THE ROLE OF CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA C.B.N) IN AGRICULTURAL FINANCE DEVELOPMENT, PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE COMPANY (NAIC) ENUGU. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE
Based on historical evidence, the highest contribution to the Nigeria Economy was Agriculture at present, Agricultural Production has been deducing drastically, especially since the oil boom. This was also contributed to the neglect on this sector due to the problem the Agriculturist encountered.
Nigeria Agriculture is characterized by the pre-prudence of small scale farming which yields the bulk of the total production. The small scale farmers have been the bedrock of our Agriculture economy and is characterized by illiteracy, small size of farm holding, little capital, unclear titled to land, low productivity and little savings. The muddle class farmers has been increasing in absolute number but is significant in terms of ration. He has large capital, he is more educated and has probably succeeded in his career before retiring into farming. He has better access to credit and information and because this class of farmers were still insignificant in terms of contribution to Agricultural production. It is university and misleading to base Agriculture policy formation on it.
The government in its various tiers is another of Agriculture, in Nigeria. She gets involved into physical farming as well as provision of basic infrastructure and inputs. Examples are: Agriculture Development Project, National Accelerated Food Production Programme, Poverty Alleviation Programme, etc. The plethora of this programme is but a pointer to the confusion regarding the role of government in Agriculture.
Apparently, government has been inefficient and ineffective both in physical farming and in a way of encouraging agricultural finance appears to have increased the volume of Central Bank of Nigeria loans in this direction but it has not had a corresponding impact on the economy. A need to reappraise and indirect agricultural policies and strategy towards the small scale farmer is suggested as one of the basic solution. To achieve and fulfill the motive of this study, the researcher tried as much as she could to use both primary and secondary data.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture is defined as the cultivation of land for the purpose of producing food for man, feed for animal and fiber or raw material for our industries. It is includes the processing and marketing of crops”. In order words, it embraces all activities involved in the primary and controlled production of plant and animals, such as fishing, forestry, farming, livestock, poultry and small scale industries connected with processing of agricultural products.
Agriculture is one of Nigeria’s largest industry and it does only provide the food and cash crops which are consumed locally and exported to earn foreign exchange, but also employs more than 75% of the entire population, thereby generating revenue to individuals and government.
This goes a long way to increase the ratio of our Gross National Product (GNP).