CONSTRUCTION OF CELLOPHANE SEALING MACHINE. A RESEARCH PROJECT TOPIC ON CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
The construction of the callophane sealing machine was carried out. The project started with an encompassing review of the various methods of heat sealing film packages. The machine can be used in sealing both low, medium and high-density cellophane. The product has a heating element, which converts electrical energy to heat energy, which converts electrical energy to heat energy, which is utilized in the sealing of the cellophane. It has an efficiency of about 90% with a reasonable degree of accuracy.
The major components of the machine included 24 – 30 volts transformer, heating element, electrical cables, plywood, tape (paper, Teflon, black) lever machine, seconds time, micro – switch and on/off indication bulb.
The machine was relatively cheap and compares favourably with imported types of the same capacity. The total cost of production amounted to the sum of ten thousand, one hundred naira only (N10,100.00).
Cellophane sealing machine is basically used for cellophane and nylon materials sealing. It is a machine that uses the principle of light, heating materials or element to seal two impressed surfaces or even more impressed surface depending on the nylon usage and application.
The packaging phenomenon was previously done by the use of paper bags but as time went on, this method changed to cellophane packaging system and till date, it has been growing. This cellophane can be obtained by the process of polymerization of organic compounds to form polyethene.
With the invention or introduction of technology, different types of packaging systems have been deviced, of which the most highly used is the cellophane packaging and sealing. Although, the use of time in packaging is still in use. Cellophane packaging excels since it can be easily obtained, fabricated, as well as store materials of different shapes and sizes.
The properties of poly ethane that made it to be highly useful in all aspects of packaging are inertness, high resistance of acid attack, water, base, organic chemicals, low coefficient etc polyehtene is used in packaging goods like ice cream, treated water, beverages, and biscuits, pharmerceutical products and some other fungicides like cocoabre sandus, copper sulphate (blue stone), ridomil plus etc.
1.1 APPLICATION OF POLYETHENES (CELLOPHANE)
Cellophane is used for different forms of packaging which include:
1. Produces wrapping: Low density polyethene is widely used in the packaging of fresh horticultural produce. The touch and well sealed films are required for the packaging of these items.
2. Frozon food packaging: The toughness of low density polyethene at low temperature coupled with the fact that it can be formed into bags on a film. Seal basis has led to its use, in frozen food packaging. These include frozen soft fruits, frozen milks, water etc.
3. General food pa ckaging: The interness of low density polyethene has led to its used for packaging of foods like bread, ice cream, biscuits, margarine, storage of sugar etc because it will not react with the food item.
4. Textile packaging: The textile industries make use of low density polyethene bags to package the textile product after production so as to prevent it from being damped.
5. Packaging of pharmaceutical products: The main use of high density polyethene is the strip or blister packaging of pharmaceutical capsules and tablets, especially in cases of hydroscopic products, owing to the high water penetration resistance of polyethenes.
6. High density polyethene are equally used in the packaging of aerospace hardwares and valves.