THE USE OF IGBO LANGUAGE IN ADVERTISING PRODUCTS IN EASTERN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ABAKALIKI METROPOLIS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

            Advertising is drawing attention to goods and services for the purpose of attracting patronage. The basic aim of the advertiser according to Ebeze (2003) is to sell. Its effectiveness is therefore measured in terms of the volumes of sales it is able to attract or record. To be effective, advertising is expected to be able to attract attention, arouse interests, create a desire and motivate action (Umeogu 2013). When this is the case, the advertisement is said to be persuasive or effective.

            Advertising persuasion is rated based on many factors but ultimately language is central to all these factors (Shrimp 2000:3). This is supported by his idea that “of all the elements that characterize a social group and distinguished it from other groups, whether in arts, music, dance, attitude and beliefs, festival behavior etc, the most central is language”. What this means is that the use of an indigenous language is highly necessitated by its indispensability and importance in advertising if a truly effective communication is to take place.

According to Goddart (2002), advertising permeates our daily lives. It has become so ubiquitous that it is generally believed that no product can survive the competitiveness of market forces without it.

Udemmadu (2013) observed that many of the advertisements in Nigeria are done in a foreign language – English which makes them actually alienating. Consequently, the value and essence of the message is hidden from the majority of the target audience. This is because the populace at large has various indigenous languages as their mother tongues. Essentially, there are about 521 indigenous languages spoken in Nigeria (Udemmadu 2013). However, this research work is narrowed to the use of Igbo language which is one of the major languages spoken in Nigeria.

             The Igbo language is one of the three major languages in Nigeria. The native Igbo speaking states include: Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo. Traces of the Igbo culture and language could also be seen in Cross River, Akwa Ibom, Rivers and Delta States (Udemmadu 2013). According to Umeogu (2013), the languages of communication in the igbo speaking cities are mainly Igbo and English. However, English language has been given a pride of place in the media houses in Nigeria to the detriment of indigenous languages like Igbo despite the fact that the recipients of the advertisements are chiefly indigenous users.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

THE USE OF IGBO LANGUAGE IN ADVERTISING PRODUCTS IN EASTERN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ABAKALIKI METROPOLIS

IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION ON THE MARKETING OF SOFT DRINKS IN ABAKALIKI URBAN .doc

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

In any organization whether profit or non profit oriented, the main purpose of the organization is to achieve its objectives. The objectives cannot be achieved in a vacuum; there must be a clearly set strategy that management should use in order to meet these objects.

Many businesses fail to realize that they cannot stay in business without any marketing strategies. This is because they were operating in a market that was monopolistic in nature. This means that there was no intense competition from other organization. But these days due to dynamic nature of the market, and consumer taste changes every day, it has become imperative on the part of the management to look into their strategies and review them if at all they want to remain in the business. The integrated marketing communication mix consists of the subsets of marketing tools that are primarily communicational in nature. They are tools normally classified under promotion which is one of the controllable variables of the 4ps of marketing promotional mix, they are made up of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity etc.

It helps in conveying message about the product offering to the customers, creating demand, market positioning, and to make a decision related to buy a product. Among the various promotional tools, it has been found that sales promotion is one which stimulates quick and large purchases in a limited period of time. It can be said that, sales promotion is the marketing activity that adds the value proposition related to a product (i.e., getting more for less) for a limited time in order to stimulate consumer patronage, effective sales and the effort made by the sales force.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

IMPACT OF SALES PROMOTION ON THE MARKETING OF SOFT DRINKS IN ABAKALIKI URBAN .doc

EFFECTS OF COST REDUCTION AND PRICE DETERMINATION (CASE STUDY OF DANGOTE CEMENT FACTORY OBAJANA)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background to the Study

The changing nature of present times has placed much emphasis on business that their sustainability must be sought for and ensured. That business strength progressed or outpaced its competitors depends largely on the quality and strength of its management. People always make enquires pertaining to the issues that arouse their interests-How, where, when, how and what it will cost to get the necessary information, that will aid the attainment of the organizational goals.

Cost is hardly evasive in present day business transactions from day to day. Daily expenses are resolved in terms of cost-what cost, how cheap, how costly. In offices cost savings, cost of materials, overhead service cost, labor cost and many others are passively considered. In an economist’s point of view, the same dictions-marginal cost, opportunity cost, cost curve, total cost among others.

The above submissions attempt to suggest that cost perhaps is a most important concept in our everyday lives and most diversely conceived. Hence, the objective of every business organization is charged with both financial and non-financial objectives, which drive them towards the actualization of their set organizational goals

According to Pandy, the financial motives of an organization comprises of:

•        Maximization of shareholders wealth

•        Profit maximization and

•        Service to customers.

Above all, profit maximization ranks the most prominent of the reason of going into business organization. For business to attain its aim, it tends to cut across cost reduction, thereby meeting its minimal cost budgets-profit.

However, Okafor (1983:142) opines that profit is the ultimate measure of overall performance. When management has planned, organized and controlled its human and material resources properly, corporate activities attain a level of effectiveness, which shows up in profit. Probably, profits are acid test of the individual firm’s performance.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

EFFECTS OF COST REDUCTION AND PRICE DETERMINATION (CASE STUDY OF DANGOTE CEMENT FACTORY OBAJANA)’

ADVERTISING JINGLES AND SLOGANEERING CAMPAIGN

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background of the study

Advertising business is a form of marking communication used to encourage, persuade, or manipulate an audience (viewers, readers, or history’s, sometime a specific group to take or centime to take some action, (Allens, 2009p12).

Most commonly, the desired results is to drive consumer behaviour with respect to a commercial offering. Advertising jingles and slogans are at the front of delivering the proper message and jingles to customers and prospective customers. The purpose of advertising jingles and slogans according to Bell and Cassidy(2012p76) is to convince customers that a company’s services are the best, enhance the image of the company, point out and create a need or products or service demonstrated new uses for established products and programmes, reinforce the sales people’s individual message and jingless,  draw customers to the business and to hold existing customer. The essence is to effect consumer buying behaviour.

An advertising slogan is a catchy phrase or series of words used to help consumers remember a company, brand or product (calvert, 2009 p12) for instance, the advertising slogan used by Guisiness malt is” love at first sip” while on the  other hand, advertising jingle is a short tune used in advertising and for other commercial uses. The jingles contains  one or more hooks and meaning that explicity promote the product being advertised, usually through the use of one or more advertising slogans. Advertising, buyers use jingles in radio and television commercial; they can also be used in non- advertising contexts to establish or maintain a brand image. Jingles are form of sound branding. Companies create advertising slogans and jingles to use in various marking efforts in the hope that phrases and music will stick in people’s mind. That way, when a consumer needs a product or service offered by a variety of companies, that consumer will choose the product or service that is top- of – mind from slogans recognition .

Jingles are similar to slogans in that they are catchy and used to associate a specific company, product or brand. Jingles tend to be musical, though, where as slogans do not need to be accompanies by music (cook, 20011: 72). However, slogans can become jingles; slogans that is sung, is a jingle. Guinness malt’s “ love at first sip slogan often is sung in the company’s commercials, marking it a jingle as well.  Most commonly, the desire to use advertising slogans and jingles are is to drive consumer behaviors with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. The purpose may also be to reassume employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful.
DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIALS

ADVERTISING JINGLES AND SLOGANEERING CAMPAIGN

MEANING OF ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT

MEANING OF ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT

ABSTRACT

This study titled “meaning of organisational conflict; A study of UBA, FBN Plc, Enugu Branch” is aimed at investigating the types, causes and effects of organizational conflicts in the organization as well as the strategies adopted in managing the conflicts  in the bank. The survey research method was adopted for the study.  Primary data were collected from selected staff of the bank using questionnaire and interview techniques. Secondary data were  collected from published works. Data were presented in tables as frequency distribution and analyzed with percentage and frequency. The Z-test technique was applied in testing the hypotheses.  The major findings of the study were as follows;

  • Conflicts regularly occur in the bank. These include intrapersonal, inter-personal and group-management

conflict.

  • The causes range from personal trait and goals, organizational policies to poor communication and reward system.
  • The conflict management strategies adopted include avoidance, accommodation, competition, compromise, collaboration, mediation, counseling, team resolution,

etc.

  • Conflicts have adverse effects on employees and the

organization.

  • Effective conflict management enhances organizational performance.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 

Ours is an age of rapid change, unrest and conflicting ideologies. Society is unsettled and individuals are apprehensive as group, nations and organized groups within the nation struggle for power and control over material resources and man’s mind. It is in such a world setting of tension and clearage that we view the present day relationship between labour and management in Nigeria.

In an organization, there are the owners of business who’s primary goal and or objective is to maximize profit at all cost while on the other hand, there are workers whose only weapon is this labour power with which they earn some reward usually monetarily. In other words, these two groups (the owners and workers) here their own are interest which might differ. Nevertheless they are bound to co-operate in other to maintain and sustain the system of going concern. However, where there is co-operation, there will be conflict can be described as a situation of disagreement between employees and employer e.t.c. it could also be seen as the total range of behaviour and express opposition and divergent orientation between owners and managers on the hand and workers and the organization on the other hand.

Organization conflict is therefore a familiar characteristic of organization life. Its fundament cause is the self-interest of individuals in the organization, a self-interest which frequently manifests itself a self-in competing objectives, philosophies or method and in associated struggles of one or more level or department to dominate the other. The presence of conflict brings a change in an organization. If the change is in line with organization objective then the conflict is beneficial (functional) to the organization, but if on the other hand, the conflict create disunity among functionaries in the organization this deviation from the stated organization objective then such a conflict is dysfunctional.

Conflict can be main tested inform of discount struggle, quarrel, opposition, disagreement, clash of interest and ever fighting. It can range from industrial strike to competition, to simple dislike among individuals in an organization. It many occur or sub-groups departments sub-system, authority relationship, individuals and even sub-organization in there guest to either incompatible goals in the face of the resources.

The first Bank PLC as financial (service) organization is not an exception to the inherent problem posed by conflict. The inability of the management to be effectively by handle conflicts has led to a considerable wastage of human and material resources heading some times to a partial or non-fulfillment of the stated organization goals and objectives.

Considering the vital position which first Bank (Nig.) Plc occupies in the nation as one of the three major financial institution teeholis and supports the economic. It therefore become important using first Bank Plc as a focal point since the financial performance or non-performance of the bank will directly have a great impact on the nation economy.

The research work I undertaken so as to enable the organization to understand and appreciate this in her sent nature of conflict and how researching it will result to an improvement of the organizational efficiency.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

MEANING OF ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICT

MARKETING OF HOTEL SERVICES IN ENUGU METROPOLIS (A CASE STUDY OF MAC – DAVOS HOTEL ENUGU)

MARKETING OF HOTEL SERVICES IN ENUGU METROPOLIS (A CASE STUDY OF MAC – DAVOS HOTEL ENUGU)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    OVER VIEW OF THE STUDY

Hotels provide meals, drinks, attractions, accommodation etc., to the general public or persons in transit especially people traveling to places where they have neither their own homes nor any relation to cater for their needs. Such persons will like to know few things about the hotels in their transitory area. In other words, they may like to know about available hotels, the categories of such hotels, the room and suit fares, and the type of food served, the necessary comfort customers are accorded – with, the game that is both indoor and outdoor games available and perhaps and other special feature that make such hotels appealing to the sojourners in transit.

These characteristics of hotels are boosted by marketing services of various types in so many countries of the world. In Nigeria, major hotels live like Sheraton, Eko Hotels, Federal Palace Hotels, NICON NUGA, to mention just a few of them, have made impressionable image both nationally and internationally and the praises go to marketing that have heralded their various characteristics, class placement status to the public generally. Without marketing, the image of their hotels and their excellent services would not be so diffused to the public. For instance recently in Enugu, some hotels have come up with incentive – type promotions to attract new terriers, to reward loyal customers and to increase the patronage rates of occasional users. One of such hotels is Home Pride Guest House situated at number 16 Chime Avenue, New Haven in Enugu, promoted its hotel as (10%) Ten percent discount awaits customers that patronizes its hotel superbly built, and lavishly furnished with ultra-modern guest houses, with about sixteen (16) air conditioned rooms each with its exclusive toilets, cold/hot shower, stand-by water storage tanks to ensure uninterrupted water supply; a lounge with well stocked bar and assorted types of edibles including Chinese foods available; a well cemented car park adorned with beautiful flowers, and powerful stand-by generators to ensure uninterrupted power supply.

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The study is aimed at finding the importance as well of marketing  problems experienced in hospitality industries. This is an organization that the principal objective is to make profit. To realize this objective, the business concern must be prepared to uphold the marketing concept of the supremacy of the consumer. Marketing promotion contributes a great deal in upholding the supremacy of the customers which involves identification and satisfaction of specified needs. Hospitality industry like hotel-ling is a competitive business and must endeavour to identify and satisfy customers’ needs to be able to stay in business.

There are some marketing problems in hospitality industry business in Enugu State. The problems are the factors that hinder marketing of hotel services.

One of such factor is income. The income level of both customers and proprietors will hinder the work of marketing promotion on hotels. Low income earners, for example may find it difficult to cope with high prices of hotel services which happened as a result of marketing carried out which invariably attracted high prices on them.

There are also several classes of people in society. We have high class individual and low class people as well. Those in the high classes are usually enlightened while those in the lower class are mainly illiterates.

For instance, some advertising messages are produced by professional for high class people while non-professional produced the type we call below the line advertising for low class people. Culture consider some advetisement as taboo, while some people in a special class, like corporation may find it not necessary advertising their hotel, hence it is only for members.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

MARKETING OF HOTEL SERVICES IN ENUGU METROPOLIS (A CASE STUDY OF MAC – DAVOS HOTEL ENUGU)

DIVIDENDS POLICY ON THE MARKET PRICE OF SHARE (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)

 EFFECTS OF DIVIDENDS POLICY ON THE MARKET PRICE OF SHARE (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)

ABSTRACT

The efficient and effective financial administration in corporate organization is sine quad non’ to the achievement of the organizational objective. Dividend policy is said to be financial policy that is responsible for the determination of the market price of shares. But there are divergent views on the effect of dividend policy on the market price of shares. Dividend relevance and dividend irrelevance theories. The regression analysis performed on the secondary data collected, using market price of shares as dependent variable, dividend per share, retained earnings per share and earnings per share as independent variables, revealed that there is significant relationship between dividend policy and market price of shares. It was also revealed that dividend affect market price of share more than retained earnings. It was also concluded that the belief of the dividend irrelevance theorists is wrong in the real life situation where forces of demand and supply play a determining role. It was recommended that financial administrators study and educate the environment in the formulation of dividend policy. Hence, optimum dividend policy will be achieved which in tum increases the value of the business firm.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter One: Introduction

1.1   Background of the Study

1.2   Objective of the Study

1.3   Statement of Problem

1.4   Research Questions

1.5   Research Hypotheses

l.6    Significance of the Study

1.7   Scope and Limitation of the Study

l.8    Plan of the Study

Chapter Two: Literature Review/Theoretical Framework

2.0   Introduction

2.1   Conceptual Framework

2.2   Theoretical Framework

2.2.1 Dividend Relevance

2.2.2 Dividend Irrelevance

2.2.3 Theories based on the in Formativeness of Dividend Payout

2.2.4 Dividend Announcement and the Market Price of Shares

2.3   Types of Dividend

Chapter Three: Research Methodology

3.0   Introduction

3.1   Data Collection

3.2   Sources and Nature of Data

3.3   Analytical Techniques and Instrument

3.4   Model Specification

3.5   Model Estimation Techniques

3.6   Re-Statement of Hypothesis

3.7   Limitations and Problem Encountered in the Research Work

Chapter Four: Method of Data Analysis

4.0   Data Analysis and Interpretation

4.1   Presentations and Interpretation of Result

4.2   Major Findings and Implications

4.3   Effect of Dividend Policy on First Bank of Nigeria

Chapter Five: Summary of Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion

5.0   Summary

5.1   Findings

5.2   Recommendation

5.3   Conclusion

Bibliography

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Efficient management of the flow of funds within a firm shows that the firm has a goal or an objective because judgment as to whether or not financial decision is efficient must be made in the light of some standard. The objectives of firms are multi­-dimensional; this may range from social, to economics and to finance.

The social objective holds the view that the firm should socially responsible. This is because the firm is not operating in a vacuum but within environment, internal and external environments of the firm. These social responsibilities include the supply of quality products at low prices to the customers, tarring of roads maintenance of sound industrial relations, giving a fair deal to employees and seeking their participation in management and contribution towards the social overheads through taxes and donations. However, the social welfare maximization objective is greeted with very may criticism. The economics objective has profit maximization objective as its own objective and holds the view that sole objective of any firm should be to maximize profit.

The objective though considering better than that of social school of thought, also witness several and serious criticisms. The finance is maximizing the, wealth of the shareholders or value of the firm. The objective of wealth maximization would cause financial managers to take decisions, which balance returns and risk in such a manners as to maximize the benefits, through dividends and enhancement of share price, to the shareholders.

Dividend policy is seen to be sine-qua-non to the value of a firm subject to the position maintained in the above paragraph. The shareholders see dividends as signals of the firm’s ability to generate future income, hence, it is used in the valuation of the firm. The management of the firm is expected to choose the capital structure that will be able to give optimum return to the firm.

Hence, dividend policy “… consist of rules by which the earning are distributed between retention and dividends to shareholder,” Oloyede (2000).

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

 EFFECTS OF DIVIDENDS POLICY ON THE MARKET PRICE OF SHARE (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE  (DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL OGHARA)

EFFECT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE  (DELTA STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL OGHARA)

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to test The effect of Training on The Employee’s Performance and The Quality of Medical Services in Delta State University Teaching Hospital Oghara. The data of this study were collected through a (100) questionnaire distributed for all types of job in the hospitals. Grynbach constancy coefficients reached 79%, Percentages, and chi-square analysis were used to test the study hypotheses, the results indicate that there’s a strong effect of the training and training component on employees performance and the quality of medical services in the hospital. On the light of the study results the following recommendations may be submitted create an appropriate regulatory climate, annual training plan, for the process of training and providing appropriate incentives for the trainees, increased the budget allocated for training, in the Jordanian private hospitals, give workers opportunity to choose the training programs, and rationalized administrative decisions regarding the training programs.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Organizations are facing increased competition due to globalization, changes in technology, political and economic environments (Evans, Pucik & Barsoux 2002,) and therefore prompting these organizations to train their employees as one of the ways to prepare them to adjust to the increases above and thus enhance their performance. It is important to not ignore the prevailing evidence on growth of knowledge in the business corporate world in the last decade. This growth has not only been brought about by improvements in technology nor a combination of factors of production but increased efforts towards development of organizational human resources. It is ,therefore , in every organizations responsibility to enhance the job performance of the employees and certainly implementation of training and development is one of the major steps that most companies need to achieve this. As is evident that employees are a crucial resource, it is important to optimize the contribution of employees to the company aims and goals as a means of sustaining effective performance. This therefore calls for managers to ensure an adequate supply of staff that is technically and socially competent and capable of career development into specialist departments or management positions (Afshan, Sobia, Kamran & Nasir 2012, 646).

The question that may arise in many instances is why human resources are important. Bearing in mind that human resources are the intellectual property of the firm, employees prove to be a good source of gaining competitive advantage (Houger 2006), and training is the only way of developing organizational intellectual property through building employees competencies. In order to succeed. Organizations have to obtain and utilize human resources effectively. Organizations ,therefore, need to design its human resource management in ways that fit into the organization’s structure as this it will make the organizations achieve their goals and objectives. Moreover, it is also important for organizations to assist their workforce in obtaining the necessary skills needed and, increase commitment. The management of human resources in Africa in general and Nigeria in particular is rather challenging as most organizations have difficulties finding proper human resources. This may partly be a result of the different kinds of problems, for example, political instability, corruption, bureaucracy, poor infrastructure, low levels of education and purchasing power, diseases and famine known to prevail in the African business context (Kamoche 2002, 994 – 995).

Problem Statement

Despite the increasing effects on training of organizational employees by organizations, there is still limited literature on human resource development issues in developing countries (Debrah & Ofori 2006, 440) and increasing concerns from organizational customers towards low quality services in the telecommunications sector. It is further worth noting that while much is known about the economics of training in the developed world, studies of issues associated with training in less-developed countries are rarely found. The existing studies in this relation (Harvey 2002; Harvey, Matt & Milord 2002; Jackson 2002; Kamoche 2002; Kamoche, Debrah, Hortwiz & Muuka 2004; Kraak 2005) have taken a general human resource management (HRM) focus creating a gap on issues such as the effect of training on employee performance. This study will contribute in minimizing this gap in the literature and thereby establish the basis to understanding of some aspects of human resource management in general and training in particular in Nigeria.

TELE ADVERT ON THE NATURE AND PATTERN OF CONSUMERS PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING

EFFECT OF TELE ADVERT ON THE NATURE AND PATTERN OF CONSUMERS PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING

ABSTRACT

This work reports the results of an experiment carried out among consumers of three competing brands of toothpaste in Lagos Metropolis. The study examined the effect of tele advert on the nature and pattern of consumers psychological functioning with particular reference To the role of advertisements in forming and preventing cognitive dissonance of the consumer, the relationship between advertisement and impulsive purchase decision of consumers and the impact of different television advert on consumers perception about deceptive advertisements The study was anchored on the “associationist bond concept” which is alternatively called the principle of “connectionism” developed by Thorndike. Data were collected from 600 respondent randomly selected unsuspected consumers in an experimental set up. Result reveals significant positive correlation between advertisement and impulsive purchase decision of consumers. Also, result indicated that visual cognition was higher among young adult irrespective of their gender when they are exposed to tele-adverts.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO STUDY

Considering the dynamism and complexity of the world,t he business environment is becoming sophisticated day by day and as such, decision-making is becoming more and more challenging and risky. Business organizations are failing due to poor decisions. Investors are losing their money and are unhappy. They are being discouraged and this is quite unhealthy to the economy. In some other instances, organizations are springing up in great numbers; some are successful in the marketing of their products and services, while others are still akin to the barber’s chair syndrome where all is motion but no movement; struggling to reach their target audience. Consumers are also faced with the challenge of choice making due to indecisiveness, skepticism, indifference and confusion which are among the key sales killers in business world.

However, the consumer perception challenge is the first and greatest hurdle that advertisers must cross. Perception guides all activities of the consumer from the people he associates with to the product he buys. In the business world, it has always been what people say about a product or service and not what the marketer says. How a consumer perceives each of the different brands in a category, determines which brand he chooses. So many companies spend so much money on advertising, sales promotion, point of purchase displays and other marketing communications only to discover that many people don’t even remember the product or the promotion. On the other hand, whether consumers ultimately purchase the marketer’s brand also depends on whether the promotion and marketing communication variables facilitate purchasing

Advertising is an instrument of information and persuasion. As per one definition “Advertising is the non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media” (Bovee, 1992).The informative role of advertising consists in provision of information about products, features, functions, specifications and prices to prospective buyers. Due to ignorance of advertising, they may purchase an inferior product, pay higher prices, or worse still, may not even know the variety of products that exist. This increases the short-run propensity to consume by informing buyers of the various bargains available. Besides, it is also true that consumer spending declines when the normal advertising flow is cut-off. By advertising the goods, a manufacturer comes in direct touch with the consumers.

Banking upon this information, the manufacturer can directly sell to the customers.

The number of middlemen, whose margins increase the price for the consumers is consequently reduced.

Advertising ensures better and improved quality of goods to consumers at cheaper rates. Since advertised goods promise a certain quality which has to be maintained and further mass advertised goods are produced and distributed in large quantities, thus reducing the production cost per unit (due to economies of scale).

Goods are generally advertised with brand names. When an advertisement appears with a brand name, it imprints an image of the product in minds of the consumer. If the use of the advertised product confirms their expectations, a repeat order is expected and the product will earn a favourable image and good reputation. Thus, the manufacturer is prompted to maintain and if possible, improve the brand quality so that the confidence of consumers is maintained. Else, the brand will lose market share. Advertising creates the desire to possess better and newer items by educating the buyers about better life-style. Advertising gives a direct stimulus to consumer which in turn prompts the producer to produce more and better quality. On the other hand, advertising acts as a mirror that shows the country’s way of life. It is in fact a running commentary of the way people live and behave. Advertising and selling have played an important part in expanding the economic system by stimulating consumers into buying more. Advertising makes people work harder than they otherwise would. This has had the effect of raising the aggregate level of the economy. In the long run, advertising has probably played a major part in making people favourably disposed towards high levels of consumption and in creating new products and ideas. Thus, advertising also increases the employment levels, directly and indirectly. Advertising reduces the risk of innovation. The cost of innovation can be more than recovered by the sales which advertisements may generate and encourage manufacturers to undertake research and development. The revenue through subscriptions is quite inadequate to support the publication of newspapers, magazines or TV channels. Advertising revenues, in fact, provide a greater support to viable functioning of these media.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT TOPICS

EFFECT OF TELE ADVERT ON THE NATURE AND PATTERN OF CONSUMERS PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING

AN EVALUATION OF PRODUCT POSITIONING STRATEGIES IN THE CONSUMER PRODUCTS INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC ). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

AN EVALUATION OF PRODUCT POSITIONING STRATEGIES IN THE CONSUMER PRODUCTS INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC ). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ABSTRACT

This study is a research into “An Evaluation of Product Positioning on Unilever Nigeria Plc.

The study seeks to find out how product positioning helps the firms in achieving greater part of its sales objectives.

In an attempt to carryout the study effectively, a total sample of seven firms were judgmentally selected.

  This sample random sampling technique and chi-square statistical tools was used for this study.

i.             From the analysis of the data, it was deduced that the selected firms consider the application of product positioning as very important part of firm’s sales objectives.

ii.            The selected firms also used product positioning to achieve their aims.

iii.          The firms marketing operations are regionally structured.  However, it was noted that the firms is selling to all the customers.

Finally, the following suggestion were seen:

a.   There should be adequate provision of funds.

b.   The firm should engage more effort to train their sales executives.

c.   They should improve on advertising and other sales promotion mix.

d.   Lastly, the issue of transportation and distribution facilities should be improved.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In marketing, positioning has come to mean the process by which marketers try to create an image or identify in the mind of their target market for its product, brand or organization. It is the relative competitive comparison their product occupies in a given market as perceived by the target market.  What we must agree as is that positioning is something that happens in the minds of the target market.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

AN EVALUATION OF PRODUCT POSITIONING STRATEGIES IN THE CONSUMER PRODUCTS INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC ). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

AN EVALUATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY OANDO PLC FOR THE MARKETING OF PETROLEUM. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

AN EVALUATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY OANDO PLC FOR THE MARKETING OF PETROLEUM. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

 ABSTRACT

This research was motivated to apprise the evaluation of distribution strategies adopted by Oando Plc for the marketing of petroleum product.  There was a problem of the tendency of distribution of those petroleum product to the Northern and Southern which effect to a scarcity of the product in other areas of the country.  On the contrary to the problems of this research work, an objective came to be as to ascertain whether there is an effective and efficient distribution of petroleum products, all round the country.

In the process of solving and pursuance on the problems and the objectives, both primary and secondary data were sourced.  The targeted respondents were mainly the managers, staffs and customer were statistically determined for the purpose of both questionnaires administration and personal interview.  In organizing and presenting the data collected, tables and percentages were used and various hypothesis were tested using chi-square.  The tests of the hypothesis made the researcher to conclude that Oando Plc cannot improve on the distribution strategies for the marketing of petroleum product in our country, as the critical value was greater than the expected value on both test 5.99>1.2481 and 1.8838 <5.99.

The study reviews some findings which made the researcher to recommend that government should set some security agencies that can militate  against perpetrators that vandalize the pipeline and other unscrupulous persons that engaged in similar act, he believes if carefully implemented will go a long way to shortening the various problems

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

   This chapter consists of details of the topic under research.  Here the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives and significance of the study will be revealed along with research question so as to enable the researcher know what the research work is all about.

 

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

As a result of petroleum products being the major exporting product among others, of our country.  Our country solely depends on it as the highest percentage revenue on the overall percentage of the total exportation products or items.

In the 1979s after the civil war, Nigerians have Agricultural products as the dependent product in both domestic and international uses.  But today due to greater lucrative of this product all over the world, abandoned the former for the latter.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

AN EVALUATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY OANDO PLC FOR THE MARKETING OF PETROLEUM. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ADVERTISING AS A STRATEGIC INSTRUMENT IN THE MARKETING OF MTN’S COMMUNICATION SERVICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ADVERTISING AS A STRATEGIC INSTRUMENT IN THE MARKETING OF MTN’S COMMUNICATION SERVICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ABSTRACT

The research work is meant to examine the extent at which advertising effectiveness can either draw people attention a particular project or how it  ineffectiveness is can put people off from the advertised product.    Advertising as a business promotional tool has badly neglected in Nigeria industries as a mot managers thinks their product can survive without if the main purpose of the study is to ascertain the public attitude towards the advertisement of MTN’s Advertizing to enable  some MTNs business organization known how consumer feel about services.  It will further evaluate the impact of advertising in the sale of MTN’s services.  It would also benefit student of Mass Communication Business administration, marketing and other similar disciplines that may carryout similar researcher, and the result of the work shall highlight considerably the persuasive quality of advertising on consumers perception and attitude to MTN product and how it helps to create broad awareness. And finally to correct the negative impressive some people are having about advertising. In the same aim it will support market who wished to excel by recommending that advertising should be planned by experts to ensure its effectiveness and to make sure it does not communicate the wrong information thereby solving some marketing problems.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The world has become a global village as propounded by Marshal Maduban with tele-communications being a key player” and (Okwunna, ed. 2002:225). A major breakthrough is the Wireless Global System for Mobile Communications (MTN).  MTN started in Nigeria in 1886, although in a faulty foundation because the colonial administration then was und in promoting administrative functions than the socio-economic development of the country.

The sector was grossly underdeveloped before it was deregulated  under the military regime of General Ibrahim Babangida in 1992 with the establishment of a regulatory body, the Nigeria communications commission (NCC).  The total number of telephones lines at independence in 1960 was only 18,724 for a population estimated at about 40 million, meaning a teledensity of 0.5 Telephone per 1000 people.

Between 1960 and 1985, the MTNs sector consisted of the department of post and MTN (NET) limited in charge of the external MTNs services.  The installed switching capacity at the end of 1985 was about 200,000 lines as against the target of 460,000.  Telephone penetration remained poor equalizing telephone line to 100 inhabitants recommended by International MTNs Union (ITU) for developing countries.

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

ADVERTISING AS A STRATEGIC INSTRUMENT IN THE MARKETING OF MTN’S COMMUNICATION SERVICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF ADVERTISING IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF ADVERTISING IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ABSTRACT

Tourism Boards are established by various government to accrue revenue.  And the tourism Boards cannot have the revenue without letting the general populace know what they have to offer.  And this can be done through any of the promotional mix variables.

This research work is aimed at finding out the role advertising plays in tourism development.

Chapter one contains a general discussion of the role advertising plays in tourism development.  It went further to state the problem to be studied and why this study was carried out the scope, limitation of the study and finally the significance of the study and the definition of term.  A number of post – related literatures examined by other studies as it relates to the role of advertising in tourism.  Development were highlighted in chapter two.

Chapter three deals with the design of the study, the method used in collecting relevant data.  It also deals with the way the questionnaires were distributed and the treatment of data.  The data got from the research survey were analyzed and interpreted.

Finally, the summary of findings, conclusion on the research and recommendations made by the researcher are all in chapter five.

If tourism boards put the recommendation made in the study to use, they will satisfy their customers and also increase in profit level.  Thereby making the problems of tourism a thing of the past.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Advertising is one phrase that has been given different definitions by authors and these definitions in various ways portray what advertising is all about.

 

According to Tother (1988) advertising refers to any non personal or one – way form of communication conducted through paid media under dear sponsorship.

 

Stanton W.J (1983) says that advertising consist of all the activity involved in presenting to a group, a non – personal, oral or usual, openly sponsored message regarding a product, service or idea.

 

According to American marketing association (1960) “advertising can be defined as any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor”.

 

In (2002) Rotler defined, advertising as any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor.

 

From the above definitions, it is obvious that advertising is a paid communication undertaken by an identified sponsor and governing all business activities.  These activities may include placement of announcement and messages of products and services on the television, radio, magazines, newspaper, outdoor leaflets etc. with the aim of creation awareness.

 

Advertising is important at the introductory stage because when a company introduces a new product or services, it has to inform its potential customers of the existence of such product or services.  The need for it, where it can be found, how it can be used and in some cases the price at which it can be obtained.  It is also very important in sustaining already existing product or services in the market.  This is because one cannot take up an airplane and cut often the engine.  Advertising is the force that elevate the products or services high and if it is suddenly cut off there will be a downward phase of the product and services.

 

Moreover, advertising has proved to be more efficient and less costly source of information than any other sources (Wright et al 1983).  Another important aspect of advertising is that it creates or stimulates demand for a product or service through persuasion.

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF ADVERTISING IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

AN EVALUATION OF PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION IN THE MARKETING OF PETROL IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

AN EVALUATION OF PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION IN THE MARKETING OF PETROL IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ABSTRACT

This Research examined the relevance of Pipeline transportation to the marketing of Petroleum products in Nigeria.  Toward this end 83 staff of the Nigeria national Petroleum Corporation (NNPC)’s offices in Enugu and Port-Harcourt were randomly selected to form the study sample.  The 83 members of the study sample were given 83 copies of structured questionnaires to complete.  Their responses were used to test four hypotheses formulated for this study.  The result of the test/analyses revealed the following findings.

i.      The use of Pipelines facilitates the effective distribution and marketing of petroleum products in Nigeria.

ii.      Pipelines reduce the costs of transporting and marketing petroleum products in Nigeria.

iii.     Pipeline vandalisation is the major problem impeding the effective use of Pipelines for the distribution and marketing of petroleum products in Nigeria.

iv.          The use of alarm systems and police patrol will reduce the incidence of pipeline vandalization in Nigeria.

 

 

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          Pipeline transportation is the youngest among the other means of transportation in Nigeria.  It has not received much attention because of two major factors. One is that it is relatively a recent origin.  Two is the its operations and services are not in the hands of private individuals and companies.  Hence everything about pipeline transportation in Nigeria is strictly in the hands of the federal government.

According to Kupoheyi (2008) pipelines have been in use for transporting materials for centuries.  Hence in the urban areas, pipelines are used for distributing potable water.  Though the pipelines network for the transportation and distribution of water in urban areas are usually short, they uses the same basic principles as the ones for distributing petroleum products.  The point to note here is that pipelines were first used for distributing water.  Later they were used for mooring gases and a variety of liquids within plants, between plants, as well as between locations for apart.  Today pipelines are widely used for transporting petroleum products and some solids that are suspended in liquids over long distances.

Olakunori (2008) reported that petroleum pipelines made only recent discovery into Nigeria.  According to him, the products pumped through the Nigeria pipelines include the following;

–       Premium motor spirit (PMS) otherwise know as petrol;

–       Automotive Gas Oil (AGO), otherwise known as diesel;

–       Household Kerosene, (HHK).

 

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

AN EVALUATION OF PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION IN THE MARKETING OF PETROL IN NIGERIA. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ADVERTISING AS A ‘’POWER TOOL’’ FOR BUSINESS GROWTH   (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY PLC) . A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ADVERTISING AS A ‘’POWER TOOL’’ FOR BUSINESS GROWTH   (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY PLC) . A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ABSTRACT

 The study was on Advertising as a Power Tool for Business Growth. Advertising refers to any form of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor. The raison d’ taire of advertising is to create awareness of a product and to further stimulate brand preference. Therefore, its role in the pursuant of a company’s profit making objective cannot be over emphasized.

The study used the Nigerian Bottling Company (NBC) Plc, Benin City branch as its case study. One would be tempted to think that a company as renowned as NBC would be laid back in its advertising practices. But that is not the case. The Company is a fervent advertiser of its products through almost all the advertising media of television, radio, print, out-door (bill boards) to mention but a few.

The objectives of the study therefore are to find out if indeed advertising builds primary demand, the extent to which it fosters consumer loyalty & its relationship with sales volume.

Finally, the study concludes on the note that even “big” names have no choice, but to keep on advertising …. and advertising, for business sustenance and growth.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Almost all economic activities are geared towards ensuring that the right goods and services are produced and find their way to customer. This involves a process called marketing.

Marketing decisions focus on consumer needs, hence it seeks to guide or accomplish organisations objective of consumer satisfaction and company profitability.

In a bid to direct the flow of products and services to satisfy customer needs, and at a profit, the marketing mix is developed.

The marketing mix observes that the marketing manager has a limited number of ingredients (marketing elements) at his disposal, but like a master chef, he can combine these into an almost limitless number of recipes to achieve the organisation’s objective of maximizing profit and staying in business.

The four ‘P’s make up the marketing mix.  These are:

(i)          Product

(ii)         Price

(iii)        Place

(iv)       Promotion

DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

ADVERTISING AS A ‘’POWER TOOL’’ FOR BUSINESS GROWTH   (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY PLC) . A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

EFFECT OF SALES PROMOTION ON BRAND LOYALTY FOR COCA-COLA SOFT DRINK. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

EFFECT OF SALES PROMOTION ON BRAND LOYALTY FOR COCA-COLA SOFT DRINK. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ABSTRACT

This project work was focus on the sale promotion and brand loyalty for coca-cola soft drink in Enugu state with a particular reference of Nigeria  Bottling Plc, the problem the researcher tackled were to find out if the customer of Nigeria Bottling Plc help to create awareness of their product, stimulate and arose customer favorable behavior towards the company and its product.

The main objective of sales promotion were

1.   To determine the extent to which sales promotion by various soft drinks companies has achieved to desired consumer exposure to various brands for coca-cola soft drinks.

2.   To investigate consumer brand switching behavioral in terms of exposure sales promotional campaigns.

3.   To determine the relationship between sales promotions effect and consumer patronage of the various brands.

4.   To determine whether sales recorded on various brands of coca-cola soft drinks justifies investment in its sales promotion by the various companies.

Based on the objectives of the study four hypothesis were formulated. The population of study were drawn from the users of coco-cola soft drink in Enugu State. Burley’s formula was used to determine the sample size. Questionnaires and personal interviews were used to elicit data from respondents simple tables and percentage were used to analyze data collected.

Based on the analysis, the following findings were made.

1.   Most consumers are influenced by Nigerian bottling plc sales promotion.

2.   The sales promotion messages of Nigerian bottling plc influence their product.

3.   Middlemen confirmed they sell more during Nigeria bottling promotional activities.

4.   Sales promotion by Nigeria bottling plc help to create consumer awareness of their products.

5.   Nigeria bottling plc sales promotion has induced consumers to purchase their product. The researcher therefore, made the following recommendations.

1.   The company should maintain and improve their sales promotion campaign.

2.   More sales promotional activities should be integrated with other promotional tools. In conclusion, the researcher can say that Nigeira bottling plc sales promotional influence consumers to buy more of their products and also the promotions influences distributors to more of their products.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Nigerian coco-cola bottling company first came to Nigeria in 1953 and established its first bottling plant in Lagos. This was to be the beginning of growth and development in 1956, two other plants were established in Kano and Jos respectively. The opening of the Ibadan plant followed in 1961, the next as that of Benin in 1970. Sources: Wikipedia com/Nigeria body company http/Google /2F%/cocoa-cola.

The Enugu plant at 9the Mile corner Ngwo was established in 1975, in all, there are about 21 coca-cola bottling plants in several parts of the country. In some states where coca-cola bottling plants are non existents, large depots are always maintained to serve the growing demand for the brand by consumers in those areas.

       DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

EFFECT OF SALES PROMOTION ON BRAND LOYALTY FOR COCA-COLA SOFT DRINK. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

PRODUCT INNOVATION AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN A COMPETITIVE MARKET. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

PRODUCT INNOVATION AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN A COMPETITIVE MARKET. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ABSTRACT

This research work reviews extensively, the meaning of product Innovation as an Effective tool in the competitive market by using Paterson Zochonis as a case  study, the objective is carrying out, to analyse if product Innovation enhance organization Image than old products, also to find out the consumer Improved quality to existing product the methodology simply mans the different ways methods and system a researcher used to administer an collect data collection, the data collection methods depend principally upon the aim and objective pf the research. This research of data collected from different source. The major finding in the product innovation is used to attain. In market leadership  they could be seen  at question sic table four where 68% of the respondent dais that product innovation are used to attain market leadership, in this case, I recommend that both the production and marketing manager of every firm should as a matter of necessity be creative  Innovation and productive.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Many years back, the seller oriented Market prevailed over the consumer’s did out weight the main products during  this period the production concept of the marketing Philosophy was prevailing giving  little or no attention to the consumer.

The general difference was that the product would surely find a needy marketing no particular attention was paid to the product, packaging labeling, branding, modification and other features, qualities etc.

As time went on more and more products entered the market. This coming together of many products brought about competition among the available products consumer sovereignty began to  over take its bearing based on good packaging, brand image, quality and convenience.

In the era of marketing concept, manufacturers, and producers determine first  the need and went of the consumers and try their best to inculcate this into the company polices and programmes.

As a result of the dynamic business environment today, first apply difference strategy to ensure continued operation. Many new product are constantly being introduce into the market innovation are seriously on their job modifying and deleting old and unprofitable products.

Against this background, I want to look at product innovation as an effective tool in a competitive market.

 DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

    PRODUCT INNOVATION AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN A COMPETITIVE MARKET. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

THE IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION COST ON CONSUMERS RETAIL GOODS PRICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

THE IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION COST ON CONSUMERS RETAIL GOODS PRICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ABSTRACT

The impact of transportation cost on consumers retails goods prices (A case study of Gariki Market, Enugu South Local Government Area Enugu State).  The study was carried out to the wholesales and retails.

Data was collected using questionnaire that was distributed to the wholesalers and retailers in the market.

The generated data was analyzed using descriptive statistic tool and the major findings made include the following:

i.               Cost of transportation affects agricultural goods retails than manufactured goods retailers.

ii.              Profit maximization was not always their desire for most dealers goes into business in order to avoid being idle.

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0   INTRODUCTION

1.2   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In ancient days as life started mankind began to nurse the need for basic necessities of life for physiological satisfaction as food, shelter, safety, among other things.

At first man tried to provide the necessary things to satisfy his needs to engaging in hunting, fishing, and some selected cultivation and planting of food crops and frund shelter among trees, shades as well as applying plants leaves to cover his nakedness.

In the process of advancement man learnt that he could not provide all his needs by himself.

Then the introduction of exchange process  came into existence. It began as an exchange of goods for goods otherwise called trade by barter.

The person who has a particular product in excess of his need of that particular moment would look for somebody that has a need for his product, for an exchange to take place, so the earliest trading or buying and selling practices was done by retailers through the barter process. When a common medium of exchange was inverted, the practices of trade by barter became less relevant in the exchange process.  When trade by barter was in existence buyers and sellers did not take into account, the cost and burden of carrying the goods around n search of a market.

 DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

THE IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION COST ON CONSUMERS RETAIL GOODS PRICES. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF SMALL-SCALE BUSINESSES IN BENIN CITY (A CASE STUDY OF PEAK HEIGHT VENTURES LTD). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF SMALL-SCALE BUSINESSES IN BENIN CITY (A CASE STUDY OF PEAK HEIGHT VENTURES LTD). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ABSTRACT

This research project is aimed at examining the marketing activities of small-scale businesses as a whole but the manufacturer in a particular.

During the course of this study it was discovered that the competitors in small and medium scale firms are in very large quantity, which in turn has been found to have a devastating impact on the growth and survival of the small and medium scale businesses.

The activities of small-scale businesses face by the producer was found to include high cost of raw material, high cost of the product, low rate of sales and the circulation of the local market with their product.

It was also revealed in this study that among the 85 manufacture that responded only four (4) of them make their sale within and outside the country, which make the rate of sales to be very poor. This is where the manufacturers should take into consideration, as the expansion.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

A product includes all the peripheral factors that contribute to a consumer satisfaction i.e. when you eat in a restaurant, the product is more than just the food, it includes the quality of the service and the atmosphere (Mauser and Schwartz 1982).

Hence is purchasing a product, a consumer would desire it to be or expect it to be of good quality, in order to meet his needs, expectation and for his ultimate satisfaction.

Fine quality products leads to consumer’s good will and satisfaction that manifest themselves in the form of repeat sales, loyal to customers and clients and testimonial to prospective customers or clients (Donnely, Gibson and Ivancevich 1987). Therefore it is up to the producer or manufacturer to maintain that quality to ensure consumers satisfaction.

Generally, Nigeria-made products that are often referred to as being inferior and of low quality. This has drastically reduced the demand for local products and has further discouraged private entrepreneurs from investing in some local industries. It has been observed over the years that many companies are either folding up or carrying out mass retrenchment due to lack of patronage of their products. For any business to continue to exist it must have a market to satisfy and this means that it must provide product and service which have quality standard, it is necessary for firms to adopt quality control measures which will help them to produce quality goods and services that will satisfy the ultimate users. In order for Nigerian to develop economically, firms have to produce goods of high quality content by adopting total quality control method to all aspects of their production activities. This will help in flushing out substandard goods, which are presently in existence in the country.

 

 DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF SMALL-SCALE BUSINESSES IN BENIN CITY (A CASE STUDY OF PEAK HEIGHT VENTURES LTD). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

EFFECTIVE PROMOTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR THE COSMETICS INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF CHOKI LABORATORY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

EFFECTIVE PROMOTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR THE COSMETICS INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF CHOKI LABORATORY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING

ABSTRACT.

This study on effective promotional strategies for the cosmetic industry with particular note on Choki Laboratory Enugu was carried out with some of the following objectives. To determine the impact of promotional strategies adopted by Choki Laboratory on increasing profitability of the company.

 To determine the promotional strategy of Choki Laboratory on creating awareness of the company product. In order to achieve the above objectives, three sets of questionnaires were prepared and administered to a population comprising staff/management, distributors and customers of Chuki cosmetics Laboratory within Enugu Metropolis. For additional information extensive literature review was conducted.

The sample size for the study was determined using Topmans formular for distributors and customers, while census survey were used for relevant staff and management.

The data collected were presented on statistical table, analyzed and interpreted. Hypothesis formulated was tested using Chi-square based on analysis the following findings were made that promotional strategies have impacted on the customer disposition and patronage. That Choki Laboratory  have fully designed an optimal combination of promotions to enhance their  performance most importantly within their area of operations.

In view of the above findings the researcher recommend among others that, the company should only improve on it product quality, but clearly define its promotion objectives and allocate enough funds for its promotional tools like public relations, trade fairs in achieving the company promotional objectives. It is the researchers believe that if the management give due attention to those recommendations, Choki Laboratory will be one of the companies to beat in this millennium.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1              BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY.

The establishment of business including cosmetics industry requires that the firms make key decisions. These decisions affect the total marketing programmes of the firm, simply out the marketing strategy. However, one of the vital area of such decision. Which demands proper attention is the promotional strategies of cosmetics industry must initiate promotional policies and programmes to inform, persuade and educate its target audience of the existence of the organization and their products.

Although creation of demand for a firm’s product may be the ultimate objective of a company’s marketing promotion, this objective is never achieved at one fell swoop. The firm must put in place a set of activities aimed at stimulating demand for their product. This may involve determining the optional combination of the promotional mix, advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, publicity/public relation, direct/marketing and packaging to achieve its promotional objectives. This optional blend is a function of the promotional resource, nature of the product, product just to mention but a few.

 

 DOWNLOAD COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

EFFECTIVE PROMOTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR THE COSMETICS INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF CHOKI LABORATORY). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON MARKETING