THE IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION ON THE MARKETING OF NEW PRODUCT AND SERVICES

ABSTRACT

This study on the impact of promotion of the marketing of new services with particular note on Globa-com Plc Enugu was carried out some of the following objective.

1.           To determine the Impact of promotional strategies in Creating consumers awareness of Globa –Com

2.           To determine the Impact of promotional strategies on customers patronage of Globa-Com in Enugu Metropolis.  For additional information extensive literature review was conducted, researcher reviewed text books, journals magazines and News papers that are related to this study.  In order o achieve thus objective three set if questionnaire were prepare and administered to a population comparison staff/management distributors and customers of Globa-Com Plc within Enugu Metropolis.  The sample size of the study was determined using Topman’s formula to determine the sample size for customers, while censuses were used or the relevant staff management.

The data collected were presented on statistical table, analyzed and interpreted.

The hypothesis were tested using chi-square based on the analysis he following finding were made that the personal selling strategy has much impact on customers disposition and patronage.  That Globa-com Plc have not fully designed an optimal combinations of promo-tools to enhance their performances.

The researcher wants the coverage of GSM facilities to extent to more areas, particularly the towns and village to engender wider communication in the country.

The researcher recommended that the capacity of Globa-Com should be up grade urgently to enable it support efficient service of GSM in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Establishment of business including communication services requires that the firms make key decision.  These decision affects the total marketing programmes of the firm, simple put the marketing strategy.  However one vital area of such decision which demands proper attention is the communication strategy.

Communication industry must initiate promotional polices and programmes to inform, persuade and educate its target audience of the existence of the organization and their products.

Although creation of demand of a firm product may be the ultimate objectives of a company’s marketing promotion, this objective  is never achieved at one full swoop.  The firm must put in place a set of activities aimed at stimulating demand for their products.

This may involve determining the optional combinations of the promotional Mix, advertising sales promotions, personal selling, publicity, public relation Direct marketing and packaging to achieve its promotional   objectives.   This optional lend is a function of the promotional resources nature of the product, just to mention but a few.

Adirika, Ebue, and Nnolim (1996: 35) see promotion as the component used by the organization to inform, educate and persuade the market regarding the company’s offerings.  Advertising personal selling, sales promotion, publicity and public relations are the major variables of promotion.

Promotion is a vital ingredient of survival and development, without adequate promotion products may not sell, when they their continuity is in doubt.  The art and science of marketing promotion, which comprises advertising personal selling sales promotion, public relations and direct marketing is often associated with glamour and flamboyance. Infact most of the budget of some companies is spent on promotions because of the need of survive in the competitive marketing environment.

Edoga and Ani (2000:243) noted that marketing success does not, just depend on good product, good price and efficient distribution. It is also vital that organization communicates its, so offerings to that advertising, personal selling  sale promotions public relations, publicity and direct marketing can be used to inform prospective buyers about the benefit of their products persuade then to try and remind them later about the benefits they will desire by using the product.

Modern marketing companies are increasingly recognizing the value of an effective communication and promotion programme for their entire public including G.S.M Global communication.

Ebue noted that modern marketing does not shop at developing a good product, pricing it attractively and making it really available to target customers. The company must communicate to its target audience, tell good stories, disseminate information about the products existence, feature terms and benefits to the target market.

Coppo. J. 91992: 201) confirms that the promotional tools serve as supreme vehicles in competition and provide the only way a market nicher can, hope to penetrate on established market. He went further to state hat for a company to excel above others in the competitive market such a company must value the importance of promotion.

Global-Com is one of the G.S.M service providers in Enugu. The company, has its branch of at Ebeano Estates,  since its inection about two years ago. The company has been doing very well. But Global –Com as at now is facing a lot competition from other G.S.M service providers like dropped as a result of this competition form other G.S.M service providers like dropped as a result of this competition, it is necessary for Global-com to appraise its promotional strategies in order to fight competition in the marketing x-rays.

It is the in light of this that the research the promotional on the marketing if new product in Enugu Metropolis.  A Case study of Global –Com.

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Inadequate sale are often given by entrepreneur as major causes of their failure.  A careful review of their circumstance often reveals abysmal ignorance of the need for promotional skill or deliberate neglect of the necessity for co-ordained promotional strategies.

Quite often marketers are very optimistic about sales (patroage0 they conceive the wrong motion that their will sell themselves, forgetting that even the best product /service still need to be stimulated in order to more out of the store.  Global –com with its newness in Enugu metropolis need to effectively promote its product because it is new and there is high competition in the market, Infact, the creation of effective promotional strategies is an essential more towards creating a market.

The above statement applies equally to Global-Com services.  Despite the numbers advantages inherent in effective promotion, The availability of promotional facilities, the need to use promotional to fight competition in this industry, the use of co-ordinated effective promotional tools in Global –Com operation is barely evident and is negatively impacting on their operation.  It is in the light of the importance attached to promotion, that the researcher seems to find out the best promotional activities that could be used by GSM operators like global-Com for improved performance in Enugu Metropolis.

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1.         To determine the effectiveness of promotion on sales of Globa-Com in Enugu Metropolis.

2.         To determine customers patronage of Globa-Com in Enugu Metropolis.

3.         To determine the Impact of promotional strategies in Creating consumers awareness of global com in Enugu Metropolis.

4.         To determine the impact of promotional strategies on customers patronage of Global Com in Enugu Metropolis.

5.         To appraise he promotional strategies adopted by global com in Enugu Metropolis for increased profitability.

1.4       FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS

1.        Ho:  Promotional strategies adopted by global com in Enugu Metropolis do not create consumers awareness of their services.

Hi:  Promotional strategies adopted by global com in Enugu metropolis create consumers awareness of their  services.

2.        Ho:  Promotional activities of globacom does not encourage customers patronage.

Hi:  Promotional activities of globacom encourage customers patronage.

3.        Ho:  Promotional activities of Globa Com do not lead to increased sales volume of the G.S.M services.

Hi:  Promotional activities of Globacom leads to increased sales volume of the G.S.M services

4.   Ho:   The promotional actives of Globa-Com do not lead
        to increase profit of the organisation

Hi  The promotional activities of Globa-Com lead to increase profit for the organisation.

1.5       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study concentrated on Impact of promotion in the marketing of News Product.

        However, in view of limited time and resources emphasis was placed on globacom activities without Enugu metropolis.

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This study is not a more academic exercise it holds immense benefits, it will be of significance to the following

Firstly marketing firs and globacom  will gain immensely from then study as it will explore the impact of promotions on the performance of their operations and suggest ore success-oriented ways of enhancing the promotional impact.

        Secondly, operators of G.S.M serviced will; gain immensely form the study.  This is because it will not only measure the effectiveness of each of the promotional mix variable on the performance of G.S.M services but also recommendations or measures to be taken in design and determing the right combinations of the promotion  in a more result oriented manner will be made.

        Finally, about the researcher and the reader will benefit from the study as the information contained would wider their scope of understanding and knowledge in the area of study which will stir up further investigations.

1.7       DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.          Promotional Strategy – it is controlled integrated programme of communication method and materials designed presents a company and it products to prospective customers (Adirika Ebue Nnolim)

2.          Advantaging – is a group of activities aiming at an including dissemination of information in any paid non –personal form concerning an idea product or service to compare actions in accordance with the import and an identifiable sponsor.

3.          Sales promotion  –  public relation the deliberate planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual under between an organization and its public (Edoga and Ani)

4.          Direct Marketing – it is an interaction marketing system that use one or more advertising media to effect a measurable response.

5.          Personal selling – face to face interaction with one or more prospective purchase for the purpose of making presentation ensuring questions and producing orders.

6.          Public relations publicity –  A variety of programmes designed to promotion or protect a companies Image or if Individual product (Kotler (1991: 657).

THE IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION ON THE MARKETING OF NEW PRODUCT AND SERVICES

AN INDEPTH STUDY OF ON THE BRAND SWITCHING BEHAVIOR OF MALT DRINK CONSUMER

ABSTRACT

This research work is “An Indept study on the Brand Switching Behavour of Malta Drink Consumers”  This study tends to establish the impact of the marketing mix on the brand switching behavour of malta drinks, determine.  The factors that promote brand switching among malta drinks consumers and discover the relative strengths of the various brands enerated for this study with the selected areas.  Based in the objectives of the study two hypothesis were formulated.  The population of the study were drawn from the consumers and retailers of malta drinks in Engu.  Bourleys formular was employed to determine the simple size.   Questionnaire were used to elicit data respondents simple tables and percentages were used to analyzed data.  Based on the analysis availability or unavailability of malt drink brand and desire for now experience to taste something different.  Therefore, manufacturers should embark on an expensive and critical in house assessment of their distributional strength because there is a significant relationship between price changes or difference in malta drink brands and consumers brand switching.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Brand switching is the consumers decision to purchase a product of a brand different from that previously or usually purchase.  Brand switching is when a consumer or group of consumers switches their allegiance from one brand of a certain type of product to another.  This brand switching may be temporary, or it may be long lasting.

        Sometimes known as brand jumping, brand switching is the process of choosing to switch from routine use of an product or brand to steady usage of a different but similar product.

        Brand switching is the most common with products that have no great perceived variation in quality across brands such as bottled water, dairy products, or paper towels etc.  Brand switching takes place most commonly by price promotions, in-store displays, superior availability, perceived improvements or innovations in competitive brands, desire for novelty, number fo available brands, perceived risk, frequency of purchase, changes in quality, or level of satisfaction with the most recent purchase.

        It is possible to research when consumer in a marketplace determine their attitude to brands and their likehood to switch from a brand they are using at the moment, and in particular to which other brand the might switch.  This allows the building of a picture of likely brand switching behavour.  If consumers propensity to switch is known, the market can be modeled to indicate future market share.  Such modeling could also indicate the relative positioning of the competing brands.

The chartered institute of marketing (1984) in England defines marketing as “ the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirement profitable.

American marketing association (1960:1) also defined marketing as “the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services to the consumers or users. In other words, all activities that are undertaken to facilitate the flow of goods and services come under marketing. According to Nwaizuggo (2004:8) modern marketing concept is built on three foundation namely:

(i)          Consumer satisfaction

(ii)         Profitable sales volume

(iii)        Integrated marketing

This means that consumers satisfaction must be at the centre of any business motive.   The central aim of  modern  marketing   is  all  about  ensuring the  consumer satisfaction  and  also  to ensure  that  consumers  always  continue  to  patronize  the  marketer’s   brand. 

The  American   marketing   association  defines  branding as  a name,  term,  sign, symbol, or  design, or a combination  of them  intended   to  identify  the  goods  or  a services of  one  seller   or group  of  sellers  and  to differentiate  them from  those  of  competitors.   Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 

(2006:  170) defined  branding  as the  activity  of giving  a particular  name  and  image  to goods  and services  so that  people  will be  attracted to them a  tool  of  marketing  used  for  the  purpose  of  product  identification   among  other  uses. 

        Branding is also to win consumers brand loyalty.

Brand  name  is the  name  given  to  a product by the  company  that  produces  it  and  this  enable  the  consumers to  easily   identify  the  products. Modern  marketing  is  facing a lot of challenges  which  includes  growing  affluence  and  change  in the  tast  of  consumers  coupled  with the  drift  of  market  from  a monopolistic  structure  to that    of  a near  perfect competition   consumer now  have  lots  of  products  alternative to  choose  from. The  result  is  a gradual  elimination  of the  “concept  called  “Brand  Loyalty”  and  the  emergency  of  a new  idea  called  “Brand  Switching”. 

        Brand  switching  is the act  of  discontinuing  the  purchases  of a  product  brand  in  favour  of  another brand.  The marketing concept and Nigerian market structure (perfect competition or rather monopolistic) brought about product multiplicity in Nigeria.  Lots  of  product  close   substitutes  now  exist an consumers  are now  dangling  like  pendulum  from one  product brand  to another.

        Recently, brand switching has taken its toll on the soft drink market  in  Nigeria. For instance,  we   have  malta drinks brands such  as  Amstle Malta, Guinness Malt, Hi-malt and Grand Malt and many more.  A  further  study  shows  also  that  consumers  but  switch from  one  brand  to  another. 

        This  simply  implies that  the  malta drinks, marketers have  been  battling   seriously  on how  to  over  come  this  trend . Given the  above,  the  aim  of the  research  is to  carryout  a research  into  the causative favours of  soft  drinks. 

        This  will  guide  marketers  against  being  vulnerable  to  brand  switching  behavioiur  of  consumers. 

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          Kotler and Keller (2006:193), define  consumer behaviour as the  study  of how individuals, groups  and organization  select,  buy, use  and dispose, of goods, services, ideas, or  experiences  to   satisfy  their  needs  and  wants.

Schiffman  and  Kanuk (2007: 3)  Defined  consumer   behaviour  as the  behaviour that  consumers  display  in  searching  for, purchasing,  sing,  evaluating  and  disposing  of products  and services that  they expect will  satisfy their  needs  their  behaiour  are focused  on  how  individuals  make decisions to  spend  their available  resources  (time,  money,  effort) on consumption  related  items. That in includes what they  buy, why they buy it,  where they  buy it,  how often  they buy  it, how they  evaluate  it  after the  purchase , the impact of such  evaluations  on  future  purchases  and  how  they  dispose  of  it. To major  psychological disciplines com into play when observing and try in to explain  consumer  behaviour. The first  cognitive psychology. Cognitive  psychology  is the study of all knowledge related (mental) behaviours and they are as follows: attention, perception, memory, comprehension  and  decision  making and they  play an  important  role  in  consumer  behaviour. 

        The  second  psychological  discipline   that  has  theories to  explain  certain  phenomenon  is  “`The  study  of the manner in   which  the  personality, attitudes,  motivation  behaviour of  individuals  influence and influences by social groups (Britaninnica  Online) 

        The  affect and  social  influence and  reference  groups links  are  two  important   topics  studied  in social  psychology  that  have an  important  impact on  consumer  beaviour.   However,  limited  problem  solving  is  that  bevaiour exhibited  by  a  consumer,  who  is  deciding  to try  a  new  brand,  responds  to  emotional  or  environmental  appeal such  as the  point  of  purchase  display  and  this situation gives impetus to consumer exhibition of brand switching behaviour.

Emotional appeal has not been the only stimuli responsible for brand switching.  The response of consumers to other marketing mix stimuli such as the pricing of the various brands distributional strategy, product design availability of product, and quality may also give rise to brand switch behaviour.

        Given the afore mentioned facts, the main problem of this study is to

i.             Make an inquest or determine the factors or variables that give rise to brand switching among consumers of malta drinks.

ii.            To ascertain the implications of brand switching behaviour of consumers on marketing strategies employed by manufacturers of malta drinks.

iii.          To Inquire into how the marketing mix such as price, product design and quality, distribution and promotion influence consumers of soft drink of switch into another brand.

1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

It is quiet unfortunate that no marketer can afford to stay relaxed when its products are loosing its market share to competitors especially in a free market economy like ours.  Given this, the prime objective of this study therefore is to:

1.           To establish the impact of the marketing mix on the brand switching behaviour of malta drinks consumers.

2.            To determine the factors that promote brand switching among malta drinks consumers

3.           To discover the relative strengths of the various brands enumerated for this study within a specified market.

4.            To ascertain the effect of brand switching by consumers on the rate of consumption of different brands within the market under survey.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.   Assessment of the impact of brand switching bahevour of malta drinks is important?

2.   What promote brand switching?

3.   What strengths are effective in the market for various brand?

4.   Determination of brand switching by consumers on the rate of consumption of different brands within the market?

1.5    RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the purpose of a clear result, the following hypothesis have been drawn and will be tested:-

H01 :Consumers switching of soft drink brand is not

significantly influenced by price differences

H1:   Consumers switching of soft drink brand is significantly influenced by price differences

H02:  Availability of soft drink distributional efficiency does not constitute a major factor in consumer soft drink brand switching.

H1:   Availability of malta drinks distributional efficiency constitutes a major factor in consumer soft drink brand switching.

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of the study:

–       It will enable producers (marketers) to identify brand switching causative factor among consumers

–       It will go further to buttress the inevitable role of consumers and general market research in the new business era.

–       It will help brand owners to develop marketing strategies which will enable them reduce the impact of brand switching on their product line.

Also the researcher hopes that the study would be relevant to other consumer goods marketers engaged in competition with producers of close substitute such as cosmetics and beverages.

AN INDEPTH STUDY OF ON THE BRAND SWITCHING BEHAVIOR OF MALT DRINK CONSUMER

AN EVALUATION OF SALES PROMOTION IN INCREASING THE LEVELS OF NETWORK PATRONAGE IN THE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY

ABSTRACT

The study examined sales promotion as a persuasive activity hence is the direct and indirect communication used by firms to influence present and potential customers fro the purpose of making sales. This study was in the main time, exploratory and descriptive. Data were collected on source specific objective adopted for the resources. Data collection method employed primary sources eg personal interviews and questionnaire and secondary data example books, newspaper and so on. These data were analyzed with some simple statistical looks such as percentage tables and significant level. The study also considered whether ‘advertising medium message to the target audience among others. It was known that the philosophy of the company mobile Telecommunication Network Nigeria limited Aba promotion is not different from what other marketing companies have been practicing. Sales promotion has great influence in the buying behaviour of customers. Most industries in Nigeria have riot yet embraced full promotional consciousness. Effective sales promotion could help companies to survive the stifle competition in business, operation.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the best things that has happened to this country is the introduction of mobile Telecommunication system in the nation information industry. Before the advert of Chief Obasanjo regime in 1999. Telephone service was inform of analogue form. This analogue system most times has not yield the good objective which a sound telephone system should render.

Since the incention/introduction, of the method of communication, life was enhanced through its services. Nigeria is now linked with the, global community making interaction between the people to be more cordial in spite of the distance because of the fact that all business men went to maximize profit, it is believed that embarking on sales promotion which entails showcasing all the services one has in stock will attract more customers which will in term increase the returns or gains which a company like MTN is expected to make.

It is my behalf that. this work wilt enhance understanding which will help to increase the services of al the service provider in general and MTN in particular.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

People often confuse sales promotion with broader term, “promotion” but sates promotion is one of the promotional toots.

Promotion consist of advertising, personal selling direct marketing, all term to communication, the advantage of the firm’s goods and services to it’s customer. Promotion is one of the four “Ps” of product marketing and has to do with all the activities carried out by the organization communication with the public about their product. A target audience can be in any stage are awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, conviction and purchase. This is called the hierarchy of effect. Because they represent stages a buyers goes through in moving towards a purchase and each describes a possible objective or effect of promotion. The goal of promotion is to get the prospect to the final or purchase stage, but in most cases, that may not be possible until the person has moved through the earlier stages. Thus a promotion effort may have appeared to be modest but essential objective such as creating knowledge about a product’s advantage. The term promotion originated a Latin word “promotioners” meaning to move forward, to advance from the view point of business practices, promotion is the marketing communication activity that attempt to inform, remind and persuade individual., to accept, resell, recommend or use a product, idea or institution.

Sales promotion on the other hand is a semi personal form of communication which is short term in nature and aim at achieving more sales and building of better image of the company.

The America Marketing Association (2000) define sales promotion as those marketing activities other than personal selling, advertising and publicity designed to stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness, such as snows, denotations and various non recurrent selling effort not in the ordinary routine.

Kolter (2002) defined sales promotion as activities which are of short term in nature designed not stimulate the interest of perfect market Sales promotion can also be seen as those marketing efforts that are supplementary in nature and seeks to induce buying decision. Sales promotion activities may also aim at inducing customers to act immediately without further delay by offering price relate, time constraint, contest, premium etc. it is also defines as short term inducement of value offered to arouse interest of buying goods and services. It is a promotional tool which unlike the other element to have a temporary effect on the buyer. The major consumers promotion tools free samples, premium (gift) capon, trading stamps free trails, deals rebate, product demonstrations point of purchasing displays prizes (contest, game, sweep stakes) etc. the study x-ravel the reason which firms embark on sales promotions exercise with short period. It is strong to be better in the market than a non promoted product. This is because the consumers are meant to he aware of such product through such means.

One of the constraints that affected the study was inadequate funding of the research exercise enough money was not available to ensure smooth collection of data.

Network service providers are those firms that provide telecommunication service to its consumers examples include mobile telecommunication limited.(MTN), globacom Nigeria limited Zain Nigeria limited. (MTN) Aba, there are about 120 staff that is presently working there and the name of the managing director is chief v. Odili. Mobile telecommunication network Nigeria is a part of mobile telecommunication network (MTN) group Africa’s’ leading cellular telecommunication company. On may 16 2001 MTN become the first global in Nigeria. Therefore, the company launched full commercial operation beginning with Lagos, Abuja, Port-Harcourt. MTN paid two hundred and eight five million dollars to enable her acquire for GSM licenses in Nigeria in January 20th 2001. Therefore, on 18th May 2002, Mobile telecommunication network Nigeria limited launched commercial operation in Aba, Owerri, Umuahia etc on 10th  November 2003 MTN commissioned a corporate office at Aba located at Umungasi, Aba-Owerri road Aba Abia state. To date in excess of us $ 1.8 Billion has been invested building mobile telecommunication infrastructure in Nigeria.

Since being launched, MTN has steadily deployed it’s services across Nigeria. It now provide service in 223 cities and 10,000 villages and communities and growing members of high ways across the country spanning the 36 states of Nigeria and the federal capital territory Abuja. Many of more villages and communities are being connected to the world of telecommunication for the time ever.

The company’s digital microwave transmission backbone the 3400 kilometer, yellow plan was commissioned by president Olusegun Obasanjo on 10 Dec 2003 and is reputed to be the most extensive digital microwaves transmission intrastate in all Africa. MTN Nigeria is also recently expended its network Nigeria is also recently expanded its network capacity to include a new numbering range with the prefix 0806, 070 and recently 081, making MYN the first GSRN network in Nigeria to have adopted an additional numbering system having exhausted its historical subscribed numbering range of 0803.

1.2 STATEMENTOF PROBLEM

Major problem centered on the ineffective promotion and inefficient management of some network service

•, providers with particular reference to mobile telecommunication network (Nigeria) limited Aba. This specific problems were internal and external. On the external form, the MTN Nigeria Limited was faced with competition from other network service providers with each striving to have a bigger share of the market. It was also found out that the company (MTN Nigeria) has the problem of reaching Hinterland who form the large bulk of the customers, who do not understand promotional massages  and do not at times have access to redemption centers or other branch offices

There exists also some problem with staff of MTN Nigeria Limited. This ranged from various company staff who also participate in promotion directly by leaking vital information to their relatives which is against the rules of eh sales promotion. At the end, of the promotion sale may start to go down and portray negative attribute to the firm.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The major objective of the study is to determine the evaluation of sales promotion on the marketing network service providers with respect to mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN)

The specific objective of the study includes

i.     To find out which advertising medium would best effectively direct the promotion massage to the target audience.

and do not at times have access to redemption centers or other branch offices.

There exists also some problem will staff of MTN Nigeria Limited. This ranged from various company staff who also participate or promotion directly by leaking vital information to their relatives which is against the rules of eh sales promotion. At the end, of the promotion sales may start to go down and portray negative attribute to the firm.

I.            To determine how a good corporate image can be built by MTN Nigeria Limited with the people of Nigeria.

II.          To establish methods of sustaining good corporate image end reputation.

III.       To analyze sales promotion can generated huge sales fro the companies involved in sales promotion

IV.       To make recommendations for profitable sales promotion activities

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were made

i.            Does increase in competition against mobile telecommunication Network Nigeria limited has a significant effect on its market?

ii.           Does ineffective promotional budgeting and planning has significant effect on purchasing of the product of MTN Nigeria limited?

iii.         Does inefficient finance affect promotional budget of MTN Aba? (Mobile Telecommunication network Nigeria  limited Aba)

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study from all intends and purposes seemed as a basis for other researcher in the business field particular in the sales promotional activities in organization.

The information gained from the study also serves as a useful guide to marketing managers in planning a sales promotion programme. it is equally expected that the that the findings would serve as input to entrepreneurs, marketing and sales managers to embark on intensive measure to plan their organization it will give there insight into how they can achieve their aim using sales promotion effectively.

To the marketing practitioners, it will open their eye to the hidden treasure of sales promotion.

Researchers in the field of marketing will also find these

work valuable while carrying out research work related to it.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study which is an evaluation of sales promotion on the increase in the network service by provider will cover mobile telecommunication MTN Nigeria Aba.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

On the course of this particular project the researcher encountered a lot of difficulties which restricted me during the study, the factors that imitated against this work include time, lack of adequate found and dearth of secondary materials. These factors reduced the ability of getting much information.

AN EVALUATION OF SALES PROMOTION IN INCREASING THE LEVELS OF NETWORK PATRONAGE IN THE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY

EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING OF SERVICE PRODUCTS

ABSTRACT

The evaluation and development and marketing of service products in educational sector is a very interesting topic to research on because it will help both the service industries and government at large to enact policies that will help in boosting the educational level of our community. In trying to make this study a success, the researcher used Imo State University as a case study to validate the findings of this study. The researcher chose this institution because it represents the service industries in Nigeria. The researcher used oral interviews and questionnaires to collect information relative to this study. The researcher made use of primary and secondary data sources; the primary data sources is made up of interviews and questionnaires while the secondary data sources is made up of textbooks, marketing journals, magazine relative to the topic under review and also information gotten from a combined chamber of commerce and industry. In analyzing the data gotten, the researcher used simple table and percentages and in interpreting the hypothesis, Chi-square (X2) was used to validate the hypothesis. The objective of carrying out this study is to let managers know the essence of marketing service products and how best they should package their services products as to must up with the aims

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Marketing of service products can be traced back to the 18” century when Jean Baptise Say rejected Adam Smith’s notion that immaterial products ate not wealth because they were not susceptible of conservation. Jean Baptize argued that activities  have utility and give satisfaction to the consumer, like !the doctors who cures the sick man, are productive and that agriculture, manufacturing and commerce should be traced on an equal basis. The acceptance of services as legitimate activities is reflected in (the current division of industry by economists into three main groups; primary, secondary and tertiary.                                  This research will focus mainly on the tertiary activities which refers to service and distributive trade.

Foote and Hate further classified service into three as follow

1 Tertiary; These include restaurants and holds, barber and beauty shops, laundry and dry cleaning establishments, home repair and maintenance.

2 Quarter nary: This includes transportation, commerce, communication, France and administration; the salient characteristics being that they facilitate and effectuate  (the division of labor

3 Quandary: This includes health care, education and recreation; the chief aspect of this sector being that services rendered are designed to change and improve the recipient in some way. Prior to the evolution of services, manufacturers of goods relied more or less entirely on the technical qualities of their products. we had a seller’s market, where manufacturers did not have to offer much in the form of services or other auxiliaries to their customers. They did not seek for the differentiate their offerings from those of their competitors in order to maintain market share and survive,in recent years, massive changes in policy, governance, structure we effect status of education have been taken place. Environmental changes, such as privatization, diversification, decentralization, internationalization and increased competition in education are common. These changes have an effect oh how educational institutions operate nowadays and they are seen as driving forces for the marketing of services products in educational sector.

Marketing of service products is an intangible product, impossible to touch see or feel. The evaluation of the service can be obtained by judging the service content and the service delivery system, fictional sector is one of the most important sector of economy. Many countries are now shifting their economy from manufacturing to services. Researchers and academicians are emphasizing their attention towards Studying services and importance of service offered to educational sector an important consideration since the recent years. Now institutions air trying to evaluate  the   services  provided  and  comparing  these  service  products  with competitors to determine status of competitive advantage. To be competitive, organizations evaluate quality of service offered to all the stakeholders. To see the service quality offered at the educational sector, service quality model given by Parasunnan et al (1988) is widely ace institutions operate nowadays and they are seen as driving forces for the marketing of services products in educational sector.

Marketing of service products is an intangible product, impossible to, see or feel. The evaluation of the service can be obtained by judging the service content and the service delivery system, fictional sector is one of the most important sector of economy. Many countries are now shifting their economy from manufacturing to services. Researchers and academicians are emphasizing their attention towards educational sector. Studying services and importance of service offered to educational sector is an important consideration since the recent years. Now institutions are trying to evaluate  the   services  provided  and  comparing  these  service  products  with competitors to determine status of competitive advantage. To be competitive Organizations evaluate quality of service offered to all the stakeholders. To see the service quality offered at the educational sector, service quality model given by Parasunnan et al (1988) is widely accept institutions operate nowadays and they are seen as driving forces for ‘he marketing of services products in educational sector.

Marketing of service products is an intangible product, impossible *o (quell, sec or feel. The evaluation of the service can be obtained by judging the service content and the service delivery system Llucational sector is one of the most important sector of economy. Many countries are now shifting their economy from manufacturing to services. Researchers and academicians are emphasizing their attention towards educational sector. Studying services and importance of service offered to educational sector is an important consideration since the recent years. Now institutions ate trying lo evaluating the services provided and comparing these privies products with competitors to determine status of competitive advantage. To be competitive, organizations evaluate quality of service offered lo all the stakeholders. To see the service quality offered at the educational sector, service quality model given by Parasurrnan in (1988) is widely accepted, service quality model is consists of five   dimensions   that  is  tangibles,   reliability,   responsiveness,   assurance empathy. Service is characterized by changing patterns of consumption as well as employment and output. Services are those separately identifiable, essentially intangible activities which provide want satisfaction and that, arc not necessarily tied to the sale of a product ‘ii other service. Marketing of service products is any activity or benefit that one party can offer lo another that is essentially intangible and does not result to ownership transfer of anything. Marketing of service products to educational sector fulfills the benefit junco with the help a set of tangible and intangible companies. where buyer of the service does not get any ownership. He may have tangible physicaldance to show for the service exchange transaction but Me fckial benefit :crude to purely intangible in nature. five   dimensions   that  is  tangibles,   reliability,   responsiveness,   assurance empathy. Service is  characterized by  changing patterns  of consumption  ns  well  as employment and output. Services are those separately identifiable, essentially intangible activities which provide want satisfaction and that, arc not necessarily tied to the sale of a product

‘ii other service.

Marketing of service products is any activity or benefit that one party can offer lo another that is essentially intangible and does not result to ownership transfer of Anything. Marketing of service products to educational sector fulfills the benefit with the help a set of tangible and intangible companies . who buyer of the service does not get any ownership. He may have tangible physical dance to show for the service exchange transaction but Me fckial benefit »:crude to purely intangible in nature. marketing of service products to educational sectors is characterized by the following:

Intangible: marketing of service product is intangible in the sense that it is possible to taste, feel, see, hear or smell services. Inseparability: this implies that services cannot be separated from the provider.

Heterogeneity:  services cannot be standardized even though standard may be used.

Perish ability: products rendered in an educational sector cannot be stored, this research work shows how the marketing of service products influences the quality of the education in the educational sector using Imo State University as a ;a>e study. This work also reveals how the marketing mix is applied ip educational services of our higher institutions of learning.                                                                                                                       

1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE CASE STUDY

Imo State University (IMSU) in Owerri, Imo State of Nigeria was established in 1981 through Law No. 4 passed by the Imo State House of Assembly. The university admitted the first intake of 392 pioneer students on October 23, 1981. After the creation of Abia State in 1991, the Ulnru Campus of who university became the Abia State University. Imo State University is a fully functional university. Most of the programmers of the university have obtained foil accreditation from National Universities Commission of Niger. The jcsuH of the 1999/2000 accreditation exercise of National Universities Commission confirmed that high rate and acceptance of the university by the Nigerian public. The university was ranked Ist among all state universities it) Nigeria and the 10th overall among both state and federal universities. The university scooted 100% in 2006 and 2007 accreditation visit, with all programme visited getting accreditation.

3.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

purpose of this study is to examine critically the impact of marketing of •nice products to the quality of education rendered in our educational sector.

“this piece of work will give an insight into the most effective way through which service products can have positive impact on educational sectors. This work will serve as guideline to management of our institutions or even management of various service firms in improving the recipients of (heir services with the efficient receive  they render. this research work will get management and government acquainted with the of services and how it can be applied to achieve academic excellence in our

– Dilutions of higher learning using State University as a case study.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be of immense benefit to the institution under study (lmo State University).   The  findings  and  recommendations   shall   be  beneficial   to  the management of service firms in dealing with the problems relating to marketing office products. This study shall also be useful to scholars and researchers who are interested in carrying out research on the marketing of service product? or-ted topics.

Finally, this work will be of great help to the government in making their plans >and budget estimates concerning educational sectors on yearly basis.                                                                           

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In other to fulfill the objective of this study some workable research question were formulated, tested and used as guide for the study. To what extent do service products enhance the quality of education in our situations of learning?

What is the quality of service tendered in the educational sectors?

Do the skills of the service provider affect the quality of the service provided in the educational sectors/Who me the target customers in the educational sectors?

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

appraise the development and marketing of service products in educational , the following hypothesis has been formulated. The hypothesis involves the null hypothesis (HO) and alternate hypothesis (III). The null hypothesis is bound Rejection when proven wrong and the alternate hypothesis will he accepted. „ Jo: The quality of service products provided for educational sector does not have.

An impact in the attainment of academic excellence.

Hi: The quality of service products provided for the educational sector is a determinant factor to the attainment of academic excellence,

HI-opposite of the null hypothesis you need to state it equally .

There for the opposite null hypothesis directional alternative hypothesis

Finally the null hypothesis is said to be stated when it suggestion has no differences in effects of one or more independent variables on the dependent variable .

The directional alternative hypothesis is said to be directional when it predicts a differences and indicates the expected direction of that difference.

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of this project work was limited to Imo State University, Owerri. This study was limited to this institution because it represents the activities going on in

Every educational sector of the nation. ‘the scope of this .study was limited for effective test and result of the quality of service rendered by the management and

The effectiveness of the services towards the attainment of academic excellence.

EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT AND MARKETING OF SERVICE PRODUCTS

IMPORTANCE OF MARKETING RESEARCH IN ENHANCING THE SERVICE LEVEL OF MANUFACTURING COMPANY

ABSTRACT

The research work examines the IMPORTANCE of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm and to achieve the purpose. Past contributions and the opinions at experts were reviewed. The research design adopted in carrying out this research work is quas – experimental design and the primary data was collected with the aid of questionnaire from ten (10) respondents draw from three small scale firm in Owerri. The data was subsequently analyzed using frequency table and percentages via analysis of variance solution software package (SPSS). After critically analyzing the data, the following were the findings that there is a significant relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm and secondly moderating factors do interfere in the relationship between marketing COMPANY and recommendations were made, that firm should be enlightened on the IMPORTANCE of marketing research and how it attest marketing performance positively, adapt in order to have an edge over technological tools to suit current market situation. The IMPORTANCE of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm (A case study of some selected manufacturing firm in Owerri Metropolis).

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Nigerian economy for long has been characterized with little wonder, Nigeria is often known as a reseller market. The few manufacturing firm still operating are either muiti-national cooperation or government establishment. This scenario has adversely affected the Nigeria economy to an extend. It has become dumping ground for other countries.

Although a lot of economics reform programms were initiated in Nigeria to make the manufacturing industry vibrant and allow infant industries to grow, such programms were never sustained to the later due to political instability and mismanagement of funds by stakeholders. Nevertheless, the recent programmes of the federal government has given hope to the manufacturing COMPANY or industry as small and medium scale manufacturing firm are gradually emerging everywhere.

However, due to mildness and inexperience of the infant manufacturing firm, there has been a continuous cry of out consumers of low quality products and service. The major reason for this poor performance has been attributed to the lack of marketing research by large cooperation in Nigeria.

Marketing research plays a vital role in the success of every business entity. Expect believe that marketing research is the main pilot of commercialization.

Kotler (200) defined marketing research as the systematic and objective identification, collection and analysis and dissemination of information for the purpose of assisting management in decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing. Armstrong (2004) defined marketing research as the function that links the marketer to the consumer and the public through information. He further said that marketing research is used to define and identify marketing opportunities and problems to generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; to monitor marketing performance and to improve understanding of the marketing process from the above definition of marketing research, it is assumed that marketing research is a discipline approach to problem and prospect of ensuring efficiency and portability in any firm.

1.2STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

With the recent proliferation of small and medium scale enterprises in major cities Nigeria is sure to become an industrialized economy in the next decades. If these enterprise are given the necessary support (security, fund, expertise, conducive environment and industry protection) by the government.

Nevertheless, the manufacturing industry just as the financial sector has suffered enough economic crisis and the result is evident in the quality of service provided by COMPANY in this sector. In spite of the presence of  regulatory such as Nigeria standard organization (NSO), National agency for food and drug administration and control (NAFDAC) and consumerist the quality of products and service rendered by manufacturers is on the decline. This decline is on the evidence of the negligence of COMPANY to properly determine and fill in the need and wants of consumers.

This shows that marketing research has not this been properly embraced in this industry or by manufactures despite valuable studies and write up of experts, all shows that the contribution/benefits of marketing research to the success of business organization is immense.

In fact, most managers and elite nurse are of the note that marketing research have no value in developing nation like Nigeria, and that has been one major reason for this negligence.

As a result, this study was embarked upon to investigate the extend of relationship between  marketing research and the service level delivered by small and medium scale manufacturing firm in Imo State.

1.3PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This study has its major purpose of investigating the extend of investigating the extend of relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm. The study also examines the following specific objectives.

1.       Whether marketing research is conducting in the manufacturing industry.

2.       The extend to which marketing research is conducted.

3.       The extend of qualification of the personnel.

4.       The extend to which marketing research tools (Research plan, data collection, and analysis instrument) are validated.

5.       How frequently is marketing research conducted by manufactures?

6.       The extend to which manufactures (management) implement their research findings.

7.       Whether marketing research contributes significantly to the performance / growth of the manufacturing industry.

8.       How frequently are the marketing research personnel exposed to exposed to training and motivation.

9.       Whether moderating variables interfere in the relationship between marketing research and service level desired by manufacturers

1.4RESEARCH QUESTION

1.    What is the extend of relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing COMPANY in Imo State?

2.    Do small scales firm carry out marketing research?

3.    How frequently is marketing research carried out by manufacturers?

4.    To what extend do manufacturers validate their marketing research tools before conducting a research

5.    To what extend do manufacturers execute the findings of a research study?

6.    Does marketing research contribute significantly to the performance of the manufacturing industry in Imo State?

7.    Do moderating variables interfere in the relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm?

1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study has it’s main significance to enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm among which are the benefit derived by the sponsoring companies and it’s customers when marketing research is properly used.

Secondly, it helps the firm to make better marketing decisions, which inturns results in product and services that better meets the need of the consumers. Marketing research also provides the information that links marketer with their customers, and the background needed to make effective decision on a wide range of issues.

Also marketing research is very vital in the aspect of employment opportunities. That is it service as a means of employment opportunities there by improving or enhancing the economic stand of the country.

Finally, through marketing research, companies learn more about consumers; need result in more resulting products and services.

1.6SCPOE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

The research works covers the goal, strategies and implementation of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm.

The research work encountered some short coming in trying to get some necessary information and materials for successful completion some of which are.

Time Constraint: the time that was given for the research work was not sufficient enough for a through work to be carried out.

Financial Constraint: the short of funds limited the researcher to only three small manufacturing COMPANY in Owerri metropolis and also restriction to printing and administrating questions to selected few among which are the wholesaler and customers of the firm ORANISATIONAL BUREAUCRACY

THE EFFORTS TO COLLECT ALL THE NEEDED DATA FROM THE MANAGEMENT AND STAFF OF THE SMALL MANUFACTURING FIRM IN Owerri metropolis was not very easy because of their official protocol and organizational bureaucracy.

1.7OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Marketing Research: This is a systematic and formal process of obtaining, collating, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting the findings relevant to specific marketing problems.

Marketing: It is the human activity which involves identifying and satisfying human wants and needs through the exchange process.

Research: This is a systematic orderly service for solution to a problem. It is finding out about something so as to sort out   solution.

Marketing Research: It is the study on itself in a particular service advertisement to determine it’s effectiveness on a target audience.

SMALL SCALE ORGANISATION

It is an organist or acting on it’s belief on a particular business that can be started with less that 100 employee and the minimum of N750,000 and the maximum of N500,000

Service: it is anything of benefit that one party can offer to another, it is essentially intangible and does not involve in the ownership of anything.

Product: A product is anything that can be offered to a marketing for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that can satisfy a need or want.

Price: It is one of the marketing mix (4p’s) this is the value agreed upon by the members in the exchange  process. It is the means that allow product or service to get value in the eyes of both the buyers and the sellers.

Satisfaction: Generic belief or pleasures someone derives from consuming a given product or service.

Manufacturing Sector: These are segments of the economy that engages in the production and distribution of goods for human consumption.

Conceptual Framework: A conceptual framework is a moderation techniques in which participant are asked to place the names of product or services on a grid. It also means how item are ground on diagram to stimulate discussion or use.

IMPORTANCE OF MARKETING RESEARCH IN ENHANCING THE SERVICE LEVEL OF MANUFACTURING COMPANY

MARKET SEMENTATION AS AN EFFICIENT TOOL OF ACHIEVING INCREASED MARKET SHARE

ABSTRACT

This main aim of business is to seek, attract and retain customers who will use the company various products to meet their needs or solve their problems. Successful service organization must therefore understand how customers view services and in what ways it presents a different advantage relative to the company’s offering. Therefore the main objective of this study is to determine the efficiently of market segmentation in increasing market share of a company. The research questions were asked, problems identified and objectives set. At the same time some existing literature on the subject matter was reviewed while a pattern was followed to gather and analysis the data collected. Eight research questions were formulated which guided the study. The analysis is presented by the sue of table, sample percentage to enable one to have an overview. Some of their findings principles were based on the increased in sales of the organization product and determining the efficiency of market segmentation which depends on the managers getting what they want from planning. To change the minds of non-user of market segmentation, organizations and management should know that the planning as rewards. Also management should try to identify each managers needs and expectations so as to increase their moral and planning performances. Based on this study some conclusions were drawn from the findings and they include, organizations should maintain an effective plan, provide a good planning and working environment, pay fair and adequate salaries and also encourage the management. Theoretical research needs to be carried out by other researchers to find out the efficiency of market segmentation in achieving increase market share of the company. Conclusively, the factors mentioned above can make management to be satisfied with planning and more rewarding to the manager and society.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

7up plc was introduced by a Lebanese called Mr. Mohammed Elkhail as a business man, he came to Nigeria in 1926 and trade on household and Kitchen utensils. He also owned later one of the biggest transporting company in West Africa. He went into soft drink business as a kind expansion in 1959, and subsequently introduced 7up bottling company now plc.

The location of the 7up first plant was at Ijora in Lagos now the head quarter where the first bottle of 7up was produced in 1960. also on that day, a total of fourteen crates were produced.

The Ibadan, Ikeja, Kano, Kadunna and Aba plant were opened between 1980 till 1989. also till date more plant have been opened across the country including many depots.

Due to the location of their depots act many place in the country, it was very easy for them with the help their good marketing strategies to enhance distribution across the country penetrating the areas their products were not available.

Finally, the company’s brands of soft drink include 7up, Pepsi Cola, mirinda orange, Mirinda soda, mirinda fruity and maintain dew which was must introduced.

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

No where has business practice been more effected than by the growing consumer demand for variety. The relatively homogenous market of less affluent time could be satisfied with limited product offerings. Increasing purchasing power, however, caused markets to become more heterogeneous and to demand greater advice.

Recognition of this change led to wide acceptance of market segmentation. (Encyclopedia of professional management 1995) in Awa, (2003: 291).

During the decade of the 1930’s the work of Rebonson and chamber line resulted in a revitalization of economic theory. While classical and neoclassical theory provided a useful framework for economic analysis, the theories of perfect competition and pure monopoly had become inadequate as explanations of the comtempony business scene. The theory of perfect competition assumes homogeneity among the component of both the demand diversity and hetero genetic had come to be rule rather than the exception. The reasons for the presence of market segmentation in specific market are many and includes the following:

1.      The specialized or superior resources enjoyed by favourably situated manufacturers.

2.      Variations in producer’s estimates of the nature of market demand with reference to such maters as price sensitivity, colour, materials or package size.

3.      Variations in production equipment and methods or process used by different manufactures of products designed for the same or similar uses.

Because of these and other factors, both planned and uncontrollable difference exist in the product of an industry. As a result, sellers make different appeals in support of their marketing efforts.

As amongst the manufacturers, goals are to satisfy the needs of the consumer, having in mind that no two consumers behave alike although they may have similar be avoid characteristics like:

1.   Buying status; potential;, first time regular

2.   Usage rate

3.   Purchase procedure: seated bids negotiation etc.

Also industrial market might be segmented on the location of the company types. The fact that not every consumer patroness the same retail outlet during each purchase occasions and do not consume a particular product with the same consumption  rate; does not entirely limit the income but will help a producer earn an increase in market share. By segmenting of market into more targeted buyers or groups of buyers, it will be able to grow the existing sales and build news sales, and grow them without cutting price, thereby increasing market share.

Therefore, in other to stay in business, firms ought to recognize the marketing philosophy which says “consumers are the economic and social justification of business existence” (Anozie 2003:28).

Conclusively, segmentation of market into different units is regards the need of the consumer would attract more sales and thereby increase market share which means the proportion or percentage of sales of a particular product or services in given region that are controlled by a company. Market share determines the competitive strength of business in a sector to another.

As in the case of 7-up bottling computer, the strategy of market segmentation is employed.

BRIEF HISTORY OF 7UP BOTTLING COMPANY IS THUS:

       7up plc was introduced by a Lebanese called Mr. Mchammed Elkhahit, as a business man, he came to Nigeria in 1926 and trade on household and kitchen utensils. He also owned later one of the biggest transporting company in West Africa. He went into soft drink business as a kind of expansion in 1959, and subsequently introduced 7up first bottling company now plc.

       The location of the 7up first plant was at Ijora in Lagos now the head quarter where the first bottle of 7up was produced in 1960. Also on day, a total of fourteen crates were produced.

The Ibadan, Ikeja, Kano, Kaduna and Aba plant were opened between 1980 till 1989. also till date more plants have been opened across the country including many depots.

Due to the location of their depots act many places in the country, it was very easy for them with the help of their good marketing strategies to enhance distribution across the country penetrating the areas where their products were not available.

       Finally, the company’s brands of soft drinks include 7up, Pepsi cola, Miranda Orange. Miranda Soda, Miranda fruity, teen lemon, and maintain dew which was just introduced.

1.2STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Most organizes, firms, industries or companies find it difficult to increase their market share in a competitive economy and as such the researcher wants to empirically investigate the efficiency of market segmentation as a tool for achieving increased market share

1.3OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

Based on the background of the study, the major objectives market share.

1.    To determine the efficiency of market segmentation in increasing market share.

2.    To determine the usefulness of market segmentation to a company.

3.    To determine the significance of market share

4.    To differentiate the different levels of market segmentation

5.    To ascertain the requirements of market segmentation.

6.    To find the extent to which organization adopt market segmentation.

7.    To make necessary recommendation and suggestions to the possible solution of the problems of market segmentation

1.4RESEARCH QUESTION

This study aims at giving answer to some of te questions below:

1.   Can segmentation help to achieve an organization goal?

2.   Is market segmentation an efficiency toll of achieving an increased market share?

3.   In competitive economy, can market share determine the supremacy of organization?

4.   Could the research on segmentation of the market increase the standard of the organization?

5.   Do you think that market segmentation has an effect on organization revenue?

1.5THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This work exports thee efficiency, effectiveness and usefulness of market segmentation in the increasing of the market share of a company and as such will be of immense benefit to this group.

A.    THE RESEARCHER: It will assist him in pointing out the importance of market segmentation which is derived from the desire to satisfy the interest of the consumer with a profit.

B.    7UP BOTTLING COMPANY PLC: It will assist them to know that the effect of marketing segmentation in the market share increment is the first phase of strategic planning.

C.    SOCIETY: The study of market segmentation will help the larger society in a competitive economy, since market share in very important to economy.

1.6THE SCOPE OF STUDY

The range of his is directed towards the efficiency of  market segmentation to increasing market share in 7up bottling company plc. Although, the researcher tends to narrow the research to 7upo bottling in Aba.

1.7LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The researcher was confronted with the following constant in the cause of this enquires.

1.   Time factor due to the time frame under which the study must be completed, there was no much time to visit most of the department of Nigeria breweries plc for interview as a result of this the coverage is the limited.

2.   Finance for the lack of finance the research was unable to carry out the research to its satisfaction.

3.   Human factors the manager in marketing department of Nigeria breweries plc who was suppose to give me the necessary information needed was always out for one assignment or the other.

1.8DEFINITION OF TERMS:

a.     MARKMET:-[he actual and for potential buyers of a product or service. It is an aggregate of a people who have needs for products or services, the ability, wittiness and purchasing power of such product/service.

b.     SEGMENTATION:-The process of dividing a heterogeneous market into homogenous units. It is also the identification of portions of the market that are different from one other.

c.     HETEROGENOUS:- This is when something is made of different kinds, like we have different kinds of market.

d.     HOMOGENOUS:- This is a segment of the total market which is made up of individual with the same set of needs of specific product class.

MARKET SEMENTATION AS AN EFFICIENT TOOL OF ACHIEVING INCREASED MARKET SHARE

AN EVALUATION OF SALES PROMOTION IN INCREASING THE LEVELS OF NETWORK PATRONAGE IN THE TELECOMS INDUSTRY

ABSTRACT

The study examined sales promotion as a persuasive activity hence is the direct and indirect communication used by firms to influence present and potential customers fro the purpose of making sales. This study was in the main time, exploratory and descriptive. Data were collected on source specific objective adopted for the resources. Data collection method employed primary sources eg personal interviews and questionnaire and secondary data example books, newspaper and so on. These data were analyzed with some simple statistical looks such as percentage tables and significant level. The study also considered whether ‘advertising medium message to the target audience among others. It was known that the philosophy of the company mobile Telecommunication Network Nigeria limited Aba promotion is not different from what other marketing

• companies have been practicing. Sales promotion has great influence in the buying behaviour of customers. Most industries in Nigeria have riot yet embraced full promotional consciousness. Effective sales promotion could help companies to survive the stifle competition in business, operation.

 CHAPTER ONE

1.0.INTRODUCTION

It has been discovered that sales promotion as one of promotional tools, it is very important to mobile phone industries such as MTN Uyo.

       This project/research work evaluate the impact of sales promotion on the choice and use of mobile phone times when sales promotion is carried out.

       This research work will be benefit to the firm in study (MTN) customers and public at large. This is because, at the end at this research work and interested person or the firm will see how sales promotion affect the sales of mobile phone times.

       The research himself is of great interest is the study because of the prevailing sales promotion going or the communication sector.

1.1.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This has to do with the situation analysis of the firm in question via MTN Uyo. It is also known as SWOT analysis which, constitutes the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of the firm. Therefore, the research want to find out the relationship between sales promotion and the service of MTN UYO.

       MTN Uyo has been trying in the area of sales promotion and this has marked up the sales of MTN Lines (SIM PACK). But the researcher observes that MTN Uyo should continuously embark on sales promotion in order to retain its world market share.

       In the same vein, it have been observed that other mobile phone industries such as Celtel and Globalcom are up and coming in the area of sales promotion.

This means that there is shift competition existing in the market of mobile phones lines. It was also the adventure of sale promotional campaign that has made the former monopolist (NITEL) in communication to lose its market share.

       MTN Uyo should identify new market opportunity by studying the buying behaviour and needs of consumer on coming up with the necessary sales promotion. In achieving this goals, such question should be administered, who are the customers, what do the want; how and where do they want it, who are the potential and buyer; why are they not ready to buy; how much will they want to buy and at what profit to the firm.

       A question arose, whether advertising have not achieved the aim of increased sales in MTN lines (SIM PACK). The answer tot his is (not even extent). Advertising was pivotal way of making increased sales but nowadays it doesn’t work like sales promotion.

       Little wonder why Stanton (1991) defined sales promotion as activities other than personal selling, advertising, publicity that stimulates consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness such as displays, shows, exhibitions and demonstration.

       The market of MTN lines (SIM PACK) constitutes the public at large with dynamic nature. It becomes necessary to embark on sales promotion incentives.

       One may ask how far sales promotion can go to ensure an increased sale of mobile phone lines. It is therefore n the course of answering this question that prompted the researcher to embark on this research work.

1.2.STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

The pivotal aim of very research work is to solve problems deleting to the study. There are variable that affect the full administration of sales promotion in this mobile phone industry (MTN) such variable are programme timing, programme design appreciation of sale promotion by customers and the channel of reaching the target market with sales promotional programmes.

       One may ask why Nitel is at the of communication today. It is because of the application of marketing concept and the affore-mentioned sales promotional activities.

       Therefore, the research observes the problems as follows:

i.            Lack of sales promoting programme timing.

ii.           Inadequacy of formulating programme design stragies which is general towards achieving a positive response from customer during sales promotional campaign

iii.         Valueless and unapplication of sales promotion incentives by customers.

The above problems will be investigated by the researcher so as to proffer solutions to them at end of this research work.

1.3.STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVE

The general research objective is to evaluate the impact of sales promotion on the sales of mobile phone lines.

       The study in specific term seeks to;

Find out the extend customer appreciate the value incentives use in sales promotion campaigns.

Investigate the effect of sales programme timing on the success of sales promotional programmes and strategies in MTN.

Measure the effect of programme design on the achievement of the objectives of sales promotional campaigns.

Identify the factors limiting against the application of sales promotion as a method pf increasing customer patronage.

Suggestion and recommend how best to apply sales promotional programmes

1.4.RESREACH QUESTION

This is the objective of the study produce in question from the following questions have been found relevant by the researcher as a tool of achieving of this research work. They are;

i.            What is the relationship between effective sales promotional programme and increase in sales volume in the mobile phone industry (MTN)?

ii.           What is the relationship between programme design and sales promotion campaign objective attainment?

iii.         What is the extent to which customers appreciate and value sales promotion incentives of what effect are the channel used to reach the customer on the sales promotional programme?

1.5.SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

Significance from it denotation is the importance of the study.t his research will be of benefit to the following set of people:

i.            Users/Customers/ Market of GSM Phone

ii.           Operators / mobile phone industry

iii.         The public

It is the customers that benefit most in the sales promotion. This is because it reduce the price of MTN lines, considering the incentives associating sales promotion.

       To the MTN industry, it is of great important , the organization will have to know the following; timing of sales promotion programme, effectiveness of continuous sales promotion, designing of promotional campaigns.

       Since communication have take a wide space in our society anything the society.

1.6.LIMITATION OF STUDY

This is concerned with the problem encountered in this research work. The problems are:

Time: the time given to the researcher to embark on this study starting from the day of approval wasn’t enough because as a student in ND II Marketing, I have yet another eleven courses to study.

Finance: this research work was hampered by financial problem such as typing, cost of transportation.

Response: some of the respondent view couldn’t respond positively. Other failed to return their questionnaire to the researcher because of one reason or the other.

1.7.DEFINITION OF TERM

Under this heading, terms used in the research work writing will be explained briefly

SWOT: this means strength, weakness, opportunity and threat. It is a feature of situation analysis.

Market share: the percentages of customers a firm has in the total market.

Potential buyers: those that have not started buying the product of a firm.

NITEL: Nigerian Telecommunication

INCENTIVE: something that is given to someone (customer) that encourage him to do something (buy).

Respondent: person who answers question

Monopolist: the only producer and seller of a product

Marketing Concept: a concept that based on customer orientation. It is a concept that makes consumer the king.

Rebate: an amount of money deduct from the cost of something.

AN EVALUATION OF SALES PROMOTION IN INCREASING THE LEVELS OF NETWORK PATRONAGE IN THE TELECOMS INDUSTRY

THE RELEVANCE OF MARKETING RESEARCH IN ENHANCING THE SERVICE LEVEL OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS

ABSTRACT

The research work examines the relevance of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm and to achieve the purpose. Past contributions and the opinions at experts were reviewed. The research design adopted in carrying out this research work is quas – experimental design and the primary data was collected with the aid of questionnaire from ten (10) respondents draw from three small scale firm in Owerri. The data was subsequently analyzed using frequency table and percentages via analysis of variance solution software package (SPSS). After critically analyzing the data, the following were the findings that there is a significant relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm and secondly moderating factors do interfere in the relationship between marketing firms and recommendations were made, that firm should be enlightened on the relevance of marketing research and how it attest marketing performance positively, adapt in order to have an edge over technological tools to suit current market situation. The relevance of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm (A case study of some selected manufacturing firm in Owerri Metropolis).

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

Marketing research involves conducting report to support marketing activities and the statistical interpretation of data into information. This information is then used by managers to plan marketing activities, gauge the nature of firm marketing environment and attain information from supplier. Marketing researchers uses statistical method such as qualitative research, quantitative research, hypothesis test chi- squared test, linear regression, correlation, frequency distribution etc to interpreter their findings and convert data into information.

The marketing research process spans a number of stages including the definition of problem development of research plan, collection and interpretation of data and disseminating information formally in the form of a report. The task of marketing research is to provide management with relevant, accurate, reliable, valid and current information.

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Nigerian economy for long has been characterized with little wonder, Nigeria is often known as a reseller market. The few manufacturing firm still operating are either muiti-national cooperation or government establishment. This scenario has adversely affected the Nigeria economy to an extend. It has become dumping ground for other countries.

Although a lot of economics reform programms were initiated in Nigeria to make the manufacturing industry vibrant and allow infant industries to grow, such programms were never sustained to the later due to political instability and mismanagement of funds by stakeholders. Nevertheless, the recent programmes of the federal government has given hope to the manufacturing firms or industry as small and medium scale manufacturing firm are gradually emerging everywhere.

However, due to mildness and inexperience of the infant manufacturing firm, there has been a continuous cry of out consumers of low quality products and service. The major reason for this poor performance has been attributed to the lack of marketing research by large cooperation in Nigeria.

Marketing research plays a vital role in the success of every business entity. Expect believe that marketing research is the main pilot of commercialization.

Kotler (200) defined marketing research as the systematic and objective identification, collection and analysis and dissemination of information for the purpose of assisting management in decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing. Armstrong (2004) defined marketing research as the function that links the marketer to the consumer and the public through information. He further said that marketing research is used to define and identify marketing opportunities and problems to generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; to monitor marketing performance and to improve understanding of the marketing process from the above definition of marketing research, it is assumed that marketing research is a discipline approach to problem and prospect of ensuring efficiency and portability in any firm.

1.2STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

With the recent proliferation of small and medium scale enterprises in major cities Nigeria is sure to become an industrialized economy in the next decades. If these enterprise are given the necessary support (security, fund, expertise, conducive environment and industry protection) by the government.

Nevertheless, the manufacturing industry just as the financial sector has suffered enough economic crisis and the result is evident in the quality of service provided by firms in this sector. In spite of the presence of  regulatory such as Nigeria standard organization (NSO), National agency for food and drug administration and control (NAFDAC) and consumerist the quality of products and service rendered by manufacturers is on the decline. This decline is on the evidence of the negligence of firms to properly determine and fill in the need and wants of consumers.

This shows that marketing research has not this been properly embraced in this industry or by manufactures despite valuable studies and write up of experts, all shows that the contribution/benefits of marketing research to the success of business organization is immense.

In fact, most managers and elite nurse are of the note that marketing research have no value in developing nation like Nigeria, and that has been one major reason for this negligence.

As a result, this study was embarked upon to investigate the extend of relationship between  marketing research and the service level delivered by small and medium scale manufacturing firm in Imo State.

1.3PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This study has its major purpose of investigating the extend of investigating the extend of relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm. The study also examines the following specific objectives.

1.       Whether marketing research is conducting in the manufacturing industry.

2.       The extend to which marketing research is conducted.

3.       The extend of qualification of the personnel.

4.       The extend to which marketing research tools (Research plan, data collection, and analysis instrument) are validated.

5.       How frequently is marketing research conducted by manufactures?

6.       The extend to which manufactures (management) implement their research findings.

7.       Whether marketing research contributes significantly to the performance / growth of the manufacturing industry.

8.       How frequently are the marketing research personnel exposed to exposed to training and motivation.

9.       Whether moderating variables interfere in the relationship between marketing research and service level desired by manufacturers

1.4RESEARCH QUESTION

1.    What is the extend of relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firms in Imo State?

2.    Do small scales firm carry out marketing research?

3.    How frequently is marketing research carried out by manufacturers?

4.    To what extend do manufacturers validate their marketing research tools before conducting a research

5.    To what extend do manufacturers execute the findings of a research study?

6.    Does marketing research contribute significantly to the performance of the manufacturing industry in Imo State?

7.    Do moderating variables interfere in the relationship between marketing research and the service level of manufacturing firm?

1.5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study has it’s main significance to enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm among which are the benefit derived by the sponsoring companies and it’s customers when marketing research is properly used.

Secondly, it helps the firm to make better marketing decisions, which inturns results in product and services that better meets the need of the consumers. Marketing research also provides the information that links marketer with their customers, and the background needed to make effective decision on a wide range of issues.

Also marketing research is very vital in the aspect of employment opportunities. That is it service as a means of employment opportunities there by improving or enhancing the economic stand of the country.

Finally, through marketing research, companies learn more about consumers; need result in more resulting products and services.

1.6SCPOE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

The research works covers the goal, strategies and implementation of marketing research in enhancing the service level of manufacturing firm.

The research work encountered some short coming in trying to get some necessary information and materials for successful completion some of which are.

Time Constraint: the time that was given for the research work was not sufficient enough for a through work to be carried out.

Financial Constraint: the short of funds limited the researcher to only three small manufacturing firms in Owerri metropolis and also restriction to printing and administrating questions to selected few among which are the wholesaler and customers of the firm ORANISATIONAL BUREAUCRACY

THE EFFORTS TO COLLECT ALL THE NEEDED DATA FROM THE MANAGEMENT AND STAFF OF THE SMALL MANUFACTURING FIRM IN Owerri metropolis was not very easy because of their official protocol and organizational bureaucracy.

1.7OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Marketing Research: This is a systematic and formal process of obtaining, collating, analyzing, interpreting, and reporting the findings relevant to specific marketing problems.

Marketing: It is the human activity which involves identifying and satisfying human wants and needs through the exchange process.

Research: This is a systematic orderly service for solution to a problem. It is finding out about something so as to sort out   solution.

Marketing Research: It is the study on itself in a particular service advertisement to determine it’s effectiveness on a target audience.

SMALL SCALE ORGANISATION

It is an organist or acting on it’s belief on a particular business that can be started with less that 100 employee and the minimum of N750,000 and the maximum of N500,000

Service: it is anything of benefit that one party can offer to another, it is essentially intangible and does not involve in the ownership of anything.

Product: A product is anything that can be offered to a marketing for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that can satisfy a need or want.

Price: It is one of the marketing mix (4p’s) this is the value agreed upon by the members in the exchange  process. It is the means that allow product or service to get value in the eyes of both the buyers and the sellers.

Satisfaction: Generic belief or pleasures someone derives from consuming a given product or service.

Manufacturing Sector: These are segments of the economy that engages in the production and distribution of goods for human consumption.

Conceptual Framework: A conceptual framework is a moderation techniques in which participant are asked to place the names of product or services on a grid. It also means how item are ground on diagram to stimulate discussion or use.

THE RELEVANCE OF MARKETING RESEARCH IN ENHANCING THE SERVICE LEVEL OF MANUFACTURING FIRMS

AN ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND CARTOONS AS COMMUNICATION INSTRUMENTS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

            No branch of journalism requires so much knowledge and skill than picture reporting. The industrial revolution played a significant role in the development of press photography according to (Gelnshain, 2002), the first book with lithographic illustration (pictures) appeared in 1840. The photographs were selected on the basis of the criteria of in testing subjects, which stabilizes presentation. After this pioneering indeed, two publications, London labour and the London poor, appeared in British critical study.  the use of photographs as a graphical presentation started with books, according to peter (2009.p,6) the application of this experience in periodical came; surprisingly fast in May, 1842. This was when Herbet Ingram founded the famous illustrated London news. The publication relied heavily on pictorial information.

            According to Anderson (2014.p,140) Photojournalism is an arm of journalism that uses images to tell stories and report events. It is different from other forms of photography such as commercial, Architecture and industrial photography. This could be seen in its adherence to certain journalism norms like News, Timeliness Objectivity, fairness and accurate representation of the events.

            Photojournalism involves the use of camera to record events as they happen. Like a news reporter, a photojournalist is a reporter but he or she writes with camera and disseminates news events through images. Photojournalists use pictures to tell stories interpret event and communicate their feelings about the society as Journalists hoping for a better society (Harding, 2012).

            The advent of photographs mechanically printed into newspapers opened up market for press photography. Pictures were mostly taken for their action and content rather than any aesthetic consideration. Today, they are used in the newspapers for different reasons. The other factor was the introduction, by George Eastman, of small cameras in use at that time. Thus, convenient cameras gave photojournalists the freedom to record news events easily and quickly. The technological advancement enabled them to also take pictures which were previously impossible to take such as night and moving images.  One of the foremost photojournalist was a Frenchman, Henri Cartier –Bresson, who from 1930 to 2004 worked to document what he called the “decisive moment”. Cartier-Bresson believed that the dynamics in any given situation eventually reach a peak, at which a photographer will capture the most powerful image possible.

            Photojournalists have become visual interpreters, using their cameras and knowledge to bring readers a feeling of what an event was really like. Meanwhile, in the past, the photojournalist depended on artists to draw replicas of his photograph, which was later reproduced by an engraver into a Zinc plate, (Aliagan, 2006). The plate was then printed on a Hoe rotary press. Due to the long process, several days passed before these line-drawn renderings of photographs appeared on the front-page of the newspaper.

            The growth of photography and photojournalism can be traced to two major factors that occurred near the end of the 19th century. The first is the technical innovation. This includes the invention of roll film, smaller cameras, faster lens and the perfection of the half tone process of printing photographs as a series of light and dark dots which allowed newspaper publishers to reproduce photographs quickly and inexpensively.

            Photographs in Journalism inform, educate and enlighten readers about current issues and also reflect on the past as well. Photographs in Newspaper enhance the credibility of the stories. As they depict reality, they also furnish evidence to show the authenticity of a news story or give proof of an event that occurred. Its aesthetic values enable a photograph to serve as a tool to attract reader’s attention and break the monotony of news content. Thus, photographs enhance and beautify the pages of a newspaper (Gervais, 2005). Beyond the active construction in the creation of the image in front of the camera, photo editing in programs like Adobe Photoshop are almost roundly rejected by ethics in photojournalism. This issue can be debated, but standard photo post-production elements such as smoothing out wrinkles on a person’s face, enhancing the colors of a location, or changing the contrast could all be considered clear violations of ethics in photojournalism. There have been many major cases in recent years of photojournalists being let go from major publications for the most minor alterations during photo editing. An example of this could be a color alteration to a photo where the sky color could be changed. This change in sky color could indicate or diminish the appearance of pollution, it could change the interpretation of the season, and it could even shift the perspective of the subjects Bose, (2002). All of these changes would be the anti-thesis of the structure of the photojournalist project and would violate it on a critical level. Photo editing can be used in certain situations, but it should remain incredibly minor if it wants to fit the strict ethical standards that have been associated with photojournalism.

            A photograph in Newspaper speaks more than a thousand words. No formal education is required to understand a picture. Photographs are therefore able to break through literacy barrier to effectively communicate a message. It is a universal language.

            Cartoons are non verbal graphic communication channels that express the opinions, views and findings of a media organization. They are used to advance an opinion in funny ways and are often based on current, burning and topical issues. They are used basically to educate, inform and entertain the audience by the print media (Emi, 2008).

            Also, the need for investigative journalism has placed emphasis on the watchdog role of newspaper due to the fact that there are two sides of human namely: the godly and the animalistic side of human to behave in good manners but the animalistic side of the human is the evil side which can be seen in different wrong doings or atrocities of man.

            It also shows the human urge to dominate, satisfy base instincts of huger, wealth acquisition and their evil or erotic desires. Human beings are expected to be rational but their rationality cannot always guarantee good conduct because most times, the animalistic tendencies in them prevail. Hence the needs for mass media to expose evil and t bring perpetrators to justice so that the human societies do not become the animal kingdom and full of evil.

            There is also the need to check the excesses of the powerful or privileged people against the less privileged ones to hold rulers accountable to their people to bring about social reforms to expose crime and other wrong doings and to act as voice for the voiceless etc. (Aina 2001).

            Also, the belief in the saying that Nigeria is one of the most corrupt nation of the world is not an exaggeration. International organizations have consistently testified to this undeniable fact to confirm the claims of these organizations, the country has witnessed different types of corrupt practices. This must have baffled the past regime led by chief Olusegun Obasajo so much that he thought it is necessary to establish organizations that could fight corrupt practices among citizens two of these organization are independent corrupt practice commission (ICPC) and the Economic and Financial crimes commission (EECC). After operating for few years, many have come to describe these as an organization of toothless bulldog.

            The only organizations that Nigerians can fall back on or depends on, is the press which has been battling corruption with its in-depth news reporting opinion, comments, editorial, editorial cartoon etc.

            Watson, (2008) Says that the media is prominent among the public arbiters for our behavior. Many have also found cartoons on newspaper to be equally up to the task of acting as the society watchdog. This is what the researcher hopes to answer.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

            The study will examine the effects and significance of crime illustration in enhancing the role of newspaper cartoons as watchdog in the society.

            It is to ascertain the impact of comic illustration on readers and the level to which cartoons have acted as watchdog of the society.

AN ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND CARTOONS AS COMMUNICATION INSTRUMENTS

BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP IN AN ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Companies are increasingly focused on managing customer relationships because it explicitly recognizes the long-run value of potential and current customers, and seeks to increase revenues, profits, and shareholder value through targeted marketing activities directed toward developing, maintaining, and enhancing successful company-customer relationships (Berry, 1983; Morgan and Hunt, 1994; Gronroos, 1990). The activities involved in customer relationship building require an in-depth understanding of the underlying sources of value the firm both derives from customers and delivers to them.

While retaining customer loyalty has been a sales and marketing principle for quiet a long time, Customer Relationship is actually a tremendous step forward in creating a system that can provide a means for retaining individual loyalty in a world of about 6 billion population (Croteau & Li, 2001). Greenberg (2001) stated that in order to understand how to build a sustainable customer relationship, you must also understand the changing nature of the customer because customers are not what they used to be. Khalifa and Liu (2001) noted that, a survey of more than 1,600 businesses and IT professionals conducted by the Data Warehouse Institute, found that, some of the respondents have various methods of managing customer relationship. This finding indicates that customer management is very important for organizations. The Cap Gemini further added that, the average total investment in customer management by 300 U.S and European companies was $3.1 million. More than 69% of the companies surveyed spent less than $ 5 million and more than 13% of the companies spent over $10 million (Sterne, 2000). This finding also indicates that a great number of companies spend great amount of their budget on customer management and therefore in the researcher’s opinion, it is believed that it is important for various business organization to know the objectives of their customer management initiatives and the type of benefits these organizations intend to derive from them. A survey of 300 companies conducted at a customer management conference concluded that customer management is not a cheap, easy, or fast solution. Mooney (2000) further added that, more than two-thirds of customer management projects end up in failure.

However, he went further to say that, the successful third could obtain up to 75% return on investment.

Thompson (2004) found four broad factors that were driving 72% of the return on investment (ROI) of customer relationship. They were: Customer-centric strategy, frontline training and support, organization change, and appropriate use of metrics. These findings again support the fact that the actual objectives of customer relationship initiatives and the benefits should be ascertained. This further support the statement by Balaji and Alexander (2003) that the purpose of customer relationship is to identify, acquire, serve and retain profitable customers by interacting with them in an integrated way across a range of communication channels. Swift (2001) also describes analytical electronic customer management as a four-step interactive process consisting of collecting and integrating online customer data, analyzing this data, building interactions with customers based on this data are optimized, and measuring the effectiveness of these interactions in terms of these performance. According to Thompson (2004) customer relationship is a business strategy to acquire, grow and retain profitable customer relationships, with the goal of creating a profitable organization.

1.2   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Evaluations of customer relationship and business behavior often qualify these initiatives as both the greatest force and the greatest weakness of companies. Skeptic people usually say that customer relationships initiatives of companies has no real meaning; moreover, it is a marketing trick. Optimistic people trust in improvement of companies’ behaviour in relation to good customer relationships and environment requirements. Consumers are increasingly ready to buy products of companies, which adopt better customer relationships program, and to work for these companies. However, the researcher is providing an overview on ways to build sustainable customer relationship in an organization.

1.3   OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives of this study:

1.  To examine ways to build sustainable customer relationship in an organization.

2.  To identify the effects of sustainable customer relationship in an organization.

3.  To determine the factors influencing sustainable customer relationship in an organization

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.  What are the ways to build sustainable customer relationship in an organization?

2.  What are the effects of sustainable customer relationship in an organization?

3.  What are the factors influencing sustainable customer relationship in an organization?

1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: good customer relationship does not have any effect on the organizational performance

H1: good customer relationship has significant effect on the organizational performance

1.6   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the significance of this study:

1.  The outcome of this study will be a useful guide to various business organization has it will educate on ways and approaches to sustainable customer relationship with a view of increasing the organization customer base through better customer-organization interaction

2.  This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.

1.7   SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study on building a sustainable customer relationship in an organization will cover the methods adopted by different business organizations in Nigeria. The study will also cover the effect of sustainable customer relationships on the performance of the organization.

LIMITATION OF STUDY

1.  Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

2.  Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

REFERENCES

Gronroos, Christian. (1990) Service Management and MarketingManaging the Moments of Truth in Service Competition Free Press/ Lexington Books, Lexington, MA.

Berry, Leonard L. (1983) “Relationship Marketing.” In Emerging Perspectives on Services Marketing, ed. Leonard L. Berry, G. Lynn Shostack, and Gregory Upah, pp. 25–28 Chicago: American Marketing As­sociation.

Morgan, Robert M., and Shelby D. Hunt. (1994) “The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Market­ing.” Journal of Marketing, 58 (3), 20-38.

Thompson, B (2004). Successful CRM: Turning customer loyalty into probalility online. Available: www.crmguru.com. 10 November, 2004.

Swift, R (2001), Accelerating customer relationship Using CRM relationship technology, Prentice Hall PTR, Englewood Clifss, NJ

Sterne, Jim (200): Customer service on internet, New Yorl: John Wiley and sons, inc.

Mooney, E. (2000): CRM is costly, not managing it even more costly. Radio communication report.

Khalifa, M & Liu, V. (2003): Determinants of satisfaction at different adoption stages of internet based services. Journal of the association for information system. 4(5), 206-232.

BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP IN AN ORGANIZATION

IMPACT OF PRODUCT PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR, CASE STUDY OF AL-HIKMAH UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In nowadays competitive marketing environment the role of package has changed due to increasing self-service and changing consumers’ lifestyle. Firms’ interest in package as a promotional tool is growing increasingly. Package becomes an ultimate selling proposition stimulating impulsive buying behavior, increasing market share and reducing promotional costs.

According to Rundh (2005) package attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand, enhances its image, and influences consumer’s perceptions about product. Also package imparts unique value to products and works as a tool for differentiation, i.e. helps consumers to choose the product from wide range of similar products, stimulates customers buying behavior.  Wells, Farley & Armstrong,(2007) opined that package performs an important role in marketing communications and could be treated  as one of the most important  tools of promotion. The primary function of packaging is to protect the product against potential damage while transporting, storing, selling and exploiting a product and to ensure the convenience during performance of these activities. Groundage & Ostil, (2009) indicates the importance of packaging in the case of grocery, when consumers buy unbranded products. Seeing that most consumers tend to touch products before purchasing, they treat product packaging as a tool for protecting consumers from contamination, for allowing them to touch products without restraint, without need to avoid smudging their hands. They propose to use packaging with a “window”, in order to allow consumers  to  evaluate  product  by  its  appearance  at  the  same  time  reducing “consumer uncertainty regarding quality by branding the product and labeling it” i.e. to communicate to consumer adequate message about product. It could be stating that in length of time a function of identification and communication became of vital importance especially for consumer products in the group of convenience goods. Packaging  as  a  tool  for  communication  was  investigated  by  Gonzalez  et  al., (2007)  Taking  into  consideration  that  impulsive  buying  is  proper  to  many consumers it could be maintained that “packaging may be the only communication between a product and the final consumer in the store”. Consequently the role of package in marketing communications increases: it must attract consumer’s attention and transmit adequate value of product to consumer in the short period right in the place of sale. The role of packaging has evolved from the traditional function of protecting the product against dirt, damage, theft, mishandling, and deterioration. This functional role is a requirement of all packages. In the modern era, packaging is also utilized as a marketing tool to promote the product, to increase visibility of the product on the shelf, and to provide information to the customer (O’Shaughnessy 2005). In spite of packaging use as a growing marketing tool, marketers still view packaging as a container. A known marketing expert, Philip Kotler (2000) defines packaging as all activities of designing and producing the container for a product. Packaging draws the attention of the consumer at point-of-sale through its attractive design and color, gives an indication of its contents, package can be a tool in educating the customer. Finally, the package contributes to the overall image of the brand. It is important to remember, however, that packaging is not the only marketing and promotional tool. Meyers (2001:25)

The increasing importance of packaging in the marketing mix has equaled and occasionally surpassed product advertising and sales promotion in the past thirty years. The  physical  packaging  of  a  product  can  be  used  for  many  purposes, from  the manufacturing point to the end users, such as the protective and promotive functions where it is called as a “silent protector” Long (2002:52) and a “silent salesman” Pilditch (2003:102). The packaging not only delivers product information and brand identity, it also visually appeals to consumers and due to its protective function which delivers the product undamaged. Besides, Packaging  plays  an  important  role  in helping consumers to recognize and understand the products.

When consumers go to retailers, they usually see the packaging of products before they can see the products themselves. Therefore, the packaging of products can be an effective tool for promotion in real shops Stewart, (2006:208).

According to Cateora (2002:405), a poorly packaged product conveys an impression of poor quality. Supermarkets have many products on the shelves each containing many items of information and there are very few sales people in a supermarket hence most selling is done through packaging. The modern marketer should then see packaging  beyond  its  traditional  role  of  holding  contents  together  but  as  a promotional tool for his products which is the purpose of this study.

1.2     PROBLEM STATEMENT

Despite the increasing popularity of packaging in the promotion of goods and services, one cannot but agree that there are areas of problems which need to be studied. Though some business organizations are now using packaging to promote their wares yet many business organization in Nigeria concentrate their marketing effort on the traditional elements in the marketing mix in the performance of their marketing activities. The rate at which wares or products are being advertised, one may be forced to ask questions bothering on the use of packaging.

In the application of marketing mix, many organizations are faced with packaging problems.  Some  of  the  packaging  problems  include;  the  need  to  know  whether packaging is a good promotional tool. In this regard, packaging alone is not enough for promotion of goods and services. There is a great need to look at other marketing mix elements which usually comes first before packaging, despite the fact that good packaging promotes sales; wrong packaging can lead to the total rejection of goods. Again, packaging affect consumer buying decision, because wrong\bad packaging can make a consumer not to buy a particular product. In this aspect packaging needs to be suitable for each product in order to attract the attention of the consumers and also make them buy. Good packaging also protects the ima\ge of the organization, but some  organizations  do  not  have  good  packaging  system,  thereby  making  their products to appear cheap and of low quality. Packaging is not a good compliment or substitute for advertisement though good packaging helps in advertisement.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The  main  aim  of  this  research  work  is  to  analyze  the  role  of  packaging  as  a promotional tool in the marketing of Bottle Water. The specific objective includes

  1.  To find out if the packaging of a product have impact on product quality.
  2.  To ascertain whether brand packaging promote the company’s image to their consumers.
  3. To analyze the relationship between product packaging and consumer buying behaviors
IMPACT OF PRODUCT PACKAGING ON CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR, CASE STUDY OF AL-HIKMAH UNIVERSITY

ECONOMIC IMPACT IN PACKAGING AS A PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY IN MARKETING COMPANY’S PRODUCT

ABSTRACT

This study is on economic impact in packaging as a promotional strategy in marketing company’s products. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Berger paint Nigeria limited, Lagos state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made production managers, marketers, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Marketing is a key aspect in business since it contributes greatly to the success of the organization. Production and distribution depend largely on marketing. Many people think that sales and marketing are basically the same. These two concepts are different in many aspects. Marketing covers advertising, promotions, public relations, and sales. It is the process of introducing and promoting the product or service into the market and encourages sales from the buying public. Sales refer to the act buying or the actual transaction of customers purchasing the product or service. Since the goal of marketing is to make the product or service widely known and recognized to the market, marketers must be creative in their marketing activities.

At the heart of business, nowadays, is the competition to attract consumers’ attention towards products or services. Consequently, each producer needs to build a more attractive strategy and action plan than its competitors. One prominent tool of attracting consumers’ attention towards products is promotion. According to Chaharsoughi and Yasory (2012) Promotion is one of the key factors in the marketing mix and has a key role in market success. Promotion is used to ensure that consumers are aware of the products that organization is offering. It is the process of establishing communication relationship between a marketer and its publics. Marketing promotions is quite different from mass communication, in which an organization addresses largely undifferentiated mass audience for non-commercial purpose by such means as press editorials, radio news, and television. Under marketing promotions, an organization would be aiming at a deliberately differentiated audience for a commercial purpose and would employ such means as advertising, personal selling, sales’ promotion, publicity and public relations.

Promotion involves disseminating information about a product, product line, brand or company. It is one of the four key aspects of the marketing mix. Adetayo (2006) opined that promotion seeks to inform, remind and persuade target consumers about the organization and its products. He further argued that promotion is often used to help an organization differentiate its products from rivals. A promotion campaign is an inter-related series of promotion activities designed to accomplish a specific objective. The obvious goal of promotion management is to ensure that all the individual elements of promotion mix work together to accomplish the organization’s overall promotion activities.

An Organization adopts different processes or strategies to disseminate information about its product, product line, brand or company. These various processes are described as the promotion strategy.

A Promotion strategy can be considered as a process whereby information about the organization’s products or services is encoded into a promotional message for delivery to the customer. In effect, firms have a variety of alternative information delivery system available to them, which can be used to construct an appropriate promotional mix strategy. This portfolio of alternative delivery mechanism includes majorly; advertising, personal selling, public relations, publicity, direct marketing and sales’ promotions.

Marketing decision makers are increasingly aware of the importance of the shareholder’s value maximization, which calls for an evaluation of the long term effects of their actions on product-market response. (Amit and Dominique, 2010). The quest of the decision makers to determine the influence of their strategic relations with their environment together with having sustained competitive edge in the market has called for the evaluation of the influence of promotional strategy on market share and profitability. Marketing literature to date has focused on the sales results of marketing actions. (Amit and Dominique, 2010). The relative importance of marketing strategy on market share and profitability of companies have not been focused. It is therefore the objective of this paper to examine the impact of marketing strategy on market share and profitability of the selected companies.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

An Organization adopts different processes or strategies to disseminate information about its product, product line, brand or company. These various processes are described as the promotion strategy. On this background the researcher wants to investigate economic impact in packaging as a promotional strategy in marketing company’s product.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the relationship between economic impact in packaging and promotional strategy
  2. To ascertain the impact of promotional strategy in marketing company’s products
  3. To ascertain the economic impact in packaging as a promotional strategy in marketing company’s product
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0: there is no relationship between economic impact in packaging and promotional strategy

H1: there is relationship between economic impact in packaging and promotional strategy

H02: there is no impact of promotional strategy in marketing company’s products

H2: there is impact of promotional strategy in marketing company’s products

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will be very significant to students and organization for promoting their products. The study will give a clear insight on economic impact in packaging as a promotional strategy in marketing company’s product. The study will also serve as a reference to other researchers

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers economic impact in packaging as a promotional strategy in marketing company’s product. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY: Product promotional strategies inform, persuade and influence the consumer’s decisions. Through product differentiation, a business is able to differentiate its good and service from those of the competitors. The main objective of a promotional strategy is to increase sales value.

MARKETING: Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships. Marketing is the business process of creating relationships with and satisfying customers. With its focus on the customer, marketing is one of the premier components of business management.

PACKAGING: Packaging also refers to the process of designing, evaluating, and producing packages. Packaging can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

ECONOMIC IMPACT IN PACKAGING AS A PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY IN MARKETING COMPANY’S PRODUCT

EFFECT OF PRICE ON CONSUMERS PATRONAGE OF MARY KAY PERFUME

Abstract

In this study the researcher wants to investigate the effect of price on consumer’s patronage of Mary Kay perfume. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected cosmetics shops in Portharcourt, Rivers State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up managers, secretaries, sale representatives and cashiers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Perfume product is very important to the health of the human being. It is used for preserving the odor. This product has to be appropriately pricing in order to attract customer patronage and increase profitability. According to (Kotler, 1996: 46) price is the amount of money customers pay for the product or service and the time a place of change.(Mmamel, 1994: 10) in the quality renew of marketing stated that price is the exchange value of goods/services and the value of an item is what it can be exchange in the market place, every product and service has its price. It is through price and payment that firms recover their cost of production and active their margin of profit. Pricing is the monetary expression of value is created on utility, utility is an expression of usefulness while usefulness is based on the potential for need and want satisfaction value and utility are culturally based while needs and want-cultural, psychological, sociological and physiological based, therefore price as an ultimate expression of needs and want satisfying potential of an items of product or services which has cultural psychological economic implication on market. (Edoga Ani, 2000: 319) noted that price as perceived quality increase, value increase. Also for a given price, value decrease when perceived quality decrease. For some product price itself influences the perception of quality and ultimately value to consumers. This includes toilet soaps. Pricing is an important and compete element of the marketing mix and generate the highest level of external interference. It is a major determine with volume of goods and services available for the consumer in any economy. Therefore, forms especially those on profit business has to choose with the contain of the environmental variables both external and internal pricing policies and techniques which are available to achieve its organizational objectives. The importance of price in the marketing of Mary-Kay perfume cannot be over emphasized. If an organization wants to maximize its net profit, the right price must me selected for its products price in goods may either be too high or too low to be good. When the price and changed are two high the size of the market for that particular product may be unnecessarily restricted and if the right price where used. The size of net profit is directly related to the effectiveness of price because price usually causes change in market demand for a given product and in turn it revenue and net profit.(Monroe 1994: 210) Noted that the consumer perception of product quality very directly with the price, the higher the price the better the quality is preferred to be. In the words of (Adirika, Ebue & Nnolim 1993: 25) without price there can be no marketing, product may be marched with market but only when buyers or sellers agree on price, buyer or a seller may propose a price but it is not effective unit price is accepted by the owner. In the view of the complex nature of price and important to customers patronage decision the researcher in the study critically examine the effect of piecing on consumer patronage of Mary-Kay perfume in Enugu metropolis

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The high mortality rate of manufacturing business especially those firms in the beverages industries in our country Nigeria is a source of concern to the management of business organization and the society in general. It seems that these forms do not adopt appropriate pricing strategies in the pricing of their products. Today, one can see small manufacturing firms spring up in the city in the guise of manufacturing perfume. Some of these firms after a few months/years of operation start to experience low sales low profit as a result of poor customer patronage caused partly by failure to adopt appropriate pricing strategies. A situation where manufacturers of consumers products and services continue to experience low sales volume or an eventual close up of business as a result of low profit margin arising from the adoption of wrong pricing strategies calls for investigation. The study seeks to find out what pricing strategies are used by as well as those manufacturing firms in the Mary-Kay industry and how far they have helped in goal accomplishment.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is effect of price on consumer patronage of Mary Kay perfume.  But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;

  1. To determine if the price of Mary Kay perfume affect customers patronage
  2. To determine whether customers patronage Mary Kay perfume than others brand
  3. To ascertain the relationship between the price of Mary Kay perfume and  customers patronage
  4. To ascertain the level of advertisement carry out by the company

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0:  the price of Mary Kay perfume does not affect customer’s patronage

H1:  the price of Mary Kay perfume affects customer’s patronage

H02customers does not patronize Mary Kay perfume than others brand

H2customers patronize Mary Kay perfume than others brand

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of benefit to the company of Mary Kay and the customers. The study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, lecturers, teachers, students and the general public.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers the effect of price on customer’s patronage of Mary Kay perfume. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

PRICE: price is the quantity of payment or compensation given by one party to another in return for goods or services.

CONSUMER: consumer is a person or organization that uses economic services or commodities. In economic systems consumers are utilities expressed in the decision to trade or not.

PATRONAGE: Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists such as musicians, painters, and sculptors

PERFUME: Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents, used to give the human body, animals, food, objects

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

EFFECT OF PRICE ON CONSUMERS PATRONAGE OF MARY KAY PERFUME

EFFECT OF SALES FORECAST ON MARKETING DECISION MAKING

Abstract

Ineffective application of effective planning in many organizations is the main thrust for their inability to predict and make a sound decision which lead to the failure to achieve projected performance. This paper examines the effect of sales forecast on marketing decision making. This study was designed to give strategic managers practical suggestions for better understanding of the forecast so that managers can plan their reactions effectively to enable better performance. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Dangote group of company was selected randomly. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up managers, human resource managers, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

The heart of management in all level of responsibilities is the fundamental requirement of being able to communicate sales forecast have an effect in the dissemination of business information to the target market and general public. The task of business management would be simpler if industry was not continual state of change. This change is reflected in increasing competition precipitated to a large extent by the growth of global competition which has increased over the last decade. Accurate forecasting or prediction of an event in a business environment in which and organizations exist is important in the design of productive sales force, structure and control over cost and profit. This makes it difficult for an organization to forecast or predict their future prospect in terms of sales, cost and profit. Forecasting itself is a realistic estimate so as to currently anticipate what a buyer is likely to do under a given set of condition. Forecasting helps management to anticipate the future and reduce uncertainty which limit their ability to plan effectively. Successful forecasting requires a skillful blending of art and science including experience, judgment and technical expertiseForecasting generally involves using information from the past to make decision concerning the future; manager or marketer have faced a dilemma in this regard, namely that of whether and how to use the past to tell beforehand, what will happen in the future. In this respect some manager or marketer attempts to make a distinction between a prediction and forecast. Managers that understand the tie between the resource decision and the forecast horizon can be more flexible in their resource plans on long-term decisions. Every act of preparing for the future implies some forecasting of impending conditions. In the context of
business management, forecasts can be used to support long-term strategic decisions, operational decisions
or short-term tactical decisions. Management requires forecasting information when making a wide range of
decisions. The sales forecast is particularly important, as it is the foundation upon which all company plans
are built in terms of markets and revenue. Management would be a simple matter if business were not in a continual state of change, the pace of which has quickened in recent years. The result of this constant change, however, is that business tasks are
becoming more complex and business decisions are being more long-term in nature. It is becoming
increasingly important and necessary for businesses to predict their future prospects in terms of sales, costs
and profits. The value of future sales is crucial as it affects costs and profits, so the prediction of future sales
is the logical starting point for all business planning. Thus, the company’s customers and their likely
purchasing behavior during the period to come are the starting point for business planning, and this idea
lies at the very heart of all marketing activity. As well as helping to plan expansion into new markets and new product lines, forecasting can also be
viewed as the act of giving advance warning in time for beneficial action to be taken. In order to predict the
future it is usual to examine the past in order to observe trends over periods, and to establish the degree of
probability with which these trends are likely to repeat themselves in the future. Future predictions are
therefore inherently wrong as they are based upon probability; it is up to management to decide upon the
degree of imprecision that can be tolerated when planning. One general rule, which can be applied to
forecasting, is that forecasts that are more accurate will be more expensive than less accurate ones because
they employ more sophisticated analyses in their computation. It is on the this view the researcher wants to investigate the effect of sales forecast on marketing decision making.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Most manufacturing companies perform poorly in terms of sales forecast. This is why several criticisms have been leveled against them. Huge sum of money is been expended on sales forecasting through marketing managers which draws the company’s finance. In spite of the benefits from sales forecasting in an organization, there is also the view that it is expensive consuming huge amount of money.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is effect of sales forecast on marketing decision making.  But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;

  1. To investigate the effect of sales on marketing decision making.
  2. To determine if the forecasting method adopted is used consisting by the company.
  3. To ascertain if sales forecast is relevant to marketing decision making.
  4. To ascertain the relationship between sales forecast and marketing decision making
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research                                                                                                                                                             hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0Sales forecast does not have any impact on marketing decision making.

H1Sales forecast have impact on marketing decision making.

H02: there is no significant relationship between sales forecast and marketing decision making

H2there is a significant relationship between sales forecast and marketing decision making

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is appropriate to say that this research work will be of great benefit to many people. This research will benefit the producers with regard to the best forecasting techniques used in promoting their product of the target market. Also, it will help management to know the importance of sales forecast in decision to the successful achievement of the company’s objectives with reference to their products.  It will also bring about the experience of the consumersThe study will also be of great benefit to the researchers who intends to embark on research on similar topics as it will serve as a guide. Finally, the study will be of great importance to academia’s, lecturers, teachers, students and the general public.

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers effect of sales forecast on marketing decision making. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

FORECASTING: According to Katler and Keller (2006), marketing management forecasting is the act of anticipating what buyers are likely to do under a giving set of condition.

SALES FORECASTING: According to Anyanwu (2000), marketing management sales forecasting is the act of predicting sales under a given set of conditions within a specified time period of one or more years.

COMPANY SALES FORECAST: According to Kotler (2006), marketing management company sales forecast is the expected level of company’s sales based on a chosen marketing plan and the assumed marketing environment.

MARKETING: According to Mazur (2001), marketing is the delivery of a standard of living to society; this definition is an attempt to counter the criticisms of marketing especially by those who see it as an agent of corruption in the society.

MANAGEMENT: This is a process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling activities to meet the objectives and goal of the organization.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

EFFECT OF SALES FORECAST ON MARKETING DECISION MAKING

IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION ON MARKETING OF MOBILE PHONE LINE

CHAPETR ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study

CHAPETR TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPETR THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

 Abstract

The research study on the effect of sales promotion on the sales of mobile phone lines (A study of MTN lines) The purpose of the study is to investigate the sales promotion in the sales of mobile phone lines MTN in Owerri Metropolis. The purpose is also to Know if customers appreciate the incentive used for sales promotion. This research is intended to generally know the effect of sales promotion on the sales of mobile phone lines. Based on the above purpose, some treasures were reviewed to enlighten on the meaning of sales promotion. More concise and comprehensive information were gathered through primary and secondary data which help to elaborate more on this project opic, on the area of population and detaining of sample size and the method in questionnaire distribution. Data collected were analyzed and the following findings were made that there is a significant relationship between programme timing and success of sales promotion. The finding also revealed that there is a significant relationship between successful attainment of sales promotion and values of sales promotion and customer appreciation.

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Sales promotion is one of the elements of promotional mix. It is a short- time incentive use by marker or producers to include or lure customers to buy their product. Sales promotion is an indirect from of the promotion al mix used to stimulate and guide action. It is a set of the promotional activities that stimulates consumers purchasing and dealer’s effectiveness. Sales promotion is intended to aid both consumers pull and dealers push it holds a middle ground between advertising and personal selling. It is usually not directed at much longer ground than a typical personal selling efforts, sales promotion can only last for about two months to six months. This means that it can only last over a limited period. Sales promotion creates something execrate that can arouse interest, offer a buying desire, spark- off an immediate reaction from the audiences; Adirka, Ebue, and NNolin (1996).It is used to retain customers and to attract new ones. These activities are also use to create store traffic. This is because these short terms incentives are being offered free of charge. These activities are thus categorized into consumer sales promotion techniques in terms of their consumer and dealer focus. Customer pill promotion techniques are such activities like sampling price incentive, contest, premium etc while trade push promotion techniques are such activities like merchandise allowance, money bonuses and gifts. Management assistance like training. Sales promotion is a tool used by manufacturers to include sales with a short time. Having looked at the background of this study from the perspective of the concept of sales promotion and relating it with the case study of the groups to be surveyed, the researcher wishes to proceeds on the backgrounds of MTN lines in Owerri the MTN lines deals with the production in telecommunication world. This firm found themselves as a rival to other lines like Econet, Globacom and M- Tel etc in the Volatice environment today.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Firms that want to achieve meaningful success in their business are suppose to embark on sales promotion various sales promotional devices can be employed. Sales promotion when property executed should increase sells sales of the product. There is little wonder whether this is the case with firms that s ell mobile phone line (par) researcher is sure whether companies that sell mobile phone lines embark on sales promotion . The nature of promo tools used by such firms is also of concerned to the researcher. It is also doubtful if sales promotion boosts sales. It is uncertain to the researcher whether programme timing affects the success of sales promotion. Whether or not customers appreciate the incentives use used for sales promotion are problems arising from sales promotion which could inhabit consumer purchase of MTN lines. How sales promotion affects consumer behaviour with respect to MTN products is another area of concern. The researcher is also not sure, how consumer perception of MTN Lines affects their purchase.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are:

  1. To know whether MTN and other mobile lines firms embark on sales promotion.
  2. To know the promotional tools used by the firms
  3. To known the effect of sales promotion on sells
  4. To known if porgramme timing affect the success of sales promotion
  5. To know if customer appreciate the incentive used for sales promotion
  6. To know the nature of problem arising from sales promotional activities and if such problems could inhabit the purchase of the product.
  7. To know whether sales promotion affect consumer behaviour in terms of purchase of phone lines.
  8. To know whether consumer perception MTN lines affect their purchase of their product.
  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0 There is no significance relationship between progamme timing and the success of sales promotion in the MTN phone line.

H1  There is significance relationship between progamme timing and the success of sales promotion in the MTN phone line.

H02:   There is no significances relationship between customer appreciation and value of sales promotion incentive and the successful attainment of sales promotion objective

H2:   There is significances relationship between customer appreciation and value of sales promotion incentive and the successful attainment of sales promotion objective

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is aimed at fulfilling the requirement for the award of Higher National Diploma in Marketing by the instruction. The result of the study will enable me the researcher to understand the importance of sales promotion on the mobile phone line. To The organization, they will know to design effective sales promotional campaigns, the timing of sales promotional, the timing of sales promotional progarmme and how effective, strong and appealing sales promotional incentives can be in the success of any sales promotion campaign. To the customer, it will also of a very big help to them, this is because in the reduction of the mobile lines prices in the name, of price – off by the mobile phone industry, both big or small will have access to easy communication. Business will be moving smooth because there has been easy communication with people far and near.

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study covers consumer. Users of GSM lines and operators in the mobile phone line such the MTN, Econet, Global com etc. in Owerri Metropolis. The study and investigations are centered on GSM lines operates VA businessmen, and public servants, it is from of this scope that the researcher would determine the population for the study in chapter three. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

  SALES PROMOTION: Sales promotion is one of the elements of the promotional mix. Sales promotion uses both media and non-media marketing communications for a pre-determined, limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand or improve product availability.

MARKETING: Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships. Marketing is used to create, keep and satisfy the customer. With the customer as the focus of its activities, it can be concluded that Marketing is one of the premier components of Business Management – the other being innovation.

PHONE LINE: telephone line or telephone circuit is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system. This is the physical wire or other signaling medium

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION ON MARKETING OF MOBILE PHONE LINE

IMPROVING DISTRIBUTION EFFECTIVENESS OPERATIONS (A CASE STUDY OF COCA COLA)

The study was on improving distribution effectiveness operations using coca-cola as a case study. The total population of the study was 200 staff of coca-cola company in Lagos. The shows that Distribution can also refer as the movement of products and services from the point where there are useful through channel members. Distribution activities are carried out through a channel of distribution which is made up of organizations, individuals or group of individual involved in the distribution process. A channel of distribution is a set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption.

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

The recent phenomenon in the marketing environment in Nigeria has resulted in a drastic turnaround from a production oriented market to a buyer oriented market.  It has demonstrated the importance of recognizing a remarkable change in buyer behavior, and the need of every production company to reappraise its marketing system and adapt to the new environment and even exploit it.  A key strategy in this marketing system is distribution is a strategies marketing tool representing one of the four arms of the marketing mix, often referred to as “4Ps”.

These 4P’s are:

PRICE:  This measures the ability of the buyer to purchase the products.

PRODUCT:  (quality and quantity):  this includes all the attributes to make the product attractive for exchange purpose.

PROMOTION:   Promotion involves creating awareness about the product, educating the potential and actual consumers about the product, and at purchasing the product or even reducing dissonance.

PLACE:  (Distribution) the core of the matter being distribution is very important because the efforts developing the product, creating awareness and the product, creating awareness and putting or displaying the product at the best price will be defeated if it is not made available at the place that exchange can take place. The marketing mix thus comprises the decision element in company’s marketing programme, the total packages that determine the degree of marketing concept. The “4P’s” summarises clearly the major ways the firms can influence sales.  We are concerned with the place variable. This therefore, pinpoints the importance of distribution in achieving available products.  This availability of product bridges the gap of space and time between the production and consumption. Before a production could achieve the desired satisfaction, it must get to the consumers the way they want it, thus breaking all the barriers or gap between the production areas to the consumers. Schare and Smith 1980 (page 386) saw the desired satisfaction, it must get to the need for effective distribution when they remarked that the most innovation product at an attractive price is worth absolutely nothing if it is not available to the buyers when they want it.  Product availability then is one requirement of an exchange. Therefore, marketing managers all around the world appreciates the role the distribution play in providing place, utility or satisfaction to the product is available, the value is therefore enhanced.  So distribution can be seen to increase the time of utility of a product by putting down the distance between the parties to the exchange. Nigeria Bottling Company Plc (NBC) practices the traditional distribution system that is their products are distributed through various types of middlemen like wholesalers, retailers to customers, direct from the company or through the salesmen. According to Martin Rom. J. (1997 page 316) “The channel of distribution therefore in its most meaningful and simple firm is the course of title boy commodity”.   These routes include the manufacturers and ultimate consumers as well as anyone in between.

Nigeria Bottling Company Plc, Coca-cola is the world’s leading soft drink sold across the globe.  A total of 600 million servicing are consumed everyday in all parts of the globe from Canada in the North to Argentina and New Zealand in the South, from Alaskato China Maxico to Nigeria.  In 1983, when Nigerian Bottling Company first set up its first plan in Lagos (Apapa), it was to be the beginning of an exciting story of growing and development particularly during the past 45 years. Nigerian Bottling Company Plc is today Nigeria number one bottle of soft drinking.  Selling more than 7,2264, 138 bottle per day representing 302,073 crates of 24 bottles daily throughout the Federation. Coca-Cola was first made on 18th May, 1886 in Atlanta Georgia,U.S.A.  Which is the home town and now the world Headquarters by Dr. John Stythpembenton, a pharmacist.  The name Coca-cola was named or given by Frankin Robinson, Pembetons Partner and book keeper.

HOW IS COCA-COLA MADE

The first thing is to select the bottles and dispose those with effects.  Quality is the key word which determines the success of whole operations only the best ingredients are used for and filling making the soft drink, and sophisticated washing and filling equipment has been installed in all plants. The manufacturing process is based on a careful measures combination of sugar, water concentrate with standard maintained throughout the world.  Pure refined sugar added in pure drinkable and treated water is produced as solution called “Simp Syrup”.  The syrup is passed through a filter to ensure purity where it was mixed with undiluted concentrated carbondioxide (Co2), at this step product is measured into the bottles mechanically.

  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Consumers can be attracted by the quality of a product or promotion for the product and vice of the product, their final decision as to the fitness of the offer is to as large extent influence by the availability of the product at the time and place wanted or needed. In a time like this where economic and technological advancement have become a thing to reckon with the competition in the market place, there is a need to improve distribution effectiveness through the efforts of wholesales, agents, retailers and other types of intermediaries. Distribution success, which is the availability of products at the right place and time, can be achieved through the efforts of the middlemen mentioned above.  But the dynamic nature of the environment and other bureaucratic bottle necks can make this success in distribution not to be realized. In view of these problems, there is need to incorporate marketing activities in making the products available is the market place or rather improve for more effective and efficient distribution.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study are;

  1. To ascertain the extent at which coca-cola Company Plc is involved in distribution effectiveness in their marketing operations.
  2. To suggest ways of improving selling skills efficiency of their salesmen and the dealers in coca-cola
  3. To find ways of improving the communication gap existing between dealers and the company staff and management
  4. To know the requirement analysis with the budget breakdown to all adapts and areas of coverage by salesmen.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0 there is no extent at which coca-cola Company Plc is involved in distribution effectiveness in their marketing operations

H1 there is extent at which Coca-Cola Plc is involved in distribution effectiveness in their marketing operations

H02there are no ways of improving selling skills efficiency of their salesmen and the dealers in coca-cola

H2there are ways of improving selling skills efficiency of their salesmen and the dealers in coca-cola

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

First, this study will be beneficial to NBC Plc in that it will suggest ways of improving distribution effectiveness for better customer satisfaction. Secondly, the study reveals other militating factors that may hinder effective operations of the company’s distribution channels and ways to guide against it. Finally, the research hopes to improve the relationship existing between NBC and its dealers. The study will serve as a reference to other researcher that will embark on this topic

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers improving distribution effectiveness operation a case study of coca-cola. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

IMPROVING: make or become better.

DISTRIBUTION: Distribution is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for the consumer or business user who needs it. This can be done directly by the producer or service provider, or using indirect channels with distributors or intermediaries

EFFECTIVENESSEffectiveness is the capability of producing a desired result or the ability to produce desired output. When something is deemed effective, it means it has an intended or expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid impression

OPERATION: a procedure performed on a living body usually with instruments for the repair of damage or the restoration of health and especially one that involves incision, excision, or suturing.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

IMPROVING DISTRIBUTION EFFECTIVENESS OPERATIONS (A CASE STUDY OF COCA COLA)

INFLUENCE OF MOBILE MARKETING ON CONSUMER

CHAPETR ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study

CHAPETR TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPETR THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

 Abstract

This study is on influence of mobile marketing on consumer purchase behavior in organized institution. The total population for the study is 200 staff of jumia and konga in Lagos. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made front desk officers, marketers, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

Advances in technology (especially information technology) and globalization have changed the way in which the world conducts business and are increasingly providing consumers with greater conveniences. The Industrial Revolution of the 18th century led to a new economy, which was defined in terms of mass production of standardized products, mass distribution of these products to consumers and mass media vehicles to carry standardized advertising messages” (Godin, 1999). During this era, selling underwent a major transformation from personal one-to-one persuasion to mass advertising campaigns designed for the consumers (Solove, 2004). The same message was communicated to the consumers regardless of the difference in nature and characteristics of each consumer. Mass marketing yielded only short term sales and not loyal customers as these forced marketing firms to understand that consumers cannot be treated as a homogeneous group (Doinita, 2012). Marketers had to develop targeted marketing communications in order to build and maintain relationships with customers. Targeted marketing became truly successful when it was associated with direct marketing, “a database-driven interactive process of directly communicating with targeted customers or prospects using any medium to obtain a measurable response or transaction” (Spiller and Baier, 2010). The advent of internet facilitated targeted marketing which made it possible to send messages to an individual’s email. This facilitated the emergence of email marketing. The advent of the internet provided marketers the opportunity to initiate and build relationships with their customers via the use of computer networks. However, marketers’ desire real time interaction with their customers and this increased the need for a mobile environment which provides the most dynamic, effective and personal medium for marketing communication (Yaniv, 2008). The emergence of the mobile phone device as a means of instant communication has changed the way organizations interact with potential and existing customers (Grant and Donohoe 2007; Siau, Sheng and Nah 2005). In recent years, the rapid adoption of mobile phone and other mobile communication devices have created opportunities in the marketing and advertisingerena, by allowing companies to announce their products and services, develop customer relationships through direct personalized and interactive message response from customers (Sultan and Rohm, 2005). Different reasons constitute the rise in the use of mobile devices. According to Grant and Donohoe (2007), the combination of video and audio contexts in one mobile device absolutely increased the usage of mobile devices, flexibility in communication and information sharing have become possible with improvements in mobile technology and integration of internet and computing into a mobile medium (Siau, Sheng and Nah 2005) and the possibility of reaching information anytime and anywhere triggered the improvements of mobile devices (Deans, 2005) The potential of interaction with consumers, target marketing and managing consumer relationship made mobile devices an important channel for marketers (Grant and Donohoe, 2007). Mobile marketing have become powerful tool for marketing communication and information dissemination (Nysveen, Pdersen, Thorbjornsen and Berthon, 2005). This has made it easier for consumers to compare marketing information, product offerings, and prices before significant purchase decisions are made by the consumers. With this level of information at consumers disposal, consumer behaviour has become increasingly difficult to predict by marketers (Urban, 2004), as consumers expect transparency and real-time interactions with the organization The mobile phones are no longer used for communication alone, according to Michael and Salter (2006), who stated that the world has entered a new era called, “the all mobile era”. According to them, the mobile phones or rather said, smartphones, do it all, from browsing the internet for information to ordering of online products, mobile banking and paying of bills. “The mobile phone is set to become the Third Screens after TV and computer,” according to Asif (2011). As with other traditional marketing programmes, consumer attitude play an important role in determining the success of using the mobile device by marketers as a platform for communicating, creating sales and building relationships with their consumers. The acceptance of mobile device by consumers is influenced by, amongst others, the perceived utility of the content and the perceived risk associated with data security and consumer privacy (Bauer, Barnes, Reichardt and Neumann, 2005). The mobile phone is seen as a personal device (Barwise and Strong, 2002; Tsang, Ho and Liang, 2004) and as such, marketing messages are expected to meet the individual need and possibly take the form of permission marketing (a message either in form of SMS and MMS that has been requested by the consumer as part of an opt-in scheme requiring the consumer to indicate their consent to receive commercial messages and information of interest to them) in order to stimulate a positive response from the consumer. A mobile device is a possession many people carry with them and text messaging is generally used for one-to-one contact, which is why a more personal approach seems to be required in mobile marketing in order to generate a favourable attitude from the consumer (Barwise and Strong, 2002). Intrusion of marketing messages into this personal device often lead to irritation, especially when the mobile phone is seen as an “extended self‟, of the(2009)consumer.  Despite the huge marketing potentials of personalized and interactive messages presented by communicating with customers using the mobile phone device, academic research in this area is still in its early stages (Barnes and Scornavacca, 2004; Muk, 2007 and Carroll, Barnes, Scornavacca, and Fletcher, 2007). A strong need for empirical research is articulated by practitioners and academics. This thesis responds to this call for more research and theoretical development in this area. Thus, this study contributes to the understanding of the influence of mobile marketing messages on consumer purchase behaviour.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Attitude toward marketing activities and especially advertising in the traditional channel (print and broadcast media), have been studied widely in the literature because they have a considerable impact on measuring the effectiveness of these channels on consumer purchase decisions. The findings have been controversial across various channels of traditional marketing communication media (Moore, 1983; Zanot, 1984; Shavitt, 1998; Schlosser, 1999) as mobile communicators cannot exactly predict or determine the influence of mobile marketing messages on consumer attitude and purchase behaviour (Haghirian and Madiberger, 2005). Thus, this has necessitated the need to assess the influence of mobile marketing messages on consumer purchase behaviour.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to determine the influence of mobile marketing on consumer purchase behaviour. The specific objectives include the following;

  • To examine the effect of marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization, interactivity and frequency) on consumer attitude towards mobile marketing.
  • To determine the influence of consumer attitude towards mobile marketing on purchase behaviour (Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty).
  • To find out the effect of marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization, interactivity and frequency) on purchase behavior (Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty).
  • To examine consumer factors that significantly influence attitude towards mobile marketing.

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0there is no effect of marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization, interactivity and frequency) on consumer attitude towards mobile marketing

.H1there is effect of marketing messages (promotional, relational, personalization, interactivity and frequency) on consumer attitude towards mobile marketing.

 H02there is no influence of consumer attitude towards mobile marketing on purchase behaviour (Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty).

H2there is influence of consumer attitude towards mobile marketing on purchase behaviour (Intention, actual purchase, satisfaction and loyalty).

 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study give clear insight on influence of mobile marketing on consumer purchase behavior in organized institution. The study will be of benefits to consumers and the companies that are producing. The work will shows how mobile help in marketing.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study covers influence of mobile marketing on consumer purchase behavior in organized institution. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

INFLUENCE: The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.

MOBILE MARKETING: Mobile marketing is multi-channel online marketing technique focused at reaching a specific audience on their smart phone, tablets, or any other related devices through websites, E mail, SMS and MMS, social media or mobile applications

CONSUMER: A consumer is a person or organization that uses economic services or commodities.

PURCHASE: Purchasing refers to a business or organization attempting to acquire goods or services to accomplish its goals.

INSTITUTION: People may deliberately create individual, formal organizations commonly identified as “institutions “but the development and function of institutions in society in general may be regarded as an instance of emergence. That is, institutions arise, develop and function in a pattern of social self-organization beyond conscious.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

INFLUENCE OF MOBILE MARKETING ON CONSUMER

THE IMPACT OF MARKET SEGMENTATION AND POSITIONING OF COMPANY PERFORMANCE

CHAPETR ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study

CHAPETR TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPETR THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

 Abstract

This study is on the impact of market segmentation and positioning of company performance. The total population for the study is 200 staff of first bank, Owerri, Imo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made human resource managers, accountants, customer care officers and marketers were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

The subject matter of market segmentation is the strategy that involves dividing a large market into subsets of consumer and service offered in the market.  These sub-groups of consumers can be identified by a number of different demographics depending on the purpose behind identifying the groups.  Marketing campaign are often designed and implemented based on these types of consumer segmentation.  One of the main reasons for engaging in market segmentation is to help the company understand the needs of the customer base.  Often the task is segregating consumer by specific criteria will help the company identify other application for their products that may or may not have been self-evident before.  Uncovering these other ideas for use of goods and services may help the company target a large audience in that same demographic classification and thus increase “Market share” among a specific sub-market base.  Market segmentation according to Schiffman et al (2007:44), is the process of dividing a market into distinct subsets of consumers with common needs or characteristics and selecting one or more segments to target with a distinct marketing mix.  “Selected textbook publishing companies in Enugu” who are faced with the problem of providing adequate number of high quality book, unqualified author publisher, poor production and lack of capital are all evident.  The strategy of segment allows producers to avoid head on competition in the market place by differentiating their offerings, not only on the basis of price but also through styling, packaging, promotional appeal, method of distribution and superior service.  In reality, the marketing concepts advice that, we should establish users or buyer needs, and determine if how and what extent it may be possible to satisfy these given ones existing and potential resources to the mutual bandit both parties to the exchange.   Market segmentation according to Edoga P. N. (2008:88) is the process of dividing the total market into several relatively homogeneous groups with similar product interests.  This process requires marketer to identify factors that affect purchasing decisions, so that the consumer can be group accordingly.  Marketing mixes are then adjusted to meet the needs of each target segment. Market segmentation by grouping together customer with similar needs, provides a commercially viable method of serving these customer. It is therefore  at the heart of strategic marketing since it form the basis by which marketers understand their markets and develop strategies for serving their chosen customer better than the competitors A market segment on the other hand is a group of individuals, groups or organization who share one or more similar characteristics that cause them to have relatively product needs.   Beyond identifying segments in the market, management must carefully consider both the strengths and the weaknesses of competitors when developing marketing strategy.  This is to aid the product-positioning task.  Market segmentation by defending the market target that management intends the firm to penetrate it establishes the segment at which the firm intends to focus its marketing efforts. Market segmentation and positioning will enable a firm to select a target from which it has a competitive advantage, so that a lasting market position, one of solid market strength can be established. Marketing perform two basic tasks in meeting the exchange objectives.  Firstly, they design and implement marketing strategies to meet those target market objectives.  A target market is a chosen segment of market which a company has decided to serve.  As customers in the target market have similar characteristics, a single marketing mix strategy can be developed to match those requirements.  Creation segmentation may result in identification of new segments that have not been served adequately hitherto any may form attractive target market to attack. Marketing strategies or action plan for accomplishing objectives, and then are thought in terms of particular markets.   In the segmentation of textbooks publishing companies in Enugu are based upon the position that:

  1. i)             Consumers are different.
  2. ii)           Differences in consumers are related to differences in the market demand and buying motives.

iii)          Segmentation of consumers can be possible because segments of consumers can be isolated with the overall market.

  1. iv)         Market target segments has sufficient demand potential to justify selection as a market target.

The benefits of market segmentation and positioning are numerous and include:

  1. Tailored Marketing Mix: Market segmentation allows the grouping of customers based upon similarities (eg. Benefits through sought) that are important when designing marketing strategies.  Consequently, this allows marketers to understand in-depth the requirements of segments and tailors a marketing mix package that meets their needs.  This is a fundamental step in the implementation of the marketing concept: segmentation promotes the motives of customer’s satisfaction by viewing markets as diverse sets of needs which must be understood and met by supplies.
  2. Differentiation: Market segmentation allows the development of differential marketing strategies by breaking a market into its constituents sub-segments (if chosen to target more than one segment) and within each segment it can differentiate its offering from the competition a company is giving the customer a reason to buy from them rather than the competition.
  3. Opportunities and Threats: Market segmentation is useful attempting to spot opportunities and threats market are rarely static.  As customers become more affluent, seek new experience and develop new value new segments emerge.  The management is better able to access competitive strength weakness of greatest importance.
  4. The Positioning idea must be clear in terms of both target market and differential advantage.
  5. Consistency: People are bombarded with message daily to break this through this noise, a consistent message is required.
  6. Credibility: The differential advantage that is chosen must be credible in the minds of the target customer.
  7. Competitiveness: The differential advantage should have competitive edge. It should offer something of value to the customer which the competition failing to supply.
  • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Generally, a great number of problems confront the application of market segmentation and positioning.   To describe market segmentation does not seem different but to put the description into practice is not easy.   Some of the problems however are particular about market segmentation and positioning in textbook publishing firms.   Some of these problems are stated in the work with the purpose of finding solution to them.

1)           The inability of the firm to classify their customers group according to the uniqueness in purchases.

2)           The segmentation and positioning is based on subject rather than based on customers/consumers and their needs.

3)           Inadequate transportation facilities for sales men whom their jobs require traveling from one place or customer to another.

4)           Inadequate sales training and education.   There is simply not enough training for old and new employed salesmen hence; they lack knowledge and concept of market segmentation.

5)           Inability to carryout marketing survey and research.   There is no provision to know how effective their strategy is and how customers responded to their offerings.   The inability to carry out market research to know the extent of homogeneity and heterogeneity of their customers also pose problems to the organization.

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Like the marketing philosophy pointed out, every marketing oriented firm or organization has the primary duty of not only making sales for the company but for the identification of customers need and planning to satisfy these customers’ needs at a profit to the firm.  For the purpose of this work, it is therefore very important to review the strategy and offerings of organization with a view to finding how effective such strategy and offering are meeting the objectives of the organization that is applying them.  It is the light of this that this work outlines the following:-

  1. i)             To know what market segmentation and positioning is all about as it involves the companies under study.
  2. ii)           To know if actually the companies or organization actually applies market segmentation and positioning in the sales of its product.

iii)          Also, to know how the company’s sales is structured.  This could be geographically, regionally or customer structured and if it can determine or know its target customers.

  1. iv)         The other objective of this study is also to know the method or strategy the companies actually use in performing its functions.
  2. v)           Also, the effectiveness of market segmentation and positioning strategies is achieving the firm’s goals as well as host of others.
  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0The firm does not use market segmentation and positioning to achieve greater part of her objectives.

H1The firm use market segmentation and positioning to achieve greater part of her objectives.

H02 The firm marketing operations are not regionally structured.

H2The firm marketing operations regionally structured.

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study on the segmentation of market and positioning is very significant because many companies and organizations have had some problems to perform more profitable because of the lack of ideas to segmentation of market and positioning. This work would provide marketing/sales managers of companies and organizations in the state and the country at large, with the useful tools for designing and accessing the efficacy of their market segmentation programmes. This study is very significant and justifiable in that market segmentation and positioning and identification target markets by organization are part of the tools for the realization turnover ratio of organizations as well as development sales. Finally, this research in this direction thereby lagging foundation for other researchers.

  • SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study covers all aspects of market segmentation and positioning as an instrument for achieving organizational objectives as a whole. The population of this study is all publishing firms in the country. However, due to time and financial constraints, a survey of selected firms in Owerri will be conducted. Therefore, the study sample has been narrowed to seven publishing firms in Owerri, which the researcher believes is representative of the entire population.

The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
  3. c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

MARKET:– It can be defined as a geographical location where buyers and sellers transact business. It can also be seen as an aggregate demand by potential buyers of product or services. Market can also been seen as people with needs to satisfy, the money to spend and the willingness to spend it whenever it becomes necessary to do so.
MARKET SEGMENTATION:- This is the process of dividing the heterogonous market into smaller division having relatively homogenous characteristics that can be satisfied by the firms

POSITIONING:- This is the act of establishing a viable competitive positioning of the firm and its offerings on the selected target market.

MARKET TARGET:- It is the process of selecting a segment of the total market and going after it with the company’s product or closing a selected of the market with which to deal with in relation to the firm offerings.

MARKET CONCEPT:- This is the philosophy of business which state that, the customers want for satisfaction is the economic and social justification for a firm’s existence.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

THE IMPACT OF MARKET SEGMENTATION AND POSITIONING OF COMPANY PERFORMANCE

THE IMPACT OF MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM ON MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgment

Abstract

Table of content

CHAPETR ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Significance of the study

1.6        Scope and limitation of the study

1.7       Definition of terms

1.8       Organization of the study

CHAPETR TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPETR THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

 Abstract

This project looks at the impact of marketing information system on decision making in an organization, case study of Coca-Cola Plc Benin City. The research highlights the need for the company to efficiently and effectively manager it’s information network adequately for the overall profitability of the firms. The researcher adopted experimental survey research method where the questionnaire was used to source for primary information or data for the study. The simple percentage was used for the analyses of the biodata while the chi-square was used for testing the hypotheses. Base on the findings, the degree of marketing information is low; the company should over-haut it’s information at its disposal to enable proper control of its numerous activities and marketing functions. 

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

The Coca-Cola Company is the world number one maker of soft drink, the firms in the world has been credited to proficiency in these four basic areas! Consumer marketing, infrastructural, production and distribution of product packaging and customer or vendor marketing. The investor of Coca-cola Dr. John Slyth Pemberton came to Atlanta from Columbus, Georgia in 1968, in 1886 he concocted or makes a mixture of Sugar water Coca leaf and the Kola nut; he added caffeine to the resulting syrup so that it could be marketed. Through his research Pemberton arrival at the conclusion that all the medication was capable of relieving indigestion and exhaustion in addition to being refreshing. According to the history of coca-cola pat waters cited a coca- cola from 1887 which stated that the drink “makes not only a delicious and invigorating – but a valuable brain tonic and a cure for all nervous affection”. The label also claimed that the peculiar flavor of coca-cola delights every Palater, it is dispensed from the social fountain in the same manner as any fruit syrup Going through the analysis and history of both organizations it is relevant to not that marketing has been existence since the time of immemorial to this end, information also existed. The only difference with the present day situation is that they are not organized. Marketing information system has been death with by various scholars in the past.

A marketing information system (MIS) can be defined as a system in which marketing information as formally gathered, stored, analyzed and distributed to managers in accordance with their information needs on a regular basis (Jobber, 2007), he explained that marketing information system is a computer based system intended for use by particular marketing personnel at any functional level for the purpose of solving problems that related to marketing of a firms products (goods and services)

The system crates through an understanding of the information needs to the marketing management it is available to supply information when, what, and how the manager require it. Data is taken from marketing environment and transferred into the information that the marketing manager can use in their decision making process. Armstrong (2008) defined marketing information system as people equipment and distributes needed timely and accurate information to marketing decision makers

The MIS begins and with information users marketing manager. Internal and external partners and other who need marketing information first interact with those information users to asses information needs next, it also interact with the marketing environment to develop the needed information through internal company data base, marketing intelligence activities and marketing research

Finally, the MIS helps the user to analyze the information to develop customer insights by making decision able to manager customer’s relationship.

 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Presently the soft drink industry is faced with a very massive competition amongst itself for the attention and patronage of which coca-cola Nigeria limited is not an exception. To achieve the statement of the problems it would be necessary statement pertaining to the marketing information needed by the company to improve its operation. This study is up to the findings out the extent to which coca-cola Nigeria Bottling company has succeeded in influencing its decision making process of this management

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

As earlier indicated Coca-Cola Nigeria Plc is the focus of the study from which relevant data will be obtained to achieve some specific purpose are:

  1. To determine if proper marketing information system affects management decision making.
  2. To determine if the success of the company is as a result of the efficient and effective marketing information system?
  3. To establish if proper marketing information system is based on the overall objective of the organization.
  • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The research work was restricted by the company in order to develop the hypothesis formulation

Hypothesis One

Ho:   There is no significant relationship between proper marketing information systems and management decision making.

Ho: There is significant relationship between proper marketing information systems and management decision making

Hypothesis Two

Ho:   There is no significant relationship between the success of the company and its efficient and effective marketing information system.

Ho: There is significant relationship between the success of the company and its efficient and effective marketing information system

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The justification for the project is aimed at benefiting the marketing manager in particular and all the stakeholders that use data from the marketing information system. We also see how marketers gain insight about consumers and the marketplace and how organization develop manage information about marketing information system such as customers, competitors products, and marketing programmes. This project also aimed at organization knowing that today’s marketplace maintenance of marketing information can be turned into fresh customer’s insight that will help them deliver greater values to customers

 1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The research work is limited to Edo State and particularly Benin City where Coca-cola is located. The study was taken because of the scene and the complaints of the company’s products and to know if the information is reaching the appropriate authority and how effective decision can solve those problems to enable coca-cola maintain its lead in the soft drink business in the world. Areas contained in the study are limited to the targets of marketing and its function as its effects the internal and external operation of the company. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms are defined and explained as they apply to this study.

Marketing: The American marketing association defined marketing as the performance of business activities that direct one flow of goods and services from one procedure to the consumer or end-user.

Marketing Information System: This is defined as the continuing and interacting structure of people, equipment, timely and accurate information for use by marketing decision makers to improve their marketing planning, execution and control.

Distribution: This is an operation which brings manufacture goods into the hands of final consumer. The objective of the distribution system is to make production output with market demand by holding goods and delivery them where they are needed.

Management: This is seen as a process or a function as well as the people who discharge it, a social position and authority and also a discipline and field of study. Management is taken as a discipline and also as people. Management is concerned with being responsible for the attainment of objective taking place within a structural organization and with prescribes roles.

Marketing Management: This is defined as the analysis planning, implementation and control of program to create, build and maintain beneficial exchange and relationship with targets market for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives. This consists of an activity that has to do with implementing the marketing concepts.

Managerial decision: This is defined as the making up of mind on the course of action and opportunities by the manager depending on the information given in an organization.

Marketing Decision: Marketing decision is based on probabilities and not certainties and to the extent that contain event occur, so that the plan may be valid, but if unforeseen development takes place then alternative course are already planned to meet the new situation.

Research: Research is the manipulation of ideas, concept, variable, situation and symbols to emphasize evidence and other phenomenon in order to arrived at generalization and conclusion that constitute theory in future.

Sales Research: This is through examination of the company’s selling activities. This is carried out by means of sales outlet or sales territories analysis so that direct comparism can be made with public data

Advertising: This is defined as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.

Marketing Intelligence: This consist of procedure used by the company to keep facing the same way in their development in their environment and disseminate them to the proper executive, it includes all data gartered as a basis for marketing decision.

Price: Price is a simple offer or an experiment to test the amount that is usually charged for the product that may even be withdraw

Marketing Research: This is an aid to make better decision by proving additional information to a specific marketing problem. It is concern with decision making.

Marketing Concept: It is defined management philosophy that seeks to determine and satisfied customer needs using integrated marketing programmes in order to achieve organization goals.

Selling: It is define as combination of activities which bring preserve to bear on potential customer and include personal selling, advertising, branding and packaging.

Product: Aproduct is a set of tangible attributes including packages, colour, price, manufacturer and relater’s service which the buyer accepts as the offering wants satisfaction

Product Research: This is concerned with all research that deals with product and their packaging relative to improving that which are presently offered and planning and developing new products.

Services: Services are those separately identifiable (essentially intangible activities) which are not necessary filed to sale of a product or other activities.

THE IMPACT OF MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM ON MANAGERIAL DECISION MAKING

BRANDING AS A MARKETING TOOL IN SALES PERFORMANCE

CHAPETR ONE

INTRODUCTION 

1.1        Background of the study

1.2        Statement of problem

1.3        Objective of the study

1.4        Research Hypotheses

1.5        Justification of the study

1.6       Significance of the study

1.7       Scope and limitation of the study

1.8       Definition of terms

1.9       Organization of the study

CHAPETR TWO

2.0   LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPETR THREE

3.0        Research methodology

3.1    sources of data collection

3.3        Population of the study

3.4        Sampling and sampling distribution

3.5        Validation of research instrument

3.6        Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1 Introductions

4.2 Data analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary

5.3 Conclusion

5.4 Recommendation

Appendix

Abstract

This study was carried out to ascertain consumer perception towards leading brands of beverage produced by the Nigerian Breweries Plc and how branding can be used by brewers as a marketing tool to increase or boost its sales. I employed a combination of tabulations and weightings to arrive and consumer ratings of brands. The result showed that taste and flavour emerged as the most important attribute to respondents in the research sample. This was followed by alcoholic content, price and aroma/smell in that order. The questionnaire method of data collection was adopted and administered to a systematic random sample of respondents.

The results of the study revealed that consumers preference for a brand is a function of the relative importance of the product attributes and beliefs about the brand. In the preference ranking by consumers, star emerged as the most preferred brand and legend extra stout as the least preferred brand. Results revealed that there was no relationship between brand preference and the demographic variables like sex, age and income level.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the study

One of the most recent ideas in the history of exchange relations is the marketing concept. The marketing concept is a management orientation that holds that the key task of the organization is to determine the needs and wants of target markets and to adapt the target organization to delivering the desired satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than its competitors. Economic history is well stocked with enough insight into the humble beginnings of present-day great corporations. Evidence abound that about all of the multi-national giant corporations in America, Europe and Nigeria were once cottage enterprises that grew as a result of the sheer ability and especially the marketing skills and efforts to produce and reproduce existing products better and cheaper.

The adoption of a customer orientation, which forms the basic assumption of the marketing function of a firm, places a high premium on customer satisfaction. This of course has very wide applications for all areas of the organization. One major implication is that if the firm or organization has to manage its limited financial resources profitably, there is an acute need to identify consumers’ needs and wants before actual production or provision of the goods is undertaken. In the absence of this, the company may be faced with the threat of product failure in the face of more competitive brands.

One of the most frequently used for identifying consumers’ needs and wants is the study of brands and brand preference patterns. Brand preference consists of a customer’s perception of a brand’s ability to satisfy his prescribed set of needs more than similar brands in the product class. A consumer’s preference for a particular brand among alternative brands is an indication thatceteris paribus, he will translate this preference to a purchase action when the situation arises. Consumer preference therefore is a crucial factor for management consideration especially in an attempt to implement the marketing concept. Since modern marketing holds the consumer as the centre-piece of all marketing actions, it appears logical to state that no fruitful marketing programme can be formulated and implemented without vigorously attempting to identify the tastes and preferences of the target market. The need for this becomes even more crucial in a developing economy like Nigeria’s at the threshold of technological take-off.

An understanding and determination of consumer preference and the factors that give rise to them ultimately becomes highly fundamental in planning and implementing the company’s marketing strategies. Brand and brand preference do result from both the nature of the product, the characteristics of the producer, the seller and the consumer as well as the prevalent situation. In an attempt to understand consumer preference on the basis of the nature of the product, one basic approach is consumer attitude measurement. Hence the inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the distribution management of the brewery industries in Nigeria prompted this research and also to investigate the factors responsible for this poor sales performance and also to proffer some workable solutions to them

 1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

Numerous researches have been carried out to investigate the relationship between brand preference and consumer characteristics, characteristics of the product and the existing economic situation.

Most have used numerous measures which are not products of brand-specific to establish the relationship. Majority of these researchers have attempted to study consumer preferences and choice on the basis of personality, psychograghic and demographic characteristics.

However, Engel, Kollat and Black well pointed out that since World War II, economic and demographic variables have become less reliable determinants of products and brand preferences and choice, while personality variables have made minimal contributions to the understanding of consumer behavior.

The research work is embarked upon due to the problems encountered by the Nigerian Breweries Plc., in the course of branding and promoting their products.

1.3OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Due to the fact that we have many brewers in the country today, there are many brands of lager beer in the market. The variety of brands of beer in the market has increased the consumer’s ability to exercise choice with less restraint. Therefore, the objective of the study is:

  1. The primary motives underlying the choice and subsequent purchase of a brand
  2. The consumer’s preference pattern for each brand.

iii.          The attributes that appeal to the consumers in their order of importance.

  1. The average beer consumption rate of respondents per week.
  2. How the Nigerian Breweries Plc can improve sales performance through branding.
  3. How the company, Nigerian Breweries Plc, decides on the particular to use in distributing its products.

vii.        To make recommendations in form of proffering solutions to the existing problems.

1.4    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of brand and brand preference as a marketing tool such as this one is relevant in present-day Nigeria’s dynamic socio-economic environment to which the brewery industry belongs.

Products are subject to life cycles. A particular may emerge suddenly, enjoy rapid growth and reach a point of relative maturity and eventually move into a period of slow decline. The implication of this is that a company needs to identify consumers’ needs and wants before producing its brand of beer otherwise, chances are that it may be faced with a threat of product failure in the face of more competitive brands in its product class.

I therefore intend to find out among other reasons:

  1. If the Nigerian Breweries’ pattern of branding conforms with what obtains in management literatures.
  2. To ascertain whether it is adequate and dynamic enough with the ever changing economy.
  3. The relative importance of specific attributes of beer to consumers and how they relate to brand preference will be highlighted in this study.
  4. This study would be of immense assistance to brewery companies that want to formulate or reformulate their product strategy.
  5. This study would enable the brewers to know what attributes to improve on in their existing brands of beer and therefore plan marketing strategies to exploit their strengths.
  6. The findings of this study will be useful in the development of new product brands, improvement of existing brands and the planning of marketing strategies to exploit the preferences advantages.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is focused on the beer industry with particular reference to Nigerian Breweries Plc and taking a cursory look at its lager beer and non-alcoholic beverages viz.:

  1. STAR
  2. GUILDER

iii.          HEINEKEN

  1. MALTINA

These brands were selected because

  1. They are familiar enough for consumers to be reasonably knowledgeable about them.
  2. They are easily and readily available in retail outlets.
  3. There is some degree of price variation amongst them.
  4. They are sufficiently advertised in the various mass media.

The geographical coverage of this study was limited to Benin City because of time and financial constraints. The limitation of geographical coverage is occasioned by the need for greater effectiveness of the research, given the constraints of time and finance.

It is hoped however that the findings of this study will allow for a more meaningful comparisons to be made with findings of similar studies conducted in other towns in Nigeria. This is because most experts agree that Benin City is a microcosm of the behavior of the entire Nigerian Federation.

1.6 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY

A hypothesis is a tentative answer to a research question. It is often stated in the form of a relationship between a dependent and independent variable (Agbonifoh and Yemore, 1999).

A hypothesis may be stated in a null form (Ho) or in the alternative (Ha).

Thus, the following hypotheses are to be tested:

 H0:  branding does not have any impact on consumer’s preference of bear

H1branding does have an impact on consumer’s preference of bear

H02there is no significant relationship between branding and customers patronage

H2there is a significant relationship between branding and customers patronage

1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Branding

A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.

Marketing

Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships. Marketing is used to create, keep and satisfy the customer

Consumer 

A consumer is a person or organization that uses economic services or commodities

Patronage

Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

BRANDING AS A MARKETING TOOL IN SALES PERFORMANCE