BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FROZEN CHICKEN SOLD IN GWAGWALADA MARKET. A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BIOCHEMISTRY
Twenty samples of frozen chicken from five different sellers were analyzed to determine their bacteriological load; the samples were collected from Gwagwalada market. All the frozen chicken samples from the five sellers examined were contaminated with some bacterial species namely, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphyloccus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total bacteria counts for all the chicken examined from the different sellers was in the range of 0.7 × 102
cfu/ml to 8.5 × 102 cfu/ml and the coliform counts obtained for all the chicken samples ranged from 0.1 × 102 cfu/ml to 3.2 × 102 cfu/ml. These finding suggest that most of the frozen chicken parts stored in the open market may constitute sources of bacterial food poisoning consequently public health hazard.
The first consumer right is to have a product of good quality and not constituting any health hazard. Poultry meat products are highly desirable, palatable, digestible and nutritious for all ages. Poultry meat is comprised of about 20–23% protein, other are water and fat, phosphorus, iron and vitamins. Comminuted products, such as frankfurters, bologna and sausages typically contain about 17–20% protein, 0–20% fat, and 60–80% water (Smith, 2001).Quality products are those that meet some need or expectation of consumers and are safe and wholesome as well. (Sahooet al., 1996).The microbiological safety and quality of poultry meat are equally important to producers, retailers and consumers. Two quite different groups of microorganisms are relevant: on the one hand certain foodborne pathogens, and, on the other, organisms that are generally harmless to human health, but, being psychrotrophic, are able to multiply on the product during chill storage. Spoilage results mainly from off- odour development, and product shelf-life is determined both by the number of spoilage organisms present initially and the temperature history of the product at all stages of production and subsequent storage and handling (Pooni and Mead, 1984). For chill- stored poultry, Viehweget al. (1989) demonstrated that virtually all the odorous substances found at spoilage could be attributed to microbial growth and metabolism. Contamination of poultry meat with foodborne pathogens remains an important public health issue, because it can lead to illness if there are malpractices in handling, cooking or post-cooking storage of the product.
Fresh (uncooked) foods such as chicken carries natural microflora that may contain organisms potentially harmful to humans. The microbial flora of table poultry is largely confined to the skin surface or visceral cavity. Isolates from poultry and poultry products could include members of the following general Enterobacter, Alcaligenes, Escherichia,Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Proteus,Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Corynebacteriumand Salmonella. (Frazier and Westhoff,1988).