiasm. And if they are aware of job opportunities available for them. Whether the employers of labour are also aware of these people content in this regard.
Questionnaires items are used to obtain data from four groups of people, who are: employers of labour, adult educators, adult education undergraduates and adult education graduates.
The data collected are analyzed using chi-square statistical formula to analyze them.
The following among other things are:-
1. The graduates (adults) are not aware of their job potentials and even where they can find such job other than teaching.
2. People are aware of these people’s potentials including the employers of labour.
3. That people embraces the programme with enthusiasm.
Based on the above findings the following recommendations were made:
That NUCAE should be involved in creating awareness to people and the employers.
There should be oneness in teaching sector to avoid non-indigene syndrome.
Companies should send their staff for further training to take jobs that are storage to them.
There should be constant review of teaching style in these instructions to match the even increasing change of today’s affairs. And many others.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page
Certification/Approval
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract

Table Of Contents
Chapter One
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Background Of The Study
1.3 Statement Of The Study
1.4 Purpose Of The Study
1.5 Scope Of The Study
1.6 Research Questions
1.7 Research Hypothesis
1.8 Significance Of The Study
1.9 Definition Of Terms
References

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Adult And Adult Education
2.2 Career Guidance/Education
2.3 Career Within An Organization
2.4 Career Dilemma And Career Plateau
2.5 Adult Literacy And Career Motive
References

Chapter Three
3.0 Research Design And Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area Of The Study
3.3 Population Of The Study
3.4 Sample And Sampling Procedure Technique
3.5 Instrument Of Data Collection
3.6 Validation Of The Instrument
3.7 Reliability Of Data Study
3.8 Method Of Data Collection
3.9 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four
4.0 Data Presentation And Analysis
4.1 Presentation And Analysis Of Data
4.2 Testing Of Hypothesis
4.3 Summary And Results
References

Chapter Five
5.0 Discussion, Recommendation And Conclusion
5.1 Discussion And Result/Findings
5.2 Implication Of The Research Findings
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendations
5.5 Suggestion For Further Research
Reference
Bibliography
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
Chapter One of Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates Project Material starts from here.

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Education as a hallmark in this writing has to be originally talked about before conceptual purpose with which the researcher wants to write about Education.
Education in the broad science means more than intellectual aspect of it. A.B Fafunwa (1991) knowledgeable states that in the beginning of the world, Adam saw the animals first before he named them therefore, no study of history of education particularly in Africa is complete without adequate knowledge of the traditional or indigenous educational system prevalent in Africa before the important religion which have influenced Nigeria education in no small measure are of recent development compared with the indigenous system of education which is as old as man himself in Africa.
Dr P. Eya (1993) on the same note said that, every society, simple or complex has it’s own system for training and educating it’s youth, and education for the good life has been one of the most persistent concerns of men.
Based on this acceleration, the period between 1976-1980 witnessed an unprecedented growth at the level of education – primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in Nigeria, which in the same vein witnessed the emergency of adult education in this different learning sector.
Adult education is such a relatively new field of social practices that is still in the process of forming new identity. Adult education describes the process of adult learning in its broadest sense. It encompasses practically all experiences of matured men and women by which they acquire new knowledge, understanding, skills, attitudes, interests of values. It is a process used by adults on their self development, both alone and with others which is also used by institutions of all kinds for the growth and development of their employees, members and clients.
Adult education when compared with other discipline within the field of education has just emerged unlike older disciplines which have enjoyed systematic research and training.
This exercise is tackled individually based on orientation, environment, motives, privileges etc. It could even occur as restraining in an organization or even for some other motives irrespectively.

Adult education is also a concept. The acquisition of reading and writing skills which are to be applied for the development of the community. Adult education is concerned with social welfare of agricultural extension and community development. Adult education can be seen to contribute immensely to the growth and development of a society. It is a lucrative profession that extends in many directions and not only in teaching profession, hence listing of job potentialities of adult educators.

Based on the above knowledge of adult education worldwide which is newly spreading up like a wide fire, the state is not left out in this educational exuberance, it is on this that in the year 1973 emerged the ABC university of the air with a view to be co-operating with the Institute of Management and Technology Enugu and University of Nigeria Nsukka Programme respectively. The name is popularly known as School of Staff Development and Distance Education (SDDE) UNIAIR. Then, it has time table and courses for the students.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The UNIAIR, in other words, Staff Development and Distance Education (SDDE) of adult education unit of Institution of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu, and being the unit on an integral point considered among others in Enugu Metropolis for the purpose of the writing.
This sector of the discipline started in 1978, (SDDE IMT) in conjunction with University Nigeria Nsukka with a view to have combined programme. Their aim is to achieve the following objectives:-
1. To include academic, political, scientific, social religion and economic knowledge in students in particular and the public in general.
2. To create a general desire for knowledge
3. To aid teachers in schools
4. To supplement the work of teachers in the class
5. To create an awareness of acceptable life goals and values
6. To provide extra opportunity for learning
7. To explain National Educational policies to people who might benefit from them.
8. To provide a form of education for educational planners to know what people think about their plans.
However, it was in paramount effort to achieve the sixth objectives above that then Anambra Broadcasting Corporation Institute as (SDDE) department.
The school has presently the following ND/OND certificate to offer with lecturers in the diverse course in the department.
1. ND/HND Uru Mr Business Administration and Management (BAM)
2. ND/HND UNIAIR Accountancy
3. ND/HND UNIAIR Secretarial Administration
4. ND Man Power Development
5. ND UNIAIR Mass Communication
They also other the same number of courses with their counterparts in the full time programme in the above listed certificate programme.
The school has risen the inception, turns out barges of graduates. All these departments are under the school of continuing education IMT Enugu which adult literacy was the conceptual aim with which it was established.
This acceleration period of 1976-1980 unprecedented growth in education of both junior and adult education, included the school of continuing education SDDE, UNIAIR Programme in IMT etc. This growth is witnessed by other institutions of higher learning who indulge in the same adult education programme exercise OKO Polytechnic, UNN, Esut, etc are all in the game.

See: Diagram of Departmental Heads

HOD
HOD SDDE PRELIM HOD Part-time

BAM Accountancy Accountancy
Extra Moral Evening programmes
Studies

Sec. Administration

Mass Manpower Basic studies
Comm. Development

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In the recent past, the Federal Government of Nigeria launched education for all by the year 2000. To this gesture, Adult education exercise prompted up in many institutions of higher learning in Nigeria but the main aim with which this was launched, is still lingering. These adult education graduation graduates who are opportune to gain from they still find it difficult to make career opportunities in the fields.
They, in most cases do not even know on identify the possible employment opportunity options available to them other than teaching career. These graduates also complained that the employers are ignorant of the purpose and content of the adult education programme, thereby refusing to employ them in other jobs they are qualified for.
This overwhelming ignorance which embrace the whole aspect of the sector of education is also due to lack of efficient and effective guiding principle by the adult educators who in their own ignorance do not know even how to start to blend the education of adult and the subsequent awareness to the masses so that the participants in the programme and employers themselves will be well aware of these people’s ability in handling jobs and to avoid reluctance in participation by these adults.
In the light of the above facts, this study is designed to investigate career opportunities available to the adult education graduates in Enugu State.

1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The aim and objectives of this study is particularly to achieve the following.
1. Identify the various job opportunities open to adult education graduates in the state.
2. To determine the extent to which these graduates have secured jobs in the areas of their training and how well they trained.
3. To determine the extent to which the employers of labour know the purpose and programme content of adult education.

1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to Enugu State and covers institute of management and technology school of continuing education, SDDE department. This is so because of the relative nearness of the programme in the educational sphere, financial hindrances to go to many places in search of relevant data to agree with the little gotten from the available texts. Again the people’s indifference and strife to react positively when asked certain questions.
It was on this note that the researchers made this with the little at my disposal and therefore limit the study to the above mentioned departments.

1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What are the employment opportunities available to these graduates and their awareness?
2. How are these adults embracing this programme in other to make career in these training?
3. What is the rate of awareness of the quality of these people, created to employers of labour by the adult educators?

1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
This study will be tested by the following hypothesis.
HO: People are not aware that employment opportunities are bound everywhere for adult education graduates in Enugu State and adults education are embracing the new programme (adult education) massively to make career.
HI: The qualities of training received by these people are made known to the employers of labour by the adult educators.

1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is important because it will create awareness and knowledge of employment opportunities which will assist these graduates in search of jobs that will suit them and their desirable careers.
It is also hoped that the study will stimulate other researchers to carryout more research on the relatively new topic, hence a starting point. Again to create awareness to career opportunities and thus providing abundant information and knowledge about adult education. More importantly, the government, the employer of labour will be aware of the subject matter, content of adult education programme and therefore place them in their placement services.
Finally, it will be a tribute to the adult education students of SDD department of IMT to encourage the new entrails for there is more to gain in it.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Adult education as a new course in the field of discipline has been defined differently by many authors. Agusioba defines it as all kinds of activities which promotes the progress of the common man. It has been also defined as an education to educate an adult for world citizenship, social and technological changes, creative diversions, family living and provision of better education for illiterates and handicapped adults.
Based on this careers opportunities for an adult in education can be defined as the effort by a person out of due, studying to read and write on to achieve special stall in a field of work to make certificate in such job as a qualification to enable him continue in such industry for the job. The adult in this sense is just not age but doing things when it is supposed to be done and not out of due time.

REFERENCES
1. Barry P. Bright (1989), Theory and Practice in the Study of Adult
Education. The Epistemological Debate in Richa Clay Ltd. Great Britain.
2. Berry Brainley (1991), Adult Literacy Basic Library Association and
Publishing Ltd London.
3. Osuala S. (1980), “Ten Years of Adult Education in Nigeria Making
Ourselves feet more” Special Bulletin N.N.C.A.C. Pg. 9.
4. Fafuwa A.B. (1991) The History of United States New York:
Cambridge, the Adult Education Company.
5. James A.F Stoner (1978) Management, London Prentice Hall
International Inc.
6. Knowel M.S. (1980), Modern Practice of Adult Education in United
States New York: Cambridge, The Adult Education Company.
7. Murray, R. Spiegel (1992) Theory and Problems of Adult New
York: McGraw Hill Book Company.
8. Nwana, D.C. (1981) Introduction to Educational Research Ibadan:
Heinemann Educational Books Nigeria Ltd.
9. Okedara J. (1981) Introduction to the Study of Adult Education, Ibadan
Inter press Ltd.
10. Olakunori O.K. (1997), Theory and practice of Adult Education Enugu,
Computer Edge Publishers.

CHAPTER TWO
Chapter two of this Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates” research work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Two of “Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates Contains: Literature Review, Adult And Adult Education, Career Guidance/Education, Career Within An Organization, Career Dilemma And Career Plateau, Adult Literacy And Career Motive and References.

CHAPTER THREE
Chapter three of this Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates” academic work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Three of “Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates Contains: Research Design And Methodology, Research Design, Area Of The Study, Population Of The Study, Sample And Sampling Procedure Technique, Instrument Of Data Collection, Validation Of The Instrument, Reliability Of Data Study, Method Of Data Collection and Method Of Data Analysis.

CHAPTER FOUR
Chapter four of this Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates project work is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Four of Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates Contains: Data Presentation And Analysis, Presentation And Analysis Of Data, Testing Of Hypothesis, Summary And Results and References.

CHAPTER FIVE
Chapter five of this Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates material is available. Order Full Work to download. Chapter Five of Career Opportunities For Adult Education Graduates Contains: Discussion And Result/Findings, Implication Of The Research Findings, Conclusion, Recommendations, Suggestion For Further Research, Reference, Bibliography and Appendix.

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CAREER OPPORTUNITIES FOR ADULT EDUCATION GRADUATE

THE EFFECT OF THE NIGERIAN PIDGEN ENGLISH ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

THE EFFECT OF THE NIGERIAN PIDGIN ENGLISH ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The paper carefully examines the effect of the Nigerian pidgin English on the academic performance of university students using University of Uyo as a case study. The current status of pidgin English mostly used by students was also analyzed.

In view of the findings, the use of Pidgin in formal setting should be discouraged since it has not been given its rightful recognition. Its coming into the institution is affecting the students’ academic performance.
It is of uttermost importance that further research be conducted into the Nigerian Pidgin usage in order to ensure its standardization before it can be welcomed fully in the educational system and the country at large.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

ORIGIN OF PIDGIN ENGLISH
THE EVOLUTION OF NIGERIAN PIDGIN
STATUS OF NIGERIAN PIDGIN

ATTITUDES TOWARDS NIGERIAN PIDGIN
THE LANGUAGE COMPOSITION OF NIGERIA PIDGIN

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

INTRODUCTION
RESEARCH AREA
RESEARCH DESIGN
POPULATION OF THE STUDY
SAMPLE SIZE AND TECHNIQUE
DATA COLLECTION METHOD
DATA ANALYSIS
LIMITATIONS

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

INTRODUCTION
PRESENTATION OF TABLES

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDIX
BIBLOGAPHY

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THE EFFECT OF THE NIGERIAN PIDGEN ENGLISH ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA

FACTORS AFFECTING STUDY HABIT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY STUDY CENTER

FACTORS AFFECTING STUDY HABIT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY STUDY CENTER

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Habit is a second nature; it is routine of a person what he or she does in every condition. It cannot be changed; it may be good or bad. It does not get affected by the changing of place or schedules. A habit is something that is done on a scheduled, regular, planned basis and that is not relegated to a second place or optional place in one’s life. It is simply done, no reservations, no excuses, and no expectations. A study habit is; buying out a dedicated scheduled and un-interrupted time to apply one’s self to the task of learning. Without it, one does not grow and becomes self-limiting in life (Gonzalez, 1997). Study habits tell a person that how much he will learn and how far he wants to go, and how much he wants to earn. These all could be decided with the help of one’s study habits, throughout the life. The importance of study habits in student’s life it that plays a major role in their academic achievement, because without studies no one can be successful. For studying, students should use different techniques because with these techniques they can ensure good outcomes. As everybody knows that every student has different study habits. Some students can study in a crowdie place but some want silent environment for studies. Although it is good to study in a peaceful environment but some time students cannot get that environment. In this manner student should have to adjust themselves in that environment like, in noisy classroom or hostels some students study in silence but some do not. If they have good study habits, they can adjust easily. Some students do not have the ability to cope up with the non-suitable environment. Due to this reason, some students lose their positions. Effective study habits help students to achieve good results (Sadia, 2005). However, the study seeks to identify the factors affecting study habit and academic performance of undergraduate student of National Open University study center.
An academic performance is something students achieve at school, college or university in class, in a laboratory, library or field work. An academic performance such as graduating in one’s class, sometimes a purely quantitative matter, while having the findings of lengthy, comprehensive research published by a recognized journal is also a notable academic performance (Ansari 1983).
When students get admission in a university, they have no idea about studies requirement. Most of them have old patterns of seeking knowledge at the beginning, they apply the same old techniques but after some time they realize that old techniques are no more effective. Gradually they started developing mature study style. Some students, when enter the higher institution, feel free themselves from all the worries of studies which affect their studies negatively. Even they get failed in their tests or exams and there are some other poor study habits which affect the performance of the students. This includes a very common mistake which is made by students, and also most unavoidable from the side of students. When students enter, especially in the universities, they think of themselves free from every duty of studies. When students leave their classes without any plan to read up what has been taught, due to this, their study habits are also affected. They get used to it and lose their positions. If they want to succeed in their life, they should be active in their studies, attend all lectures which the teacher delivers in the class.
Study habits are learning tendencies that enable students to work privately. The term study habit can be as the students’ way of study whether systematic, efficient or inefficient. Going by this definition, it literally means that good study habit produces positive academic performance while inefficient study habit leads to academic failure. Study habit are measured directly through reports, examination, assessment and rating. Students’ attitude and study habit towards any subject has been described as a function of their belief about the subject and implicit evaluative responses with those beliefs, all of which has direct relationship with the student academic performance.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, there are so many factors that influence the ability of students to cultivate effective and efficient study habit towards better academic performance. Such factors that are capable of influencing the academic performance of university students are state of health, motivation, anxiety, their environment, adequacy of infrastructures like textbooks and well equipped libraries.
Nuthana & Yenagi,(2009) have examined the causes of poor academic performance among university undergraduates. Some of these factors identified are intellectual ability, poor study habit, achievement motivation, lack of vocational goals, low self concept, low socio-economic status of the family, poor family structure and so on. However, the researcher is examining the factors affecting study habit and academic performance of undergraduate students.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:

To examine the factors affecting study habit and academic performance of undergraduate students
To examine the factors affecting academic performance of undergraduate students.
To determine the relationship between study habit and academic performance of undergraduate students

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What are the factors affecting study habit and academic performance of undergraduate students?
What are the factors affecting academic performance of undergraduate students?
What is the relationship between study habit and academic performance of undergraduate students?

1.5 HYPOTHESIS
HO: There is no significant relationship between study habit and academic performance of undergraduate students.
HA: There is significant relationship between study habit and academic performance of undergraduate students.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:

The finding from this study will educate the stakeholders in the education sector and the general public on the factors that can influence student’s academic performance with special focus on study habit and factors that can reshape students study habit towards better academic performance.
This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic

1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study on the factors affecting study habit and academic performance of undergraduate students will cover various forms of study habits practiced by undergraduate students and its effect on their academic performance considering factors that can encourage better study habit.

LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES
Ansari Z.A. (1983) Study Habits and Attitude of Students, National institute of psychology, Islamabad.
Gonzalez, M.C. (1997) Academic Motivation. It’s determining factors and guidelines for intervention, Navarra. EUNSA.
Sadia. B. (2005) A study of the factors affecting the performance of the students in Government Secondary Schools for girls in Rawalpindi city. M.A.Edu. Thesis, Faculty of Education, International Islamic University, Islamabad.
Nuthana K. & Yenagi, M. (2009) The effective, efficient professor: Teaching, scholarship and service. Allyn & Bacon.

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FACTORS AFFECTING STUDY HABIT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY STUDY CENTER

 

VALIDATION OF GINZBERG’S THEORY OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

VALIDATION OF GINZBERG’S THEORY OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

Man who is mortally created is subject to many afflictions that can easily bring him down to the grave. In order to create comfort and to enhance his surviving chances, man has to work hard in order to at least meet up with his basic needs like food, shelter and clothing.
What is work? Work according to Oxford Dictionary, is the use of physical strength and mental power in order to do or achieve something. Different individuals worldwide has different attitude and preference to work. All of us cannot do the same work. Each of us has his own interest, ability, personality, aptitude etc to choose the job that will fit him or her best. This is what we known as career choice.
This study is aimed at validating Ginzbergs theory of career development among University of Benin undergraduates. Ginbergs theory of career development and choice was a study carried out in 1962 by a group of four speculators headed by Eli Ginzbergs. They studied the process of career development of every individuals from childhood to their early 20s and come out with various findings (Detail in Chapter two).
This study is very important because most individuals these days has no known chosen career and some who are believed to have choices especially from the educational point of view, has chosen wrongly. This phenomenon is affecting the growth of the country economically and technologically.
For example, the problems that may arise as a result of poor career choice may include the following:

Unemployment and unsteady jobs.
Lack of skills in job seeking nd easy access to information about job vacancy.
Inability to cope with the real demand of work and on the job behavior like: inability to accept supervision, inability to get along with fellow workers and poor working habit.
Retrenchments due to incompetence and unproductiveness.
Poor career development and choice may also be the reason why some professionals sometimes refused to practice their professions instead, they migrate to other sectors of the economy specially politics to hold positions different from their field of knowledge. It is a common knowledge to meet graduates of physics or agricultural science working in financial houses. Lawyers are made commissioners of education, finance, power, etc.
People are moving ups and downs the occupational ladder. Some has lost locus of control in their life career.
Many choose dishonest living to make ends meet. For example, there are reports of armed robbery, kidnapping, youth militancy and restiveness, religious intolerance and prostitution.
Many others lived from hand to mouth by engaging themselves in menial jobs like, street hawking, truck pushing and all forms of non-formal occupations.
Many more are good at begging for arms while those who lacked the common sense and begging skills, roam about and survived only by what drop from people’s tables to the dust bins.
In the university arena, many undergraduates are battling with career uncertainty. The problem is not the lack of choice, but the abundance thereof. There are so many choices, so many opportunities, so many directions that bewilder and distract the young people. No sooner have they shown a passive interest in this or that area than they are encouraged to make it their life careers. Many young people today usually make choices that are not suited to their personal characteristics and aspirations because of their inadequate orientation. Egbochukwu (2008) noted that these young people, come from different religious backgrounds with different personality make-up, traits and needs. Some are in the school system to study and get the certificate, which will enable them to secure their future, while some are there to socialize without really knowing why they are in school. Some are there not knowing what course and subject to choose or study nor even how to plan their time and also developed appropriate skills. Many choose careers under the influence of parents, friends and peer groups.
Sanra (1995) postulated that, if the society is not to be plagued by a group of disgruntled, frustrated and unrealistic individuals it is desirable that careers information be provided to enable the youths arrived at a realistic choice with due realization of the limits of their own respective potentials, the available opportunities and the social expectations in the community.
In support, Okorodudu (2006), also noted that the counselor will now help the children through the assistant of parents and teachers to promote the acquisition of various vocational skills of children. They will be able to match such skills with the aptitude, attitude, interest and ability of children in the school system. This will provide children with the opportunity of growing along with the vocational and technological skills which are congruence with their personality traits.

1.2 Statement of Problems
All of us cannot do the same work. Each of us has his/her own interest, ability, personality, aptitude etc, to choose the job that will fit him or h er best. This is what we known as career choice. Most times, university undergraduates are faced with problems of career choice. Majority of them are having problems of career uncertainty, lack of adequate orientation towards choosing a befitting career, parental influence as well as socio-economic status as factors, militating against their educational and vocational aspirations.
Therefore, this work is framed at finding out the career developmental stages of the University of Benin students as related to Ginzbergs theory of career development.

1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to validate Ginzbergs theory of career development among University of Benin undergraduates.

1.4 Significance of the Study
The study is essentially to validate or to investigate the levels of University of Benin undergraduate, career development in alignment with Ginzbergs theory of career development in order to uphold the truthfulness of Ginzbergs postulations. The result of this study will serve as career guidance to students, parents, and educators. It will also minimized the problems of poor career choice among the would be labour force.

1.5 Research Questions
1. What is the level of career development of students in the University of Benin?
2. Is there any relationship between Ginzbergs findings and results obtained from University of Benin undergraduates?
3. Is there any environmental influence on vocational choice?
4. To what extent does the socio-economic status of the students influence their vocational aspirations?
5. Does Gender differences influence career decision making and choice?
6. Does career counseling has any influence on career choice?

1.6 Research Hypotheses
1. There is no significant difference between Ginzbergs stages of career development and the University of Benin undergraduates level of career development.
2. There is no significant difference between Ginzbergs findings and results obtained from University of Benin undergraduates.

1.7 The Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study is focused only on University of Benin undergraduates which stands as a unit of all other universities undergraduates across the nation. This is adopted specifically due to lack of fund.

1.8 Definition of Terms
Certain words have been variously used in the course of writing this project work and so, definitions are given.
Validation: To investigate or to measure the truthfulness and usefulness of an instrument.
Ginzbergs: Ginzbergs is the leader of a group of four speculators and proponents of a theory – Explaining stages of career development in an individual. For further elaboration, see chapter two.
Career: Career is a life long occupation which an individual chooses for him/herself, plan for it, enter into it and progress in it.
Theory: A theory is a set of assumptions designed to explain and predict a phenomenon; opens for further investigation and the results can be used to develop knowledge and provide basis for making decisions (Onoyase, 2007).

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VALIDATION OF GINZBERG’S THEORY OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

AN ASSESSMENT OF GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN ADULT LITERACY PROGRAMMES

AN ASSESSMENT OF GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN ADULT LITERACY PROGRAMMES

This project investigated the involvement of government in adult literacy programme sin Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area. The introductory aspect of this project deals with background of the study, statement of problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, delimitation, limitations and definition of terms.  of adult literacy education in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area and problems and constraints of adult literacy in Nigeria, in order to provide views of what other scholars have written in this report. Fourty (40) questionnaires were administered to collect relevant information to the study. All questionnaires were collected back and analysed with the use of percentages.

AN ASSESSMENT OF GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN ADULT LITERACY PROGRAMMES

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF ADULT EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF ADULT EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The National Policy on Education (2004) provides for Adult and non-formal education as an instrument par excellence for lifelong education. Section 6 of the Policy outlines the goals of adult and non-formal education to include providing functional literacy and continuing education for adults and the youths, provide education for different categories of completers of the formal education system to improve their basic knowledge and skills, provide in-service, on-the-job, vocational and professional training for different categories of workers and give adult citizens of the country necessary aesthetics, cultural and civic education for public enlightenment.
Onyenemezu (2003) opined that Adult Education in Nigeria is not just about literacy or remedial education to fill a gap. That it is what is needed and wanted by all as long as they are alive and regardless of previous education. This position is in line with what Nasir (1979) said when he said that Adult Education included many of the subjects learned at school for those who never had the opportunity. Dave (1973) had earlier argued that Adult Education aims at providing lifelong Education that prepares the individual for change and creates dynamic frame of mind in the individual. This is because the world is constantly changing in all spheres including technology, communication and industry. Human’s craving for learning is thus continuous to keep pace with the changes.
Bown and Okedara (1981) rightly described this urge for continuous learning as ‘cradle to grave’. It is hoped that when the individual is equipped through lifelong skills and knowledge, Nigeria’s hope for the realization of the millennium development goals that include eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality and empowering women, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, combating HIV / Aids, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability and developing a global partnership for development would be enhanced (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2004).
The history of adult education is a hit-and miss story – starting off with strong rhetoric, promises and expectation and concluding in limited success, and even neglect and disappointment in too many cases. Adult education has been conflated into broader agenda of education and development more at level of discourse than in action. In the arena of action it has been too often confined to a narrow interpretation of literacy skills (Umar,Eshak, Bichi, &Aujara, 2010). However for most governments in developing countries where financial and human resources are very scarce like Nigeria, adult education is very low when it comes to given priority to other sub-sectors of education system.
In fact many people have been inhibited by some socio economic, political, cultural and natural factors from benefiting from the right to education (the Universal Declaration of Human rights to Education). These factors have resulted in a greater number of a nation’s population not really benefiting from the formal education system. Many people who entered various levels of the formal education failed to realize their educational ambitions. It is obvious that the adults in the society are the most affected by these factors for many of them may have dropped out of formal school system either as stark or semi illiterates. The field of adult education is going through a major transition in response to the new economy and the demands and interests of learners in the new economy in the 21st century making it necessary to study the problems and prospects of adult education in Nigeria.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Adult education changes the social and psychological minds of adults more than any other profession, instills lost hope in them and liberates them from their prejudice of seeing themselves as not being capable of learning. Adult education awakens adult learners to become aware of their environmental (social, economic, cultural and political) and psychological potentials and hidden abilities. It also exerts enormous influence on the larger society in terms of national development (Onyenemezu, 2012). A lot of problem is bedeviling adult education in Nigeria despite numerous prospect which include inadequate funding, failures of the UBE act to give adequate recognition to Adult and Non-Formal Education as a key sector of basic education etc.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:

To examine the problems of adult education in Nigeria.
To examine the prospects of Adult education in Nigeria.
To examine the component of Adult education in Nigeria.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

What are the problems of adult education in Nigeria?
What are the prospects of Adult education in Nigeria?
What are the components of Adult education in Nigeria?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

The outcome of this study will educate the general public on the problems and prospects of adult education in Nigeria.
This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.

1.6 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study on the problems and prospects of adult education in Nigeria will cover all the challenges of adult education in Nigeria with a view of planning a better future for that subsector of Nigeria education system.

LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES
Dave, R. (1973) Life Long Education and Alcohol, Hamburg: UNESCO, Institute of Education.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004) National Policy on Education, Abuja Government Printer.
Nzeneri, I.S. (2002). Handbook on adult education, principles and practice. OnitshaGoodway printing press.
Onyenemezu, E.C. (2003). Adult education and the challenges of 21st century in Nigeria. Education and practice (3),1-7
Bown, L. and Okedara, .LT. (1981) An Introduction to the Study of Adult Education, lbadan: University Press Ltd
Haggai, M. and Mang, L. (2003) ‘Supplementing secondary education for poor families’, Nigerian Journal of Curriculum Studies, VoL 10, 2.

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PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF ADULT EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

FACTORS MOTIVATING ADULT LEARNERS PARTICIPATION IN FUNCTIONAL LITERACY PROGRAMME

FACTORS MOTIVATING ADULT LEARNERS PARTICIPATION IN FUNCTIONAL LITERACY PROGRAMME

Education is the industry that produces manpower for the economy of nations. Therefore, education enhances manpower development by improving the number and quality of human resource.
Bareday in Afonja (2003) says that education is truly a mirror of the level of development and the aspiration of any people.
Education in general and functional literacy programmes in particular are means of advancing people in terms of giving them knowledge, skills attitudes necessary for expanding their potentials.
Akinpelu (2002) is the view that education programmes are organized for learners who have pre-occupation or jobs other than studying. Further words education is associated with vocational occupation or professional stills of development.
Functional literacy is one step further from elementary literacy.
It refers to the ability to use the stills of reading writing and computing in the acquisition of such information as would make the individual function more actively and beneficially in the economics, social, political psychological and cultural activities of the community whether or she lives. Essentially, for any adults to participate in any functional literacy programme there must be need for it. Need and motivation are two important things that guide the adult participants in functional literacy progrmmes. Literacy is seen as a tool for developing skill, knowledge and attitudes for the daily survival of human persons. Therefore, literacy is an educational process which aims at in calculating in the individuals the ability to read and write and to carry out basic calculations.
Literacy could be seen as the ability to function better in one’s social context. Thus, literacy is aimed at enhancing one’s understanding of the society in which one is required to assume a functional role.
UNESCO (2011) defined it as the ability to identify. Understand, interpreted create, communicate, compute and use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts. Literacy involves a continue of learning by individuals to achieve their goals to develop their knowledge and potential and to participate fully in their community and wider society.
Oduaran (1991) defined functional literacy as one step further up from elementary literacy. It refers aptly to the ability to sue the skills of reading, writing and computing that would benefit the individual.
Beder (1990) and Thompson (1992) identified self improvement, family responsibilities, job participation, advancement, urging by other people, social expectations and relationships, escape from bore dome and stimulation and cognitive interest as a basic motivation.
Needs attract the attach adults to take part in functional literacy programmes and
Psychological
Safety, stability and security
Belongingness (social affiliation love)
Self esteem
Self – actualization
The above hierarchy of needs make us understand why adult learners participate in functional literacy programs. For instance an adult learner who lacks social and economic rewards tend to participate in functional literacy programems so as to improve these needs he years to have and for growth and development of self.
The tension and problems learners encounter in his environment or working place will motivate him to learn more so as to find a solution to the tension and problems. He participates in functional literacy programmes so as to improve safety, security for himself, whether in his job or environment.
The learning needs of adult learners vary according to their social roe. Adults who newly arrive at working age will be obsessed with learning how to make a living, a woman with young learning how to make a living; a woman with young children will be interested in domestic matters and in the children’s education. So also a member of a church choir will be interested in learning music better.
The individual as an adult learner has a need that is sometimes termed self-fulfillment or self actualization. Some adult learners may wish to develop skills in their work which will enable them excel or in other skills from which they may derive satisfaction and recognition such as in sports or in domestic practice like sewing or cooking. Some may wish to enhance their social standing cultivate new social relationships and feel the need for learning how to achieve such needs.
There are some adult learners which may have last on educational opportunities in the past may feel incomplete as persons unless they fill what they see as gaps in their knowledge and education.
The behavior of adult learners is a given environment is aimed at fulfilling basic want or needs which vary at a given time.  The need to improve on one’s job, further knowledge or education, to improve social status, for socialization, mental improvement psychological capability, political orientation, religious improvement, awareness etc will motivate adult learners to participate in functional literacy programmes. The adult learners to participate in functional literacy programs. The adult learners can be a spouse, parents, works, young adults etc. if these needs that motivate them to participate in functional literacy programmes are met, they can be satisfied in the aspect of growth and development for themselves and the society in which they live.
The attitude of the adult educator can also motivate adult learners to enroll in functional literacy programmes.
Availability of the facilities in the environment where it is located can also encourage earners to participate in literacy programs. Because adult learners are motivated by what they see, how they are treated thereby causing growth and development.
Statement of the Problem 
  • There has been a rapid increase in the participation of adult learners in functional literacy programmes in recent years. This is evident in the high rate of adult learner’s enrollment in functional literacy programmes in Benin metropolis taking advantage of centers offering such programmes. Inspite of the various tasks which adult learners who participate addles with, they still avail themselves with these learning and activities or opportunities what then could be the motivating factors. To what extent do these factors serve as determinants of adult learner’s participation in functional literacy programmes?
The focus of this study is to determine the factors which motivate adult learner’s participation in functional literacy programmes in Benin metropolis.
Research Questions
What are adult learner’s objectives in participating in functional literacy programmes?
To what extent does adult learner’s social interaction or relationship influence their participation in functional literacy programmes?
To what extent do adult learners psychological characteristics serve as determinants of adult learner’s participation in functional literacy programmes?
Do responsibility and personal life factors motivate adult learner’s participation in functional literacy programmes?
To what extent do adult learners economic reasons influence their participation in literacy programmes?
Purpose of Study 
This study seeks to find out the factors motivating adult learner’s participation in functional literacy programmes in Benin metropolis. It is to seek the factors enhancing or propelling adult learners to take part in functional literacy programmes.
Factors like physiological and basic human factors or needs motivate the adult learners to take part. They take part to seek improvement for what they feel is not fully actualized, until it is fully actualized. The need will continue to bother the adult learners.
The study is to know these needs or drives so that the adult educator can be well equipped and prepared on how to teach the adult learners. Cope with them and any situation they might have and to motivate and help them find solutions to those problems. Thereby bringing about growth, change in behavior of the learners and
the society to which they belong.
Assumptions 
The following assumptions were made in the study;
If adults learners needs like physiological needs are not met. It can greatly affect their participation in adult learning.
If adult educators who understand these needs of adult learners are not available, it will greatly affect the learners.
If programmes designed are not fully exposed to adult learners, they will greatly affect their participation.
If the learning environment is not harmonious and peaceful, it will have negative effects on the adult learners.
The methodological issues if not carried out properly. It can affect adult learner’s participation in functional literacy programmes negatively.
Significance of the Study
The study’s findings is to help policy makers both public and private institutions in providing appropriate functional literacy programmes for adult learners to enable them keep a breast of social, economic political, psychological and educational changes.
It is the adult educator’s missions in helping adult learners learn what will gratify their needs at whatever level they may be struggling. Therefore, if adults are hungry, they should be helped to learn what will give them food, if they are well-fed, safe, loved and esteemed, they must be helped to explore undeveloped capabilities and become fully equipped.
Therefore, the federal government of Nigeria realizing that the only way to transform every area in the country into an advance state and to eradicate literacy, empower citizens is to direct its policy towards equal and adequate educational opportunities for all citizens by creating literacy centres that will promote functional literacy programmes for growth and development.
It is therefore very important to determine the factors that motivate adult learners to participate in functional literacy programmes.
Scope of Study
The study is limited to the geographical area of Benin metropolis. It covers specifically adult learners of some selected functional literacy centers who participate in functional literacy programmes.
Definition of Terms
For the purpose of this study the key concepts used are defined below!
Adult learners: Mature individuals who participate in a learning situation that will bring about changes.
Education: A process of teaching, training and learning made to improve on knowledge, behavior and to develop skills
Literacy: It is an instrument for acquiring relevant knowledge and skills required for development, literacy is the ability to read and understand a simple text, and to use and transmit written information of everyday life.  It is an activity embedded in social and cultural practices.
Functional literacy: The ability to use the skills of reading, writing computing in the acquisition of basic information for development. Also, the use of adult education to acquire knowledge and skills to meet individual’s needs and foster national development.
Motivation: It is the management function that stimulates individuals to accomplish set down instructional or organization goals. It is an intrinsic drive towards the fulfillment of personal needs and the improvement of one’s perceived status, it is influenced strongly by extrinsic factors.
Literacy programmes: It refers to the programmes designed to enhance the skills, and development. It is also a systematic planned activities intended to equip and individual participants to become skillful in the ability to read, write and compute to an appreciable level.
Learning situation. Adult educators should endeavour to translate both the basic human needs and educational needs into interest so as to motivate the adults into participating more in functional literacy programmes.
Knowles, stress that the highest expression of the act of the adult educator is skills in helping adult learners to discover and become interested in meeting their needs.
Freire (1991) is of the view that in knowing learners needs will enable them organize themselves, translate their needs into interest in order to improve on the aspirations of their potentials.
It should be noted that people differ I need the specific needs of the adults should be given in the area of content, methodology and evaluation.
Motivation is a psychological concept which explains what exactly propels human beings to voluntarily undertake specific actions. Psychologists differ in their definition of motivation. They define it as drives, needs, incentives reinforcement, energizer, goal and expectancy.
Barelson (2004) defined motivation as an inner state that energizes, activates, moves, directs or channel behavior to exert high level of efforts or channel behavior to exert high level of efforts towards some set goals conditioned by efforts, ability to satisfy some individual needs.
Motivation determines largely when an adult learners want to learn and how much far he will not respond to any stimulus unless he is in a state of need and feels he can himself, by responding.
As a matter of fat, man’s need must be motivated so that he can be satisfied with himself, his job and his environment he lives.
Maslow and Murray two psychologists identified some basic human needs.
Murray a cognitive theorist sees internal structure as the basis of human behavior. Thus when the brain is internally instigated, it organizes other psychological processes.
He classified motives into two major categories of primary needs and secondary needs. The primary needs in basic requirements for living / such as the need for intake of food, water, air, the need for excretion and exhalation and the need for withdrawal (for safety) when faced with anger.
The secondary needs include the desire to control and influence others, desire to admire some one else, need for independence and need to fight. He further theories that at a given time some needs. Remain until they are satisfied. Murray postulated that needs come to the fore ad expresses themselves with ore urgency than others. Murray was the first need theorist of motivation.
Maslow in his principles of motivation has highlighted that human beings are active beings whose behaviours are agitated or propelled by some potent forces.
He calls the forces organismicaly based needs. He postulated that unsatisfied need creates tension within an organism thereby serving as a force to direct behavior towards reduction of the tension.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs consists of need for foods, shelter, health, clothing, transportation education. They need for transformation of experiences and awareness of reality for adult learners and societal benefit.
In the area of economic and physical need. This motivate the learner to participate in any of the functional literacy programmes because it will provide the knowledge for their need to be solved.
The adult learners want to be economically balanced that is to upgrade their skills and employability gives the need for their participation in functional literacy.
They also participate to meet employment expectations. Adult learners are encouraged because they want to be more acceptable and also to guarantee solution for the quest for a change in job and to reduce poverty. In order words to meet their immediate needs.
Learning on the part of adult learners is supplemental and secondary to their primary role in the society. As soon as they identify the needs, they strive towards its fulfillment. They participate due to political need. If ne is not wise politically, their rights and privileges might be trampled upon.
The need or the driving force towards their participation in functional literacy programmes. They want to be responsible citizens and live right. The need for mutual interpersonal relationship in a community motivates their participation so that there will be development and executive of policies for the community.
The motive of adult learner’s participation functional literacy programmes is to bring about solution of their felt needs. Adult learners desire a need and they are interested in the programmes in order to develop in their lives. The comfortability of the venue can also motivate adult learner’s participation in functional literacy programmes.
The adult learners are group of individuals that need to be gratified; the need can be socially, educational – economic political, psychological, physical needs and also technological needs. If these needs are met, they can function meaningfully in the society they belong.

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FACTORS MOTIVATING ADULT LEARNERS PARTICIPATION IN FUNCTIONAL LITERACY PROGRAMME

AN ASSESSMENT OF GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN ADULT LITERACY PROGRAMMES

AN ASSESSMENT OF GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN ADULT LITERACY PROGRAMMES

This project investigated the involvement of government in adult literacy programme sin Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area. The introductory aspect of this project deals with background of the study, statement of problem, purpose of the study, research questions, significance of the study, delimitation, limitations and definition of terms.  The researcher reviewed some related literature and project work related to adult education, concept of adult literacy, literacy rate in Nigeria, organization of adult literacy education in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area and problems and constraints of adult literacy in Nigeria, in order to provide views of what other scholars have written in this report. Fourty (40) questionnaires were administered to collect relevant information to the study. All questionnaires were collected back and analysed with the use of percentages.

AN ASSESSMENT OF GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN ADULT LITERACY PROGRAMMES