PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF INFERTILITY ON WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE IN SHAO COMMUNITY
1.1 Background of the Study
Infertility is considered as one of the six maternal morbidity neglected within developing countries (Hardee, Gay, & Blanc, 2012). It affects the entire women`s life (Hoseinighochani & Zargham, 2014). It is reported as being 16 times more frequent than maternal mortality (Hardee, et al., 2012). Globally, 56% of women with infertility are having problem seeking help (Boivin Bunting, Collins, & Nygren, 2007).
Clinically, infertility is a disease of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse (Godwin, Montoro, Mudershpach, Paulson, & Roy, 2010). Demographically, infertility can be defined as, an inability to become pregnant, within five years of exposure based upon a consistent union status, lack of contraceptive use, non-lactating and maintaining a desire for a child (Shea & Shah, 2004; World Health Organization, 2014a). From the epidemiological perspective, infertility is defined as inability of a woman of reproductive age who is at risk of pregnancy, to conceive despite continuous unprotected sexual intercourse for two years or more (World Health Organization, 2014b).
Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility is the inability to conceive in a couple who have had no previous pregnancy (Hart, Norman, Callander, & Ramsden, 2000). Whereas secondary infertility is the inability to conceive in a couple who have had at least one previous pregnancy which may have ended in live birth, still birth, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy or induced abortion (Hart et al., 2000).
Globally, about 9% of the population suffer from infertility (World Health Organization (WHO), 2009; Nygren, 2007). It is estimated that, about seventy two million (72,000,000) women are affected with infertility and majority are from developing countries (Boivin et al., 2007; World Health Organization, 2009). It is also estimated that 10% of women are affected with infertility worldwide (World Health Organization, 2014b). In 2010, among women aged 20–44years that were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, 1.9% were unable to conceive. Out of women who had had at least one live birth and were exposed to the risk of pregnancy, 10.5% were unable to conceive again (Mascarenhas, Flaxman, Boerma,Vanderpoel, & Stevens, 2012). In the United Kingdom (UK), 2.4% of women aged 40–55 years had unresolved infertility with no pregnancies (primary), and a further 1.9% had been pregnant but not achieved a live birth (Oakley, Doyle, & Maconochie, 2008). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), approximately 10% or 6.1 million women in the United States struggle with infertility.