BANK DISTRESS: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE COURSES AND POSSIBLE CONTROL IN THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF N.D.I.C ENUGU). A RESEARCH PROJECT MATERIAL ON BANKING AND FINANCE
Bank distress in Nigeria has reached a crisis point that it has become a key issue for discussion of all within and outside the banking industry.
In 1993, it was discovered and reported that out of 116 (one hundred and sixteen) banks in Nigeria 57 (fifty seven) of them were distressed on average of 48%. This has affected the depositions, the industry, that is the banking industry, government and staff of the affected banks adversely.
The researcher understand that the distress in the Nigerian banking industry and the increasing wave of financial malpractice in banks if not arrested will lead to the collapse of the Nigerian economy. In this regard, an attempt have been made to identify the possible pills for the total eradication of at least control of these distress in order to reduced the negative impact on the economy.
The method of investigation used by the researcher is based on the analyses the experience of the Nigeria regulatory authorities that is the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the Nigeria Deposit Insurance Corporation (NDIC) and success so far achieved like questionnaire and interviews.
No study known to the researcher has been conducted which directly focuses on control of banks distress in Nigeria. Probably that is because it is a new phenomena in the Nigeria banking industry.
However, banks found and other financial malpractices have become so pervasive that both the government supervisory authorities and the law enforcement agencies have galvanized efforts to forestall the menace.
The feelings generally expressed have been for decisive steps to be taken to salvage the banking industry. Bank distress has to be reduced to the bearest minimum for a healthy economy to thrive in Nigeria.
These steps are discussed in this research work.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the past financial report of commercial and merchant bank showed that they usually carried out excess liquidity. But by the end of 1993, the huge excess liquidity disappeared. The minimum required liquidity ratio was 30%s Nwaigwe K. O. (1995).
In later years, the ratio deteriorated, it was claimed that the issuance of stabilization securities contributed to the above.
Also another development which the researcher was informed about is the fact that a good number of issued bank were grossly under capitalized. To worsen the case, non-performing loan and advances eroded the inadequate capital base since the banks were compelled to make adequate provision for the non-performing credit.
The indemnity also experienced poor management which eventually opened the floodgate for distress to surface in the system. Poor management of the assets and liabilities of the bank was one of the major causes of the distress in banking industry today. The jungle politics also helped to deteriorate the economy because survey shows a consistent down-turn and the effect the banking industry adversely.