ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF Spondias mombin STEM BARK AND ROOT. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY
In tradictional setting, Spondias mombin is used in the management of different ailments. This has been attributed to its rich phytochemical and antioxidant properties. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytochemical as well as antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of Spondiasmombin. The extracts of Spondiasmombin were investigated for phytochemical such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids,total flavonoids, total phenol and proanthocyanidin, while the in vitro antioxidant activity were determined using ferrous metal chelating assay, antioxidant power assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2,2-picry-hydazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Result obtained for phytochemical studies reveal that phenolic content was highest in the aqueous extract of Spondiasmombin stem bark as against aqueous extract of Spondias moimbin root which have a low phenolic content. Also, proanthocyanidin was highest in aqueous extract of Spondaismombin root and low in aqueous extract of Spondiasmombin stem bark. Qualitative study show the presence of the various pyhtochemicals in varying amounts, however, alkaloid were absent in both aqueous extract of spondiasmombin root and stem bark, tannins were present only in aqueous extract of Spondiasmombin stem bark, while cardiac glycosides were present only aqueous extract of Spondiasmombin stem bark. The aqueous extract of Spondiasmombin stem bark showed the best IC50 value (2.66 ×109) for 1,1-Diphenyl-2,2-picry-hydazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, when compared with root extract, but, was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the standard, vitamin C (1.281). Also, aqueous extract of Spondiasmombin stem bark showed the best IC50 for ferrous metal chelating assay when compared with the root extract, but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of standard, (EDTA) (4.031). Therefore, Spondiasmombin has a great potential for use as a natural source of antioxidants against free radical damage.