THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE USE OF VIGILANTE GROUPS ON SECURITY MANAGEMENT. ( A CASE STUDY OF IHIAGWA, AUTHONOMOUS COMMUNITY, IMO STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

A layman definition of security is the protection of life and property of a person. The word security emanated from the Greek word se-cura, meaning “to be in a state of no fear”. The concept of security has undergone a transition conceptualization to a non-traditional meaning. Traditionally, security management was the unilateral function of the state especially if we consider the intellectual view(s) of some political theorist like Thomas Hobbes (1962) who argued that the essence of a state is to guarantee the security of lives and property and ensure law and order through its political sovereignty and monopoly of violence, which the state applies to engender strict conformity and compliance to state laws by the people for effective security management.

But in contemporary times, the definition of security goes beyond the traditional military ways of protecting the state against internal and external aggression. The fact is that since the end of the cold war, security management has assumed a new dimension.

External threat of security resulting from international hostilities and aggression that characterized the cold war era, has been replaced with non traditional security, threat like information warfare, drug trafficking, nuclear pollutions, kidnapping, insurgency, corruption, human trafficking, terrorism and so forth.

Now the government has realized that they can no longer monopolize the business of security in the local domain as well as the world at large. Here in Nigeria, the agencies in charge of security management which comprises of the police, military, civil defence and so forth has failed woefully due to corruption, insufficient numbers of personnel and so on. As a result of this failure we have recognized that traditional policing in the form of vigilantism is necessary and beneficial to the effective management of security. With the government recognizing the vigilante groups and empowering them to help in crime management in their various communities, crime will not only be prevented, but there will be peace and security. Since the members of the various vigilante groups are members of the community who are acquainted with the people, understand the culture of the people, grew up knowing the norms of their communities, and also the terrain, that is they know the nook and crannies of their communities, so that it will be difficult for an offender to hide. With the vigilante groups in charge, security will be guaranteed at the community levels while the police will have the time to do the wider work of National policing.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

With the increase in population in Ihiagwa occasioned by the presence of two Federal Institutions: Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO) and Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri in nearby communities, the issue of security has become a great challenge. There is a gradual rise in the incidence of armed robbery, house breaking, kidnapping, rape, cultism, theft, fraud, bag snatching and so forth. As a result of these, residents of the community now live in fear as it is uncertain who will be the next victim. It is widely acknowledged that the police alone cannot effectively police every section of the country in view of the limited number of their personnel, coupled with the fact that they are poorly equipped.

 

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THE ROLE OF TRADE UNION ON EFFECTIVE LABOUR MANAGEMENT RELATION IN A GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION A CASE OF NIGERIAN UNION OF TEACHERS (NUT)

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Labour as a factor of production being the executor of distribution and production of goods is important contributor towards the economic growth and development of a country. The uncomfortability and unsatisfaction of the labour should be address as fast as possible. In other to receive the misfortunes, for easy communication to the government trade union formed to represent the entire labourers and communicate to the government on their behalf and also organize and manage them for smooth running of business in the country toward achievement of vision 2020 of millennium goal.

The history of the relationship which exists between employer and their employees, the world over is one marked by controversy and brought with maltreatment and injustice, with each party claiming to be victim. No mention of trade unions can be made without reference to the industrial revolutions of the

18th century which started in Britain starting in about 1760, which created the conditions in which trade unions began to grow.

The growth of modern trade unions began with the growth of the factory system which consisted in the use of water or stream power and later cold to drive the row machinery that led to the growth of factory employment and the doctrine of college industries. These attracted people away from their wearing looms to live in new towns that were situated around a factory or group of deplorable living quarters consisted of row of small brick houses for the workers and their families.

There were no clinics, hospitals or schools and bare farm of sanitation were provided, created breeding ground for different illness. The working conditions were no better. The working hours were long and tedious and could be anything between fourteen and seventeen hours. The wages paid were not commensurate with the period and amount of work done; not being sufficient to keep body and soil together, child labour was also practiced. It was against this type of background that trade unions began to crave in the early stages of formation, they were small and local and meeting place was restricted to a particular trade or profession.

Their   meeting place was usually first in their different names or secretly on hillsides outside the towns and then in drinking houses.

Here they discussed about wages, hours and conditions of work. They also established sick and burial funds for members who lost their jobs, by each member paying in the each week to help one another in times of distress.

Employees  at first and later, successive governments grow from strength to strength, efforts to check this development resulted in the combination laws of 1799 and 1800, which declared unions to be criminate offence against the people.

Although, these laws were later repealed it was not after workers and unions officials had suffered untold hardship in the form of prosecutions, imprisonments and some times death at the instagnation of employers and governments.

Similarly in government organization the development of trade unions has not been without its own fair share of problems from both employers and the government which often is also an employer of labour.

Trade union development was slow and generally emerged from the effort of workers to seek on improvement existing conditions through collective action.

This late growth of trade unions in the country did not however affect its development once the unions got started.

With a population of labour, about 11.15 million and a great proportion of the population engaged in wages earning unions in creating the right atmosphere for effective labour management relation and hence implications for national and government. It is in realization on this fact that over the years there have been calls for the establishment of viable and efficient trade unions in reality, though the relationship in recent years has not been a smooth one with incessant strikes and unsolicited intervention by government.

Recent development on the political scene have also had for reaching effects on trade unions in the country with the events of June 12, 1993 and ASUU,NUPENG and PENGASSAN, imprisonment of their key officials and the subsequent appointment of a sole administrator for the NLC.

Trade unions have been recognized for many reasons as playing a vital role in representing the interest of the employees. It is concerned with the regulation of employment relations.

It could be seen that, in all societies a trade union is an association of people at work or workers and in some cases employers as well. The legal definition of trade union as any combination of workers or employees whether temporary or permanent the purpose of which is to regulate the terms and conditions of employment tends for purpose of analysis to be too restrictive and somewhat misleading. How much a trade union goes in, to determine organizational growth deserve empirical inquiry. If the workers are positively rewarded, the tendency is that those who have the ability will perform their functions effectively and efficiently thereby increasing the growth of organization. The formation of trade union was to work towards the furtherance of workers interest as far as regulating the terms and conditions of employment is concerned.

Presently, in an effort to protect workers interest, unions and to deviate a little from that main goal. Some unions leaders even use the platform of trade union to settle personal scores.

Trade unions plays an important role on the government organization growth thereby ensuring a smooth process of settling organizational conflicts which will help to maintain peace and  harmony. It fights for compensation to workers that suffer from injury while in service.

The terms and conditions of employment must be viewed very widely if the role and character of trade union are to be properly understood. It is true that the early unions came into being in 18th and 19th centuries in Britain and other industrialized countries as a means of fighting against the exploitative propensities of employment and to obtain improved wages and salaries and conditions of employment particularly as regards to hours of work. Today, however trade unions are concerned with the whole life style as well as the standard of living of their members.

 

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE NIGERIA UNION OF TEACHERS (NUT)

Of the three pioneer unions and indeed for very many years on the trade union scene, the Nigeria union of teachers remained the best run and the best organized trade union. On 8th July 1931, nineteen delegates representing five centers, Abeokuta, Agege, Ibadan, Ijebu-ode and Lagos met at the C.M.S Grammar school Lagos. To inaugurate the Nigeria union of teachers. Officers appointed included such prominent men as Revd. I.O Ransom Kuti, president J.O Lucas and R.R. Kuye, vice president, T.K. Cameron, secretary and E.E Esau, assistant secretary. At this first meeting the aims of the Nigeria union of teachers were agreed to be:

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THE ROLE OF STOCK EXCHANGE AND ITS IMPACT IN GLOBAL ECONOMY

CHAPTER ONE

1.O INTRODUCTION

A STOCK exchange can be described as a place where security bonds stocks, shares of various types are traded, openly and where one can purchase or sell any of such securities with relatives case.

Securities are documentary evidence of ownerships or entitlement to claim upon the assets of issuing organization which may be a business firm government or quasi government institution. There are documentary evidence usually have no fixed or absolute value which are subjectively determined by those buying and selling them.

Stock exchange is also a place where enormous capital which is required to operate the huge industrial and commercial cooperation of today can be raise in such large amount and of some competitive term, (cost, length of negotiation condition etc) that no other institution in a capitalist system can possibly match stock exchange is a vital economic institution, the height of development the world has attained makes  the stock exchange market services indispensable the SEM is seen as a vehicle of  fund mobilization and the development of local capital in Nigeria.

The stock exchange market is meant to be strong and very important source of capital in the capital market for the development of West African sub region. Over he years, the stock exchange market has been on the down ward  swing and is characterized by low growth the market has defined all necessary change made to strengthen of stock exchange market is characterized by usable market growth, low level of income saving corruptions, inflation of market prices and lack of interest there  and may more have made the stock exchange market to loss focus thereby causing a downward movement of the economy.

  • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Nigerian stock exchange was established in 1960, as the Lagos stock exchange, Nigeria has formed an active capital market. Before 1961, nearly all formal savings and deposit went through the banking system while then masters invested major capital for the country on the London stock exchange. However following the establishment of the central baking Nigeria (CBN) in 1950, it was logical to have a stock exchange in 1960, which commenced operation in 1961, the foundation was entered for the operation of the Nigeria capital market.

It was incorporated via the inspiration and supported of businessmen and the deferral government through the CBN but owned by about 300 members. The membership includes financial institutions, stock brokers and individual Nigeria high integrity who have contributed to the development of the stock market the Nigerian economy. The council members (board of director) of the stock exchange are elected at apiece annual general meeting by members of the exchange. The exchange is a self-regulatory organization (SRO), making and enforcing rules for its members. In 1977, the exchange was reorganized and renamed the Nigerian stock exchange (NSE).

Today the (NSE) has 10 functional trading floors in different parts of the country, namely: Lagos, Abuja, Kaduna, Port-harcourt, Kano, Onitsha, Ibadan, Yola, Benin, Ugo, and Ilorin.  Companies listed on the exchange cut cross ways the economic sectors of Nigeria and include local affiliates or subsidiaries of multinals. The exchange has two tiers out 1st tier securities and 2nd tier securities. Apart from the regulatory actions of exchange as an SRO, government oversight on the capital market in Nigerian is reached through the operations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). It maintains surveillance over the securities market to ensure clean and equitable dealing in securities protecting the integrity of the securities market against arising from the practice of insider trading.

 

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THE ROLE OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN ENHANCING DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Nigeria public administration of 1960 was an offshoot of British prototype for British bequeathed Nigeria with her model of public administration where she granted her independence in that year when Nigeria demanded for political emancipation.

During the period Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe was the governor general representing the queen, while Abubakar Tafawa Balewa served as the prime minister.

Due to some defectives in the 1960, many Nigerians wanted immediate changes to be made in the constitution in order to remove the awkward aspect of the constitution. This prompted the revision of 1960 independent constitution, and ushered in the 1963 republic constitution which made Nigeria a Republic. Some of the features of the immediate independent year could be identified as follows:

  • Nigeria was a federation of three regions until 1963 when the fourth region was added.
  • The first republic witnessed multi-party system.
  • It was a parliamentary democracy
  • The prime minister was the head of the executive

The second republic which began with the ascendance of the civilian government of President Sehu Shagari in 1971 abolished the parliamentary system of government.

Although Nigeria shifted away from the practice of the British parliamentary system and adopted the American presidentialism, she still maintains the dual civil service structure.

The second distinguishing feature of the Nigeria presidency was the fact that this constitution formally required the president to obtain advice from or consult with certain executive bodies before making decision on certain issues. The executive bodies were: the council of state, the federal civil service commission, the national defense council, the national economic council, the federal electoral commission, the national defense council, the police service commission, etc.

The third republic came into existence on 27th August 1993; who the departing military president, general Ibraham Babangida instituted the Interim National Government (ING), and placed chief Ernest Shonikan as the head of the Interim National Government until elections scheduled in February 1994.

This administration was unable to reverse Nigerians economic problems or to defuse lingering political tension.

The fourth republic came into existence in Nigeria in May 1999 under the administration of Olusegun Obasanjo after 16 years of consecution military regime. This administration inherited a country suffering economic stagnation and the detraction of most democratic institutions.

This republic ascended power with clear cut goal to improve. They are also dedicated to the re-orientation of the public service to the values of diligence, honesty, well remunerated service, supportive to democratic  system reforms to bring effective performance and to enable them contribute to the economic wealth of the country.

Since 1999, the government has increased the salaries of worker twice, while several officials totally deprived of promotion have been promoted (the guardian May, 30 2007). It is believed that all these measures, including the organisation of training and orientation programmes are capable of attaining enlisting the support of the administration for democracy.

 

1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

       The Nigeria public administration has faced a number of challenges and problems which have considerably undermined  its capacity to serve as agent of democratic consolidation.

This work is out to look into the problem that has hindered public administration from enhancing democratic principles as outlined by Ayo; these include the following:

 

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THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF OHAJI EGBEMA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN IMO STATE)

Abstract

This research work was undertaken with a view to ascertaining the community development in Imo State Imo state of Nigeria with a focus on Ohaji Egbema Local government with in its area of jurisdiction. In doing this, the researcher based his study on the provision of the 1976 local government reform in Nigeria which made community development one of the explicit functions of the local government councils.

In carrying out the research primary and secondary data were used. Related literature were reviewed (secondary data chapter 2) and questionnaire were equally prepared and administered to local government functionaries (primary data chapter 4)

The technique use in analyzing the primary data is the chi-square (x2). The finding of the research was reached using the result of the tested hypothesis.

For the analysis, it was found that many factors act as stumbling blocks on the way of community development in Ohaji Egbema Local government area and the state general. Such factors include,

  1. Lack of adequate organization frame work and orientation.
  2. Lack of dedication and commitment on the part of the local government councils to the cause of community development.
  3. Misplacement of organization priorities and consequently, misdirection of funds.
  4. Lack of executive capacity from lack of adequate trained motivated and dedicated staff for effective and efficient implementation of councils.
  5. The Unhealthy political atmosphere existing in the local government councils.
  6. And finally the unreliable external funding and inability to generate revenue for development purpose.

From the above findings, the researcher concluded by  making a sense of recommendations among which are the  coordination of the  development efforts of the various formal and  informal organizations in all over,  the community development programmes, and procurement  of adequately trained personnel for the organizational and educational processes associated with community development.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                       i

Approval Page                                                 ii

Dedication                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                            iv

Abstract                                                         v

Table of Contents                                            vi

CHAPTER ONE

  • Background Of Study
  • Statement of Problems.
  • Objectives of the Study
  • Scope and Limitation of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Theoretical Framework.
  • Scope of the Study
  • Limitation of the Study
  • Definition of Terms.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Concept and Definition of Community

Development.

2.2 Historical Background of Community

Development as Obtains in Nigeria.

2.3 Roles of Local Government Council

in Community Development.

2.4 Major Constraints in Ohaji Egbema

2.5 Achievement of Ohaji Egbema

2.6 Implementation Strategies to Rural

Development

2.7 Steps for Effective Rural Development

2.8 Other Organization Involved in Community

Development.

References.

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Research Design and Methodology

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Area of Study.

3.3 Sample Size

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5 Instrument for Data Conclusion

3.6 Validity of the Instrument

3.7 Reliability of the Instrument

3.8 Method of Data Collection

3.9 Method of Data Analysis.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Data Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and

Recommendation

5.1 Summary

5.2 Recommendation.

5.3 Conclusion

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Local governments have and will continue to be of the prime of developments in different part of the world and their important and impact on the daily activities of citizens cannot be over emphasized.

The terms local government refers to a political authority set up by a nation or state as a subordinate authority for the purpose of dispensing or decentralizing political power. In the English sense, it means local self government.

Local government is a political  sub division of a national  government or in federal system, a sub-division of regional government in fact, local government administration is so intentioned with community development that any discussions on one out  of necessity involves en essence was created solidly to bring development to the communities at the grass root.

 

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THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION IN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN NIGERIA (A CASE OF IKA SOUTH L.G.A DELTA STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0. INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The study is a modest attempt at a lucid explication of the role of local government Nigeria. Nigeria local government system has witnessed tremendous transformation since the introduction of the local government administration. One of the changes introduced to strengthen the local government is direct payment of their statutory allocation which was increased from 15% to 20%. In addition, local government audit was established in each state government to ensure proper utilization of financial resources at local level to check any misappropriation of public funds. Also all local government now has a common structure which distinguishes them from service department.

Local government at any level has some stand and roles such as the maintenance of law and order, the promotion of economic and social development. They are left with considerable freedom to act as the see and for the interest of local community. From this point of view, the government as agent of development is well placed to the help the rural areas to develop. These can be done by investing in social and economic infrastructure such as roads, bridges, hospital, school electrification and telecommunication. The other essential duties include rural and urban supplies, markets and libraries and also places of convenience, including those extra amenities which make for better life in the community.

The regulation of handcarts on the street, community and recreation centres, parks and open spaces grazing areas and the naming of streets and numbering of building are recognized as the responsibility of local government.

They also help on controlling the parks, supply of water, electricity and provision of road, water, transport and other trading undertaking by the state government which is specifically authorized.

The local government also take care of health orientation and supply of drugs, midwifery service, to arrange for health visiting and nursing home to provide facilities for vaccination and immunization.

 

1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Local government is expected to become more meaningful in facilitating development at the grass root level. Central to the achievement of these objectives is the financial viability of this tier of government. This point has been subtly underscored by “Dasuk Panel” on local government administration, when it observed inter alia that a good number of local government role could not be performed at all, due to variety of reasons principal among which are;

 

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THE ROLE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN SERVICE DELIVERY AT THE ANAMBRA STATE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine the role of ICT in service at the Anambra State Ministry of Education. To this end, a review of the concept of ICT and the role it plays in service delivery in government ministries was carried out. Two research questions and four research, hypotheses stated in both the null and alternative forms were put forward. Data was collected with the aid of a questionnaire and analysed with the simple percentage and mean analysis method. At the end it was discovered that although the adoption of ICT has had a positive impact on service delivery at the Anambra State Ministry of Education, the Ministry still faces ICT related challenges like high cost of procuring ICT products, inadequate ICT literacy, erratic power supply, network failures and log-jams, high maintenance cost, high cost of training staff to become ICT complaint and high cost of retooling procedures to adapt to ICT services. Based on these findings, it was recommended, among other things, that government should develop a comprehensive plan on how to start using ICT products effectively. This plan will not stop at procurement, but will move further to include, maintenance and repairs, financing staff training, etc.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                i

Certification                                                            ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgements                                                 iv

Abstract                                                                  v

Table of contents                                                    vi

List of tables

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the study                                1

1.2   Statement of the Problem                              4

1.3   Objectives of the Study                                   6

1.4   Research Questions                                        7

1.5   Significance of the Study                                7

1.6   Hypotheses                                                     9

1.7   Scope and Limitations of the study                10

1.8   Definition of terms                                          11

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1   The concept of Information and

Communications Technology (ICT)                13

2.2   The role of Information and

Communications Technology in Service

Delivery in Government Ministries and Envisaged problems                                        21

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND

METHODOLOGY

3.1   The Design of the study                                  33

3.2   Population of the Study                                  33

3.3   Sample and Sampling Technique                  34

3.4   Method of Data Collection                              36

3.5   Method of Data Analysis                                37

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS

AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

 

4.1   Data Presentation and Analysis                     40

4.2   Testing of Hypotheses                                     55

4.3   Discussion of Findings                                    57

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION

AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1   Summary                                                        65

5.2   Conclusion                                                      66

 

5.3   Recommendations                                          67

Bibliography                                                   70

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                          INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the Study

The world today is shaped by the advancement in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The relevance of (ICT) Information and Communication Technology to the developments of individuals or organizations, nations and the entire world cannot be over emphasized, (Oyekanmi 2005). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is therefore seeing as the driving force and enabler for socio-economic developments in most countries. (National ICT Policy and Plan Committee Development, 2004).

Nigeria has come to realize this fact and government at various levels in the country and also adopted this technology towards the overall growth and development of the society. The use of (ICT) Information and Communications Technology in governance is expected to improve decision making, increase citizen participation in economic development, support the modern work force, enhance social well being and narrow the digital divide, (Oyekanmis 2005).

One of the areas in which government has strove to make the impact of (ICT) Information and Communications Technology felt are the ministries. Government ministries are known for gathering, processing, and storing a wide variety of information’s needed for immediate or future purposes. These tasks; however onerouseus they appear are the ones which (ICT) Information and Communications Technology seek to provide an easy and convenient way of accomplishing (Mertz, 2004).

Notwithstanding, Mertz (2004) argues that government ministries in developing communities still have trouble making effective use of (ICT) Information and Communications Technology. They try to move forward in using (ICT) Information and Communications Technology but often do not have the vision and experiences on how to do so. Once they make (ICT) Information and Communications Technology investments, it can be difficult to hire experienced technical staff and educate exciting administrative and program staff. Training is expensive; short lived and seldom fits the individual needs of organization.

It is against this backdrop that this study looks at the role of (ICT) Information and Communications Technology in the service delivery of Anambra State Ministry of Education.

 

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THE ROLE OF IMO STATE OIL PRODUCING AREA AND DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION (ISOPADEC) IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN IMO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The background of the study is the development of rural areas in Imo State.

World Bank in its policy paper (1975:3-5), sees rural development as a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of the rural people”. It also sees rural development as an economic issue which is based on “raising the low level of rural income through agricultural modernization”. Thus, the World Bank is of the view that economic increased productivity and production would lead to increase income and subsequently entire rural development.

According to Olayide (1981:203), rural development can be defined as a process whereby concerted efforts are made in order to facilitates significant increase in rural resources productivity with the central objectives of enhancing rural income.

Umebali (2002:182) in his own definition sees rural development as a process of planned changes for which one approach or the other is adopted for improvement and or transformation of rural populace”. It is also concern with improvement of life living standards of the low income population living in the rural areas on a self sustaining basis through transformation of the socio-economic, socio-spatial structures of their productive activities.

In the view of Richard (1984:116), the plight of the rural sector is an indictment of decades of neglect especially under the colonial rule. The officials emphasis being on the promotions of metropolitan commercial interest notably export production and evaluation. It involves the rational mobilization of the locally available human and material resources for socio-economic development, special change and growth within a specified space.

Moreso, rural development is considered as an integral part and driving force of the entire development process. It basically connotes qualitative improvement of the rural masses. It involves the rational mobilization of the locally available human and material resources for socio-economic development, spatial change and growth within a specified space seen in totality rural development embraces, social, cultural, economic, physical and political aspects of the ruralities.

Large-scale manufacturing has been the main thrust of Imo State development program over time. However is being wisely acknowledged that rural development should be the center piece for effective short and long run development of any country such as Imo State. Both the federal and state government on one hand and general public on the other hand attest to the fact through their efforts towards the development of Imo state.

From the fore-going, therefore it is clear that the government and people of the country now attach much importance to rural development. It is therefore, the need to achieve integrated rural development Visa-Visa national development that prompted the study with the objective of determining the role of the establishment of Imo state Oil producing Area and development commission (ISOPADEC) in the rural areas can play in this regards.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It becomes imperative that Imo State oil producing area and development commission programs be given a tares trial in over search for a “messiah strategy”. Thus the study aims as addressing the problems of searching to the best development plan by finding out and analyzing the benefit of ISOPADEC with view of determining their relevance in rural development and ultimately natural development

These problems are:

 

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THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN PROMOTING SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN NIGERIA ( A CASE STUDY OF ANAMBRA EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT )

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTIONS

Large — scale manufacturing has been the main thrust of Nigeria’s development program over time. However, it is being widely acknowledged that Nigeria should be the Centre Piece for effective short and long run development of any nation such as Niger. Both the federal and state government on one hand and general public on the other attest to the fact through their efforts toward the development of the country side of Nigeria.

In realization of this and in pursuance of its attainment, the federal government created the directorate for foods, roads and rural infrastructure (FRRI) to work in partnership with the rural communities toward provision of amenities such as rural roads, water boreholes and

production of more foods As well several states, which Anambra is one of them have adopted rural development program which is charged with the responsibility of developing and coordinating Nigeria activities in the state. From the on-going, there, it is clear that the government and people of the country now attach much importance to rural development the nee to achieve integrated this study with the objective of determining the role of government in promoting he establishment of small scale industries in the rural areas can play in this regard.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The successive development plans of Nigeria have laid Emphasis on the attainment of self reliance. The need for this national objects is because must of expected from individuals from the view point of providing employment opportunities self reliance in basic food and material production high per capital income, foreign exchange and the production of industrial raw materials.

Okporobie (1989) observes that Nigeria small scales continued to decline despite the so called priority given to the sector. However, the discovery by the state government aht this policy as not enough by itself led to the state government request with effect from 1970/80 that all local government must reserve a proportion of the minimum credit allocation to indigenous borrowers for small scales Nigeria enterprises. The target prescribed in 1979 was ten percent (100/c) which subsequently rose to sixteen percent (16%). Even though available data showed that performance of local government against this directive has beer disappointing. The state government intends to spare no effort in ensuring that governments fully comply

without compromising the smooth functioning of the nation banning system. He observed also, that without the development of small scales in Nigeria, the nation’s quest for industrialization must address the basic issues of creating linkages without the economy to begin to produce real input to our government council activities. Priority attention must therefore be given to these local governments for which domestic inputs could easily be produced. This will bring about agro allied local government like food processing and other by-products.

The objectives should be to maximize the value added in their processing and local government council as final goods immediately inputs.

Nzewi and Oze (1985:56) observed that empirical evidence indicates that strong producer incentives to small scales industrialists are necessary not also only meet the food requirement but also to provide growing input supplies and demand as a foundation for sustained industrial growth.

The present economic constraint may well turn out to be a blessing in disguise to our industrialization effect particularly for dynamic local government. For instance, the market determines exchange rate through seeing with its result id nigh cost of imported inputs may

as an impetus for industrialists to intensify their search for local substitutes.

EKEANYONG AND Nyong (1992) observed that small scales enterprises are regarded as an organic part of a viable structure for the attainment meaningful economy development in developing economy like Nigeria.

They are significantly more cost effective in bringing about development than large enterprises because of the perceived linkage and multiple effects which small scale enterprises have no the performance of the economy and economic growth in general.

Osayameh (1989) observes that the strength that make small scales enterprises more amendable for assistance areas as follows:

 

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THE ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS (A CASE OF MBAITOLI LOCAL GOVERNMENT)

Abstract

Project are required to write by students in ND and HND at the end of  their final year to asses the research work which they had made and to know that they have completed the final year in school. This particular project comprises of the following chapters such as chapter one which introduces the topic that is “The role of entrepreneurship in development of rural area (a case study of Mbaitoli local government area). It has also some of the statement of problems, objectives of study, significant of study, scope and limitation of the study, and definition of terms. Chapter two comprise literature review characteristics of entrepreneurship, functions of entrepreneurship, roles, barriers and solution to the barriers etc. in chapter three is research design and methodology such as methods, sample seize and method of data analysis. Chapter four comprises data presentation and general characteristics of data. Finally, chapter five comprises summaries of findings, conclusion and recommendations.

  

 TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page                                                 ii

Dedication                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                            iv

Abstract                                                         v

Table of content                                              vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  Introduction

1.1. Background of study

1.2. Statement of the problem

1.3  Objective of the study

1.4  Research questions

1.5. Significance of the study

1.6  Scope of the study

1.7  Limitation of the study

1.8  Definitions of terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.0. Literature review

2.1. Introduction

2.2  Definition of entrepreneurship

2.3  Characteristics of entrepreneurs

2.4  Functions of entrepreneurs

2.5  Roles/ importance of entrepreneurship

2.6  Barriers of entrepreneurship

2.7  Solution to the barriers

2.8  Summary of the chapter

Reference

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research methodology

3.1  Introduction

3.2. Research design

3.3. Sources/method of data collections

3.4. Population and sample size

3.5. Sample technique

3.6. Validity/ reliability of measuring instrument

3.7. Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0. Presentation and analysis of data introduction

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Presentation

4.3. Analysis of data

4.4  Interpretation of result

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0. Summary, conclusion and recommendation

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Summary

5.3. Conclusion

5.4. Recommendation

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0. INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The level of development of any nation is measured by its economic activities and productivity. Also the economic realities of a nation is a function of the rate of investment (public or private) the act which investigators commits their funds either to expand plan or to start a new project entirely environments and prospects at a given time.

Government alone cannot provide act the investment needed in a country. To complement the government efforts as a result of perceived role, the private sectors can play in engineering position for governments including Nigeria, of assistance to pupervise and support active participation of the private sectors in economic development rests.

The starting point of entrepreneurship lies in the human need and wants. The existence of production, what has utility do to satisfy such needs. Man in his quest to satisfying his unending needs, funds him unto production in the production period. The utility to initiate a business ideas and also take position in combining other factors of production such as (land, labour, capital) for efficient problems (the focus of the study) dreaminess role of entrepreneur, characteristics, problems and  prospect while most people allow condition to control their attitude on entrepreneurship use the control condition.

Entrepreneurship started when people produced more products that needed as such they had to exchange those surpluses for instances if a blacksmith produces more hoes that he needed, may be he needs some goat or yam etc, he would look for someone who needed his product to exchange worth by this way, producers came to realized what they can concentrate in their area of production to produce more and echange with that they needed.

So through this exchange of products, entrepreneurship started. A typical Nigeria entrepreneur is a self made man who might be said to have strong will to succeed, he might engage the service of others like mates, friengs, in-law etc to help him in his work for production. Through this way, Nigeria in the olden days was engaged in entrepreneurship. Early entrepreneurship started with trade-by-barter.

Modern entrepreneurship in Nigeria started with the coming of colonial masters who brought in their wears and made Nigerians their middle men. In this way, modern entrepreneurship was conceived. One of the major factots that have in many ways discourages this value system brought by formal education.

Although, difficulty due to lack of resources, there are no profitable organization in Nigeria that rae dedicated to promote entrepreneurship. Nigeria does not have a large detailed history when it comes to entrepreneur. Their history started with the surplus production of goods when they had created too many products in their domain. They would trade those products for something else they needed. This is the beginning of entrepreneur in a whole clear light with Nigeria.

History Background of the study (Mbaitoli local Government Area).

Mbaitoli came into focus in colonial area as a local government area in Imo state, which stretched further to Orlu road. Mbaitoli which was created in the year 1994-1995, because more popular and well populated in 1950, eastern region of Nigeria because the first colonial territory in Africa where a wholesome government ordinances law was passed which had three tier system, country, district and local government. Mbaitoli because a local government area to promote entrepreneurship.

Nigeria, its state and local government’s area history started with the surplus production of good and they exchange these surplus goods for something else they needed. This is the beginning of entrepreneurs in a whole new light in Nigeria.

 

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THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF SMALL SCALE MANUFACTURING BUSINESSES (A CASE STUDY OF ABOH-MBAISE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN IMO STATE

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the problems and prospects of small scale manufacturing businesses in Aboh-Mbaise local government area in Imo state. The reason of carrying out this research is to discover, examine, study and make a redress on the problems and prospects of small-scale manufacturing businesses in the area of Aboh Mbaise local government in Imo state during the 2009/2010 academic session. The nature of this research made the researcher to formulate research questions and summary of findings were formulated in order to achieve the objective of the study and questionnaires were distributed as a means of data collection. Data collected were analyzed using percentage for research questions and some recommendations were made after proper conclusion.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page-      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

Approval page-       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

Dedication-     –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

Acknowledgment-   –      –      –      –      –      –      –

Abstract –       –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

Table of contents-  –      –      –      –      –      –      –

 

Chapter one

Introduction-  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

  • Background of the study- –      –      –      –      –
  • Statement of problem- –      –      –      –      –
  • Significance of the study- –      –      –      –      –
  • Purpose of the study- –      –      –      –      –
  • Research questions- –      –      –      –      –      –
  • Scope of the study- –      –      –      –      –      –
  • Limitation of the study- –      –      –      –      –
  • Definition of terms- – –      –      –      –      –

Chapter Two

Literature review-   –      –      –      –      –      –      –

  • Problem of small scale businesses- – –      –
  • Causes of the problem of small scale- –      –
  • Effects of the problem of small scale- –      –
  • Strategies for improving the efficiency and prospects of small scale- –       –      –      –      –
  • Summary of related literature- –      –      –

 

Chapter three

Research methodology and procedure-  –      –      –

  • Population of study- –      –      –      –      –      –
  • The sample and sampling procedure- –      –
  • Instrument for data collection- –      –      –
  • Method of data collection- –      –      –      –
  • Method of data analysis- – –      –      –      –

 

Chapter four

Data Presentation and Analysis And Findings-      –      –

  • Introduction- –      –      –      –      –      –      –
  • Presentation and analysis of data- – –      –
  • Research questions- –      –      –      –      –      –

 

Chapter five

Summary, conclusion and recommendations

5.1 Summary of findings-      –      –      –      –      –

5.2 Conclusion-      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

5.3 Recommendations-  –      –      –      –      –      –

5.4 Suggestion for further study-  –      –      –      –

Questionnaire- –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

References-    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In many year, most of developing countries, shared a common epoch of colonialism which made them primarily agricultural exploiting countries and importers of manufactured products.

This economic epoch of began to be substituted with a new one of modern growth soon after the exist of colonialism, particularly, in the year 1950s to 1960s. The most common strategy adopted by most countries to achieve this period of modern growth was import substitution that is industrialization which has as its main goal. The replacement of traditional imported consumer goods and services with domestic substitute or domestic production of the imported substitution, it is assumed that there is already an existing market for the domestic industrial out put. Thus, high standards of efficiency are often not considered an important requirement for the new manufacturing industry to remain in business.

Small-scale manufacturing enterprises provide the starting only serve as the spring board and training ground for the later, but they are vital of the economic and social life of the community.

As such “academicians, businessmen and other had begun to recognize how small-scale business is really but business in microcosm. As Philip Clark puts “many small-scale businesses are small remain small will not aspire to anything larger because the world in which they function is suited to small scale operation not large ones” this means that environments and nature of products or service has great influenced over the size of the business. Nevertheless, some small-scale businesses go on to secure large scale.

In developing countries like Nigeria, where multinational corporations have tended to monopolies production activities the need for small-scale enterprises owned and managed by Nigerians is perhaps too evident. It is only by the active encouragement given to such enterprises that the nation can begin to diversify her productive activities.

Small-scale manufacturing businesses are the cove of larger scale industrialization and development.

Even in the industrialized nations, the larger corporations of today often evolved from early beginning as small-scale enterprises. Only recently (1984) over 75% of the three million new jobs created in the united states economy could be attributed to the employment opportunities in small-scale enterprises considering the present level of unemployment in Nigeria. It is easy to see how timely and appropriate the promotion of small-scale manufacturing business will be although national accounts do not provide us with any quantitative data concerning the direct economic contributions made by small-scale enterprises so far.

However, due to the spring up of scale businesses is clear that on the aggregate, they made meaningful contributions to the level of production, the level of employment, and the conservation of foreign exchange earnings.

Small-scale manufacturing businesses about in the Ihitte Uoboma Local Government Area, although bit business overshadows small-scale ones in manufacturing, there are none less than two thousands of small-scale manufacturing industries in the area. They include among others, manufacturers of soap and detergents, bread, and biscuit, furniture and a host of others too numerous to mention small-scale manufacturing businesses are not without problems which can be fundamental to their birth existence and growth, that generate private and public concern.

 

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

IT is a known fact that all manufacturing industries concerns be it small-scale, medium or larger scale businesses engage in the production of goods and services that appeals to the society.

 

 

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THE ROLE OF ADMINISTRATOR IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CRISIS: A STUDY OF ANAMBRA STATE WATER CORPORATION

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
    • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This particular project aims at looking into the role of an administrator in the management of crisis. The selection of this topic has borne out of the realization of the need to evolve possible solution to myriad of crisis of organizations growth.

Available resources is an organization need to handled effectively in order for its objectives to be achieved, it is in this light that Eresimadu and Nduka (2007) see administration as specifically implying the careful arrangement of the resources available for production so that when mobilized they should operate on a unity for the achievement of a corporate objective.

The central/purpose of administration in an organization is that the co-ordination the efforts of people towards the achievement of set goals. It is an every minute affair affecting individuals and groups of individuals in their efforts to realize a common goal.

Administration in this context can be seen in bringing materials together for effective and functional production in an organization this means that it strives to achieve the all organizational goals by the best possible means. It concerns itself with the management of available resources in the organization in order to ensure minimum input with the possible maximum output or productivity.  (Okeke et al 2008:6). It is coordination of resources towards the attainment of some predetermined simply put deals with the coordination of resources to ensure effectiveness while aiming at effective management an administration has to involve himself directing or indirecting in planning, organizing, co-ordinating and controlling.

Okereke and Ukaje (2007) defined administration as involving the provision and maintenance of the necessary manpower and plant facilities in order to render useful services to those who need it with a view of bringing about desired change in the growth of an organization. With this in mind an administration therefore is concerned with managing factors of production such as facilities for the achievement of organizational objective.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

It is not uncommon these days to see organization on rampage. It has almost become a tradition in this country that organizational disturbances persist, it is too frequent or rampart to the extent that no fewer than every four years pass without crisis in some organizations in the country. Apart from these incessant crises, disturbances could treatment from office workers in various department of an organization has become the order of the day.

The problem then is that administrators are not actively and effectively playing their role in the management of crisis hence the incessant crisis by office workers staff of the institution in the country.

 

  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This study which is the analysis of administrating role in crisis management is made to:

 

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THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECT OF PUBLIC CORPORATION IN NIGERIA A CASE OF NIGERIA TELEVISION AUTHORITY (NTA) ENUGU DISTRICT

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

     In developed economics, public corporation or enterprises are manly complementary to private enterprise in the provision of goods and services.

Also in developing countries on the other hand, the reverse is the case as government champion most economic activities as well as development efforts for this reason public corporation and enterprises provide about half or more of the goods and service for the general public.

In Nigeria for instance, section 1b (1,2,and 3) of 1999 constitution mandated the state to pursue, vigorously is the economic objective activities of subsection 4(b) which is the production activity directly concerned with the production. Distribution and exchange of wealth or goods and services.

Government’s direct participation or ownership of enterprises is dearly manifested in the creation of public corporations since institutions cannot, in government paternalistic view be left to when and caprices of the ordinary business spectators.

Public corporation have bee described as very powerful agent for development and for the distribution of wealth resources and influences they are generally an institutions that enjoys complete government monopoly as it is judged to be extremely vital of public life they have emerged as a result of government acting in the capacity of an entrepreneur the domination of public corporation over privately owned ones in Nigeria sequel to the provision of social goods and services explain in fact why government all over the world have shown diverse interest in enterprise ranging from within which these corporation operate to eventual outright ownership.

 

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Nigeria since independence has witnessed turbulent years, budding socio-economic, which are normally associated with developing countries. Problems such as bribery and corruption, nepotism fraud/ embezzlement of public fund, pilfering etc. have prevailed immensely in the country.

In the midst of all the public enterprise or corporation which are meant to serve as a panacea to social / economic problem have therefore been left behind in the provision of progressive, forward looking and time effective scheme of development as far as management cum administration is concerned.

Government encouragement and participation in the shaping of the economic destine of the nation in  the post three decade has yet yielded much fruit since the performance of these public corporation / enterprise. They have been either non-existent or inefficient and consequently sound management has not been conspicuous.

It is therefore no longer allegations because a consensus held by most Nigerians show that public corporation unlike the private ones are both inefficient and ineffective. This connotation is born out of the fact that they have not been able to live up to the expectation of the Nigeria masses.

In terms of rendering services if indeed they are both inefficient and ineffective. What actually are the problems that are responsible for their failure on the part of the public corporation? What can be done to remedy the situation? What suggestion and recommendation can be put forwarded in order to ensure efficiency and effectiveness?

Indeed, this research work engages on exposing the problems and prospects of public corporations in respect to the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Enugu district and its contributions in rendering service to the public and national development is also on focus.

Worthy of mention is that for purposes of convince and clarity of expression, the term public corporation and public enterprises shall be used interchangeably or loosely in this work.

 

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

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THE PROBLEM OF POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN NIGERIA A CASE STUDY OF NATIONAL POVERTY ERADICATION PROGRAMME (NAPEP) IMO STATE

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

       Stripped of all technicalities, implementation problem in most developing nations is the problem of a reddening gap between intentions and results.  Honadle (1991) tried to identify the problem associated with policy implementation as that of social carpenters and masons who fail to build to specifications and thus distort the blueprint. He was equating policy with building plan. Quoting him he said. “Implication is the nemesis of designers, it conjures up images of plans gone every end of social carpenters and masons who fail to build to specifications and thereby distort the beautiful blue prints for progress which were handed to them”.

The above quotations show the importance that is attached to policy implementation and those that are responsible for implementing these policies. It is shown that no matter how beautiful the blue print of a programme is, a defective implementation of it will make nonsense of the whole programme.

Unfortunately, the situation as described by Honadle above is what goes on in Nigeria. As stated by Eyonmuan (1971) implementation in these country often turns out to be the graveyard of policy where the intentions of the designer of policies are often undermined by a constellation in cooperation with people little attention is paid to the subject of policy implementation by policy decision makers while it is often taken for granted that once a policy is adopted by government it must be implemented and the desired goals achieved. There is policy failure when there is a sizeable gap between a policy decision and its implementation. Such a gap is characterized. For example, by the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer in spite of the stated policy goal to the contrary.

Despite the plethora of poverty alleviation programme which past  government had initiated and implemented, by 1999 when the Obasanjo administration came to power a world Banks report indicated that Nigeria’s Human Development index  (HDI) was only 0416 and that about 70 percent of the population was vegetating below the brand line.

 

 

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

       In the course of this work, a lot of problems emerged. It therefore sets out to address the following problems.

 

 

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THE NEED FOR IMPROVED REVENUE GENERATION IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT(A CASE STUDY OF OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

 

ABSTRACT

Revenue generation is the nucleus and the path to modern development . thus, the study was to assess the need for improved revenue generation on local government. This is because local government as the third of government is the closest to the people especially those in the rural areas. Needed revenue to provide basic social amenities to the people. But it is unfortunate to note that the local government management have not lived up to expectation especially to provide basic social amenities to the rural people. Thus, the objective of this research is to analyze the extent to which improved revenue generation had affected the development of those areas. The researcher used primary and secondary methods the data obtained through questionnaire was percentages. The following are some of the findings which included poor development of the areas, lack of basic social amenities to the rural people and lack of revenue to maintain the existing infrastructures. The researcher therefore recommended that the local government should provide basic amenities of high quality.  By so doing, the people’s interest would be geared towards giving their maximum support to the local government which would lead to the development of the rural area.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –     i

Approval Page        –      –      –      –      –      –      —    –      –    ii

Dedication      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –   iii

Acknowledgement  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –   iv

Abstract  –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –    v

Table of content     –      –      –      –      —    –      –      –   vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

1.1  Background of the study –      –      –      –      –      –

1.2  Statement of the study  –      –      –      –      –      –

1.3  Objective of the study    –      –      –      –      –      –

1.4  Research Question  –      –      –      –      –      –      –

1.5  Statement of Hypothesis       –      –      –      –      –      –

1.6  Significance of the study –      –      –      –      –      –

1.7  Scope  of the study –      –      –      –      –      –      –

1.8  Limitation of the study   –      –      –      –      –      –

1.9  Definition of terms  –      –      –      –      –      –      –

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  Literature Review    –      –      –      –      –      –      –

2.1  Introduction    –      –      –      –      –      –      –      –

2.2  Sources of Review generation in local government –

2.3  The need for revenue generation in local government

2.4  The problems of revenue generation

2.5  The implication of revenue generation in local government

2.6  Tax as a major source of revenue

2.7  The purpose of tax

2.8  Problems associated with tax collection in Owerri north local government

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Research design and methodology

3.1  Introduction

3.2  Research design

3.3  Sources / methods of data collection

3.4  Population and sample size

3.5  Sampling techniques

3.6  Validity and reliability of measuring instrument

3.7  Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Presentation and analysis of data

4.1  Introduction

4.2  presentation of data

4.3  Analysis of data

4.4  Test of hypothesis

4.5  Interpretation of results

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Summary, recommendation and conclusion

5.1  Introduction

5.2  Summary of findings

5.3  Conclusion

5.4  Recommendation

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Local government is the third tier of government that is nearest to the people with the responsibility of direct development of the people to a certain level. Therefore, Todoro (1985:108) views development  as a multi dimensional process involving the re-organization and re-orientation of the entire economic and social system. This involves in addition, the improvement of income and output. It also involves radical changes in institutional, social, administrative structure as well as unpopular attitudes, customs and belief. Development therefore according to Todoro is both a physical reality as well as a state of mind, which the society has gone through some firms or processes.

Development is highly associated with fund, much revenue is needed to plan, execute and maintain infrastructures and facilities at the local government level. The needed revenue generated for such development projects like construction of accessible roads, building of public schools, health care centers, construction of bridges among others are soles generated from taxes, royalities, fines and grants from states, national and international governments.

Thus, the local government cannot embark, execute and possibly carryout the maintenance of these projects and other responsibilities without adequate revenue generation.

This is basic reason why development is skeletal at some local government councils in Nigeria. The issue for improve revenue generation is not exceptional to local government in Imo state. This has being one of the problems encountered by Owerri north local government.

This however pronouncedly affecting development negatively in local government councils. In this research project, the issue to address is how far can this improved revenue generation affect development especially in Owerri north local government.

1.2  STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The local government council take direct care of the grassroots of people, that is the people lack essential facilities and condition of modern civilization. They lack pipe bore water to drink, do not have electricity, accessible roads, poor educational infrastructure and facilities to mention but a few.

This is one of the major reasons of rural  urban migration of government. This has made our cities to be congested and increase in many criminal activities. Based on the above and foregoing assertions, it is obivious that the need for improved revenue generation in the development of the rural area is a serious problem. This might be as a result of poor revenue generation. If Nigeria is to achieve her desire goal of vision 2020 and possibly meet the millennium development goals (MDGS) target, the issue of revenue generation must be addressed sequarely.

Hence the researcher is bothered to find out the need for improved revenue generation in the lives of people at the rural area and how it has affected development in general especially in Owerri North local government area.

1.3  OBJECTEIVE OF THE STUDY

 

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THE NATIONAL DIRECTORATE OF EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEM IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF IMO STATE)

ABSTRACT

        This research was conducted to find out the levels in which National Directorate of employment has gone in the provision of employment opportunity for school leavers in Imo State Nigeria. Questionnaires and interviews were used to procure the necessary data for this project. The research findings showed that the National Directorate of employment have a role to play in moral and productivity of unemployed persons in Imo State and means in which the NDE will use to provide employment for school leavers.

This project contains readable chapter from chapter one to chapter five which will be used to provide employment for school leavers. This project contains subject matters of National Doctorate of employment.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page                                                              i

Approval page                                                               ii

Dedication                                                             iii

Acknowledgement                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                v

Table of contents                                                    iv

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  Introduction

1.1  Background of the study

1.2  Statement of problem

1.3  Objectives of the study

1.4  Research questions

1.5  Significance of the study

1.6  Scope of the study

1.7  Limitation of the study

1.8  Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  Literature review

2.1  Introduction

2.2  Nature of Employment and Unemployment

2.3  Global unemployment trend

2.4  Unemployment in Nigeria

2.5  Government policies towards curbing unemployment

2.6  National directorate of employment as a measure of solving the problem

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Research design and methodology

3.1  Introduction

3.2  Research design

3.3  Source/method of data collection

3.4  Population and sample size

3.5  Sample technique

3.6  Validity and reliability of measuring instrument

3.7  Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Presentation and analysis of data

4.1  Introduction

4.2  Presentation of data

4.3  Analysis of data

4.4  Test of Hypothesis

4.5  Interpretation of result(s)

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Summary, conclusion and recommendations

5.1  Introduction

5.2  Summary and data findings

5.3  Conclusion

5.4  Recommendations

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Before the administration of General Abacha came into the helm of affairs of the state, unemployment has acquired the notorious status of being one of the many problems defying solutions by successive government. The problem became compounded in the mid 1970 when the government increases the unemployment rate into the society through massive entrenchment exercise. The permanence that unemployment seemed to have acquired has become a big worry to successive administration, that is the reasons why General Ibrahim Badamosi Barbangida’s Administration transition programme, this problem was addressed in the concept of the mass mobilization economic recovery, self reliance and social justice (MANSER).

According to Anthony (1985:93) the fact that the federal government strengthened the federal ministry of labour to include among other things, the national directorate of employment, shows its way prepared to tackle the unemployment issue. The primary function of the directorate is job creation for the jobless. The main thing is to explore the effort in tackling the unemployment issue in the country in General and the state in particular through national directorate employment, this project works through the National Directorate of employment’s philosophy is the creation of employment with emphasis on self reliance and entrepreneurship; under its four core programme that was initiated to free our youths from unemployment and to re-orient them from paid employment to self employment.

Lastly, National Directorate of employment operation underwent fundamental re-direction meant to shake off opportunities and some of the unserious applicants. Programme showed that most of the trainees were more interested in the fifty thousand Naira (N50,000) monthly allowance than to acquire useful skills, the directorate then abolished a stipends in 1991. Saving accruing there form is now invested in training programme and also to provide take off dutiful trainees at the end of joining programme period.

The trust of directorate programme is to assist applicants to set up their own business. In agriculture, small scale business and to enable them to put additional hand in their establishment and hence achieve the aim of reducing the level of unemployment.

According to Barry (1975:20) in the urban areas, the unemployment rate was so high which is over 10% in the rural areas. The youths and graduates are employed with the growing joblessness. There was a growing dependency among youths among their parents. Ex-president Ibrahim Badamosi Babandiga in hi 1991 budget speech directed the N.D.E charged with the establishment “to concentrate its effort of the reactivity of public works, promotion of direct labour, promotion of self employment organization of artisans into co-operation and encouragement of a culture maintenance and repair. The board of directors of the National Directorate of employment ensures proper implementation of the directives, have articulated four practical programmes nationwide, each operating as a separate department. The programmes are:

  • National youth employment and vocational skills development programme.
  • Small scale industries and graduates employment programme
  • Agriculture sector employment programme
  • Special public work programme

These programmes are backed by the necessary administrative monitory and support personnel, thus enabling optimum use of resources and prompt response to the requirement of the public we serve

National directorate of employment was designed to utilize valuable manpower resources in carrying out some public important works using labour intensive technology an to enable the participants obtain short-term employment which acquires new skill and trade experiences.

Farmers could become possible for them to market their products for the well being of their immediate family in particular. The fact here is that while the farmers strive to improve the harvest from his farm the government through agencies, provide facilities that could enable the farmers’ process and market his products.

1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

       School leavers constituted the greatest number of unemployed youth in the state; moving round the state in search of jobs. Some people in the state claimed the directorate have been able to reduce the rate of unemployment among graduate and school leavers to 60% from its original 80% since the inception of the national director of employment in 1986. In spite of the promise made by the national directorate of employment in 1987 to create technically oriented job for Nigerians twelve years have passed yet the rate of those waiting for the NDE’s promise had increased.

1.3  OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Based on the above, this study is:

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THE IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING IN ATTAINMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL GOAL A CASE OF OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Abstract

This project was carried out to appraise that it is only through planning that an organization can achieve its goal. To ensure effectiveness in communication the researcher coffined to the use of words that will easily be understood by readers and those terms that are too technical are well defined. Textbook were referred to structured questionnaire were used to elicit response from the staff of Owerri North Local Government Area. The departments examined were finance, personnel and evaluating. Random techniques were used in the research design in chapter three and the questionnaires were vetted accordingly. Conclusion were drawn from the analyzed data recommendation were made that apart from basic qualities are requirement of planning the executive must plan ahead in order to achieving organizational goal.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification                                                                  ii

Dedication                                                                    iii

Acknowledgement                                                         iv

Abstract                                                                       v

Table of contents                                                          vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction 1

1.1  Background of the study                                          1

1.2  Statement of the problem                                        3

1.3  Objectives of the study                                           4

1.4  Statement of hypothesis                                          5

1.5  Significance of the study                                          5

1.6  Scope of the study                                                 6

1.8  Limitation of the study                                            7

1.9  Definition of terms                                                  7

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  Literature review                                                    9

2.1  Introduction                                                          9

2.2  History and development of planning in an

Organization                                                         9

2.3  The theoretical perspective of the related study          12

2.4  The planning progress                                             19

2.5  Characteristics of planning                                       22

2.6  Hierarchy of planning                                              23

2.7  Planning and other concepts of administration            29

2.8  Importance of planning                                           30

References

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Research design and methodology                            33

3.1  Introduction                                                          33

3.2  Research design                                                     33

3.3  Sources / Method of data collection                                 33

3.4  Population and sample size                                      34

3.5  Sample techniques                                                  35

3.6  Validity and reliability of measuring instrument           35

3.7  Method of data analysis                                           35

Questionnaire

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation and analysis of data 37

4.1  Introduction                                                          37

4.2  Presentation of data                                                       37

4.3  Analysis of data                                                      38

4.4  Test of hypothesis                                                  41

4.5  Interpretation of results                                          43

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary, conclusion and recommendation 44

5.1  Introduction                                                          44

5.2  Summary of findings                                               44

5.3  Conclusion                                                             46

5.4  Recommendation                                                    47

References                                                             50

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Planning is one of the functions of administration. It is the process of laying foundation for future action. Planning is the act of determining administration objectives and efforts and determining means to achieve those objectives, in the other hand, planning is defined as deciding in advanced things that need to be done and need to achieve those objectives. To plan is to act with purpose to choose and choice is the essence of economic activity therefore many organization plan in other to take advantage of environmental opportunities and minimize the impact of environment waste. Planning allows organization to shape its own destiny. The history of Owerri North Local Government as my case study started in October 1st 1996 when the head of state general Sani Abacha created additional states and local government which increased the number of local government  in Nigeria from 521 to 774.  the first chairman of the local government is Chief Anthony Ihedoro who hails from Emekuku’s during the transitional programme to Godian rule by general Sani Abacha in 1997/1998 five political parties contested which includes United Nigeria congress party “UNCD” Democratic party of Nigeria “DPN” grassroots democratic movement “GAM” committee for national consensus “CNC” and national center party of Nigeria “NCPN” but among all these political parties “UNCP” produced the first chairman for the local government which has 16 wards is represented by a councilor each. Owerri North Local Government area is one of the twenty eight local government in Imo State which has large land mass and about 900,000 in population. Its headquarter is located at Orie Uratta since its inception. It has experienced four 4 different chairman both as intern and permanent chairman. The researcher interest of this topic is to examine the importance of planning in an organization like Owerri north local government area, the effect of lack of good planning in order to attain organizational goal and best step to be used in planning techniques.

The local government has encountered problems of incompetent staff which may arise during recruitment and placement inadequate fund may equally hinder the functioning conflict because each department authority of responsibility assigned to them, also costs will be measured since emphasis is usually on efficient operation and consistency. Adequate and competent personnel should put in place in several department there should be mass, we co-operation between those who prepare the plan and those who implement it. The government should also support organization of giving them adequate manpower and makes funds available them.

 

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

This study entitled the importance of planning in attainment of organizational goals a  study of Owerri North Local Government areas attempt to examine and elaborates the problems of planning in the public service and they includes

 

 

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THE IMPACT OF WELFARE SCHEME ON THE MOTIVATION OF WORKER IN PUBLIC SERVICE (A CASE OF NIGERIA TELEVISION AUTHORITY NTA ABA)

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

1.1  BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The need for welfare scheme as a motivation tool on workers in public services cannot be over emphasized. Public as well as private enterprise tends to increase productivity in their work place and welfare scheme and packages have great influence as it can be used as one of the measure to motivate workers in public services.

Government provides services or facilities to their workers not only on humanitarian bases but also because of pecuniary gain derivable from such services or facilities. However it is good for government to be genuinely interested in the welfare of his workers anxiety, worries, family and financial crisis suffered by workers do adversely affect their performance. It is therefore in government interest to assist in removing or reducing these problems and making the workers comfortable while at work. Welfare scheme to be provided by government must as much as possible reflect his good intension towards his workers rather than workers perceiving such services as a right or entitlement.

Nigeria television authority was inaugurated in Many 1977 although decree 24 of 1977 was promulgated in March 1977 having affected on April 1976 by that decree the Nigeria television authority became the only body empowered to undertake television broadcasting in Nigeria.

In 1977 when the NTA was inaugurated, there were seven (7) stations with three (3) in their final stage or commissioning whilst the other states had non at all. By December 1979 there were schedule television broadcast from every state capital in the country.

ORGANIZATION

The decree established the NTA provides for one national broad and six zonal boards. The national board has overall responsibilities for policy and standards and remains the corporate legal entity with the director general as chief executives, departmental director of engineering news, finance, programmes, legal and manpower resources assisted him at headquarters. It the duty of the zone to ensure that programmes broadcast conforms to the national policies and standard of NTA the production center which is the third tie with NTA does the actual making of programmes. It is headed by a general manager and staff strengthen in the oldest station number up to 200.

The Nigeria television authority NTA is the largest TV network in Africa as well as one of the oldest and the most accomplished indigenous broadcast outfit in Nigeria. The authority was outfit in Nigeria. The authority was established on 1977 with the fusion of the first generation television station across the country into one autonomous organization.

The NTA has over the years distinguished itself as a force in the field of television broadcast globally. Its qualify programme has received numerous awards at international competitions and festivals.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

In early days of cooperation activities, government sees no need for welfare scheme. They do not tend to motivate their workers as there was no measurement on workers performance and motivation was far from serving as a means of increasing productivity. Hence workers were responsible for the provision of all welfare they needed at this stage workers were not well remunerated and their welfare was not at the organization diary. Government went home with all the profits pretending to offer essential services while the workers bears agony alone incase of loose and work condition at the work place.

The emerges of theories ushers in series of common research which developed schools of thought thereby giving management and trade union sense of becoming on the effect of welfare scheme on motivation of workers performance, but the case remains the provision and its implementation by the government and its administrators, partly because on places where they are introduced, there are problems associated with its impact on the motivation of workers while in many other places they were ignored or worst still does not exist because they are not seen as a measure to increase productivity.

Problems associated with the impact of welfare scheme on the motivation of workers have led to the failure of its administration or implementation.

  • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

In pursuance of this research work, the following are the objectives of the study

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THE IMPACT OF WORKER’S PARTICIPATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE OF ORIENT BROADCASTING SERVICE OWERRI)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0. INTRODUCTION

1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It should be known that no organization will be extremely productive if the workers are not allowed to participate in the day-to-day activity of the organization. This work hereby x-rays the need and importance of workers participation in the organization and the consequences of its neglect.

The workers are the mirror image of any given organization be it small of large scale organization. The inability of workers participation has sometimes led managers into making unnatural decision even in areas affecting the subordinates.

Traditionally, managers influence the ordinary workers and specifically, their immediate subordinates in the organization. In Germany, around 1951, a law was enacted which provides for code termination and requires labour membership in the supervisory board and executively committee of certain large corporations. However, the participation of labour and organizational axtoities resulted to relatively and peaceful, labour management relations.

Additionally, labour management uses decision making by consensus in which lower-level workers initiates the idea and submit it to the next higher-level unit it reaches the desk of the top imitator for implementation. It is in this content the researcher tends to use Orient Broadcasting service as case study.

 

BRIEF HISTORY OF ORIENT BROADCASTING SERVICE OWERRI

Following the creation of Imo State from defunct Easter central, state in 1976, the Imo Broadcasting Service (IBS) was established by edict No. 15 of 1976. the administrative head master was temporarily located at No. 13/15 Ajoke Owerri from where it was finally moved to Egbu road location. The operational station was first established at government trade headquarters while the transmitter was installed at Orji. The IBS was centrally an Amplitude Modulation (AM) station and it transmitted on channel 721 Kilohertz in the medium waveband in March 2008. the IBC left in Egbu office to its present headquarters at Chief Achuke Udenwa Avenue – New Owerri.

The first Director – General of IBS was Engr. Augustine Alaribe, the first board Chairman was Dr. Onyike James Onyike the first head, interim management team is Mr. Richard Asiegbu while Nneoma Chief Mrs. Felicia Iheaka is the first female board Chairman. Below is the order of succession of the board Chairman and the Director – General so far.

 

Board Chairman

  1. Dr. Onyike James Onyike (IBS) 1976 – 1979
  2. Mr. Sam Nwaneri (IBS)      1979 – 1980
  3. Chief H.B.C Ogboko (IBS)      1980 – 1983
  4. Pro. J.K. Onoh (IBS)      1983 – 1984
  5. Pr. Afigbo Afigbo (ITV)      1981 – 1985
  6. Pro. Uju Afulezi (IBS)      1984 – 1985
  7. Pro. A.O. Onyia (IBC)      1985 – 1992
  8. Mr. Ralph Opera (IBC)      1992 – 1995
  9. Mr. Chukwudi Kogah (IBC)      1995 – 1998
  10. Mr. Ike Onyechere (IBC)      1998 – 2002
  11. Chief Sanfo Nwankwo (IBC)      2003 – 2004
  12. Chief Osita Izunaso (IBC)      2002 – 2003
  13. Chief Dr. HBC Ogboko (IBC)      2006 – 2006
  14. Nneoma Chief Mrs. Felicia Iheaka (IBC) 2009

 

Directors General

  1. Engr A.S Alaribe (IBS)      1976 – 1979
  2. Chief E.D Ogbuagu (IBS) 1979 – 1985
  3. Engr. R.F. Obioha (ITV)      1981 – 1985
  4. Chief Anyi Ude (IBC)      1985 – 1991
  5. Mr. T.C. Okere (IBC)      1991 – 1996
  6. Sir Chudi Okoro (IBC)      1996 – 1998
  7. Mr. P.C.K. Okoro (IBC)      1998 – 1999
  8. Mr. Chike Egbuna (IBC)      1999 – 2001
  9. Ajie Chinedu Nzeribe (IBC) 2001 – 2002
  10. Dr. C.T. Okenze (IBC)      2004 – 2007
  11. F.A. Iheaka (Mrs) (IBC)      2007 – 2007
  12. Mr. Richard Asiegbu HIMT (IBC) 2009

IBS remains a single channel station until 1984 when the Imo Television Authority (ITA) channel 59, which was established by law No. 23 of 1981 and located at New Owerri was merged with it and both formed the present Imo Broadcasting corporation (IBC). The merger was established by edict No. 8 of 1984 with Elder Anyim Ude as the first Director General.

Since its inception, the IBS has had eight Directors-general in addition to three interim management committee (IMC) Chairman as chief executive officers.

The incumbent Head, interim management is Mr. Richard Asiegbu. The corporation has also had fourteen governing boards. The last being inaugurated 2009 and headed by Nneoma chief Mrs. Felicia Iheaka.

The frequency modulation (FM) channel transmitting on 94.4 megahertz in the fm wave band was established in 1994 and it became the third channel of the IBC. The FM channel was later renamed the Orient 94.4 FM. Both the television and the FM channel transmit on 30 kilo watt capacity transmitters acquires by the immediate past state government under Government Achike Udewa. The present state government Ikedi Ohakim has improved on what was already on ground and has intensified effiorts towards the digitalization of IBC, in line with the Nigeria broadcasting corporations (NBC) directive.

 

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

There has been lots of controversy as to whether workers participation in the organization is really necessary or not. Some writers argue that workers should participate more especially where it affect them or their jobs. It is expected that such participated will definitely yield greater ground for future, members of upper management.

In Nigeria experts that reputed the above assertion see the arrangement as a symptom of mal-honest and company oriented individuals are also not available at these lower organizational levels. But the big question is, qualified individuals really available? All this underlay the need for investigation study.

 

1.3  OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

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THE IMPACT OF WAGES INCREMENT ON WORKERS PERFORMANCE IN ABIA STATE (A CASE OF UMUAHIA WATER BOARD CORPORATION)

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION
  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In any establishment either private or public, the impact of wages increment cannot be over emphasized. To Abia State water board Corporation Umuahia, satisfaction of the public and standard of living has been their major concern.

The objective has been the development and utilization of local raw material (coal) and mobilization of fund for the purpose of satisfaction of Nigerians. In the bid to actualize this, the corporation finds it difficult and almost impossible to pay it’s workers the exact wages and pension at the appropriate time. This as a result leads to inefficiency since the workers are not motivated to carry out their function effectively. Facilities provided by the government are not being-used by the corporation in their operation. This as a result may lead to scarcity of some important goods.

The carriage of bulky goods by the trailer is now more preferable than the use of train, since the water board corporation is inefficient; goods that are supposed to be carried by trains are now being carried by vehicles, which thereby create obstruction in our roads. Presently, the corporation is not generating accurate revenue for the society, because the people who make use of the water board transportation are few.

This discussion so far, means that the water Board Corporation is unable to achieve its objectives.

  • STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Water is a basic necessity of life; no human being can live without adequate and safe potable drinking water.       Productivity in water supply is essential for meeting the needs of the people. The problem of productivity due to low wages includes:

  1. Inadequate or inefficient supply of water to the citizens.
  2. Low moral of workers to improve productivity
  • Lateness and absenteeism to work by workers
  1. Prevalent of water borne disease in the state.
    • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

It is expected for any research work to provide answer to a particular problem. In view of this, this project tends:

  1. To examine the impact of wages increment on workers performance in Abia State.
  2. To highlight the problems that are inherent in increasing the wages of workers who work in the public sector.
  • To identify and correct the environmental factor that affects the wages increase of workers.
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

This study will attempt to answer various specific questions like:

 

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