THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON THE ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT

ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this research work is to determine the impact of information Technology on NITEL, Enugu. In order to achieve this purpose or objective very successfully the researcher has taken into consideration: the meaning or concept of information Technology, the negative and positive effects of information Technology, the characteristics or attitudes of Information Technology, the personnel / staff, etc.

Having observe the above, the researcher equally delved into the problems associated with information Technology. Consequently, the conclusions reached was that certain factors such as staff redundancy, fraud, high maintenance or repair cost are some of the problems associated with Information Technology at NITEL.

The researcher made some useful recommendations that would aid the effective management and applied Information Technology.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Information is not only the basic of human existence. It is also the life wire for running of any organization. This is consequent upon the fact that decisions are based on information for effective decision-making and effective execution of those decisions, there must be constant information flow. Data gathered must be transmitted to the end –users after it had been processed. Information receipt processing, storage, dissemination, etc. may be instant; otherwise valuable business opportunities might be lost. That is what Information Technology (IT) seeks to do in business administration and management.

The development of information technology has come a long way. The first writing in the world of was invented by Egyptians priests around four thousand B.C. At first, the writing was a series of whole picture, which were drawn to tell a story. This took a long time and later on the priests learned to draw parts of pictures to represent the whole. Much later on still, the pictures were drawn not to represent objects, but to represent sounds. Thus the picture of a house was drawn not to represent the actual building, but the sound “Haus”. Gradually, the method of writing was improved upon until one letter was used to represent one sound. This is how the first alphabet was made. The priests wrote with a reed pen and made ink by mixing soot and gum with water.

But the scope of the writing called the HIEROGLYPHICS was restricted to priests; hence it was called SACRED writing. The writing was used to record important religious ceremonies, medical facts and records of kings and nobles. The most important writings were recorded or carved on stones while the less important records were kept on thin stripes from a reed known as PAPYRUS, a plant that grew on the banks of the River Nile. The modern word “paper” came from papyrus.

Other ancient ways of writing include the SUMMERIAN CUNELFORM, ANTHENIAN OSTRAKON, JEWISH SCROLL or parchment, which was writing on animal skin. The Bible recorded in Exodus 3`: 18, “And the lord gave Moses, when he, (God) had made as an end of speaking with him upon the mount Sinai, the two tables of stone written with the finger of God”. An Assyrian king named Assurbanipal was said to have about twenty thousand clay tablets in his private library.

For their information dissemination, the ancient world employed a number of ways. The Greek used runners. The marathon race today is in honor of an Athenian runner who not only ran all the way from Athens to Sparta to call the Spartans to the battle field, but also after the Persians had been defeated at a place called marathon, ran a further 35 kilometers to Athens to report the victory, after which he fell down dead after announcing the victory.

The old-talking drums, gongs, etc. were also used to send out information. In emergency situations, a section of the forest could be set on fire to warn people of impending or sudden enemy attack. All those various means of receiving, storing and sending information in the ancient times have been replaced by the vast array of machines in the modern world. This is what is called information technology, which refers to a host of equipment and materials, essentially computer-based that are used in the modern world for information receipt, processing, storage and dissemination.

The invention of the printing machine by a German called John Guttenberg; the calculating machine invented by Charles Babbage in 1855; the typewriter invented in 1867 by the Sholes brothers of America; the invention of the telephone in 1876 by a Scot Alexandra Graham Bell; the invention of radio in 1895 by Marches Marcini; the television in 1922 by Johnlogis Baird; the turnaround brought about with the invention of the photographing machine in 1826 by Joseph Niece, a French and so on have marked a turning point in Information Technology. From the earliest times to the modern times, precisely the twenty-first century, information technology has spanned three distinct stages. These are: –

i. Primary stage – use of human labor

ii. Secondary stage – use of electrical machines

iii. Tertiary stage – use of electronics machines.

The modern age is aptly called the age of machines or the machine age. This is true in the light of the numberless communication gadgets and information equipment that have flooded the market. But the greatest of this revolution is the computer, which has now revolutionized the modern business world.

The primary stage was the period during which human labor was used enormously in information receipt, storage and dissemination. At that time, electricity was not popular as it came into human existence in 1831 by Michael Faraday. The manual typewriter came under this stage.

The secondary stage was the period during which electricity became the source of power for some machines. The electric typewriters came under this stage and also many other machines that became electrically powered.

The last stage is the tertiary stage, which is the present age of electronics, is the power source of communication equipment.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS.

Information technology has given birth to many complex machines, some of which are beyond the operational scope of an average businessman.

According to Hirsch, the machine age brought about the development of methods. Business executive, administrators, managers and staff need to go beyond their natural endowment to be able to understand the operations and procedures of these machines and also be able to operate these machines themselves. This makes training a sine-qua-non. But only very few business and individuals can afford the high cost of training required to operate those machines. This cost becomes an impossibility when it involves an overseas training course.

Moreover, the costs of acquiring the machines are very exorbitant. The exchange rate of the naira is too down to earth when compared with other major currencies of the world, like the American dollars, British pounds, Japanese yen, German Dutch mark, French francs etc. The cheapest manual portable typewriter costs about Nine thousand naira which is out of financial capability of some business organizations, how much more the computer, photocopiers, fax machines, etc. whose costs run into nearly hundreds of thousands of naira to purchase. The high cost of machine is almost defeating the goal of information technology.

Another problem associated with information technology is servicing and maintenance of the machines. All these machines are manufactured in highly technologically advanced countries such as Germany, France, America, Japan, Britain, etc. When they are imported into Nigeria and other third world countries, the user nations lack the expertise and technical know-how to maintain and service the machines. This is because the qualified service personnel required to service machines are not brought along with the machines. The implications of this are that half-baked technicians are forced to service the machines. Rather than putting the equipment back into use, they spoil it. This results in scrapping many of the machines. When these machines breakdown, the business can no longer use them and the operations of that business are greatly impaired.

Finally, the world of information technology is an ever-changing sea. The rate at which the manufacturers and producers turn out these machines overwhelms stakeholders in the business world. It is very difficult to keep pace with the influx of these communication gadgets. As new discoveries are made, new machines are manufactured with their attendant different operational procedures. This keeps stakeholders on their toes as they are unsure about what is to replace the present machines.

1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY.

The main purpose of this study is to find out the impact of information technology on Business Administration and management.

In addition, this study will also try to: –

a) Establish the true meaning of business in the modern world;

b) Find out what level of training is required for proper handling of products of information technology;

c) Determine the different environments under which businesses are operated in the modern world of information technology;

d) Find out the personal characteristics or the essential qualities appropriate for information technology personnel;

e) Find out the various information technology machines used in business administration and management;

f) Identify some of correction symbols used in information technology;

g) Make recommendations on ways and means of making information technology more efficient and effective.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.

This study is limited to the effects made by information technology on business administration. This covers both the positive and negative impact of information technology.

The Nigerian Telecommunications PLC branch at Okpara Avenue Enugu was used as case study. Operators of the various machines used in information services, who are the major stakeholders in the information industry were also interviewed.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.

(a) Has information technology made any impact on NITEL in Nigeria?

(b) What are the various information technology equipment used by NITEL in Nigeria?

(c) In what way has information technology negatively affected on NITEL in Nigeria?

(d) What are the personal characteristics and attributes required of NITEL staff in the age of information technology?

(e) What are the correction symbols, reference materials and standard abbreviations used by NITEL staff in information technology?

1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS (ALTERNATIVE)

The following hypothesis have been advanced for the purpose of this study:

a) Information technology has a direct impact on business administration and management;

b) The various machines of information technology used in business administration and management require effective handling;

c) Information technology has revolutionized the business world;

d) Information technology has resulted in staff redundancy in business today;

e) Various machines and equipment are used in information services;

f) A business cannot be successfully run today without the information technology,

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.

There is no gain saying the fact that this study will benefit a number of people in a number of ways.

It is hoped that through this study, the stakeholders in the information industry would be enlightened in terms of knowledge, qualification, experience and performance appraisal.

Moreover, it will highlight the need for higher institutions of learning and other agencies engaged in the training of computer or information services to combine theory with practical. This can only be made possible if those schools are agencies procure the machines themselves.

The larger society will benefit from this study in that it will educate them on the many sides to information technology and its effectiveness in business administration and management in the modern business world.

In addition, this study will be of significance to the government with respect to policies on the importation of information equipment. The high costs of these machines are consequent upon the high tariff imposed on the machines. If the import tax is relaxed or lowered, the cost of the machines become less and therefore affordable.

Finally, this study no doubt will contribute to learning and then add to the frontiers of knowledge.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS.

Owing to the multiplicity of meanings of words in certain cases, the researcher needed to give certain words used in this study their contextual meanings.

a) Information technology.

This refers to a host of machines that are used in today’s business world for information receipt, processing, storage and disemination,etc.

b) Data.

This is unprocessed information. It is information that is in its raw or unorganized state.

c) Information.

This is the result of processed data. It is a combination of data plus processing. It is data in its organized and processed state, which can be used in making business decisions.

d) File.

This is a group of related data or information.

e) Hardware.

This includes the physical components of information handling.

f) Software.

Programs for the computer.

g) Processing.

A series of events, actions or operations that transfer the original material, that is data into finished product called information.

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THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON THE ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT

EFFECT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

The quest for rural development globally, calls for critical assessment of the relation between socio-economic infrastructure and rural development. Socio-economic infrastructures such as road, power, education, healthcare service, communication, water, and market are very essential for rural development and job creation which in turn, improve the standards of living of the rural people and reduces the incidence of rural poverty. According to Egunjobi (1987), the importance of infrastructure to rural socio-economic life can be seen from three perspectives. First, they stimulate economic activities. Second, they promote societal welfare and thirdly, they prevent rural depopulation.

The United Nations (2013) report indicates that, over much of the globe, rural poverty is on the increase. About 1.2 billion people of the world live on less than a dollar, and this is attributed to insufficient, or lack of socio-economic infrastructure that would stimulate and facilitate socio-economic activities which in turn, empowers the rural people and subsequently, improve their well-being.

The Regional Economic Communities (RECs) have been identified as the building blocks for improving the well-being of the rural people, and infrastructure is perceived as the key catalyst to transforming Africa. Numerous studies, analysis and forums, conducted by the African Development Bank (AfDB) and others, have brought out the fact that one of the biggest constraints to Africa‘s growth and competitiveness has been inadequate and underperforming infrastructural facilities such as schools, market, electricity, road, and healthcare.

The key to unlocking Africa‘s growth potential was investment in its infrastructure, particularly in education which is central to the development of individual, community as well as the overall development of a nation. Despite these potentialities of education in rural as well as national development little priority is given to the education sector. For instance, previous federal budgets have depicted this negligence where from 2007 to 2014 the budget for education has been insignificant compared to other sectors as in 2007 what was allocated to education was 12%, in 2008, 10%, in 2009, 11%, in 2010, 9%, in 2011 9.5%, in 2012, 8.43%, in 2013, 10.7%, in 2014, 8.4% respectively (Federal Ministry of Education, 2014). This has indicated that education has not been accorded the desired priority in the national budgets as this is far below the United Nations‘ benchmark of 26% minimum for education.

The Millennium Development Goal (MDG), with input from African countries, recently completed formulating the Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA). This continental initiative, based on regional infrastructure projects and programmes, which will help to address the infrastructure deficits that severely hampers Africa‘s competitiveness within itself and in the world market. Continuing growth and prosperity would swell the demand for infrastructure, already one of the continent‘s greatest impediments to sustainable development. Successive Nigerian Governments at various periods had launched different programmes aimed at development the rural areas some of which include, Agricultural Development Project (ADP), River Basin Development Authority (RBDA), and Directorate for Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI).

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EFFECT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

EFFECT OF FIRM SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS ON FINANCIAL LEVERAGE OF QUOTED DIVERSIFIED COMPANIES IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

The genesis of the use of external financing by firms can be traced back to the period of micro trade by barter which was bedeviled by so many problems, including absence of a standard unit for measurement. This served as a barrier to lending and borrowing. The introduction of money as a medium of exchange facilitated the development of other forms of business such as sole proprietorship and partnership which were mainly sustained through internal financing. However, after the industrial revolution of the 1830s, the nature of business ownership and financing evolved, partnerships were formed, which lead to the emergence of joint stock companies. As a result of the formation of large joint stock companies which can take greater risks in business opportunities, internal sources of finance became insufficient for further expansion and growth, thus, necessitating business ventures to resort to external financing in order to boost their efficiency and productivity.

Moreover, expanding into new line of businesses and the possible increase in the number of their division/ subsidiaries became one of the reasons that necessitated the need for external source of funding in form of loans, or new equity from creditors, lenders, shareholders and other debt providers. These could come in form of debenture and loan usually termed as financial leverage with a fixed rate of charges attached to it in form of interest payment needed for such expansion. This gives raise to the concept of capital structure or debt/equity mix often referred to as leverage.

Companies spend a lot of time in trying to fashion out how to finance a project or an operation using  the  most  appropriate  source  of  financing  at  the  right  time.  Project  financing  may sometimes be achieved through the combination of both internal and external source of finance which entails the use of debt or issuance of equity or combination of both (Suleiman, 2012). Thus, optimum financing decision from the best source is very vital to the success and survival of a firm as it helps in determining financing, investment, liquidity and dividend decision which in turn helps in maximizing the shareholder’s wealth

Furthermore, several hypotheses and theories have been postulated with a view to explaining how capital combination of a firm affects its value. These include the pioneering work of Modigliani and Miller (1958) which proposed the irrelevancy theory based on the perfect market assumption. In 1963, Modigliani and Miller relaxed one of their earlier assumptions on corporate tax, thus making debt financing more advantageous than equity financing. Further development to the theory was made in 1977 when Modigliani and Miller added personal income tax into their previous hypotheses and found out that, tax shield can be offset by personal income tax.

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EFFECT OF FIRM SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS ON FINANCIAL LEVERAGE OF QUOTED DIVERSIFIED COMPANIES IN NIGERIA

MATERNAL HEALTH CARE DELIVERY IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: AN ASSESSMENT OF ROTARY INTERNATIONAL’S INTERVENTION PROGRAMME (2000-2007)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study

Maternal Mortality or maternal death is defined as “the death of a woman while pregnant, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and the site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to, aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental cause” (WHO, 1993).

The death of a mother is more than a personal tragedy; it represents an enormous cost to her nation, her community and her family. When a mother dies, her children lose their primary care giver, communities are denied her paid and unpaid labour and countries forego her contributions to economic and social development (Fathala, 1992).

An estimated 585,000 (over half million) mothers die each year from causes related to childbirth, ninety-nine percent (99%) of these in developing countries (Maine, 1987). In Nigeria, 1 in every 13 women face a lifetime risk of maternal death. Yet, most maternal deaths are preventable mainly through medical intervention and political will by the government (Shiffman and Okonofua, 2007).

Maternal mortality has received global attention. The reduction of maternal mortality is one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), specifically, it is number five (5th MDGs) of the MDGs. The target is to reduce it by 75% by the year 2015. The state of maternal and child health is one of the indicators of a society’s level of development, as well as an indicator of performance of the health care delivery system.

According to Goulet (1992:470), development is “a two-edged sword which brings benefits but also produces losses, and generates value conflicts. One of the benefits is the improvement in maternal well-being. But the gains or benefits of development will be felt differently according to factors such as: ‘who are you’ and ‘where you live’, among others” (Turner and Hume, 1997: 10). Development administration was created in the post-war period to play a major role in facilitating development through a system of bureaucracy. Bureaucracy has however been found to be affected by a number of issues such as: size of bureaucracy, poor administrative capacity, a nation’s culture, bureaucratic bias against the rural poor, corruption, and issues of gender, to mention a few. Maternal mortality is certainly a gender issue. Awareness to gender issues were brought to the fore in 1981, when the then UN Assistant Secretary General stated that women would not make full contribution to development ‘until there were more women involved in the planning process, in the administration at all levels, and in all sectors’. And that this would increase women’s participation in decision-making in public bureaucracies leading to “increase in overall productivity, to increase in public sector responsiveness to women’s needs…” (Turner and Hume, 1997:97).

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MATERNAL HEALTH CARE DELIVERY IN NORTHERN NIGERIA: AN ASSESSMENT OF ROTARY INTERNATIONAL’S INTERVENTION PROGRAMME (2000-2007)

LOCAL GOVERNMENT AS A VEHICLE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF WUSHISHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NIGER STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

All over the World, various approaches and strategies have been adopted or used by governments for the purpose of governance or management of its rural areas. But there has not been any consensus on the most appropriate strategy to be adopted in the administration of the rural areas.

The problem of governance, particularly at the local level has been a recurring decimal in the political history of Nigeria. The history or genesis of local government in Nigeria can be traced back to the pre-colonial era and the formative period of large-scale kingdoms and powerful empires in the country. The existence of provincial systems, which operated in Borno and Oyo empires, as well as the Emirate system of Sokoto Caliphate “exhibited rudimentary conception of Local Administration” (Minna: 1993). In these areas, there were smaller districts, villages and wards that were subject to the Kingdom and Emirate government. These smaller or subordinate levels of government could be seen or described as local governments (Ugwu: 2000:5).

The local government system in Nigeria started during the colonial era when it was vested in traditional rulers. The basis for local government in Nigeria became the indirect Rule System. Historically, Local Government system in Nigeria, as it is today, metamorphosed through many reforms or re-organization. From 1950, no decade passed without a major reform or re-organization of the system. The Local Government system has witnessed more reforms and reorganization when compared with the core civil service (Obas: 2000:1).

Before 1950, the Local Government was known as Native Authority or Native Administration System. According to Gboyega (1987), Local Administration system comprised of four main interdependent parts, namely:

  1. The Resident, who provided direction and control;
  2. The Native Authority, usually headed by a Chief who enjoyed legitimacy under the indigenous political system
  3. The Native Treasurer; and
  4. The Native Court.

The whole process or system was hinged on the principles of indirect rule.

The major function of Native Administration system then was the maintenance of law and order and the collection of taxes within their territory. According to Obas (2000), the Native Administration System was identified with the following strength. First, it provided organization suitable for maintaining contact with the people. Secondly, it maintained law and order successfully. Third, they provided social services such as education and dispensaries. Fourth, they preserved the long-standing tradition of the people from collapse and decay. These virtues were highly visible in the the Northern Nigeria where Indirect Rule succeeded more than in the South.

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LOCAL GOVERNMENT AS A VEHICLE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF WUSHISHI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF NIGER STATE

IMPACT OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (CADP) ON FARMERS’ EMPOWERMENT IN KADUNA STATE (2010-2015)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

In recent years, attention has been drawn to the need to improve the business environment for agriculture to become more successful by gradually shifting from subsistence to commercial agriculture. Commercial transformation of subsistence agriculture is an indispensable pathway towards the development of the agricultural sector of any economy. Commercial agriculture stems from the need to improve food production, engage more farmers and enhance sales of agricultural products. Hence, the need for empowerment programmes to support farmers meet up with the increased demands of commercial agriculture.

Empowerment has assumed a prominent role in rural and agricultural development with support to farmer groups and organisations entering the dialogue between donors and governments in Asia and Africa (Mohammad, 2012). A central argument used by donors for supporting farmer empowerment is that there is a strong relation between farmer empowerment and such development outcomes as poverty reduction, improved agricultural opportunities for growth and better governance. More so, is that empowerment can give greater ownership to a project and to a particular direction in development. The UNDP document (2002) states that ownership is the acceptance of responsibility through the process of stakeholder participation, empowerment and concensus. In the words of Rifkin (2003), empowerment is a mechanism or process through which individuals, organizations and groups can work on things and have more control over what they are involved in. So that individuals, organizations and groups with a high power could control the resources, build confidence, make capacity and have an active participation in managing their life.

Hence, the concept of farmers‟ empowerment is an integral part of almost all intervention programmes by government, international and non governmental organisations. Intervention in the area of farmers‟ empowerment is necessitated by the prevalence of food scarcity, abject poverty and low standard of living among rural dwellers, mostly farmers. All these factors or indicators are reasons behind the unsatisfactory nature of the performance of the agricultural sector and farmers in Nigeria. However according to Alsop (2005), the indicators which directly affect the empowerment of farmers include having access to the inputs, credit, infrastructures, information and taking part in social decision making. Training is also an essential component in the empowerment process (Fleming, 2000). Farmers‟ empowerment goes hand in hand with the modernization theory of development as both concepts are related to agricultural development. Modernization theory assumes that agriculture progresses from being oriented towards subsistence farming that occurs on small plots to commercial farming of large scale; one that is characterized by the availability of mechanized production, improved seeds, storage facilities, access roads, market opportunities, modern equipment, etc. These empowerment opportunities have immense potentials for enhancing the productivity of commercial farmers in the State towards a greater impact on the society.


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IMPACT OF COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT PROJECT (CADP) ON FARMERS’ EMPOWERMENT IN KADUNA STATE (2010-2015)

THE EFFECT OF E-GOVERNANCE ON PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN LAND REVENUE SERVICE

THE EFFECT OF E-GOVERNANCE ON PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN LAND REVENUE SERVICE

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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THE EFFECT OF E-GOVERNANCE ON PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN LAND REVENUE SERVICE

INTERGOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL TRANSFER AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AT THE GRASSROOTS IN NIGERIA

INTERGOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL TRANSFER AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AT THE GRASSROOTS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Intergovernmental relations involve the relationship, both vertical and horizontal, that exists between the various organs and departments within the sovereign government of a particular country (Akinsanya, 2005). If we take Nigeria for example, inter-governmental relations would mean the relationships existing between the various levels of government from the federal, state to the local government level; between the various ministries, etc (Usman, 2010).

Evidently, finance has emerged as the most critical policy issue in intergovernmental relations in every federal administrative system since the Second World War. A dominant theme in intergovernmental relations studies as noted by Ademolekun (cited in Sam, Eme and Emeh, 2012) is the different attempts made to administer federal finance to the satisfaction of each level of government. In this manner, Danjuma (cited in Sam et al., 2012) opined that the existence of a federal system with its accompanying political units necessitates a revenue sharing arrangement to enable its units to carry its constitutional assigned responsibilities.

Corroborating this stand, Onuoha (2007) stated that in a federation, the logic underlining the allocation of tax powers (revenue resources) does not always tally with the logic underlining the assignment of constitutional responsibilities and that there is always a gap between the revenue obligation and revenue resources to the levels of government. Financial transfers therefore have been evolved as a mechanism for dealing with this imbalance or gap between expenditure obligation and revenue sources.

Nigeria’s model of fiscal federalism represents a fundamental legal and institutional framework for policymaking in the country. As in other federations, it defines the core rules for financial transfers, distribution of responsibilities for service delivery, and mechanisms for interaction between different tiers of government (Angahar, 2013).

In practice however, there exist some degree of decentralization in what is discernable in a federal states hence Ekpo (2004) averred that among the different levels of government, fiscal arrangement must be worked out to ensure fiscal balance in the context of macro-economic stability and this fiscal arrangement is referred to, in a federal structure as fiscal federalism or intergovernmental fiscal relations. Fiscal federalism, according to Nwankwo (2007) is essentially about the allocation of government responsibilities, as well as the sharing of revenue resources among tiers of government.

In determining how these resources are to be shared among the tiers of government, Ofuebe (2005) is of the opinion that these revenues are to be divided according to fixed principles. These principles’ importance has been heightened by its inclusion in section 162(2) of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as a major deciding factor. This is because Nigerian fiscal federalism has been problematic. Revenue allocation has generated controversy in recent year and at issue has been the allocation between various tiers of government (vertical allocation) and between resource-rich and resource-poor regions (horizontal allocation). More recently, another dimension has been introduced to the vertical issues, namely the allocation between the resource-rich regions, local government and communities. Debates about the distribution of national resources within federal systems are not peculiar to Nigeria. However, the Nigerian case is unique because the criteria used so far have not enjoyed acceptability.

The fundamental challenges battling community development at the grassroot in Nigeria has been one of lack of finance and its twain demons of poverty and economic hardship which have continue in this 21st century to elude sustainable development at the grassroots (Ojo, 2014).

The need to catalyze balanced development touching the grassroots, maximize citizen’s participation, and arouse government responsive necessitates intergovernmental setup; where the local government serves as a form of political and administrative structure facilitating decentralization, national integration, efficiency in governance, and a sense of belonging at the grassroots (Agagu in Adeyemi, 2012).

Nigeria’s fiscal federalism arrangements are currently attracting increasing attention from both policy makers and analysts. This is a reflection of the fact that longer term perspectives of economic policy reform in the country are critically dependent upon improvements in the organization of inter-governmental arrangements. Such arrangement shaves direct implications for achieving community development. Simply put, there is a major need to strengthen the incentives of government agencies at all levels of authority to improve cooperation in designing of their policies and delivery of services (Angahar, 2013).

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Financial transfer or the statutory distribution of revenue from the federation account among the different levels of government has been one of the most contentious and controversial issues in the Nigeria’s political life. So contentious has the matter been that none of the formulae evolved at various times by a commission or by decree under different regimes since 1964 has gained general acceptability among the component units of the country.

There are several challenges and contending issues confronting intergovernmental financial transfers and community development in Nigeria: The five principles currently applied in the horizontal revenue allocation formula are far from being acceptable to all the stakeholders. There is usually a lack of correspondence between the spending responsibilities and the tax revenue sources assigned to different levels of government which to a large extent has denied community development across the length and breadth of the country.

Provisions of the 1999 Constitution of Nigeria have in all, emphasized vertical interaction among the three levels of government rather than horizontal relationships. This according to Roberts (1999) could impose limitations to the extent of cooperation among the levels of government and instead promote a dependency structure that would promote the inclusive authority model of IGR. Resistance to the evolution of such structure by sub-national levels of government would result in oppositional politics and negative IGR and thereby hindering local council’s financial capacity to provide healthcare facilities, infrastructural amenities or even say service delivery to the people.

Basically, the Nigerian Fiscal Federalism has been bedeviled to the extent that it is 100% scholarly correct to assert that one of the most protracted and controversial debate in Nigerian economy is the way government revenue is shared among the component tiers of government in the country (Uche and Uche, 2004). This debate has its foundation in the chequered history of community development and evolution of Nigerian federalism. Therefore, the need to explore the role of intergovernmental financial transfer and community development at the grassroot in Nigeria at the time being is needful.

Research on intergovernmental financial transfer and community development are very few. In Nigeria, most of the available studies about intergovernmental financial relations such as Akindele & Olaopa (2002), Alo (2012),Angahar (2013), Oluwole (2013) and Nchuchuwe & Adejuwon (2015) were theoretical studies whose findings were subjectively based on researchers’ personal opinions. It is noted that the past studies did not give adequate attention to intergovernmental financial transfer and community development at the grassroot in Nigeria, as well as highlighting effective intergovernmental financial transfer strategy that can stimulate grassroot development in Nigeria. Hence, the undertaking of this research work will fill in the gap by critically exploring intergovernmental financial transfer and community development at the grassroot in Nigeria with a special reference being made to Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

1.3   Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study will be to assess the link between intergovernmental financial transfer and community development at the grassroot in Nigeria. While other specific objectives of the study include:

i.            To investigate if there is any significant relationship between statutory federal allocation and community development in Nigeria.

ii.            To find out the effect of state statutory allocation to local government and provision of healthcare facilities at the grassroot level in Nigeria.

iii.            To examine the relationship between intergovernmental financial transfer and infrastructural development at the grassroot.

1.4   Research Questions

This study will be guided be the following research questions:

i.            Can there be any significant relationship between intergovernmental financial transfer and community development in Nigeria?

ii.            How will statutory federal allocation impact community development in Nigeria?

iii.            Will intergovernmental financial transfer have an effect on service delivery in Nigeria?

iv.            Is intergovernmental financial transfer significantly related to community development of infrastructural amenities?

1.5   Research Hypotheses

The researcher intends to test the following hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance:

Hypothesis 1:

Ho:   There is no significant relationship between intergovernmental financial transfer and             community development in Nigeria.

HI:There is a significant relationship between intergovernmental financial transfer and           community development in Nigeria.

Hypothesis 2:

Ho:       Intergovernmental financial transfer has no effect on provision of healthcare facilities at    the grassroot level in Nigeria

HI:     Intergovernmental financial transfer has an effect on provision of healthcare facilities at      the grassroot level in Nigeria.

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INTERGOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL TRANSFER AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AT THE GRASSROOTS IN NIGERIA

LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE AT THE GRASSROOTS IN NIGERIA

LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE AT THE GRASSROOTS IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Many forms of governance, institutions and bureaucracies that were transferred to a majority of African states at independence were, for the most part, ill-adapted to the African realities and the continent’s development challenges (Afegbua, 2012). Therefore, one of the major challenges that have faced African states and particularly Nigeria since the advent of political independence has been that of establishing and sustaining appropriate governance, institutions and practices that would engender democratic leadership and promote sustainable development at the grassroots levels and beyond (Yimer, 2015).

In Africa, in general, leadership and governance have been identified as major problems militating against growth and development in all sectors of the economy and the grassroots levels not being exempted. The need for leadership in any nation or state is very essential. This is because nations or states exist with stated ideologies and leaders are ‘machineries’ for achieving such stated ideologies. Organisational goals will remain unrealistic without a ‘designated individual’ known as leader. As a result, leaders are ‘central instruments’ to any organization. Success or failure of an organization lies in the hand of a leader (Lamidi & Adeyeye, 2013).

One of the major challenges facing Nigeria is how to create a context of stable political and socio-economic environment for policies and programmes to be implemented. The issue of getting the right leadership to fight corruption and propel good governance has been a recurring decimal in Nigeria and Africa in general. Once this enabling environment is created, it becomes easy for the people to confront and resolve challenges facing them by using resources within their environment to create a condition of life where each stage is progressively better than the preceding one. However, this is not the case in Nigeria due to corruption and bad governance. Good governance encapsulates transparency, accountability, freedom of choice and liberty for the people to pursue their individual and corporate interest. Indeed, at the core of Africa’s underdeveloped status are corruption and leadership deficit (Anazodo, Igbokwe-Ibeto & Nkah, 2015:42).

Leadership and good governance are crucial to realizing any giant stride taken in pursuit of development anywhere in the world, Nigeria is not an exception. The reverberation effects of the failure of leadership, corruption and bad governance are visible and being felt down to the grassroots levels of the Nigerian society. Unemployment and employment for cash, insecurity, crude oil thefts, crisis in education, dearth of infrastructures such as health services, transportation, accommodation, communication, medication etc are all common features in Nigeria. It is an irony that of all oil producing nations, Nigeria is the only country with the history of crude oil thefts (Anazodo, Igbokwe-Ibeto & Nkah, 2015:43).

An examination of Nigeria’s socio-economic and political history reveals that many of its leaders over the years have been using the “iron law of oligarchy” which explains the triumph of the leaders’ ambitions for office over the membership’s revolutionary goals (Olayiwola, 2013:43).

The country is confronted with a myriad of problems and challenges that are seemingly defying solutions. Indeed the Nigerian situation is a paradox. Nigeria is a nation blessed with abundant human and natural resources. Yet, 60.9 per cent or 99.3 million live in absolute poverty, and 61.2 per cent live on less than a dollar a day with grassroots dwellers almost neglected and cut off as poverty pervades in the local communities (Essoh & Udoh, 2014).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The problem of leadership, governance and its pervasive bearing on social cum economic development in Nigeria is multifaceted. The root cause of inequality, poverty and underdevelopment in Nigeria is attributed to bad leadership. There is nothing basically wrong with the Nigerian character. There is nothing wrong with the Nigerian land, climate, water, air, or anything else. The Nigerian problem is the unwillingness or inability of its leaders to rise to their responsibility, to the challenge of personal example, which is the hallmark of true leadership (Ijewereme & Dunmade, 2014).

Developmental research indicates that Nigeria is fraught of poor leadership, bad governance, corruption and weak bureaucratic institutions. It is an axiom that since attainment of political independent, Nigeria has never been governed by selfless, truly transformational and intellectually endowed leaders. That is, Nigeria has never selected its best sons to positions of leadership and mediocre leadership can only lead to mediocre government without any serious achievement (Egbefo, 2014; Essoh & Udoh, 2014).

However, in order to curtail this menace and enhance grassroots development, the Nigeria government has taken some steps to address the twin challenges of corruption and bad governance in the country. These measures include public service reform such as monetization to reduce waste and reduction of over bloated personnel, the establishment of anti-corruption enforcement agencies such as the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), Independent Corruption and other Practices Commission (ICPC) etc. Despite the establishment of these policies and measures, the situation remains rather worrisome as poor leadership, corruption and bad governance continues to pervade every facet of the society while service delivery at the grassroots levels remains an allusion to behold (Anazodo, Igbokwe-Ibeto & Nkah, 2015:54).

Poor leadership and bad governance have impacted negatively on Nigeria’s democratic stability and her economic development especially at the grassroots levels. This holds to the fact that majority of elected representatives that are meant to steer the affair of the people at the grassroots levels in Nigeria are product of political corruption, they got their party tickets through political godfathers and mandate through election rigging. The implication of all these are mass poverty, unemployment and insecurity that enveloped the local communities. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to explore the relationship between leadership and good governance at the grassroots levels in Nigeria with a special reference to Ojo LGA of Lagos State (Ebegbulem, 2012).

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to examine leadership and good governance at the grassroots levels. While other specific objectives are:

1.to examine the effect of leadership on good governance at grassroots levels.

2.to identify the extent of relationship between governance and service delivery at the grassroots levels.

3.to examine the effect of corruption on development at the grassroots levels?

1.4 Research Questions

This research work shall be guided by the following research questions:

1.Is there any significant relationship between leadership and good governance at grassroots levels?

2.What is the relationship between governance and service delivery at the grassroots levels?

3.What is the effect of corruption on development at the grassroots levels?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis 1:

Ho: There is no significant relationship between leadership and good governance at grassroots levels.

Hi: There is a significant relationship between leadership and good governance at grassroots levels.

Hypothesis 2:

Ho: There is no significant relationship between governance and service delivery at the grassroots levels.

Hi: There is a significant relationship between governance and service delivery at the grassroots levels.

Hypothesis 3:

Ho: There is no significant effect of corruption on development at the grassroots levels

Hi: There is a significant effect of corruption on development at the grassroots levels

1.6 Significance of the Study

Previous researchers such as Michael (201), Lamidi and Adeyeye (2013), have been very divergent in their views about the likely connectedness of the concepts of leadership and good governance, this study will therefore be of great significance as it will add to the existing scanty literature. It is anticipated that the analytical, conceptual and empirical studies will be a furtherance of understanding of salient issues relating to leadership and good governance at the grassroots levels in Nigeria. The study will also serve as a useful tool for students of the University of Lagos, who would want to carry out further research in this domain. It would also be useful to public administrators. The study would be significant to policy makers and implementers at large, as they will make use of the findings and recommendations of this study.

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LEADERSHIP AND GOOD GOVERNANCE AT THE GRASSROOTS IN NIGERIA

EFFECTS OF LEGISLATIVE-EXECUTIVE CONFLICTS ON DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE AT THE GRASSROOT LEVEL

EFFECTS OF LEGISLATIVE-EXECUTIVE CONFLICTS ON DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE AT THE GRASSROOT LEVEL

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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EFFECTS OF LEGISLATIVE-EXECUTIVE CONFLICTS ON DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE AT THE GRASSROOT LEVEL

THE ROLE OF ETHICS AND PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN FOSTERING LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT

THE ROLE OF ETHICS AND PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN FOSTERING LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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THE ROLE OF ETHICS AND PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY IN FOSTERING LOCAL GOVERNMENT DEVELOPMENT

EFFECT OF MANPOWER PLANNING ON PRODUCTIVITY OF EMPLOYEES IN PUBLIC SECTOR

EFFECT OF MANPOWER PLANNING ON PRODUCTIVITY OF EMPLOYEES IN PUBLIC SECTOR

ABSTRACT

The essence of this research has it that manpower planning have been found to be capable of making positive impacts on the development in an organization and the quality life of the people by putting the right kind of employees to perform in an effective and efficiency manner toward the objectives of the organization. This assertion remain uncontestable given to its role its played toward the development of the organizational goals. However, poor level of training and development are attributed to the progress in achieving the organizational goals, it is to this end that this research work is being carried out with a view to identify the effect of manpower planning on productivity of employees in public sector. In gathering data for this work, the research made use of chi-square (X2) statistical techniques. It was found that manpower planning is very important in an organization by making positive impact on employee’s performance and contributing to the growth and development in an organization. The research equally found that employees are motivated to perform better. To this effort, the research recommends that organization should sees manpower planning as the live wire of the organization and to know how to tackle their problems in terms of decision making.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The aim and objective of any organization is to succeed. For that, the organization must follow laid down procedures that will contribute to the success. These are factors that contribute to the success of any organization. These factors are capital, equipment and manpower. These factors are important but the most relevant factors is the human factor (Human resource). Since it is the people that put the other resources to work, it should be viewed as such by management by giving it due attention in order to achieve its organization goals and objectives.

The manpower planning aimed at ensuring that the right person is available for the right job at the right time. This involves formulating a forward looking plan to ensure that the necessary human effort to make it possible for the survival and growth of the organization. It becomes imperative to develop the employees.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Human resources is considered the most critical to any organizational survival of a truism that adequate supply of material and financial resources that utilize these available resource to being about the desired goals.

However, most organization plans meticulously for their investment in physical and capital resources and these plans are reviewed with utmost attention to detail while rarely to such organization pay attention to human investment in which the capital and equipment will be in vain. Not many organizations consider the necessity for a well defined and sustained training and development for staff in order to upgrade their performance or they are not able to cope financially with training and development programme.

The few organizations that given thought to this very important aspect of staffing functions do so with lack of seriousness, all round attention and continuity. The programmes are carried out not only once in a blue moon but are also lopsided in terms of content and staff participation as a result of this lackadaisical attitude of management toward manpower planning and employee. There had been a progressive decline in the ability of manpower to cope with the challenges that resources management.

These emphases on manpower and employee influenced by the belief that it is now desirable to focus more attention on areas which in the past has been relative neglected because every organization regardless of its size must provide for the needs interest and desire of its employee within the work environment if it is to earn loyalty, dedication, involvement and commitment necessary to compete effectively.

The human factor of production, manpower as it is alternatively called in the early 1960, has increasable been recognize as the most critical resource of the factors without which an effective utilization of all other factors remain a dream. Although it might be tempting to attach more relevance to the availability of physical resources such as capital and equipment undermining that they are mere passive factors of production which depend on human intellectual which is the active agent to exploit them in order to achieve the objective of the organization.

The aim and objectives of setting a company is to make profit and achieve the organizational goal adequate manpower planning and employee programmes should be put in put place to enhance performance. Attend the over unfolding new dispensation in the industry, in the circumstance, what we find is the rise in industrial output is inconsequential in spite of the enormous wake of modern technology that now exist in industrial activities.

The opinion of industry observes that the poor performance of the organization workers follow from their inability to keep abreast with the new technological current as a result of the absence of appropriate and sufficient staff training. It is against the background that the researcher considered the impact of performance manpower and employee on organization performance of this mission. However, the project used Nasarawa Local Government Council as references.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The researcher is not only interested on the study but what should be the objective of the research work. There is every reason as to why research of this nature is carried out at this present dispensation. However, the basic objectives of carrying out a research of this nature is not just for academic exercise but also for creativity and intellectual development and also to be able to identify new discoveries in this area of study.

To conduct an empirical investigation through a review of the manpower planning and employee policy of the council.
To identify some techniques of manpower training and development in the company and their relevance to the company rules and the industry at large.
To highlight the need for manpower planning and employee in the company.
To establish the relationship between personal training and development and staff performance.
To access the staff recruitment, selection and training programmes and from it, establish some relationship between these programme and problem enumerated.
To correct the belief that in this age of computerization and technological development, all that business units need to survive in the acquisition of up-to date capital equipment to the neglects of the power management of its human resources.
To proffer solutions to the identified problems.
1.4 Significance of the study

This research work will be useful to the Nigeria youths and to the community of Nasarawa local government area council. It will serve as a good sources of data or reference for subsequent researchers who may intend to carry out study related to this topic.

It will also help the government and organization in policy making on manpower planning on productivity of employees. Truly the awareness of this work is to create and stimulate productivity of employees in public sector.

1.5 Research questions

Attempts will be made to provide answers to the following research questions:

What is the value of manpower planning on productivity of employee in public sector?
What are the factor responsible for inadequate manpower planning and productivity of employee in public sector?
What are the employee attitudes towards training?
Are there enough qualified manpower planning and productivity of employee in public sector?
What are the methods/criteria used in manpower planning and productivity of employee in public sector?
1.6 Research hypothesis

The following statements of hypothesis are formulated to guide the researcher to use whether there is a relationship between manpower planning and productivity.

Hypothesis one

(Ho): There is no direct relationship between manpower planning and productivity in the local government.

(Hi): There is direct relationship between manpower planning and productivity in the local government.

Hypothesis two

(Ho): Lack of adequate manpower planning and productivity is not directly responsible for high labour turnover.

(Hi): Asdequate manpower planning and productivity is not directly responsible for high labour turnover.

1.7 Scope of the study

The study is aimed at investigating the effect of manpower planning and productivity of employees in public sector as it affects job performance.

The research work covered the effect of recruitment and selection for manpower planning on productivity of employee in public sector in Nasarawa local government council.

1.8 Limitation of the study

This project is limited to the challenges of manpower planning and productivity of employee in public sector with its impacts in Nasarawa local government council. The limitation the researcher had was difficulty in getting necessary information on time because of the responses from the organization was very low. They don’t want to release necessary information pertaining to the data collected, especially in the area of available resources.

Some of the limitations encountered by the researcher during the research of this study are:

Financial constraint: Financial capacity plays a great role in carrying out the study especially with the present economic situation in the country. The cost involve in collecting the needed data in terms of transportation and getting the report typed out were relatively high.
Secrecy: Many respondents were skeptical to reveal certain vital information that was important to the successful completion of the study, which they consider sensitive and private. Also the reference company fails to release certain data for strategic purpose.
Lack of proper record: Lack of proper record keeping by the reference company contributes greatly to the researchers obstacles in gathering accurate data minimally free from error and means that will improve the company overall sale turn over.
Time constraint: The time schedule for the coverage of the study is insufficient for detail collection and analysis of data. This also aggravate with the fact that researcher have some academic work to embark upon.
1.9 Definition of relevant terms

Effects were made at defining the terminologies used during this study to avoid ambiguity and elicit proper understanding.

Manpower: The human resource of a business concerned, these include unskilled, skilled, supervisory and management staff of a company.

Planning: Setting objective and deciding on the best ways of achieving the objectives.

Empirical: Empirical of people or method guided by practical experience rather than by scientific ideas.

Constraint: Restriction

Training: The process of importing new skills, ideas, knowledge and techniques into someone to bring that person to a deserved standard of behavior.

Productivity: is the output one is able to offer to the society or organization as expected achievement.

Employees: it simply refers to worker in an organization, they could be skilled and unskilled employees.

Organization: Can be defined as a group of person’s who form a business, clubs together in order to achieve particular aim.

Performance: Can be defined as the process in performing a task, an action or the act of putting a lot of effort.

Development: This is the acquisition of knowledge and skills that may be used in the present and the future.

Government: Those are the policy maker responsible in the enforcement of policy and decision making in a country.

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EFFECT OF MANPOWER PLANNING ON PRODUCTIVITY OF EMPLOYEES IN PUBLIC SECTOR

THE NEXUS BETWEEN MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE 

THE NEXUS BETWEEN MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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THE NEXUS BETWEEN MODERN MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE

EFFECTS OF OFFICIAL CORRUPTION ON POLITICO-ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT AT THE GRASSROOT LEVEL

EFFECTS OF OFFICIAL CORRUPTION ON POLITICO-ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT AT THE GRASSROOT LEVEL

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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EFFECTS OF OFFICIAL CORRUPTION ON POLITICO-ADMINISTRATIVE DEVELOPMENT AT THE GRASSROOT LEVEL

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UNDER THE JONATHAN ADMINISTRATION

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UNDER THE JONATHAN ADMINISTRATION

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL POLICY ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT UNDER THE JONATHAN ADMINISTRATION

CONTRACT EMPLOYMENT AND SERVICE DELIVERY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

CONTRACT EMPLOYMENT AND SERVICE DELIVERY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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CONTRACT EMPLOYMENT AND SERVICE DELIVERY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR

EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION ON INEQUALITY AND POVERTY AT THE GRASSROOT LEVEL IN NIGERIA

EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION ON INEQUALITY AND POVERTY AT THE GRASSROOT LEVEL IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The general consensus among economists and policy analysts at the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and other international agencies is that corruption is a universal problem, but with more debilitating effects felt in emerging and developing countries, such as those found in Africa, Asia and Middle East (Oyedoyin, 2012). In light of this, Aluko (2009) opined that corruption is a global phenomenon and that, it is not the exclusive preserve of any nation, race or section of the world but transcends national boundaries and frontiers and symbolizes phenomenal universal unwholesomeness of political leadership that often promotes income inequality and endemic poverty.

In Nigeria corruption is a common word used by both adults and children because it is found in every aspect of the country. This monster called corruption has now been nick named in most Nigerian languages especially in the three major languages! Ndokwu (2004) says: the Igbos call it Igbuozu, the Yorubas call it Egunje while the Hausas call it Chuachua. People no longer frown or feel ashamed to engage in corrupt practices! Chuachua/Egunje or Igbuozu is now acceptable and it is possible to hear someone openly complaining that there is no Chuachua, Egunje or Igbuozu at his or her place of work and as such a person might quickly resign if he or she finds another work where there is opportunity for Chuachua. It is as bad as that!

This menance has led to situations like slow movement of files in offices, police exortion of toll fees, port congestion, queues at passport offices and petrol stations, ghost workers syndrome, election irregularities, unprecedented poverty in the land, economic inequality among other socio-economic vices (Dike, 2005: Ngwakwe, 2009:  Aluko, 2009).

Government officials further still corruptly enrich themselves by converting Government money in their custody to their own use, force citizens to pay bribe money, and citizens also induce the officials with bribes to get whatever they want from Government or company offices. Though corruption is found in every society, it is very common in Nigeria, and no one seems to be free from it either as a doer or as a victim (Ucha, 2010).

The need to catalyze balanced development, bridge the inequality gap, reduce the rate of poverty, maximize citizen’s participation, and arouse government responsiveness to the grassroot communities necessitates the creation of the local government. The local government serves as a form of political and administrative structure facilitating decentralization, national integration, efficiency in governance, and a sense of belonging at the grassroot. The local government is a unit of administration all over the world (Agagu, 2004). Although it is a universal institution, it however exists in different forms and in different political systems. Whatever the form of existence, the local government has been essentially regarded as the path to and guarantor of administrative efficiency, effective service delivery and participatory development (Arowolo, 2005). It is a critical tier of government because of its closeness to the people (Mathias & Rose, 2015). Local government appeals to both the people and government as a feedback institution that relays the opinions and demands of the grassroot to a higher government (Adejo, 2003).

The fundamental challenges battling grassroot development in Nigeria has been one of high level corruption and its twain demons of poverty and economic inequality which have continue in this 21stcentury to inflict untold hardship on the local populace. Government have often initiated and enacted policies to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor. But in the face of all these the income inequality between the people at the grassroot and urban areas in Nigeria is remarkably high and thus call for answers. Hence, this study seeks to explore the effect of corruption on inequality and poverty at the grassroot levels in Nigeria.

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Literature reveal that despite the establishment of various anti-corruption agencies like the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), and Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal (CCB) to wage war against corruption in Nigeria, its magnitude appears to be on the high side. As majority of our people in the towns, villages and communities continue to wallow in abject poverty and absolute economic inequality.

Corruption has impaired hard work, diligence and efficiency. It has caused incalculable damages to the social and political development of Nigeria. It subverts honest selection processes and distorts prices. Furthermore, it weakens institutions, hampers investment and retards economic development. More importantly the resources that should be used for developmental purposes are being diverted from the society to private or personal use. This accumulation of the nation’s economic resources for personal benefits had variously contributed to the leakage of capital from Nigeria for illegal deposits abroad.

The prevalence of these activities in various aspects of our lives has a tremendous adverse effect on the quality of life of this country, our living standards and national psyche. Corruption brings a nation no good. The resources meant for water supply, roads, education, health and other basic and social services that stolen by a handful of this corrupt Nigerians obviously stultify economic and social development, thereby escalating poverty across the length and breadth of the country, with the grassroot communities being the worst hit.

In other words, it has a crowding out effect on the growth and development of the grassroot and by extension the country as a whole. It’s contributing effects on standard of living, poverty and inequality is the more worrying. Nevertheless the extents of these negative effects are yet to be measured and quantified.

Many scholars and researchers on the home front like Ojo (2014), Adawo (2011), Ngara, Esebonu, Ogoh & Orokpo (2014) have at different times carried out studies on corruption, poverty and inequality; but none of these studies have attempted to bring these three variables under one single investigation. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to carefully examine the effect of corruption on inequality and poverty at the grassroot levels in Nigeria with a special reference to Agege Local Government Area (LGA).

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The major objective of this study is to explore the effect of corruption on inequality and poverty at the grassroot levels in Nigeria. Other specific objectives include;

i.To find out if corruption is a predictor of poverty at the grassroot level in Nigeria.

ii.To examine the effect of corruption on income inequality at the grassroot level in Nigeria.

iii.To explore the relationship between corruption and standard of living at the grassroot level in Nigeria.

iv.To determine the effect of corruption on provision of basic amenities at the grassroot levels in Agege LGA.

1.4    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The undertaking of this research study was guided by the following research questions;

1.Is corruption a predictor of poverty at the grassroot level in Nigeria?

2.Will corruption have any effect on income inequality at the grassroot level in Nigeria?

3.Is there any relationship between corruption and standard of living at the grassroot level?

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

This study will be geared towards testing the following hypotheses;

Hypothesis One

Ho:    Corruption is not a significant predictor of poverty at the grassroot level in Nigeria.

Hi:     Corruption is a significant predictor of poverty at the grassroot level in Nigeria.

Hypothesis Two

Ho:    There is no significant relationship between corruption and income inequality             at the grassroot level in Nigeria.

Hi:      There is a significant relationship and corruption and income inequality at       the grassroot level in Nigeria.

Hypothesis Three

Ho:    Corruption does not have a significant effect on standard of living at the            grassroot level in Nigeria.

Hi:      There is a significant relationship and corruption and income inequality at       the grassroot level in Nigeria.

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Previous researchers have been very divergent in their views about the correlate of corruption, inequality and poverty at the grassroot levels in Nigeria; this study will therefore be of great significance as it will add to the already existing literature.

It is anticipated that the analytical, conceptual and empirical studies will enhance the understanding of significant issues on the overlapping effects of corruption on inequality and poverty at the grassroot levels in contemporary Nigeria.

It will also be useful to university students like students of University of Lagos when doing a likely research. The study will also be beneficial to scholars and other researchers who may be interested in studying the relationship between corruption, poverty and inequality at the grassroot level in Nigeria. The findings of the study will further be significant to agencies like the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal (CCB), political administrators at the grassroot levels and other policy makers and implementers at large, as they will find the conclusion and recommendations of this result very useful.

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EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION ON INEQUALITY AND POVERTY AT THE GRASSROOT LEVEL IN NIGERIA

EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA

EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY:

The general consensus among economists and policy analysts at the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and other international agencies is that corruption is a universal problem, but with more debilitating effects felt in emerging and developing countries, such as those found in Africa, Asia and Middle East (Oyedoyin, 2012). In light of this Aluko (2009) opined that corruption is a global phenomenon and that, it is not the exclusive preserve of any nation, race or section of the world but transcends national boundaries and frontiers and symbolizes phenomenal universal unwholesomeness of political leadership.

In Nigeria corruption is a common word used by both adults and children because it is found in every aspect of Nigeria. This monster called corruption has now been nick named in most Nigerian languages especially in the three major languages! Ndokwu (2004) says: the Igbos call it Igbuozu, the Yorubas call it Egunje while the Hausas call it Chuachua. People no longer frown or feel ashamed to engage in corrupt practices! Chuachua/Egunje or Igbuozu is now acceptable and it is possible to hear someone openly complaining that there is no Chuachua, Egunje or Igbuozu at his or her place of work and as such a person might quickly resign if he or she finds another work where there is opportunity for Chuachua. It is as bad as that!

This menance has led to situations like slow movement of files in offices, police exortion of toll fees, port congestion, queues at passport offices and petrol stations, ghost workers syndrome, election irregularities, among others (Dike, 2005, Ihenacho, 2004, Oliyide and Odeku, 2002 and Oloja 2002 in Aluko, (2009).

Government officials further still corruptly enrich themselves by converting Government money in their custody to their own use, force citizens to pay bribe money, and citizens also induce the officials with bribes to get whatever they want from Government or company offices. Though corruption is found in every society, it is very common in Nigeria, and no one seems to be free from it either as a doer or as a victim.

The need to catalyze balanced development, maximize citizen’s participation, and arouse government responsive necessitates the creation of the local government. The local government serves as a form of political and administrative structure facilitating decentralization, national integration, efficiency in governance, and a sense of belonging at the grassroots. The local government is a unit of administration all over the world (Agagu, 2004). Although it is a universal institution, it however exists in different forms and in

different political systems. Whatever the form of existence, the local government has been essentially regarded as the path to and guarantor of administrative efficiency, effective service delivery and participatory development (Arowolo, 2005). It is a critical tier of government because of its closeness to the people (Gboyega, 1987). Local government appeals to both the people and government as a feedback institution that relays the opinions and demands of the grassroots to a higher government (Adejo, 2003).

Odey (2002) opined that corruption in Nigeria is as the air which every living person breathes in and out, According to him, nobody makes any effort to breathe in the air, it comes naturally. Corruption in Nigeria has become so naturalized that’ many of us simply become corrupt without making any effort and often even without knowing it. It is in light of this that the research is posed to examine the Effects of Corruption on Local Government Administration in Nigeria with a special reference to Alimosho Local Government Area (LGA).

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM:

Empirical literature indicate that despite the establishment of various anti-corruption agencies like the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), and Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal(CCB) to wage war against corruption in Nigeria, its magnitude appears to be on the high side. Corruption has impaired hard work, diligence and efficiency. It has caused incalculable damages to the social and political development of Nigeria. It subverts honest selection processes and distorts prices. Furthermore, it weakens institutions, hampers investment and retards economic development. More importantly the resources that should be used for developmental purposes are being diverted from the society to private or personal use. This accumulation of the nation’s economic resources for personal benefits had variously contributed to the leakage of capital from Nigeria for illegal deposits abroad.

The prevalence of these activities in various aspects of our lives has a tremendous adverse effect on the quality of life of this country, our living standards and national psyche. Corruption brings a nation no good. The resources meant for water supply, roads, education, health and other basic and social services that are captured and stolen by a handful of Nigerians through corrupt acts stultify economic and social development hence creeping poverty all over the place (Ekwueru & Daminabo, 2008).

In other words, it has a crowding out effect on the growth and development of the country. It’s contributing effects on poverty and poor infrastructural development is the more worrying. Nevertheless the extents of these negative effects are yet to be measured and quantified. It is against this background that this study is inspired. The study intends to examine the extent and the magnitude of the effect of Corruption on Local Government Administration in Nigeria and draw up policy recommendations for the eradication of Corruption in Nigeria.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

The major objective of this study is to examine the effect of Corruption on Local Government administration in Nigeria. Other specific objectives include;

1. To assess the effect of corruption on local government administration in Nigeria.

2. To investigate the effect of bribery and corruption on community service delivery in Alimosho Local Government Area.

3. To examine the effect of corruption on council’s tax revenue generation.

4. To find out if poor salary scheme promotes corruption in Alimosho LGA.

5. To find out the effect of corruption on economic growth and development in Nigeria.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS:

The undertaking of this research project will beam a searchlight on the following research questions;

1. What is the effect of corruption on local government administration in Nigeria?

2. What is the effect of bribery and corruption on community service delivery in Alimosho Local Government Area?

3. What is the effect of fraud on council’s tax revenue generation?

4. Does Poor salary scheme promotes corruption in Alimosho LGA?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES:

The researcher intends to test the following hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance;

Hypothesis One:

Ho: There is no significant effect of corruption on local government administration in Nigeria.

Hi: There is a significant effect of corruption on local government administration in Nigeria.

Hypothesis Two:

Ho: Bribery and corruption has no effect on community service delivery in Alimosho Local Government Area.

Hi: Bribery and corruption has an effect on community service delivery in Alimosho Local Government Area.

Hypothesis Three:

Ho: There is no significant relationship between fraud and council’s tax revenue generation.

Hi: There is a significant relationship between fraud and council’s tax revenue generation.

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EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA

EFFECT OF CORRUPTIVE PRACTICES ON SUSTAINABLE GRASSROOTS DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

EFFECT OF CORRUPTIVE PRACTICES ON SUSTAINABLE GRASSROOTS DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study:

Corruption is a global phenomenon. It is not the exclusive preserve of any nation, race or section of the world but transcends national boundaries and frontiers and symbolizes phenomenal universal unwholesomeness politically (Aluko, 2009 in Iyanda, 2012). Corruption is no doubt a global phenomenon that has threatened and still continues to threaten the developmental efforts in many nations; particularly the developing countries of the world (Kayode, Adagba and Anyio, 2013).

In Nigeria corruption is a common word used by both adults and children because it is found in every aspect of Nigeria. This monster called corruption has now been nick named in most Nigerian languages especially in the three major languages! Ndokwu (2004) says: the Igbos call it Igbuozu, the Yorubas call it Egunje while the Hausas call it Chuachua. People no longer frown or feel ashamed to engage in corrupt practices! Chuachua/Egunje or Igbuozu is now acceptable and it is possible to hear someone openly complaining that there is no Chuachua, Egunje or Igbuozu at his or her place of work and as such a person might quickly resign if he or she finds another work where there is opportunity for Chuachua. It is as bad as that! (Iyanda, 2012).

This menance has led to situations like slow movement of files in offices, police exortion of toll fees, port congestion, queues at passport offices and petrol stations, ghost workers syndrome, election irregularities, among others (Dike, 2005, Ihenacho, 2004 in Aluko (2009).

The fundamental challenges battling grassroots development in Nigeria has been one of high level corruption and its twain demons of poverty and economic hardship which have continue in this 21stcentury to elude sustainable development at the grassroots (Ojo, 2014).

The need to catalyze balanced development touching the grassroots, maximize citizen’s participation, and arouse government responsive necessitates the creation of the local government. The local government serves as a form of political and administrative structure facilitating decentralization, national integration, efficiency in governance, and a sense of belonging at the grassroots. The local government is a unit of administration all over the world (Agagu, 2004 in Adeyemi, 2012).

Although it is a universal institution, it however exists in different forms and in different political systems. Whatever the form of existence, the local government has been essentially regarded as the path to and guarantor of administrative efficiency, effective service delivery and participatory development (Arowolo, 2005). According to Odo (2014) local government is a critical tier of government because of its closeness to the people. Local government appeals to both the people and government as a feedback institution that relays the opinions and demands of the grassroots to a higher government (Adeyemi, 2012).

In Nigeria, eradicating corruption has been a major concern of successive government in the country because of its association with sustainable development at the grassroots (Kayode et al., 2013).

Odey (2002) opined that corruption in Nigeria is as the air which every living person breathes in and out, According to him, nobody makes any effort to breathe in the air, it comes naturally. Corruption in Nigeria has become so naturalized that’ many of us simply become corrupt without making any effort and often even without knowing it. It is in light of this that the research is posed to explore the effect of Corruptive Practices on Sustainable Grassroots Development in Nigeria with a special reference to Iba Local Council Development Area (LCDA).

1.2 Statement of Problem:

Literature reveal that despite the establishment of various anti-corruption agencies like the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), and Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal (CCB) to wage war against corruption in Nigeria, its magnitude appears to be on the high side.

Corruption has impaired hard work, diligence and efficiency. It has caused incalculable damages to the social and political development of Nigeria and the grassroots in particular. It subverts honest selection processes and distorts prices. Furthermore, it weakens institutions, hampers investment and retards sustainable economic development. More importantly the resources that should be used for developmental purposes are being diverted from the society to private or personal use. This accumulation of the nation’s economic resources for personal benefits had variously contributed to the leakage of capital from Nigeria for illegal deposits abroad.

The prevalence of these activities in various aspects of our lives has a tremendous adverse effect on the quality of life of this country, our living standards and national psyche. Corruption brings a nation no good. The resources meant for water supply, roads, education, health and other basic and social services that are captured and stolen by a handful of Nigerians through corrupt acts stultify economic and social development hence creeping poverty all over the place (Ekwueru & Daminabo, 2008).

In other words, it has a crowding out effect on the growth and development of the country. It’s contributing effects on poverty and absence of infrastructural development at the grassroots is the more worrying. Nevertheless the extents of these negative effects are yet to be measured and quantified. It is against this background that this study seeks to examine the extent and the magnitude of the effect of corruptive practices on sustainable grassroots development in Nigeria and draw up policy recommendations for the eradication of Corruption in Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to examine the effect of corruptive practices on sustainable grassroots development in Nigeria. Other specific objectives include;

1. to examine the effect of bribery and corruption on developmental projects at the grassroots level in Lagos State.

2. to find out if poor salary scheme and weak law enforcement mechanisms promote corruption in Nigeria.

3. to find out if administrative fraud in Iba LCDA constitute a barrier to effective resource mobilization and allocation

4.to find out if corruption leads to poor service delivery in Iba LCDA

1.4 Research Questions

The undertaking of this research project will beam a searchlight on the following research questions;

1. What is the effect of bribery and corruption on developmental projects at the grassroots level in Lagos State?

2. Could poor salary scheme and weak law enforcement mechanism be responsible for the spread ofcorruption in Nigeria?

3. Will corruption lead to poor service delivery in Iba LCDA?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The researcher intends to test the following hypotheses at 0.5 level of significance;

Hypothesis One:

Ho: Bribery and corruption do not have any effect on developmental projects at the grassroots level in Lagos State

Hi: Bribery and corruption have an effect on developmental projects at the grassroots level in Lagos State

Hypothesis Two:

Ho: Poor salary scheme and weak law enforcement mechanisms are not responsible for the spread of corruption in Nigeria

Hi: Poor salary scheme and weak law enforcement mechanisms are responsible for the spread of corruption in Nigeria

Hypothesis Three:

Ho: There is no significant relationship between corruption and poor service delivery in IbaLCDA

Hi: There is a significant relationship between corruption and poor service delivery in Iba LCDA

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EFFECT OF CORRUPTIVE PRACTICES ON SUSTAINABLE GRASSROOTS DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

E-GOVERNMENT AND INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUES IN NIGERIA

E-GOVERNMENT AND INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUES IN NIGERIA

TABLE CONTENTS

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

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E-GOVERNMENT AND INTERNALLY GENERATED REVENUES IN NIGERIA